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Sample records for 2-way crossover phase

  1. Cascading dynamics on random networks: crossover in phase transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.

  2. Cascading dynamics on random networks: Crossover in phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.

  3. Charge crossover at the U(1)-Higgs phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Freire, Filipe; Litim, Daniel F.

    2001-08-15

    The type-I region of phase transitions at finite temperature of the U(1)-Higgs theory in 3+1 dimensions is investigated in detail using a Wilsonian renormalization group. We consider, in particular, the quantitative effects induced through the crossover of the scale-dependent Abelian charge from the Gaussian to a nontrivial Abelian fixed point. As a result, the strength of the first-order phase transition is weakened. Analytical solutions to approximate flow equations are obtained, and all characteristics of the phase transition are discussed and compared to the results obtained from perturbation theory. In addition, we present a detailed quantitative study regarding the dependence of the physical observables on the coarse-graining scheme. This results in error bars for the regularization scheme (RS) dependence. We find quantitative evidence for an intimate link between the RS dependence and truncations of flow equations.

  4. Holographic entanglement entropy close to crossover/phase transition in strongly coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shao-Jun

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the behavior of entanglement entropy in the holographic QCD model proposed by Gubser et al. By choosing suitable parameters of the scalar self-interaction potential, this model can exhibit various types of phase structures: crossover, first order and second order phase transitions. We use entanglement entropy to probe the crossover/phase transition, and find that it drops quickly/suddenly when the temperature approaches the critical point which can be seen as a signal of confinement. Moreover, the critical behavior of the entanglement entropy suggests that we may use it to characterize the corresponding phase structures.

  5. Detecting phase transitions and crossovers in Hubbard models using the fidelity susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Lei; Werner, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    A generalized version of the fidelity susceptibility of single-band and multiorbital Hubbard models is systematically studied using single-site dynamical mean-field theory in combination with a hybridization expansion continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver. We find that the fidelity susceptibility is extremely sensitive to changes in the state of the system. It can be used as a numerically inexpensive tool to detect and characterize a broad range of phase transitions and crossovers in Hubbard models, including (orbital-selective) Mott metal-insulator transitions, magnetic phase transitions, high-spin to low-spin transitions, Fermi-liquid to non-Fermi-liquid crossovers, and spin-freezing crossovers.

  6. Examining the Crossover from the Hadronic to Partonic Phase in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Mingmei; Yu Meiling; Liu Lianshou

    2008-03-07

    A mechanism, consistent with color confinement, for the transition between perturbative and physical vacua during the gradual crossover from the hadronic to partonic phase is proposed. The essence of this mechanism is the appearance and growing up of a kind of grape-shape perturbative vacuum inside the physical one. A percolation model based on simple dynamics for parton delocalization is constructed to exhibit this mechanism. The crossover from hadronic matter to sQGP (strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma) as well as the transition from sQGP to weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma with increasing temperature is successfully described by using this model.

  7. BCS-BEC crossover at finite temperature in the broken-symmetry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, P.; Pisani, L.; Strinati, G. C.

    2004-09-01

    The BCS-BEC crossover is studied in a systematic way in the broken-symmetry phase between zero temperature and the critical temperature. This study bridges two regimes where quantum and thermal fluctuations are, respectively, important. The theory is implemented on physical grounds, by adopting a fermionic self-energy in the broken-symmetry phase that represents fermions coupled to superconducting fluctuations in weak coupling and to bosons described by the Bogoliubov theory in strong coupling. This extension of the theory beyond mean field proves important at finite temperature, to connect with the results in the normal phase. The order parameter, the chemical potential, and the single-particle spectral function are calculated numerically for a wide range of coupling and temperature. This enables us to assess the quantitative importance of superconducting fluctuations in the broken-symmetry phase over the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Our results are relevant to the possible realizations of this crossover with high-temperature cuprate superconductors and with ultracold fermionic atoms in a trap.

  8. Crossover Leung-Griffiths model and the phase behavior of dilute aqueous ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, M. Yu.; Kiselev, S. B.; Rainwater, J. C.

    1997-08-01

    A new parametric crossover model for the phase behavior of a binary mixture is presented that corresponds to the Leung-Griffiths model in the critical region and is transformed into the regular classical expansion far away from the critical point. The model is optimized to, and leads to excellent agreement with, isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium data for dilute aqueous solutions of sodium chloride by Bischoff and co-workers. It then accurately predicts constant-composition phase equilibrium loci as measured by independent workers. This crossover model is therefore capable of representing the thermodynamic surface of ionic solutions in a large range of temperatures and densities around the critical points of vapor-liquid equilibrium.

  9. Gas-liquid phase coexistence and crossover behavior of binary ionic fluids with screened Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Patsahan, O

    2014-06-01

    We study the effects of an interaction range on the gas-liquid phase diagram and the crossover behavior of a simple model of ionic fluids: an equimolar binary mixture of equisized hard spheres interacting through screened Coulomb potentials which are repulsive between particles of the same species and attractive between particles of different species. Using the collective variables theory, we find explicit expressions for the relevant coefficients of the effective φ{4} Ginzburg-Landau Hamiltonian in a one-loop approximation. Within the framework of this approximation, we calculate the critical parameters and gas-liquid phase diagrams for varying inverse screening length z. Both the critical temperature scaled by the Yukawa potential contact value and the critical density rapidly decrease with an increase of the interaction range (a decrease of z) and then for z<0.05 they slowly approach the values found for a restricted primitive model (RPM). We find that gas-liquid coexistence region reduces with an increase of z and completely vanishes at z≃2.78. Our results clearly show that an increase in the interaction range leads to a decrease of the crossover temperature. For z≃0.01, the crossover temperature is the same as for the RPM.

  10. First-principles study of iron spin crossover in the new hexagonal aluminous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Han

    2017-01-01

    The new hexagonal aluminous (NAL) phase, chemical formula A B2C6O12 (A = Na+, K+, Ca2 +; B = Mg2 +, Fe2 +, Fe3 +; C = Al3 +, Si4 +, Fe3 +), is considered a major component (˜20 vol%) of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) under the lower-mantle condition. As MORB can be transported back into the Earth's lower mantle via subduction, a thorough knowledge of the NAL phase is essential to fully understand the fate of subducted MORB and its role in mantle dynamics and heterogeneity. In this Rapid Communication, the complicated spin crossover of the Fe-bearing NAL phase is revealed by a series of local density approximation + self-consistent Hubbard U (LDA+Us c) calculations. Only the ferric iron (Fe3 +) substituting Al/Si in the octahedral (C ) site undergoes a crossover from the high-spin (HS) to the low-spin (LS) state at ˜40 GPa, while iron substituting Mg in the trigonal-prismatic (B ) site remains in the HS state, regardless of its oxidation state (Fe2 + or Fe3 +). The volume/elastic anomalies and the iron nuclear quadrupole splittings determined by calculations are in great agreement with room-temperature experiments. The calculations further predict that the HS-LS transition pressure of the NAL phase barely increases with temperature due to the three nearly degenerate LS states of Fe3 +, suggesting that the elastic anomalies of this mineral can occur at the top lower mantle.

  11. Boson peak, Ioffe-Regel Crossover, and Liquid-Liquid phase transition in Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    We have investigated the onset of Boson peak in a model of liquid water which exhibits a clear first-order phase transition between a low-density liquid phase and a high-density liquid phase of water at low temperature and high pressure. We find that the at low pressures, the onset of Boson peak coincides with the Widom-line of the system. At high pressures, the onset occurs at the transition temperature between the two liquids. Furthermore, we show that at both low and high pressure, the frequency of the Boson peak coincides with the Ioffe-Regel crossover of the transverse phonons, suggesting that the breakdown of Debye behavior is a general feature of Ioffe-Regel limit crossover in supercooled water. The frequency of the Boson peak is weakly pressure dependent and decreases with increasing pressure. Our work bridges gap between the experimental results on the Boson peak nanoconfined water and the behavior that one would expect from a bulk system.

  12. BCS-BEC crossover and phase structure of relativistic systems: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mishra, Amruta

    2009-01-01

    We investigate here the BCS-BEC crossover in relativistic systems using a variational construct for the ground state and the minimization of the thermodynamic potential. This is first studied in a four-fermion point interaction model and with a BCS type ansatz for the ground state with fermion pairs. It is shown that the antiparticle degrees of freedom play an important role in the BCS-BEC crossover physics, even when the ratio of Fermi momentum to the mass of the fermion is small. We also consider the phase structure for the case of fermion pairing with imbalanced populations. Within the ansatz, thermodynamically stable gapless modes for both fermions and antifermions are seen for strong coupling in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime. We further investigate the effect of fluctuations of the condensate field by treating it as a dynamical field and generalize the BCS ansatz to include quanta of the condensate field also in a boson-fermion model with quartic self-interaction of the condensate field. It is seen that the critical temperature decreases with inclusion of fluctuations.

  13. Phase diagram of Ti50-xNi50+x : Crossover from martensite to strain glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Yumei; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Ren, Xiaobing

    2010-06-01

    We systematically investigated the variation in transition behavior and physical properties over a wide excess Ni (acting as defect) concentration range (x=0-2.5) in Ti50-xNi50+x alloys. This enables the establishment of an updated quantitative phase diagram for this important system. The phase diagram shows not only the well-known parent phase and martensite phase but also a premartensitic state and a strain glass state. Our experiments were able to determine quantitatively the borders of these states, the latter two having been unclear so far. The new phase diagram shows that a crossover from martensite to strain glass occurs at x=1.3 , and the appearance of a “premartensitic phase” below a critical temperature Tnd for defect-containing compositions (x>0) . We propose that point defects (excess Ni here) play two roles in a ferroelastic/martensitic system: (i) changing the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of long-range strain order (martensite) and (ii) creating random local stress that favors a premartensitic nanostructure and strain glass. Our work enables a simple explanation for several long-standing puzzles, such as the appearance of premartensitic nanostructure, the vanishing of transition latent heat with increasing Ni content and the anomalous negative temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys.

  14. Confinement-Higgs phase crossover as a lattice artifact in 1 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubero, Axel Cortés

    2015-12-01

    We examine the phase structure of massive Yang-Mills theory in 1+1 dimensions. This theory is equivalent to a gauged principal chiral sigma model. It has been previously shown that the gauged theory has only a confined phase, and no Higgs phase in the continuum, and at infinite volume. There are no massive gluons, but only hadron-like bound states of sigma-model particles. The reason is that the gluon mass diverges, being proportional to the two-point correlation function of the renormalized field of the sigma model at x = 0. We use exact large- N results to show that after introducing a lattice regularization and typical values of the coupling constants used in Monte Carlo simulations, the gluon mass becomes finite, and even sometimes small. A smooth crossover into a Higgs phase can then appear. For small volumes and large N , we find an analytic expression for the gluon mass, which depends on the coupling constants and the volume. We argue that this Higgs phase is qualitatively similar to the one observed in lattice computations at N = 2.

  15. Topological Weyl superconductor to diffusive thermal Hall metal crossover in the B phase of UPt3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Pallab; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.

    2015-12-01

    The recent phase-sensitive measurements in the superconducting B phase of UPt3 provide strong evidence for the triplet, chiral kz(kx±i ky) 2 pairing symmetries, which endow the Cooper pairs with orbital angular momentum projections Lz=±2 along the c axis. In the absence of disorder such pairing can support both line and point nodes, and both types of nodal quasiparticles exhibit nontrivial topology in the momentum space. The point nodes, located at the intersections of the closed Fermi surfaces with the c axis, act as the double monopoles and the antimonopoles of the Berry curvature, and generalize the notion of Weyl quasiparticles. Consequently, the B phase should support an anomalous thermal Hall effect, the polar Kerr effect, in addition to the protected Fermi arcs on the (1 ,0 ,0 ) and the (0 ,1 ,0 ) surfaces. The line node at the Fermi surface equator acts as a vortex loop in the momentum space and gives rise to the zero-energy, dispersionless Andreev bound states on the (0 ,0 ,1 ) surface. At the transition from the B phase to the A phase, the time-reversal symmetry is restored, and only the line node survives inside the A phase. As both line and double-Weyl point nodes possess linearly vanishing density of states, we show that weak disorder acts as a marginally relevant perturbation. Consequently, an infinitesimal amount of disorder destroys the ballistic quasiparticle pole, while giving rise to a diffusive phase with a finite density of states at the zero energy. The resulting diffusive phase exhibits T -linear specific heat, and an anomalous thermal Hall effect. We predict that the low-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties display a crossover between a ballistic thermal Hall semimetal and a diffusive thermal Hall metal. By contrast, the diffusive phase obtained from a time-reversal-invariant pairing exhibits only the T -linear specific heat without any anomalous thermal Hall effect.

  16. Crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion for two-phase drainage with stable viscosity ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Smith, D.H

    2007-02-01

    Motivated by a wide range of applications from enhanced oil recovery to carbon dioxide sequestration, we have developed a two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous, capillary, and gravitational effects. This model has been validated quantitatively, in the very different limits of zero viscosity ratio and zero capillary number; flow patterns from modeling agree well with experiment. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (μinjected/μdisplaced 1), we have increased the capillary number, Nc, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from capillary fingering (the fractal flow of invasion percolation) and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. Results exhibiting this crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion are presented for the average position of the injected fluid, the fluid–fluid interface, the saturation and fractional flow profiles, and the relative permeabilities. The agreement between our results and earlier theoretical predictions [Blunt M, King MJ, Scher H. Simulation and theory of two-phase flow in porous media. Phys Rev A 1992;46:7680–99; Lenormand R. Flow through porous media: limits of fractal patterns. Proc Roy Soc A 1989;423:159–68; Wilkinson D. Percolation effects in immiscible displacement. Phys Rev A 1986;34:1380–90; Xu B, Yortsos YC, Salin D. Invasion Percolation with viscous forces. Phys Rev E 1998;57:739–51] supports the validity of these general theoretical arguments, which were independent of the details of the porous media in both two and three dimensions.

  17. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime.

  18. Nanoscale self-hosting of molecular spin-states in the intermediate phase of a spin-crossover material.

    PubMed

    Bréfuel, Nicolas; Collet, Eric; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kojima, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Naohide; Toupet, Loic; Tanaka, Koichiro; Tuchagues, Jean-Pierre

    2010-12-17

    A new spin-crossover (SC) complex [Fe(II)H(2)L(2-Me)][AsF(6)](2) has been synthesized, in which H(2)L(2-Me) denotes the chirogenic hexadentate N(6) Schiff-base ligand bis{[(2-methylimidazol-4-yl)methylidene]-3-aminopropyl}ethylenediamine. This complex has revealed a rich variety of phases during its two-step thermal crossover, as well as photoinduced spin-state switching. A high-symmetry high-spin (HS, S=2) phase, a low-symmetry low-spin (LS, S=0) phase, an intermediate phase characterized by an unprecedented lozenge pattern of 12 predominantly HS molecular crystallographic sites confining 18 predominantly LS molecular crystallographic sites, and a photoinduced low-symmetry HS phase have been accurately evidenced by temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and crystallographic studies. This variety of phases illustrates the multi-stability of this system, which results from coupling between the electronic states and structural instabilities.

  19. Theoretical analysis of photoinduced first order phase transition in spin-crossover complexes under noise action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii V.; Maksymov, Artur I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the macroscopic phenomenological model of spin-crossover compounds in term of relaxation rate in mean field approach have been comprehensive analyzed. It is given the more accurate description of spin-crossover model, which take into consideration environmental noise influence modeled as interaction with a heath bath. Also we have obtained the distribution of probability density function for different values of multiplicative and additive noise intensity. The correlation between the noises is considered. The calculations of mean first passage time of metastable state for correlated case have been performed.

  20. Theoretical analysis of photoinduced first order phase transition in spin-crossover complexes under noise action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii V.; Maksymov, Artur I.

    2011-09-01

    In this work the macroscopic phenomenological model of spin-crossover compounds in term of relaxation rate in mean field approach have been comprehensive analyzed. It is given the more accurate description of spin-crossover model, which take into consideration environmental noise influence modeled as interaction with a heath bath. Also we have obtained the distribution of probability density function for different values of multiplicative and additive noise intensity. The correlation between the noises is considered. The calculations of mean first passage time of metastable state for correlated case have been performed.

  1. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity close to a quantum phase transition: the Heisenberg- to Ising-type crossover.

    PubMed

    Nevidomskyy, Andriy H

    2005-03-11

    A microscopic mean-field theory of the phase coexistence between ferromagnetism and superconductivity in the weakly ferromagnetic itinerant electron system is constructed, while incorporating a realistic mechanism for superconducting pairing due to the exchange of critical spin fluctuations. The self-consistent solution of the resulting equations determines the superconducting transition temperature which is shown to depend strongly on the exchange splitting. The effect of phase crossover from isotropic (Heisenberg-like) to uniaxial (Ising-like) spin fluctuations near the quantum phase transition is analyzed and the generic phase diagram is obtained. This scenario is then applied to the case of itinerant ferromagnet ZrZn2, which sheds light on the proposed phase diagram of this compound. A possible explanation of superconductivity in UGe2 is also discussed.

  2. Relation between the Widom line and the dynamic crossover in systems with a liquid-liquid phase transition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Limei; Kumar, Pradeep; Buldyrev, S V; Chen, S-H; Poole, P H; Sciortino, F; Stanley, H E

    2005-11-15

    We investigate, for two water models displaying a liquid-liquid critical point, the relation between changes in dynamic and thermodynamic anomalies arising from the presence of the liquid-liquid critical point. We find a correlation between the dynamic crossover and the locus of specific heat maxima C(P)(max) ("Widom line") emanating from the critical point. Our findings are consistent with a possible relation between the previously hypothesized liquid-liquid phase transition and the transition in the dynamics recently observed in neutron scattering experiments on confined water. More generally, we argue that this connection between C(P)(max) and dynamic crossover is not limited to the case of water, a hydrogen bond network-forming liquid, but is a more general feature of crossing the Widom line. Specifically, we also study the Jagla potential, a spherically symmetric two-scale potential known to possess a liquid-liquid critical point, in which the competition between two liquid structures is generated by repulsive and attractive ramp interactions.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the crossover from Bose glass to Bragg glass phase in layered BSCCO with columnar defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, L. M.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of layered BSCCO samples are used to investigate the behavior of vortex matter at low fields, particularly in connection with the possible occurrence of a Bragg glass (BrG) phase at low density of columnar defects, a phenomenon characterized by the prevalence of short-range over long-range order. In this dislocation-free topological phase the translational order correlation function displays a power law decay. For magnetic induction B  =  0.1 kG the analysis of the data for the first Bragg peak of the planar structure factor, the hexatic order parameter, and the Delaunay triangulation shows that, as the density of columnar defects is lowered, a crossover (or transition) from Bose glass to BrG phase takes place in this highly anisotropic high-T{{}\\text{c}} superconductor. Most importantly, an analysis of the low-temperature 3D vortex–vortex correlation function in terms of the structure factor, calculated via a saddle point approach and the use of the numerical data as input, provides clear-cut evidence of the power law decay of the divergent Bragg peaks in the BrG phase, a fundamental feature that was inequivocally verified only in isotropic compounds.

  4. Photoliquefiable ionic crystals: a phase crossover approach for photon energy storage materials with functional multiplicity.

    PubMed

    Ishiba, Keita; Morikawa, Masa-Aki; Chikara, Chie; Yamada, Teppei; Iwase, Katsunori; Kawakita, Mika; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2015-01-26

    Ionic crystals (ICs) of the azobenzene derivatives show photoinduced IC-ionic liquid (IL) phase transition (photoliquefaction) upon UV-irradiation, and the resulting cis-azobenzene ILs are reversibly photocrystallized by illumination with visible light. The photoliquefaction of ICs is accompanied by a significant increase in ionic conductivity at ambient temperature. The photoliquefaction also brings the azobenzene ICs further significance as photon energy storage materials. The cis-IL shows thermally induced crystallization to the trans-IC phase. This transition is accompanied by exothermic peaks with a total ΔH of 97.1 kJ mol(-1) , which is almost double the conformational energy stored in cis-azobenzene chromophores. Thus, the integration of photoresponsive ILs and self-assembly pushes the limit of solar thermal batteries.

  5. Dimensional crossover in a spin liquid to helimagnet quantum phase transition.

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Vasile O; Zheludev, Andrey I; Habicht, Klaus; Meissner, Michael; Grenier, B.; Regnault, L.-P.; Ressouche, E.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron scattering is used to study magnetic field induced ordering in the quasi-1D quantum spin-tube compound Sul-Cu2Cl4 that in zero field has a non-magnetic spin-liquid ground state. The experiments reveal an incommensurate chiral high-field phase stabilized by a geometric frustration of the magnetic interactions. The measured critical exponents \\beta= 0.235 and \

  6. Robust spin crossover platforms with synchronized spin switch and polymer phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Novio, F.; Evangelio, E.; Vazquez-Mera, N.; González-Monje, P.; Bellido, E.; Mendes, S.; Kehagias, N.; Ruiz-Molina, D.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of developing magnetic molecular materials into real functional electronic devices with low-cost and scalable techniques appeared with the emergence of the field several years ago. Today, even though great advances have been done with this aim, the promise of a functional device working at the micro-/nanoscale and at room temperature has unfortunately not completely materialized yet, as their use still strongly depends on the fabrication methodology of a robust device that can be handled and integrated without compromising their functionality. Here we propose the use of polymeric matrices as a platform for the development of such robust switchable structures exhibiting reproducible results independently of the dimension -from macro to micro-/nanoscale- and morphology -from thin-films to nanoparticles and nanoimprinted motives- while allowing to induce an irreversible hysteresis, reminiscent of a non-volatile memory, by synchronization with the polymer phase transition.

  7. Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.

  8. Genetic algorithm with maximum-minimum crossover (GA-MMC) applied in optimization of radiation pattern control of phased-array radars for rocket tracking systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo W T; Barros, Vitor F; Silva, Sandro G

    2014-08-18

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence.

  9. Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) Applied in Optimization of Radiation Pattern Control of Phased-Array Radars for Rocket Tracking Systems

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.

    2014-01-01

    In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013

  10. Selective photoswitching of the binuclear spin crossover compound {[Fe(bt)(NCS)2]2(bpm)} into two distinct macroscopic phases.

    PubMed

    Moussa, N Ould; Molnár, G; Bonhommeau, S; Zwick, A; Mouri, S; Tanaka, K; Real, J A; Bousseksou, A

    2005-03-18

    The low-spin (LS-LS, S = 0) diamagnetic form of the binuclear spin crossover complex {[Fe(bt)(NCS)(2)](2)(bpm)} was selectively photoconverted into two distinct macroscopic phases at different excitation wavelengths (1342 or 647.1 nm). These long-lived metastable phases have been identified, respectively, as the symmetry-broken paramagnetic form (HS-LS, S = 2) and the antiferromagnetically coupled (HS-HS, S = 0) high-spin form of the compound. The selectivity may be explained by the strong coupling of the primary excited states to the paramagnetic state.

  11. Population-imbalanced lattice fermions near the BCS-BEC crossover: Thermal physics of the breached pair and Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Madhuparna; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2016-05-01

    We study s -wave superconductivity in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model in an applied magnetic field, assume the extreme Pauli limit, and examine the role of spatial fluctuations in the coupling regime corresponding to BCS-BEC crossover. We use a decomposition of the interaction in terms of an auxiliary pairing field, retain the static mode, and sample the pairing field via a Monte Carlo approach. The method requires iterative solution of the Bogoliubov-de-Gennes equations for amplitude- and phase-fluctuating configurations of the pairing field. We establish the full thermal phase diagram of this strong-coupling problem. At low field we observe the magnetized but homogeneous "breached pair" superfluid phase. It reveals that Tc scales an order of magnitude below the mean-field estimate, spontaneous inhomogeneity in the field-induced magnetization, and a strong nonmonotonicity in the temperature dependence of the low-energy density of states. We compare our results to the experimental phase diagram of the imbalanced Fermi gas at unitarity. At higher field we obtain the modulated Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases. The thermal transition from the FFLO phases to the normal state is strongly first order. We track the fermionic momentum distribution, the density of states, and the pairing structure factor deep into the normal state. The pairing structure factor retains weak signature of finite momentum pairing to a high temperature despite the low Tc itself, while the spin-resolved density of states changes from the "pseudogapped" FFLO character to gapless and pseudogapped again with increasing temperature.

  12. Critical behavior in one dimension: Unconventional pairing, phase separation, BEC-BCS crossover, and magnetic Lifshitz transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptok, Andrzej; Cichy, Agnieszka; Rodríguez, Karen; Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    We study the superconducting properties of population-imbalanced ultracold Fermi mixtures in one-dimensional optical lattices that can be effectively described by the spin-imbalanced attractive Hubbard model in the presence of a Zeeman magnetic field. We use the mean-field theory approach to obtain the ground-state phase diagrams including some unconventional superconducting phases such as the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase, and the η phase (an extremal case of the FFLO phase), both for the case of a fixed chemical potential and for a fixed number of particles. It allows us to determine optimal regimes for the FFLO phase as well as η -pairing stability. We also investigate the evolution from the weak coupling (BCS-like limit) to the strong coupling limit of tightly bound local pairs (BEC) with increasing attraction, at T =0 . Finally, the obtained results show that in spite of the occurrence of the Lifshitz transition induced by an external magnetic field, the superconducting state can still exist in the system, at higher magnetic field values.

  13. Crossover of persistent photoconductivity in a phase-separated La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ling; Sheng, Zhigao; Luo, Xuan; Liu, Yu; Huang, Zhonghao; Song, Wenhai; Sun, Yuping

    2013-05-01

    A crossover from positive to negative persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed in the thermal hysteresis region of a La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 thin film. In the cooling process, the resistance shows downward relaxation in darkness. Light illumination induces a resistance drop and positive PPC is observed. However, upon warming, the resistance exhibits upward relaxation without illumination. Moreover, the response of the film to light illumination shows distinct behavior. The resistance decreases to a lower value when the illumination is switched on and then shows upward relaxation during illumination. It recovers to a higher value when the illumination is stopped, which characterizes negative PPC. The PPC ratio is -30.2% at 125 K with a light intensity of 3.06 mW mm-2. These results are discussed based on the phase competition and phase stability switch between ferromagnetic metal and charge/orbital-ordered insulator states. The results may be important for practical applications in photoelectric devices.

  14. Microscopic analysis of the superconducting quantum critical point: Finite-temperature crossovers in transport near a pair-breaking quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nayana; Lopatin, Andrei

    2007-09-01

    A microscopic analysis of the superconducting quantum critical point realized via a pair-breaking quantum phase transition is presented. Finite-temperature crossovers are derived for the electrical conductivity, which is a key probe of superconducting fluctuations. By using the diagrammatic formalism for disordered systems, we are able to incorporate the interplay between fluctuating Cooper pairs and electrons, that is outside the scope of a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau or effective bosonic action formalism. It is essential to go beyond the standard approximation in order to capture the zero-temperature correction which results purely from the (dynamic) quantum fluctuations and dictates the behavior of the conductivity in an entire low-temperature quantum regime. All dynamic contributions are of the same order and conspire to add up to a negative total, thereby inhibiting the conductivity as a result of superconducting fluctuations. On the contrary, the classical and the intermediate regimes are dominated by the positive bosonic channel. Our theory is applicable in one, two, and three dimensions and is relevant for experiments on superconducting nanowires, doubly connected cylinders, thin films, and bulk in the presence of magnetic impurities, magnetic field, or other pair breakers. A window of nonmonotonic behavior is predicted to exist as either the temperature or the pair-breaking parameter is swept.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  16. Survival Outcomes of Sipuleucel-T Phase III Studies: Impact of Control-Arm Cross-Over to Salvage Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel J; Nabhan, Chadi; DeVries, Todd; Whitmore, James B; Gomella, Leonard G

    2015-09-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy for asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). After disease progression, control-arm patients on three double-blind, randomized phase III sipuleucel-T trials were offered, in nonrandomized open-label protocols, APC8015F, an autologous immunotherapy made from cells cryopreserved at the time of control manufacture. These exploratory analyses evaluated potential effects on survival outcomes associated with such treatment. Of 249 control-treated patients, 165 (66.3%) received APC8015F. We explored the effects of APC8015F on the overall survival (OS; Cox regression) of control-arm patients and treatment effects of sipuleucel-T versus control adjusted for APC8015F treatment [iterative parameter estimation model (IPE)]. The median time to first APC8015F infusion was 5.2 months (range, 1.8-33.1) after randomization and 2.2 months (0.5-14.6) after progression. After disease progression, median survival was longer for APC8015F-treated versus control-only treated patients [20.0 vs. 9.8 months; HR, 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.74; P < 0.001]; however, baseline characteristics were more favorable for APC8015F-treated patients. Multivariate regression analyses identified lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, ECOG status, age, and number of bone metastases as potential (P < 0.1) independent predictors of postprogression survival. After adjusting for these predictors, APC8015F (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.54-1.11; P = 0.17) treatment trended toward improved survival. Estimated median OS benefit for sipuleucel-T versus control adjusted for APC8015F treatment was 3.9 months if APC8015F had no effect and was 8.1 months if APC8015F was equally as effective as sipuleucel-T. Exploratory analyses indicate that APC8015F treatment may have extended patient survival, suggesting the sipuleucel-T OS advantage in CRPC may be more robust than previously estimated.

  17. [Cross-over studies].

    PubMed

    Bonten, Tobias N; Siegerink, Bob; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2013-01-01

    Randomized, parallel group clinical trials often require large groups of patients; this is expensive and takes time. A randomized cross-over trial can be an efficient and more affordable alternative. A cross-over design can be used to study chronic disorders in which treatments have temporary effects. Participants receive all treatments in consecutive periods and outcomes are measured after every period. In general, only a quarter of the total group size is needed for cross-over studies compared with parallel group studies. Results can be affected by period-effects and carry-over-effects, which can be prevented through randomization and a wash-out period of sufficient length. The dropping-out of participants has more negative consequences for cross-over studies than for parallel group studies.

  18. Crossover behavior in interface depinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Zapperi, Stefano; Sethna, James P

    2015-08-01

    We study the crossover scaling behavior of the height-height correlation function in interface depinning in random media. We analyze experimental data from a fracture experiment and simulate an elastic line model with nonlinear couplings and disorder. Both exhibit a crossover between two different universality classes. For the experiment, we fit a functional form to the universal crossover scaling function. For the model, we vary the system size and the strength of the nonlinear term and describe the crossover between the two universality classes with a multiparameter scaling function. Our method provides a general strategy to extract scaling properties in depinning systems exhibiting crossover phenomena.

  19. A crossover in the mechanical response of nanocrystalline ceramics.

    PubMed

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2005-08-05

    Multimillion-atom molecular dynamics simulation of indentation of nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, resulting from the coexistence of brittle grains and soft amorphous grain boundary phases. Simulations predict a crossover from intergranular continuous deformation to intragrain discrete deformation at a critical indentation depth. The crossover arises from the interplay between cooperative grain sliding, grain rotations, and intergranular dislocation formation similar to stick-slip behavior. The crossover is also manifested in switching from deformation dominated by indentation-induced crystallization to deformation dominated by disordering, leading to amorphization. This interplay between deformation mechanisms is critical for the design of ceramics with superior mechanical properties.

  20. The impacts of mantle phase transitions and the iron spin crossover in ferropericlase on convective mixing—is the evidence for compositional convection definitive? New results from a Yin-Yang overset grid-based control volume model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnas, M. H.; Peltier, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution seismic tomographic images from several subduction zones provide evidence for the inhibition of the downwelling of subducting slabs at the level of the 660 km depth seismic discontinuity. Furthermore, the inference of old (~140 Myr) sinking slabs below fossil subduction zones in the lower mantle has yet to be explained. We employ a control volume methodology to develop a new anelastically compressible model of three-dimensional thermal convection in the "mantle" of a terrestrial planet that fully incorporates the influence of large variations in material properties. The model also incorporates the influence of (1) multiple solid-solid pressure-induced phase transitions, (2) transformational superplasticity at 660 km depth, and (3) the high spin-low spin iron spin transition in ferropericlase at midmantle pressures. The message passing interface-parallelized code is successfully tested against previously published benchmark results. The high-resolution control volume models exhibit the same degree of radial layering as previously shown to be characteristic of otherwise identical 2-D axisymmetric spherical models. The layering is enhanced by the presence of moderate transformational superplasticity, and in the presence of the spin crossover in ferropericlase, stagnation of cold downwellings occurs in the range of spin crossover depths (~1700 km). Although this electronic spin transition has been suggested to be invisible seismically, recent high-pressure ab initio calculations suggest it to have a clear signature in body wave velocities which could provide an isochemical explanation of a seismological signature involving the onset of decorrelation between Vp and Vs that has come to be interpreted as requiring compositional layering.

  1. Spin- and phase transition in the spin crossover complex [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 studied by nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation and by DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Lars H.; Chumakov, Aleksandr I.; Matthias Grunert, C.; Gütlich, Philipp; Kusz, Joachim; Paulsen, Hauke; Ponkratz, Ulrich; Rusanov, Ventzislav; Trautwein, Alfred X.; Wolny, Juliusz A.

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of [Fe(ptz) 6](BF 4) 2 (ptz = 1- n-propyl-tetrazole) have been measured for five phases differing in spin state and crystallographic structure. Different spectral patterns have been found for the low-spin and high-spin phases and are described in terms of normal coordinate analysis of the complex molecule. For both low-spin and high-spin phases the conversion from ordered to disordered phase results in splitting of the observed NIS bands. Packing becomes visible in the NIS spectra via coupling of the Fe-N stretching vibrations with those of the terminal n-propyl groups. The DFT-based normal coordinate analysis also reveals the character of Raman markers.

  2. Critical behavior of La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 manganites exhibiting the crossover of first- and second-order phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, The-Long; Tran, Q. T.; Thanh, P. Q.; Yen, P. D. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Yu, S. C.

    2014-04-01

    We used Banerjee's criteria, modified Arrott plots, and the scaling hypothesis to analyze magnetic-field dependences of magnetization near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase-transition temperature (TC) of perovskite-type manganites La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 (x=0.09, 0.12 and 0.15). In the FM region, experimental results for the critical exponent β (=0.171 and 0.262 for x=0.09 and 0.12, respectively) reveal two first samples exhibiting tricriticality associated with the crossover of first- and second-order phase transitions. Increasing Ni-doping content leads to the shift of the β value (=0.320 for x=0.15) towards that expected for the 3D Ising model (β=0.325). This is due to the fact that the substitution of Ni ions into the Mn site changes structural parameters and dilutes the FM phase, which act as fluctuations and influence the FM-interaction strength of double-exchange Mn3+-Mn4+ pairs, and the phase-transition type. For the critical exponent γ (=0.976-0.990), the stability in its value demonstrates the PM behavior above TC of the samples. Particularly, around TC of La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xNixO3 compounds, magnetic-field dependences of the maximum magnetic-entropy change can be described by a power law of |ΔSmax|∝Hn, where values n=0.55-0.77 are quite far from those (n=0.33-0.48) calculated from the theoretical relation n=1+(β-1)/(β+γ). This difference is related to the use of the mean-field theory for the samples exhibiting the magnetic inhomogeneity.

  3. Birefringence in the vicinity of the smectic-A to smectic-C phase transition: Crossover from X Y critical to tricritical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Malay Kumar; Chakraborty, Susanta; Dabrowski, Roman; Czerwiński, Michał

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution birefringence (Δ n ) measurements are carried out to probe the critical behavior at the smectic-A -smectic-C (Sm-A -Sm-C ) phase transition in a binary system. The critical behavior of this transition is explored with the aid of a differential quotient extracted from the Δ n values. The results obtained reveal that the Sm-A -Sm-C and nematic-smectic-A (N -Sm-A ) transitions exhibit nonuniversal behaviors with effective exponents lying between the tricritical and three-dimensional X Y values and follow two distinctly different curves with decreasing width of the Sm-A and N phases, respectively. The origin of such critical behavior is a unique feature for the respective phase transitions.

  4. Crossover studies with survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buyze, Jozefien; Goetghebeur, Els

    2013-12-01

    Crossover designs are well known to have major advantages when comparing the effect of two treatments which do not interact. With a right-censored survival endpoint, however, this design is quickly abandoned in favour of the more costly parallel design. Motivated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies which lacked power, we evaluate what may be gained in this setting and compare parallel with crossover designs. In a heterogeneous population, we find and explain a substantial increase in power for the crossover study using a non-parametric logrank test. With frailties in a proportional hazards model, crossover designs equally lead to substantially smaller variance for the subject-specific hazard ratio (HR), while the population-averaged HR sees negligible gain. Its efficiency benefit is recovered when the population-averaged HR is reconstructed from estimated subject-specific hazard rates. We derive the time point for treatment crossover that optimizes efficiency and end with the analysis of two recent HIV prevention trials. We find that a Cellulose sulphate trial could have hardly gained efficiency from a crossover design, while a Nonoxynol-9 trial stood to gain substantial power. We conclude that there is a role for effective crossover designs in important classes of survival problems.

  5. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section require crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover must be designed in accordance with... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrical crossovers....

  6. Evaluation of the effect of food and age on the pharmacokinetics of oral netupitant and palonosetron in healthy subjects: A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Calcagnile, Selma; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Gutacker, Michaela; Jakob-Rodamer, Verena; Peter Kammerer, Klaus; Timmer, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Antiemetic treatment compliance is important to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a feared chemotherapy side effect. NEPA, a new oral fixed combination of netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-HT3 RA, targets dual antiemetic pathways with a single dose. This study investigated the effect of food intake and age on NEPA pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety. In this open-label, single-center, randomized, phase 1 study, 24 adults (18-45 years) received NEPA in a fed or fasted state during the first treatment period and in the alternative state in the next treatment period. Twelve elderly subjects (≥65 years) received NEPA in a fasted state. Blood samples were taken for netupitant and palonosetron PK analysis. In the fed condition, netupitant plasma exposure increased, whereas palonosetron PK parameters were not affected. Furthermore, elderly subjects showed increased netupitant and palonosetron exposure compared with adults. All adverse events were mild/moderate, with constipation and headache the most common. Although food intake and age altered NEPA PK, dose adjustments were not needed, as netupitant and palonosetron exposure increases did not lead to safety concerns in healthy subjects.

  7. Y-doped La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting a large magnetocaloric effect and the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, The-Long; Jung, C. U.; Lee, B. W.; Ho, T. A.; Manh, T. V.; Dang, N. T.; Thanh, T. D.

    2015-10-14

    We prepared orthorhombic La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} samples (x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) by conventional solid-state reaction and then studied their magnetic properties and magnetocaloric (MC) effect based on magnetization versus temperature and magnetic-field measurements, M(T, H). The experimental results revealed that an x increase in La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} reduced the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}) from 260 K (for x = 0) to ∼126 K (for x = 0.08). Around the T{sub C}, maximum magnetic-entropy changes for a magnetic-field variation interval H = 50 kOe are about 10.7, 8.5, 7.4, and 5.8 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1} for x = 0, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08, respectively, corresponding to refrigerant capacities RC = 250–280 J·kg{sup −1}. These values are comparable to those of some conventional MC materials, revealing the applicability of La{sub 0.7−x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} in magnetic refrigeration. Using the Arrott method and scaling hypothesis as analyzing high-field M(H, T) data, and the universal-curve construction of the magnetic entropy change, we found a magnetic-phase separation. While the samples x = 0−0.06 exhibit a first-order magnetic phase transition, x = 0.08 exhibits the crossover of the first-to-second-order phase transformation (with its critical-exponent values close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory) and has the presence of ferromagnetic clusters even above the T{sub C}. Such the variations in the magnetism and MC effect are related to the changes in structural parameters caused by the Y substitution for La because Y doping does not change the concentration ratio of Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+}.

  8. The BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Meera M.

    2015-09-01

    This chapter presents the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of weakly correlated pairs of fermions to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of diatomic molecules in the atomic Fermi gas. Our aim is to provide a pedagogical review of the BCS-BEC crossover, with an emphasis on the basic concepts, particularly those that are not generally known or are difficult to find in the literature. We shall not attempt to give an exhaustive survey of current research in the limited space here; where possible, we will direct the reader to more extensive reviews.

  9. Tunneling above the crossover temperature.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Barcia, Sonia; Flores, Jesús R; Kästner, Johannes

    2014-01-09

    Quantum mechanical tunneling of atoms plays a significant role in many chemical reactions. The crossover temperature between classical and quantum movement is a convenient preliminary indication of the importance of tunneling for a particular reaction. Here we show, using instanton theory, that quantum tunneling is possible significantly above this crossover temperature for specific forms of the potential energy surface. We demonstrate the effect on an analytic potential as well as a chemical system. While protons move asynchronously along a Grotthuss chain in the classical high-temperature range, the onset of tunneling results in a synchronization of their movement.

  10. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, Frederick C.; Kingston, John J.; Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T.sub.c superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO.sub.3 ; and a third high T.sub.c superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions.

  11. Microelectronic superconducting crossover and coil

    DOEpatents

    Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J.

    1994-03-01

    A microelectronic component comprising a crossover is provided comprising a substrate, a first high T[sub c] superconductor thin film, a second insulating thin film comprising SrTiO[sub 3]; and a third high T[sub c] superconducting film which has strips which crossover one or more areas of the first superconductor film. An in situ method for depositing all three films on a substrate is provided which does not require annealing steps and which can be opened to the atmosphere between depositions. 13 figures.

  12. 30 CFR 57.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 57.11013 Section 57.11013... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11013 Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  13. 30 CFR 57.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 57.11013 Section 57.11013... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11013 Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  14. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  15. 30 CFR 57.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 57.11013 Section 57.11013... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11013 Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  16. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  17. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  18. 30 CFR 57.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 57.11013 Section 57.11013... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11013 Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  19. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  20. 30 CFR 56.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 56.11013 Section 56.11013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  1. 30 CFR 57.11013 - Conveyor crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor crossovers. 57.11013 Section 57.11013... Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11013 Conveyor crossovers. Crossovers shall be provided where it is necessary to cross conveyors....

  2. Multiferroic crossover in perovskite oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of ferroelectricity and magnetism in A B O3 perovskite oxides is rare, a phenomenon that has become known as the ferroelectric "d0 rule." Recently, the perovskite BiCoO3 has been shown experimentally to be isostructural with PbTiO3, while simultaneously the d6Co3 + ion has a high-spin ground state with C -type antiferromagnetic ordering. It has been suggested that the hybridization of Bi 6 s states with the O 2 p valence band stabilizes the polar phase, however, we have recently demonstrated that Co3 + ions in the perovskite structure can facilitate a ferroelectric distortion via the Co 3 d -O 2 p covalent interaction [L. Weston, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 247601 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.247601]. In this paper, using accurate hybrid density functional calculations, we investigate the atomic, electronic, and magnetic structure of BiCoO3 to elucidate the origin of the multiferroic state. To begin with, we perform a more general first-principles investigation of the role of d electrons in affecting the tendency for perovskite materials to exhibit a ferroelectric distortion; this is achieved via a qualitative trend study in artificial cubic and tetragonal La B O3 perovskites. We choose La as the A cation so as to remove the effects of Bi 6 s hybridization. The lattice instability is identified by the softening of phonon modes in the cubic phase, as well as by the energy lowering associated with a ferroelectric distortion. For the La B O3 series, where B is a d0-d8 cation from the 3 d block, the trend study reveals that increasing the d orbital occupation initially removes the tendency for a polar distortion, as expected. However, for high-spin d5-d7 and d8 cations a strong ferroelectric instability is recovered. This effect is explained in terms of increased pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) p -d vibronic coupling. The PJT effect is described by the competition between a stabilizing force (K0) that favors the cubic phase, and a vibronic term that

  3. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5-10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies.

  4. Dimensional crossover in semiconductor nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Matthew P.; Chatterjee, Rusha; Si, Jixin; Jankó, Boldizsár; Kuno, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor nanostructure syntheses provide unprecedented control over electronic quantum confinement and have led to extensive investigations of their size- and shape-dependent optical/electrical properties. Notably, spectroscopic measurements show that optical bandgaps of one-dimensional CdSe nanowires are substantially (approximately 100 meV) lower than their zero-dimensional counterparts for equivalent diameters spanning 5–10 nm. But what, exactly, dictates the dimensional crossover of a semiconductor's electronic structure? Here we probe the one-dimensional to zero-dimensional transition of CdSe using single nanowire/nanorod absorption spectroscopy. We find that carrier electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in establishing dimensional crossover. Moreover, the critical length at which this transition occurs is governed by the aspect ratio-dependent interplay between carrier confinement and dielectric contrast/confinement energies. PMID:27577091

  5. Crossover behavior in driven cascades.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-09-01

    We propose a model which explains how power-law crossover behavior can arise in a system which is capable of experiencing cascading failure. In our model the susceptibility of the system to cascades is described by a single number, the propagation power, which measures the ease with which cascades propagate. Physically, such a number could represent the density of unstable material in a system, its internal connectivity, or the mean susceptibility of its component parts to failure. We assume that the propagation power follows an upward drifting Brownian motion between cascades, and drops discontinuously each time a cascade occurs. Cascades are described by a continuous state branching process with distributional properties determined by the value of the propagation power when they occur. In common with many cascading models, pure power-law behavior is exhibited at a critical level of propagation power, and the mean cascade size diverges. This divergence constrains large systems to the subcritical region. We show that as a result, crossover behavior appears in the cascade distribution when an average is performed over the distribution of propagation power. We are able to analytically determine the exponents before and after the crossover.

  6. The dynamical crossover in attractive colloidal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Mallamace, Domenico; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-12-07

    We study the dynamical arrest in an adhesive hard-sphere colloidal system. We examine a micellar suspension of the Pluronic-L64 surfactant in the temperature (T) and volume fraction (ϕ) phase diagram. According to mode-coupling theory (MCT), this system is characterized by a cusp-like singularity and two glassy phases: an attractive glass (AG) phase and a repulsive glass (RG) phase. The T − ϕ phase diagram of this system as confirmed by a previous series of scattering data also exhibits a Percolation Threshold (PT) line, a reentrant behavior (AG-liquid-RG), and a glass-to-glass transition. The AG phase can be generated out of the liquid phase by using T and ϕ as control parameters. We utilize viscosity and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. NMR data confirm all the characteristic properties of the colloidal system phase diagram and give evidence of the onset of a fractal-like percolating structure at a precise threshold. The MCT scaling laws used to study the shear viscosity as a function of ϕ and T show in both cases a fragile-to-strong liquid glass-forming dynamic crossover (FSC) located near the percolation threshold where the clustering process is fully developed. These results suggest a larger thermodynamic generality for this phenomenon, which is usually studied only as a function of the temperature. We also find that the critical values of the control parameters, coincident with the PT line, define the locus of the FSC. In the region between the FSC and the glass transition lines the system dynamics are dominated by clustering effects. We thus demonstrate that it is possible, using the conceptual framework provided by extended mode-coupling theory, to describe the way a system approaches dynamic arrest, taking into account both cage and hopping effects.

  7. Spin crossover phenomenon accompanying order-disorder phase transition in the ligand of [FeII(DAPP)(abpt)](ClO4)2 compound (DAPP = bis(3-aminopropyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole) and its successive self-grinding effect.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Tadahiro; Ikeuchi, Satoaki; Saito, Kazuya; Inaba, Akira; Sorai, Michio; Tojo, Takeo; Atake, Tooru; Matouzenko, Galina S; Zein, Samir; Borshch, Serguei A

    2007-11-01

    The spin crossover phenomenon of the recently described spin crossover complex [FeII(DAPP)(abpt)](ClO4)2 [DAPP = bis(3-aminopropyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole] accompanying an order-disorder phase transition of the ligand was investigated by adiabatic heat capacity calorimetry, far-IR, IR, and Raman spectroscopies, and normal vibrational mode calculation. A large heat capacity peak due to the spin crossover transition was observed at T(trs) = 185.61 K. The transition enthalpy and entropy amounted to Delta(trs)H = 15.44 kJ mol-1 and Delta(trs)S = 83.74 J K-1 mol-1, respectively. The transition entropy is larger than the expected value 60.66 J K-1 mol-1, which is contributed from the spin multiplicity (R ln 5; R: the gas constant), disordering of the carbon atom of the six-membered metallocycle in the DAPP ligand, and one of the two perchlorate anions (2R ln 2), and change of the normal vibrational modes between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states (35.75 J K-1 mol-1). The remaining entropy would be ascribed to changes of the lattice vibrations and molecular librations between the HS and LS states. Furthermore, [Fe(DAPP)(abpt)](ClO4)2 crystals disintegrated and became smaller crystallites whenever they experienced the phase transition. This may be regarded as a successive self-grinding effect, evidenced by adiabatic calorimetry, DSC, magnetic susceptibility, and microscope observation. The relationship between the crystal size and the physical quantities is discussed.

  8. The BCS Bose crossover theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.; de Llano, M.; Sevilla, F. J.; Solís, M. A.; Valencia, J. J.

    2007-03-01

    We contrast four distinct versions of the BCS-Bose statistical crossover theory according to the form assumed for the electron-number equation that accompanies the BCS gap equation. The four versions correspond to explicitly accounting for two-hole-(2h) as well as two-electron-(2e) Cooper pairs (CPs), or both in equal proportions, or only either kind. This follows from a recent generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) statistical theory that includes not boson-boson interactions but rather 2e- and also (without loss of generality) 2h-CPs interacting with unpaired electrons and holes in a single-band model that is easily converted into a two-band model. The GBEC theory is essentially an extension of the Friedberg-Lee 1989 BEC theory of superconductors that excludes 2h-CPs. It can thus recover, when the numbers of 2h- and 2e-CPs in both BE-condensed and non-condensed states are separately equal, the BCS gap equation for all temperatures and couplings as well as the zero-temperature BCS (rigorous-upper-bound) condensation energy for all couplings. But ignoring either 2h- or 2e-CPs it can do neither. In particular, only half the BCS condensation energy is obtained in the two crossover versions ignoring either kind of CPs. We show how critical temperatures Tc from the original BCS-Bose crossover theory in 2D require unphysically large couplings for the Cooper/BCS model interaction to differ significantly from the Tcs of ordinary BCS theory (where the number equation is substituted by the assumption that the chemical potential equals the Fermi energy).

  9. Dimensional crossover in the torque in a layered superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, R. A.

    1993-04-01

    The procedure of Bulaevski, Ledvij, and Kogan for evaluating the line energy of single, straight vortex in the Lawrence-Doniach model in the linearized phase-only approximation is modified to take accurate account of the vortex core cross-sections. Dimensional crossover effects are found to be pronounced, with oscillations in the regular dependence of the torque for theta approximately = pi/2 and T approximately = T* less than Tc.

  10. Flow equations for the BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.; Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Wetterich, C.

    2007-08-15

    The functional renormalization group is used for the BCS-BEC crossover in gases of ultracold fermionic atoms. In a simple truncation, we see how universality and an effective theory with composite bosonic diatom states emerge. We obtain a unified picture of the whole phase diagram. The flow reflects different effective physics at different scales. In the BEC limit as well as near the critical temperature, it describes an interacting bosonic theory.

  11. Becoming a crossover-competent DSB.

    PubMed

    Lake, Cathleen M; Hawley, R Scott

    2016-06-01

    The proper execution of meiotic recombination (or crossing over) is essential for chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division, and thus this process is regulated by multiple, and often elaborate, mechanisms. Meiotic recombination begins with the programmed induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), of which only a subset are selected to be repaired into crossovers. This crossover selection process is carried out by a number of pro-crossover proteins that regulate the fashion in which DSBs are repaired. Here, we highlight recent studies regarding the process of DSB fate selection by a family of pro-crossover proteins known as the Zip-3 homologs.

  12. Nanoconfinement crystallization of frustrated alkyl groups: crossover of mesophase to crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Wang, Haixia; Xin, John H; Zhang, Xingxiang; Wang, Dujin

    2011-04-07

    Crossover of mesophase to crystalline structure in the nanoconfinement crystallization process of frustrated side groups elucidates the critical crystal thickness d(c) or the length scale of side groups, which defines the transition process from mesophase (hexagonal and monoclinic phase) to crystalline phase (orthorhombic phase) of confined CH(2) sequences in a given crystal size restriction.

  13. Hyperon puzzle, hadron-quark crossover and massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars are studied on the basis of the hadron-quark crossover picture where a smooth transition from the hadronic phase to the quark phase takes place at finite baryon density. By using a phenomenological equation of state (EOS) "CRover", which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0, it is found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M_{odot} can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition. The radii of the cold NSs with the CRover EOS are in the narrow range (12.5 ± 0.5) km which is insensitive to the NS masses. Due to the stiffening of the EOS induced by the hadron-quark crossover, the central density of the NSs is at most 4 ρ0 and the hyperon-mixing barely occurs inside the NS core. This constitutes a solution of the long-standing hyperon puzzle. The effect of color superconductivity (CSC) on the NS structures is also examined with the hadron-quark crossover. For the typical strength of the diquark attraction, a slight softening of the EOS due to two-flavor CSC (2SC) takes place and the maximum mass is reduced by about 0.2M_{odot}. The CRover EOS is generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition. The gravitational energy release and the spin-up rate during the contraction from the hot NS to the cold NS are also estimated.

  14. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.701 - Electrical crossovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrical crossovers. 3285.701... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Electrical Systems and Equipment § 3285.701 Electrical crossovers. Multi-section homes with electrical wiring in more than one section...

  18. Tuning the quantum critical crossover in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2005-03-01

    Quantum dots with large Thouless number g embody a regime where both disorder and interactions can be treated nonperturbatively using large-N techniques (with N=g) and quantum phase transitions can be studied. Here we focus on dots where the noninteracting Hamiltonian is drawn from a crossover ensemble between two symmetry classes, where the crossover parameter introduces a new, tunable energy scale independent of and much smaller than the Thouless energy. We show that the quantum critical regime, dominated by collective critical fluctuations, can be accessed at the new energy scale. The nonperturbative physics of this regime can only be described by the large-N approach, as we illustrate with two experimentally relevant examples. G. Murthy, PRB 70, 153304 (2004). G. Murthy, R. Shankar, D. Herman, and H. Mathur, PRB 69, 075321 (2004)

  19. Chiral relaxation time at the crossover of quantum chromodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, M.; Peng, G. X.; Chernodub, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study microscopic processes responsible for chirality flips in the thermal bath of quantum chromodynamics at finite temperature and zero baryon chemical potential. We focus on the temperature range where the crossover from chirally broken phase to quark-gluon plasma takes place, namely, T ≃(150 ,200 ) MeV . The processes we consider are quark-quark scatterings mediated by collective excitations with the quantum number of pions and σ meson; hence we refer to these processes simply as one-pion (one-σ ) exchanges. We use a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model to compute equilibrium properties of the thermal bath, as well as the relevant scattering kernel to be used in the collision integral to estimate the chiral relaxation time τ . We find τ ≃0.1 ÷1 fm /c around the chiral crossover.

  20. Hot Neutron Stars with Hadron-Quark Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kota; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The effects of the hadron-quark crossover on the bulk properties of cold and hot neutron stars (NSs) are studied. We suggested a new phenomenological equation of state (EOS), which interpolates the two phases at around 3 times the nuclear matter density (ρ0), and found that the cold NSs with the gravitational mass larger than 2M⊙ can be sustained. This is in sharp contrast to the case of the first-order hadron-quark transition where the quark matter inevitably leads to soft EOS. The interpolated EOS is also generalized to the supernova matter at finite temperature to describe the hot NSs at birth. The hadron-quark crossover is found to decrease the central temperature of the hot NSs under isentropic condition due to the color degrees of freedom.

  1. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M

    2014-07-22

    Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron in ferropericlase (Fp), the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle, introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First-principles calculations indicate that anticorrelation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in longitudinal velocity (VP) at certain depths but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomography models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P (∂ ln VS/∂ ln VP) heterogeneity ratio might be a useful fingerprint to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle.

  2. The choice in meiosis - defining the factors that influence crossover or non-crossover formation.

    PubMed

    Youds, Jillian L; Boulton, Simon J

    2011-02-15

    Meiotic crossovers are essential for ensuring correct chromosome segregation as well as for creating new combinations of alleles for natural selection to take place. During meiosis, excess meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated; a subset of these breaks are repaired to form crossovers, whereas the remainder are repaired as non-crossovers. What determines where meiotic DSBs are created and whether a crossover or non-crossover will be formed at any particular DSB remains largely unclear. Nevertheless, several recent papers have revealed important insights into the factors that control the decision between crossover and non-crossover formation in meiosis, including DNA elements that determine the positioning of meiotic DSBs, and the generation and processing of recombination intermediates. In this review, we focus on the factors that influence DSB positioning, the proteins required for the formation of recombination intermediates and how the processing of these structures generates either a crossover or non-crossover in various organisms. A discussion of crossover interference, assurance and homeostasis, which influence crossing over on a chromosome-wide and genome-wide scale - in addition to current models for the generation of interference - is also included. This Commentary aims to highlight recent advances in our understanding of the factors that promote or prevent meiotic crossing over.

  3. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M.

    2015-07-01

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass mH = 125GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a "soft point" at temperatures around T = 160GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial "structure" visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T > 160GeV.

  4. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M. E-mail: meyer@itp.unibe.ch

    2015-07-01

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub H} = 125GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a 'soft point' at temperatures around T = 160GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial 'structure' visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T > 160GeV.

  5. Standard Model thermodynamics across the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Laine, M.; Meyer, M.

    2015-07-22

    Even though the Standard Model with a Higgs mass m{sub \\tiny H}=125 GeV possesses no bulk phase transition, its thermodynamics still experiences a “soft point” at temperatures around T=160 GeV, with a deviation from ideal gas thermodynamics. Such a deviation may have an effect on precision computations of weakly interacting dark matter relic abundances if their mass is in the few TeV range, or on leptogenesis scenarios operating in this temperature range. By making use of results from lattice simulations based on a dimensionally reduced effective field theory, we estimate the relevant thermodynamic functions across the crossover. The results are tabulated in a numerical form permitting for their insertion as a background equation of state into cosmological particle production/decoupling codes. We find that Higgs dynamics induces a non-trivial “structure” visible e.g. in the heat capacity, but that in general the largest radiative corrections originate from QCD effects, reducing the energy density by a couple of percent from the free value even at T>160 GeV.

  6. Crossover critical phenomena in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrowicka Wyczalkowska, Anna Judyta

    In fluids the effects of critical density fluctuations remain significant over a large range of temperatures and densities. The nonanalytical behavior observed in real fluids in the vicinity of the critical point is well described by renormalization-group theory. This theory accounts properly for the influence of the critical fluctuations in density which are entirely neglected by the classical equations. Specifically, fluids asymptotically close to the critical point belong to the universality class of the 3-dimensional Ising model and their behavior near the critical point is governed by scaling laws with critical exponents appropriate for this universality class. The validity of the asymptotic power laws is, however, restricted to a very small region near the critical point. An approach to deal with the nonasymptotic behavior of fluids including the crossover from Ising behavior in the immediate vicinity of the critical point to classical behavior far away from the critical point has been developed by Chen and coworkers and is further improved in this thesis. This approach is based on earlier work of Nicoll and coworkers and it leads to a transformation of a classical Landau expansion to incorporate the effects of critical fluctuations. Here we show how this transformation applies to real fluids: water and sulfurhexafluoride. Nevertheless, even such a crossover Landau expansion still fails to make a connection with the behavior of the fluid very far away from the critical point like the ideal-gas limit at low densities. We demonstrate how a procedure, earlier developed to include the effects of critical fluctuations into a classical Landau expansion of the Helmholtz-energy density, can also be applied to a closed-form classical equation of state like the equation of van der Waals. One of the consequences of accounting for the presence of the critical fluctuations is a shift in the location of the critical point. The resulting equation incorporates the

  7. 1D to 3D Crossover of a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-12-01

    We have characterized the one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) crossover of a two-component spin-imbalanced Fermi gas of 6Li atoms in a 2D optical lattice by varying the lattice tunneling and the interactions. The gas phase separates, and we detect the phase boundaries using in situ imaging of the inhomogeneous density profiles. The locations of the phases are inverted in 1D as compared to 3D, thus providing a clear signature of the crossover. By scaling the tunneling rate t with respect to the pair binding energy ɛB, we observe a collapse of the data to a universal crossover point at a scaled tunneling value of t˜c=0.025 (7 ).

  8. The Misguided Ethics of Crossover Trials

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vinay; Grady, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Crossover is increasingly favored in trials of cancer therapies; even those that seek to establish the basic efficacy of novel drugs. Crossover is done in part for trial recruitment, but also out of a sense of doing the right thing—offering the investigational agent to more patients. In this paper, we argue that this ethical feeling—that crossover is a preferred trial choice—is misguided. In seeking to sate the desires of participants, we might undermine a trial’s ability to answer a meaningful clinical question. When a trial is incapable of answering a question, it becomes unethical. Using a crossover strategy in oncology clinical trials can make trials less ethical, not more. L’enfer est plein de bonnes volontés et désirs (Hell is full of good wishes and desires)--Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (c.1150) PMID:24365533

  9. Design, analysis, and presentation of crossover trials

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward J; Chan, An-Wen; Wu, Ping; Vail, Andy; Guyatt, Gordon H; Altman, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although crossover trials enjoy wide use, standards for analysis and reporting have not been established. We reviewed methodological aspects and quality of reporting in a representative sample of published crossover trials. Methods We searched MEDLINE for December 2000 and identified all randomized crossover trials. We abstracted data independently, in duplicate, on 14 design criteria, 13 analysis criteria, and 14 criteria assessing the data presentation. Results We identified 526 randomized controlled trials, of which 116 were crossover trials. Trials were drug efficacy (48%), pharmacokinetic (28%), and nonpharmacologic (30%). The median sample size was 15 (interquartile range 8–38). Most (72%) trials used 2 treatments and had 2 periods (64%). Few trials reported allocation concealment (17%) or sequence generation (7%). Only 20% of trials reported a sample size calculation and only 31% of these considered pairing of data in the calculation. Carry-over issues were addressed in 29% of trial's methods. Most trials reported and defended a washout period (70%). Almost all trials (93%) tested for treatment effects using paired data and also presented details on by-group results (95%). Only 29% presented CIs or SE so that data could be entered into a meta-analysis. Conclusion Reports of crossover trials frequently omit important methodological issues in design, analysis, and presentation. Guidelines for the conduct and reporting of crossover trials might improve the conduct and reporting of studies using this important trial design. PMID:19405975

  10. An open-label, phase 2, single centre, randomized, crossover design bioequivalence study of AndroForte 5 testosterone cream and Testogel 1% testosterone gel in hypogonadal men: study LP101.

    PubMed

    Wittert, G A; Harrison, R W; Buckley, M J; Wlodarczyk, J

    2016-01-01

    We compared a novel 5% testosterone (T) cream (AndroForte 5, Lawley Pharmaceuticals, Australia) with a 1% T gel (Testogel, Besins Healthcare, Australia). Using an open-label crossover design, subjects were randomized to one of two treatment sequences using either the T gel or T cream first in a 1 : 1 ratio. Each treatment period was 30 days with a 7-14 days washout period between them. On Days 1 and 30 of each treatment period blood was sampled at -15, -5 min, 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 16 h post study drug administration. Sixteen men with established androgen deficiency aged between 29 and 73 years, who had undertaken a washout from prior testosterone therapy participated in the study. One subject failed to complete both arms and another was excluded post-completion because of a major protocol violation. Bioequivalence was established based on key pharmacokinetic (PK) variables: AUC, C(avg), C(max), T(max), % fluctuation (with and without baseline correction) for the two formulations of testosterone on Day 1 and Day 30. The ratio and 90% CI of AUC 0.99 (0.86-1.14), C(max) 1.02 (0.84-1.24) and C(avg) 0.99 (0.86-1.14) for T cream/T gel were within the predetermined bio-equivalence criteria of 80% to 125% at Day 30. There were no statistically significant differences between secondary biochemical markers: serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), oestradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH) and (FSH). The two testosterone formulations were shown to be bioequivalent.

  11. A matched crossover design for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Simon, Laura J; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2007-09-01

    Two design principles are used frequently in clinical trials: 1) A subject is "matched" or "paired" with a similar subject to reduce the chance that other variables obscure the primary comparison of interest. 2) A subject serves as his/her own control by "crossing over" from one treatment to another during the course of an experiment. There are situations in which it may be advantageous to use the two design principles - crossing over and matching - simultaneously. That is, it may be advantageous to conduct a "paired crossover design," in which each subject, while paired with a similar subject, crosses over and receives each experimental treatment. In this paper, we describe two clinical trials conducted by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Asthma Clinical Research Network that used a paired 2x2 crossover design. The Beta Adrenergic Response by GEnotype (BARGE) Study compared the effects of regular use of inhaled albuterol on mildly asthmatic patients with different genotypes at the 16th position of the beta-agonist receptor gene. The Smoking Modulates Outcomes of Glucocorticoid (SMOG) Therapy in Asthma Study evaluated the hypothesis that smoking reduces the response to inhaled corticosteroids. For such paired crossover designs, the primary parameter of interest is typically the treatment-by-pairing interaction term. In evaluating the relative efficiency of the paired 2x2 crossover design to two independent crossover designs with respect to this interaction term, we show that the paired 2x2 crossover design is more efficient if the correlations between the paired members on the same treatments are greater than their correlations on different treatments. This condition should hold in most circumstances, and therefore the paired crossover design deserves serious consideration for any clinical trial in which the crossing over and matching of subjects is deemed simultaneously beneficial.

  12. Spin-crossover molecule based thermoelectric junction

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Dibyajyoti; Parida, Prakash; Pati, Swapan K.

    2015-05-11

    Using ab-initio numerical methods, we explore the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric properties of a spin-crossover molecule (i.e., iron complex of 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine) based nano-junction. We demonstrate a large magnetoresistance, efficient conductance-switching, and spin-filter activity in this molecule-based two-terminal device. The spin-crossover process also modulates the thermoelectric entities. It can efficiently switch the magnitude as well as spin-polarization of the thermocurrent. We find that thermocurrent is changed by ∼4 orders of magnitude upon spin-crossover. Moreover, it also substantially affects the thermopower and consequently, the device shows extremely efficient spin-crossover magnetothermopower generation. Furthermore, by tuning the chemical potential of electrodes into a certain range, a pure spin-thermopower can be achieved for the high-spin state. Finally, the reasonably large values of figure-of-merit in the presence and absence of phonon demonstrate a large heat-to-voltage conversion efficiency of the device. We believe that our study will pave an alternative way of tuning the transport and thermoelectric properties through the spin-crossover process and can have potential applications in generation of spin-dependent current, information storage, and processing.

  13. Ordering and dimensional crossovers in metallic glasses and liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, David Z.; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Greer, Julia R.

    2017-01-01

    The atomic-level structures of liquids and glasses are amorphous, lacking long-range order. We characterize the atomic structures by integrating radial distribution functions (RDF) from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for several metallic liquids and glasses: C u46Z r54 , N i80A l20 , N i33.3Z r66.7 , and P d82S i18 . Resulting cumulative coordination numbers (CN) show that metallic liquids have a dimension of d =2.55 ±0.06 from the center atom to the first coordination shell and metallic glasses have d =2.71 ±0.04 , both less than 3. Between the first and second coordination shells, both phases crossover to a dimension of d =3 , as for a crystal. Observations from discrete atom center-of-mass position counting are corroborated by continuously counting Cu glass- and liquid-phase atoms on an artificial grid, which accounts for the occupied atomic volume. Results from Cu grid analysis show short-range d =2.65 for Cu liquid and d =2.76 for Cu glass. Cu grid structures crossover to d =3 at ξ ˜8 Å (˜3 atomic diameters). We study the evolution of local structural dimensions during quenching and discuss its correlation with the glass transition phenomenon.

  14. Crossover from nucleation to spinodal decomposition in a condensing vapor.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Jan; Chkonia, Guram; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard; Reguera, David

    2009-09-21

    The mechanism controlling the initial step of a phase transition has a tremendous influence on the emerging phase. We study the crossover from a purely nucleation-controlled transition toward spinodal decomposition in a condensing Lennard-Jones vapor using molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze both the kinetics and at the same time the thermodynamics by directly reconstructing the free energy of cluster formation. We estimate the location of the spinodal, which lies at much deeper supersaturations than expected. Moreover, the nucleation barriers we find differ only by a constant from the classical nucleation theory predictions and are in very good agreement with semiempirical scaling relations. In the regime from very small barriers to the spinodal, growth controls the rate of the transition but not its nature because the activation barrier has not yet vanished. Finally, we discuss in detail the influence of the chosen reaction coordinate on the interpretation of such simulation results.

  15. Continuous and Discontinuous Dynamic Crossover in Supercooled Water in Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic crossover behavior of supercooled water as described by the first-principle based WAIL potential was investigated. Below the second liquid–liquid critical point, the viscosity shows a discontinuous jump consistent with a first-order phase transition between the high density liquid and the low density liquid. Above the critical point, a continuous transition occurs with only the first derivative of viscosity being discontinuous, and the dynamic crossover temperature is about 8 K below the thermodynamic switchover temperature. The 8 K shift can be explained by a delay in dynamic crossover, which does not occur until the more viscous liquid starts to dominate the population and jams the flow. On the basis of finite-size effects observed in our simulations, we believe that dynamic discontinuity may be observable above the critical point in confined water when the confinement is on a length scale shorter than the spatial correlation. PMID:27476514

  16. The Design of Cluster Randomized Crossover Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rietbergen, Charlotte; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own control. In a CR CO trial, clusters of subjects…

  17. Cedarwood: cross-over pressure research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the cross-over pressure for cedarwood oil in carbon dioxide. A closed stirrer reactor with an in-line loop connected to the injector of a GC was used to measure the concentration of cedarwood oil in the carbon dioxide. Both neat cedarwood oil as ...

  18. Critical Crossover Functions for Simple Fluids: Towards the Crossover Modelling Uniqueness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Marre, Samuel; LeNeindre, Bernard; Hahn, Inseob

    2016-11-01

    Based on a single non-universal temperature scaling factor present in a simple fluid case, a detailed analysis of non-universal parameters involved in different critical-to-classical crossover models is given. For the infinite limit of the cutoff wave number, a set of three scaling-parameters is defined for each model such that it shows all the shapes of the theoretical crossover functions overlap on the mean crossover function shapes close to the non-trivial fixed point. The analysis of corresponding links between their fluid-dependent parameters opens a route to define a parametric model of crossover equation-of-state, closely satisfying the universal features calculated from the Ising-like limit in the massive renormalization scheme.

  19. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    PubMed Central

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  20. The vacuum tunnelling and the crossover of deconfinement in Friedberg-Lee model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Song; Li, Jia-Rong

    2013-03-01

    We have discussed the vacuum tunnelling in Friedberg-Lee model. The tunnelling coefficient is derived in the field configuration space by calculating the transition amplitude using the path integral under the stationary phase approximation and the dilute instanton gas approximation. By studying the tunnelling effect between the two degenerating vacuums at the critical temperature and chemical potential, we find that the system could be deconfined by tunnelling, which could possibly change the first order deconfinement phase transition to crossover.

  1. Crossover by Line Length and Spatial Location

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeier, Mark; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Pierce, Chris; Vezey, Elsie

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that line length has a systematic influence on line bisection error in neglect. Most patients with neglect misbisect long lines on the same side of true center as their brain lesion but then cross over on short lines, misbisecting them on the opposite side (i.e., crossover by line length). What is less recognized is that the spatial location of lines relative to the viewer can similarly induce a crossover effect when one considers line bisection error scores that have been averaged across individual line lengths. Patients with right hemisphere injury and neglect classically make averaged line bisection errors that fall right of true center on lines located either at midline or to the left of the viewer; however, we observed that the averaged line bisection error can fall left of true center when lines are located to the right of the viewer (i.e., crossover by spatial location). We hypothesized that crossover by both line length and spatial location stem from systematic errors in magnitude estimation, i.e., perceived line length. We tested predictions based on this hypothesis by examining how the crossover effect by line length is altered by the spatial location of lines along a horizontal axis relative to the viewer. Participants included patients with unilateral lesions of the right and left cerebral hemispheres and age-appropriate normal subjects. All groups demonstrated a crossover effect by line length at the midline location but the effect was altered by placing lines to the right and left of the viewer. In particular, patients with right hemisphere injury and neglect crossed-over across a hroader range of line lengths when the lines were located to the right of the viewer rather than at either midline or left of the viewer. It is proposed that mental representations of stimulus magnitude are altered in neglect, in addition to mental representations of space, and that traditional accounts of neglect can be enhanced by including the

  2. Photoinduced 2-way electron transfer in composites of metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Navendu; Paul, Sneha; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation between the QDs and NCs in a giant BSA-capped system, a higher electron transfer rate in this composite suggests that unlike other smaller capping agents, which act more like insulators, BSA allows much better electron conduction, as indicated previously.In order to explore the potential of nanocomposites comprising semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoclusters (NCs) in photovoltaic and catalytic applications, the interaction between CdTe QDs and gold NCs, Au10 and Au25, stabilized by histidine, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and glutathione, is studied by an ultrafast transient absorption (TA) technique. Temporal and spectral studies of the transients reveal photoinduced 2-way electron transfer between the two constituents of the nanocomposites, where Au NCs, which generally act as electron donors when used as photosensitizers, perform the role of the efficient electron acceptor. Interestingly, it is found that the electron transfer dynamics in these composites is governed not by the distance of separation of the constituents but by the nature of the surface capping ligands. Despite a large separation

  3. Exchangeability in the case-crossover design.

    PubMed

    Mittleman, Murray A; Mostofsky, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    In cohort and case-control studies, confounding that arises as a result of differences in the distribution of determinants of the outcome between exposure groups leading to non-exchangeability are addressed by restriction, matching or with statistical models. In case-only studies, this issue is addressed by comparing each individual with his/herself. Although case-only designs use self-matching and only include individuals who develop the outcome of interest, issues of non-exchangeability are identical to those that arise in traditional case-control and cohort studies. In this review, we describe one type of case-only design, the case-crossover design, and discuss how the concept of exchangeability can be used to understand issues of confounding, carryover effects, period effects and selection bias in case-crossover studies.

  4. Dimensional crossover in dipolar magnetic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulenda, M.; Täuber, U. C.; Schwabl, F.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the static critical behaviour of a uniaxial magnetic layer, with finite thickness L in one direction, yet infinitely extended in the remaining d dimensions. The magnetic dipole-dipole interaction is taken into account. We apply a variant of Wilson's momentum shell renormalization group approach to describe the crossover between the critical behaviour of the 3D Ising, 2D Ising, 3D uniaxial dipolar, and the 2D uniaxial dipolar universality classes. The corresponding renormalization group fixed points are in addition to different effective dimensionalities characterized by distinct analytic structures of the propagator, and are consequently associated with varying upper critical dimensions. While the limiting cases can be discussed by means of dimensional icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> expansions with respect to the appropriate upper critical dimensions, respectively, the crossover features must be addressed in terms of the renormalization group flow trajectories at fixed dimensionality d .

  5. Mobile workers in healthcare and their information needs: are 2-way pagers the answer?

    PubMed

    Eisenstadt, S A; Wagner, M M; Hogan, W R; Pankaskie, M C; Tsui, F C; Wilbright, W

    1998-01-01

    The ability to have access to information relevant to patient care is essential within the healthcare environment. To meet the information needs of its workers, healthcare information systems must fulfill a variety of functional requirements. One of these requirements is to define how workers will interact with the system to gain the information they need. Currently, most healthcare information systems rely on users querying the system via a fixed terminal for the information they desire; a method that is inefficient because there is no guarantee the information will be available at the time of their query and it interrupts their work flow. In general, clinical event monitors--systems whose efficacy relies on the delivery of time-critical information--have used e-mail and numeric pagers as their methods to deliver information. Each of these methods, however, still requires the user to perform additional steps, i.e., log into an information system in order to attain the information about which the system is alerting them. In this paper we describe the integration and use of 2-way alphanumeric pagers in CLEM, the UPMC Health System's Clinical Event Monitor, and how the use of these pagers addresses the information needs of mobile workers in healthcare.

  6. JavaGenes: Evolving Graphs with Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Atsatt, Sean; Lawton, John; Wipke, Todd

    2000-01-01

    Genetic algorithms usually use string or tree representations. We have developed a novel crossover operator for a directed and undirected graph representation, and used this operator to evolve molecules and circuits. Unlike strings or trees, a single point in the representation cannot divide every possible graph into two parts, because graphs may contain cycles. Thus, the crossover operator is non-trivial. A steady-state, tournament selection genetic algorithm code (JavaGenes) was written to implement and test the graph crossover operator. All runs were executed by cycle-scavagging on networked workstations using the Condor batch processing system. The JavaGenes code has evolved pharmaceutical drug molecules and simple digital circuits. Results to date suggest that JavaGenes can evolve moderate sized drug molecules and very small circuits in reasonable time. The algorithm has greater difficulty with somewhat larger circuits, suggesting that directed graphs (circuits) are more difficult to evolve than undirected graphs (molecules), although necessary differences in the crossover operator may also explain the results. In principle, JavaGenes should be able to evolve other graph-representable systems, such as transportation networks, metabolic pathways, and computer networks. However, large graphs evolve significantly slower than smaller graphs, presumably because the space-of-all-graphs explodes combinatorially with graph size. Since the representation strongly affects genetic algorithm performance, adding graphs to the evolutionary programmer's bag-of-tricks should be beneficial. Also, since graph evolution operates directly on the phenotype, the genotype-phenotype translation step, common in genetic algorithm work, is eliminated.

  7. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ferropericlase (Fp) is believed to be the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle. Since the discovery of the high spin (HS) to low spin (LS) crossover in iron in Fp [1], this phenomenon has been investigated extensively experimentally and theoretically. This is a broad and smooth crossover that takes place throughout most of the lower mantle and does not produce an obvious signature in radial velocity or density profiles [2]. Therefore, the spin transition has been generally considered to be invisible to seismic waves. This study, however, shows that it can produce a peculiar effect on lateral velocity heterogeneities at certain depths[3]. Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First principles calculations indicate that anti-correlation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in VP but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomographic models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P () heterogeneity ratio might be a useful "fingerprint" to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. [1] Badro J, et al. (2003) Science 300(5620):789-791. [2] Wu Z, Justo J. F., and Wentzcovitch R. M., (2013). Phys. Rev. Lett. 110. 228501-5 [3]Wu Z., and Wentzcovitch R. M., (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1322427111

  8. Quantum-classical crossover in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, Janos

    2006-09-15

    A classical field theory is proposed for the electric current and the electromagnetic field interpolating between microscopic and macroscopic domains. It represents a generalization of the density functional for the dynamics of the current and the electromagnetic field in the quantum side of the crossover and reproduces standard classical electrodynamics on the other side. The effective action derived in the closed time path formalism and the equations of motion follow from the variational principle. The polarization of the Dirac-sea can be taken into account in the quadratic approximation of the action by the introduction of the deplacement field strengths as in conventional classical electrodynamics. Decoherence appears naturally as a simple one-loop effect in this formalism. It is argued that the radiation time arrow is generated from the quantum boundary conditions in time by decoherence at the quantum-classical crossover and the Abraham-Lorentz force arises from the accelerating charge or from other charges in the macroscopic or the microscopic side, respectively. The functional form of the quantum renormalization group, the generalization of the renormalization group method for the density matrix, is proposed to follow the scale dependence through the quantum-classical crossover in a systematical manner.

  9. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  10. Geosat crossover analysis in the tropical Pacific. Part 1: Constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Chang-Kou

    1988-01-01

    A new method (constrained sinusoidal crossover adjustment) for removing the orbit error in satellite altimetry is tested (using crossovers accumulated in the first 91 days of the Geosat non-repeat era in the tropical Pacific) and found to have excellent qualities. Two features distinguish the new method from the conventional bias-and-tilt crossover adjustment. First, a sine wave (with wavelength equaling the circumference of the Earth) is used to represent the orbit error for each satellite revolution, instead of the bias-and-tilt (and curvature, if necessary) approach for each segment of the satellite ground track. Secondly, the indeterminacy of the adjustment process is removed by a simple constraint minimizing the amplitudes of the sine waves, rather than by fixing selected tracks. Overall the new method is more accurate, more efficient, and much less cumbersome than the old. The idea of restricting the crossover adjustment to crossovers between tracks that are less than certain days apart in order to preserve the large-scale long-term oceanic variability is also tested with inconclusive results because the orbit error was unusually nonstationary in the initial 91 days of the GEOSAT mission.

  11. Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover in a photonic lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Eran; Pugatch, Rami; Silberberg, Yaron

    2011-01-15

    We show that a periodic two-dimensional (2D) photonic lattice with Kerr nonlinearity exhibits a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) crossover associated with a vortex-unbinding transition. We find that averaging over random initial conditions is equivalent to Boltzmann thermal averaging with the discrete nonlinear Schro{center_dot}{center_dot}dinger Hamiltonian. By controlling the initial randomness we can continuously vary the effective temperature. Since this Hamiltonian is in the 2D XY universality class, a BKT transition ensues. We verify this prediction using experimentally accessible observables and find good agreement between theory and simulations. This opens the possibility of experimental access to interesting phase transitions known in condensed matter using nonlinear optics.

  12. Crossover from first-order to second-order phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 0.09}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, The-Long; Zhang, P.; Yu, S. C.; Thanh, T. D.

    2014-05-07

    We have prepared La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 0.09}O{sub 3} and then studied its critical behavior and magnetocaloric effect. Analyzing temperature and field dependences of magnetization around the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition reveals the sample undergoing the second-order magnetic phase transition with the critical parameters T{sub C} ≈ 199.4 K, β = 0.171 ± 0.006, and γ = 0.976 ± 0.012. A considerable difference of these critical exponents compared with those expected for the standard models is due to the sample exhibiting the crossover property (tricriticality); its exponent values are more close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory with β = 0.25 and γ = 1. Under the field 40 kOe, the maximum magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub max}) around T{sub C} is about 7.1 J·kg{sup −1}·K{sup −1}, corresponding to a refrigerant capacity RC ≈ 170 J/kg. Particularly, its magnetic-field dependence obeys a power law |ΔS{sub max}| ∝ H{sup n}, where n = 0.55 is quite far from the value calculated from the relation n = 1 + (β − 1)/(β + γ)

  13. A new crossover operator in genetic programming for object classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengjie; Gao, Xiaoying; Lou, Weijun

    2007-10-01

    The crossover operator has been considered "the centre of the storm" in genetic programming (GP). However, many existing GP approaches to object recognition suggest that the standard GP crossover is not sufficiently powerful in producing good child programs due to the totally random choice of the crossover points. To deal with this problem, this paper introduces an approach with a new crossover operator in GP for object recognition, particularly object classification. In this approach, a local hill-climbing search is used in constructing good building blocks, a weight called looseness is introduced to identify the good building blocks in individual programs, and the looseness values are used as heuristics in choosing appropriate crossover points to preserve good building blocks. This approach is examined and compared with the standard crossover operator and the headless chicken crossover (HCC) method on a sequence of object classification problems. The results suggest that this approach outperforms the HCC, the standard crossover, and the standard crossover operator with hill climbing on all of these problems in terms of the classification accuracy. Although this approach spends a bit longer time than the standard crossover operator, it significantly improves the system efficiency over the HCC method.

  14. Spin crossover in liquid (Mg,Fe)O at extreme conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmström, E.; Stixrude, L.

    2016-05-01

    We use first-principles free-energy calculations to predict a pressure-induced spin crossover in the liquid planetary material (Mg,Fe)O, whereby the magnetic moments of Fe ions vanish gradually over a range of hundreds of GPa. Because electronic entropy strongly favors the nonmagnetic low-spin state of Fe, the crossover has a negative effective Clapeyron slope, in stark contrast to the crystalline counterpart of this transition-metal oxide. Diffusivity of liquid (Mg,Fe)O is similar to that of MgO, displaying a weak dependence on element and spin state. Fe-O and Mg-O coordination increases from approximately 4 to 7 as pressure goes from 0 to 200 GPa. We find partitioning of Fe to induce a density inversion between the crystal and melt, implying separation of a basal magma ocean from a surficial one in the early Earth. The spin crossover induces an anomaly into the density contrast, and the oppositely signed Clapeyron slopes for the crossover in the liquid and crystalline phases imply that the solid-liquid transition induces a spin transition in (Mg,Fe)O.

  15. Topological measure locating the effective crossover between segregation and integration in a modular network.

    PubMed

    Adjari Rad, A; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Papo, D; Zanin, M; Buldú, J M; del Pozo, F; Boccaletti, S

    2012-06-01

    We introduce an easily computable topological measure which locates the effective crossover between segregation and integration in a modular network. Segregation corresponds to the degree of network modularity, while integration is expressed in terms of the algebraic connectivity of an associated hypergraph. The rigorous treatment of the simplified case of cliques of equal size that are gradually rewired until they become completely merged, allows us to show that this topological crossover can be made to coincide with a dynamical crossover from cluster to global synchronization of a system of coupled phase oscillators. The dynamical crossover is signaled by a peak in the product of the measures of intracluster and global synchronization, which we propose as a dynamical measure of complexity. This quantity is much easier to compute than the entropy (of the average frequencies of the oscillators), and displays a behavior which closely mimics that of the dynamical complexity index based on the latter. The proposed topological measure simultaneously provides information on the dynamical behavior, sheds light on the interplay between modularity and total integration, and shows how this affects the capability of the network to perform both local and distributed dynamical tasks.

  16. Crossover Equation of State Models Applied to the Critical Behavior of Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Marre, S.; Guillaument, R.; Beysens, D.; Hahn, I.

    2015-03-01

    The turbidity () measurements of Güttinger and Cannell (Phys Rev A 24:3188-3201, 1981) in the temperature range along the critical isochore of homogeneous xenon are reanalyzed. The singular behaviors of the isothermal compressibility () and the correlation length () predicted from the master crossover functions are introduced in the turbidity functional form derived by Puglielli and Ford (Phys Rev Lett 25:143-146, 1970). We show that the turbidity data are thus well represented by the Ornstein-Zernike approximant, within 1 % precision. We also introduce a new crossover master model (CMM) of the parametric equation of state for a simple fluid system with no adjustable parameter. The CMM model and the phenomenological crossover parametric model are compared with the turbidity data and the coexisting liquid-gas density difference (). The excellent agreement observed for , , , and in a finite temperature range well beyond the Ising-like preasymptotic domain confirms that the Ising-like critical crossover behavior of xenon can be described in conformity with the universal features estimated by the renormalization-group methods. Only 4 critical coordinates of the vapor-liquid critical point are needed in the (pressure, temperature, molecular volume) phase surface of xenon.

  17. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongqing; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the origin of seismic velocity heterogeneities in the mantle is crucial to understanding internal structures and processes at work in the Earth. The spin crossover in iron in ferropericlase (Fp), the second most abundant phase in the lower mantle, introduces unfamiliar effects on seismic velocities. First-principles calculations indicate that anticorrelation between shear velocity (VS) and bulk sound velocity (Vφ) in the mantle, usually interpreted as compositional heterogeneity, can also be produced in homogeneous aggregates containing Fp. The spin crossover also suppresses thermally induced heterogeneity in longitudinal velocity (VP) at certain depths but not in VS. This effect is observed in tomography models at conditions where the spin crossover in Fp is expected in the lower mantle. In addition, the one-of-a-kind signature of this spin crossover in the RS/P (∂⁡ln⁡VS/∂⁡ln⁡VP) heterogeneity ratio might be a useful fingerprint to detect the presence of Fp in the lower mantle. PMID:25002507

  18. Giant superconducting fluctuations in the compensated semimetal FeSe at the BCS–BEC crossover

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, S.; Yamashita, T.; Shi, A.; Kobayashi, R.; Shimoyama, Y.; Watashige, T.; Ishida, K.; Terashima, T.; Wolf, T.; Hardy, F.; Meingast, C.; Löhneysen, H. v.; Levchenko, A.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The physics of the crossover between weak-coupling Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and strong-coupling Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) limits gives a unified framework of quantum-bound (superfluid) states of interacting fermions. This crossover has been studied in the ultracold atomic systems, but is extremely difficult to be realized for electrons in solids. Recently, the superconducting semimetal FeSe with a transition temperature Tc=8.5 K has been found to be deep inside the BCS–BEC crossover regime. Here we report experimental signatures of preformed Cooper pairing in FeSe, whose energy scale is comparable to the Fermi energies. In stark contrast to usual superconductors, large non-linear diamagnetism by far exceeding the standard Gaussian superconducting fluctuations is observed below T*∼20 K, providing thermodynamic evidence for prevailing phase fluctuations of superconductivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance and transport data give evidence of pseudogap formation at ∼T*. The multiband superconductivity along with electron–hole compensation in FeSe may highlight a novel aspect of the BCS–BEC crossover physics. PMID:27687782

  19. Influence of the spin crossover in ferropericlase on the lower mantle geotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia-Cardona, J. J.; Shukla, G.; Qian, C.; Wu, Z.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The spin crossover in ferropericlase introduces anomalies in its thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties. Here we investigate the influence of this spin crossover in the lower mantle adiabatic geotherm. The effect is investigated for lower mantle compositions consisting of mixtures of bridgmanite, ferropericlase, and CaSiO3-perovskite, for several Mg/Si ratios varying from perovskitic to pyrolitic compositions. The thermodynamics properties of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 bridgmanite and of (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase were obtained using LDA+U plus quasiharmonic approximation QHA while LDA and the Mie-Debye-Grüneisen approach were used for Ca-perovskite. This spin crossover essentially increases the adiabatic gradient producing temperatures between those obtained by Anderson [1] and Brown and Shankland [2]. We show that aggregate moduli and seismic velocities are sensitive to the alteration in the adiabatic geotherm caused by this spin crossover, which can influence analyses of lower mantle velocities in terms of composition. [1] O. L. Anderson (1982), The Earths core and phase diagram of iron, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A, 306, 2135. [2] J.M. Brown and T.J. Shankland (1981), Thermodynamic parameters in the Earth as determined from seismic profiles, Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 66, 579596.

  20. Correlation between Fragility and the Arrhenius Crossover Phenomenon in Metallic, Molecular, and Network Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Kelton, K. F.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-11-01

    We report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θA=TA/Tg in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θA≈2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θA≈1.4 and usually in their supercooled states. The θA values for strong network liquids spans a wide range higher than 2. Intriguingly, the high-temperature activation barrier E∞ is universally found to be ˜11 kBTg and uncorrelated with the fragility or the reduced crossover temperature θA for metallic and molecular liquids. These observations provide a way to estimate the low-temperature glassy characteristics (Tg and m ) from the high-temperature liquid quantities (E∞ and θA).

  1. Thermal equation of state of lower-mantle ferropericlase across the spin crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhu; Lin, Jung-Fu; Liu, Jin; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2012-10-23

    The thermal equation of state of ferropericlase [(Mg{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25})O] has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 140 GPa and 2000 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Based on results at high pressure-temperature conditions, the derived phase diagram shows that the spin crossover widens at elevated temperatures. Along the lower-mantle geotherm, the spin crossover occurs between 1700 km and 2700 km depth. Compared to the high-spin state, thermoelastic modeling of the data shows a {approx}1.2% increase in density, a factor of two increase in thermal expansion coefficient over a range of 1000 km, and a maximum decrease of 37% and 13% in bulk modulus and bulk sound velocity, respectively, at {approx}2180 km depth across the spin crossover. These anomalous behaviors in the thermoelastic properties of ferropericlase across the spin crossover must be taken into account in order to understand the seismic signatures and geodynamics of the lower mantle.

  2. Correlation between Fragility and the Arrhenius Crossover Phenomenon in Metallic, Molecular, and Network Liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Kelton, K. F.; ...

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θA = TA/Tg in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θA ≈ 2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θA ≈ 1.4 and usually in their supercooled states. The θA values for strong network liquids spans amore » wide range higher than 2. Intriguingly, the high-temperature activation barrier E∞ is universally found to be ~11kBTg and uncorrelated with the fragility or the reduced crossover temperature θA for metallic and molecular liquids. Finally, these observations provide a way to estimate the low-temperature glassy characteristics (Tg and m) from the high-temperature liquid quantities (E∞ and θA).« less

  3. Correlation between Fragility and the Arrhenius Crossover Phenomenon in Metallic, Molecular, and Network Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Kelton, K. F.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.; Zhang, Yang

    2016-11-10

    In this paper, we report the observation of a distinct correlation between the kinetic fragility index m and the reduced Arrhenius crossover temperature θA = TA/Tg in various glass-forming liquids, identifying three distinguishable groups. In particular, for 11 glass-forming metallic liquids, we universally observe a crossover in the mean diffusion coefficient from high-temperature Arrhenius to low-temperature super-Arrhenius behavior at approximately θA ≈ 2 which is in the stable liquid phases. In contrast, for fragile molecular liquids, this crossover occurs at much lower θA ≈ 1.4 and usually in their supercooled states. The θA values for strong network liquids spans a wide range higher than 2. Intriguingly, the high-temperature activation barrier E is universally found to be ~11kBTg and uncorrelated with the fragility or the reduced crossover temperature θA for metallic and molecular liquids. Finally, these observations provide a way to estimate the low-temperature glassy characteristics (Tg and m) from the high-temperature liquid quantities (E and θA).

  4. Shocks generate crossover behavior in lattice avalanches.

    PubMed

    Burridge, James

    2013-11-22

    A spatial avalanche model is introduced, in which avalanches increase stability in the regions where they occur. Instability is driven globally by a driving process that contains shocks. The system is typically subcritical, but the shocks occasionally lift it into a near- or supercritical state from which it rapidly retreats due to large avalanches. These shocks leave behind a signature-a distinct power-law crossover in the avalanche size distribution. The model is inspired by landslide field data, but the principles may be applied to any system that experiences stabilizing failures, possesses a critical point, and is subject to an ongoing process of destabilization that includes occasional dramatic destabilizing events.

  5. Design and numerical characterization of a crossover EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Sabrina; Langbein, A.; Meusel, Oliver; Kester, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    For the investigation of highly charged ions, a crossover EBIS (XEBIS) was developed at the University of Frankfurt. In contrast to conventional EBIS/T devices the compression of the electron beam is achieved by electrostatic focusing to a crossover point in the interaction region. This concept allows a compact and simple design. Simulations performed with EGUN show a perveance of 2.1×10-7 A/V3/2 for the realized gun system. In the interaction region the electron beam has a density of around 10 A/cm2 and a minimum radius of 0.15 mm. The XEBIS has a total length of 112 mm with a trap length of 26 mm. It is designed for electron beam energies of up to 6 keV/q. The storage capacity of the trap region is in the order of 1×108 charges. Charge state breeding studies with CBSIM indicate for the noble gases as maximal achievable charge state Ar16+, Kr30+ and Xe35+. Thus ion beam currents of around 2.04 nA assuming 50 Hz repetition rate can be expected. The emittance of the extracted beam is approximated to 8 mm mrad. After completion of the construction phase, the XEBIS will be installed for first performance investigations at a dedicated test bench, equipped with a fast Faraday Cup (FC), a retarding field spectrometer, a luminescence screen and optical diagnostics. Subsequently the XEBIS will serve as source for highly charged ions at different experimental setups.

  6. Design and numerical characterization of a crossover EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Sabrina Langbein, A. Meusel, Oliver; Kester, Oliver

    2015-01-09

    For the investigation of highly charged ions, a crossover EBIS (XEBIS) was developed at the University of Frankfurt. In contrast to conventional EBIS/T devices the compression of the electron beam is achieved by electrostatic focusing to a crossover point in the interaction region. This concept allows a compact and simple design. Simulations performed with EGUN show a perveance of 2.1×10{sup −7} A/V{sup 3/2} for the realized gun system. In the interaction region the electron beam has a density of around 10 A/cm{sup 2} and a minimum radius of 0.15 mm. The XEBIS has a total length of 112 mm with a trap length of 26 mm. It is designed for electron beam energies of up to 6 keV/q. The storage capacity of the trap region is in the order of 1×10{sup 8} charges. Charge state breeding studies with CBSIM indicate for the noble gases as maximal achievable charge state Ar{sup 16+}, Kr{sup 30+} and Xe{sup 35+}. Thus ion beam currents of around 2.04 nA assuming 50 Hz repetition rate can be expected. The emittance of the extracted beam is approximated to 8 mm mrad. After completion of the construction phase, the XEBIS will be installed for first performance investigations at a dedicated test bench, equipped with a fast Faraday Cup (FC), a retarding field spectrometer, a luminescence screen and optical diagnostics. Subsequently the XEBIS will serve as source for highly charged ions at different experimental setups.

  7. Viscosity of liquid Ag-In-Sb-Te: Evidence of a fragile-to-strong crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orava, J.; Weber, H.; Kaban, I.; Greer, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature-dependent viscosity η(T) is measured for the equilibrium liquid of the chalcogenide Ag-In-Sb-Te (AIST), the first time this has been reported for a material of actual interest for phase-change memory. The measurements, in the range 829-1254 K, are made using an oscillating-crucible viscometer, and show a liquid with high fragility and low viscosity, similar to liquid pure metals. Combining the high-temperature viscosity measurements with values inferred from crystal growth rates in the supercooled liquid allows the form of η(T) to be estimated over the entire temperature range from above the melting point down to the glass transition. It is then clear that η(T) for liquid AIST cannot be described with a single fragility value, unlike other phase-change chalcogenides such as liquid Ge-Sb-Te. There is clear evidence for a fragile-to-strong crossover on cooling liquid AIST, similar to that analyzed in Te85Ge15. The change in fragility associated with the crossover in both these cases is rather weak, giving a broad temperature range over which η(T) is near-Arrhenius. We discuss how such behavior may be beneficial for the performance of phase-change memory. Consideration of the fragile-to-strong crossover in liquid chalcogenides may be important in tuning compositions to optimize the device performance.

  8. Blinded placebo crossover study of gabapentin in primary orthostatic tremor.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Julian P; Edwards, Dylan J; Walters, Susan E; Byrnes, Michelle L; Thickbroom, Gary W; Stell, Rick; Mastaglia, Frank L

    2006-07-01

    Primary orthostatic tremor (OT) is a rare but disabling condition characterized by leg tremor and feelings of instability during stance. Previous studies have reported a reduction in OT symptoms with gabapentin treatment. In this study, we report on the benefits of gabapentin treatment in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of 6 OT patients. First, the maximally effective gabapentin dosage (600-2,700 mg/day) for each patient was determined during an initial dose-titration phase. Patients were then studied 7 days after drug withdrawal and again after two 2-week periods of treatment with either gabapentin or placebo, using force platform posturography to quantify postural sway and tremor. Other medications for OT were continued unchanged. Symptomatic response was assessed by a patient-rated severity scale and quality of life (QOL) questionnaire. All patients reported an increase in symptoms during the washout phase and symptom reduction (50%-75%) during gabapentin treatment. Tremor amplitude was reduced to 79% +/- 11% and sway area to 71% +/- 11% of the placebo state. QOL improved in all patients, no adverse drug effects were noted, and symptomatic benefit was maintained at follow-up (mean = 19 months). The findings confirm that gabapentin is an effective treatment for OT, reducing both tremor and postural instability and improving quality of life, and support its use as add-on or first-line therapy for OT.

  9. Density response of a trapped Fermi gas: A crossover from the pair vibration mode to the Goldstone mode

    SciTech Connect

    Korolyuk, A.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.

    2011-09-15

    We consider the density response of a trapped two-component Fermi gas. Combining the Bogoliubov-deGennes method with the random phase approximation allows the study of both collective and single-particle excitations. Calculating the density response across a wide range of interactions, we observe a crossover from a weakly interacting pair vibration mode to a strongly interacting Goldstone mode. The crossover is associated with a depressed collective mode frequency and an increased damping rate, in agreement with density response experiments performed in strongly interacting atomic gases.

  10. Electromagnetic pump stator frame having power crossover struts

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1995-01-01

    A stator frame for an electromagnetic pump includes a casing joined to a hub by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. At least one electrically insulated power crossover lead extends through the hub, through a crossover one of the struts, and through the casing for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  11. Orbital Transfer Rocket Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Inducer Tip Seal ......................... 21 Figure 13 - Crossover Tester Thrust Balance Disk...Crossover Tester Rotor Mode Shapes for 500 Kibin ............ ,.....2 9 Figure 18 - Inducer Deflections In Wattr . 0 ’Figure 19 - Impeller Tip...Inducer and Impeller subassembly cantilevered on a shalt supported by two ball bearings. The finite element model of the rotor Is shown in Figure 14

  12. Numerical simulation of bromine crossover behavior in flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yaobin; Cheng, Shijian; Chu, Dandan; Li, Xin

    2017-03-01

    Br2 and HBr has its own series of advantages as the positive electrolyte solution, so some batteries select the Br2/Br- as the positive electrolyte solution, such as sodium polysulfide/bromine flow battery, zinc/bromine flow battery, vanadium/ bromine flow batteries and hydrogen/bromine flow batteries. But the crossover benavior of bromine occurs in these batteries too, resulting in cross-contamination, capacity loss and affecting battery's performance. In this work, we build numerical models to study the influence of bromine crossover phenomenon on the three forms of bromine crossover, the concentration of electrolyte on the cathode side and the flow rate of the negative side in the quinone bromine flow battery, to find the main models affecting the bromine crossover and the impact of bromine crossover on battery performance. It was found that the three ways of crossover through the membranes was mainly by diffusion. By reducing the concentration of positive electrolyte solution, the bromine crossover can be reduced and Coulomb Efficiency can be improved. Rising the flow rate of the electrolyte solution on the negative side and reducing the differential between positive side's pressure and negative side's pressure can also reduce the amount of bromine crossover to improve Coulomb efficiency in the battery.

  13. A spin crossover ferrous complex with ordered magnetic ferric anions.

    PubMed

    Roubeau, Olivier; Evangelisti, Marco; Natividad, Eva

    2012-08-07

    The first tetrahaloferrate spin crossover compound, [Fe(Metz)(6)](FeBr(4))(2) (Metz = 1-methyltetrazole), is reported. The FeBr(4)(-) ions form ferromagnetically coupled 1D stacks and exhibit an antiferromagnetic order at 2.2 K, which coexists with the gradual spin crossover centred at 165 K.

  14. Research Update: The mechanocaloric potential of spin crossover compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeman, Karl G.

    2016-11-01

    We present a first evaluation of the potential for spin crossover (SCO) compounds to be considered as a new class of giant mechanocaloric effect materials. From literature data on the variation of the spin crossover temperature with pressure, we estimate the maximum available adiabatic temperature change for several compounds and the relatively low pressures that may be required to observe these effects.

  15. Stress Crossover in Newlywed Marriage: A Longitudinal and Dyadic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Lisa A.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of stress and marital quality often assess stress as an intrapersonal phenomenon, examining how spouses' stress may influence their own relationship well-being. Yet spouses' stress also may influence partners' relationship evaluations, a phenomenon referred to as stress crossover. This study examined stress crossover, and conditions that…

  16. An efficient algorithm for computing the crossovers in satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Chang-Kou

    1988-01-01

    An efficient algorithm has been devised to compute the crossovers in satellite altimetry. The significance of the crossovers is twofold. First, they are needed to perform the crossover adjustment to remove the orbit error. Secondly, they yield important insight into oceanic variability. Nevertheless, there is no published algorithm to make this very time consuming task easier, which is the goal of this report. The success of the algorithm is predicated on the ability to predict (by analytical means) the crossover coordinates to within 6 km and 1 sec of the true values. Hence, only one interpolation/extrapolation step on the data is needed to derive the crossover coordinates in contrast to the many interpolation/extrapolation operations usually needed to arrive at the same accuracy level if deprived of this information.

  17. Neutrino dynamics below the electroweak crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2016-07-12

    We estimate the thermal masses and damping rates of active (m< eV) and sterile (M∼ GeV) neutrinos with thermal momenta k∼3T at temperatures below the electroweak crossover (5 GeV 130 GeV remains an option. Our differential rates are tabulated in a form suitable for studies of specific scenarios with given neutrino Yukawa matrices.

  18. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  19. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi; Lü, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2015-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2 D. We find aB≃0.56 a2 D , in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. We compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  20. Motion of a solitonic vortex in the BEC-BCS crossover.

    PubMed

    Ku, Mark J H; Ji, Wenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Cheuk, Lawrence W; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2014-08-08

    We observe a long-lived solitary wave in a superfluid Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms after phase imprinting. Tomographic imaging reveals the excitation to be a solitonic vortex, oriented transverse to the long axis of the cigar-shaped atom cloud. The precessional motion of the vortex is directly observed, and its period is measured as a function of the chemical potential in the BEC-BCS crossover. The long period and the correspondingly large ratio of the inertial to the bare mass of the vortex are in good agreement with estimates based on superfluid hydrodynamics that we derive here using the known equation of state in the BEC-BCS crossover.

  1. Peierls to superfluid crossover in the one-dimensional, quarter-filled Holstein model.

    PubMed

    Hohenadler, M; Assaad, F F

    2013-01-09

    We use continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study retardation effects in the metallic, quarter-filled Holstein model in one dimension. Based on results which include the one- and two-particle spectral functions as well as the optical conductivity, we conclude that with increasing phonon frequency the ground state evolves from one with dominant diagonal order-2k(F) charge correlations-to one with dominant off-diagonal fluctuations, namely s-wave pairing correlations. In the parameter range of this crossover, our numerical results support the existence of a spin gap for all phonon frequencies. The crossover can hence be interpreted in terms of preformed pairs corresponding to bipolarons, which are essentially localized in the Peierls phase, and 'condense' with increasing phonon frequency to generate dominant pairing correlations.

  2. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Boulmaali, Ayoub; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices. PMID:26848663

  3. Scale Invariance in 2D BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, Rajdeep; Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit

    2013-03-01

    In 2D BCS-BEC crossover, the frequency of the breathing mode in a harmonic trap, as well as the lower edge of the radio frequency spectroscopy response, show remarkable scale-invariance throughout the crossover regime, i.e. they are independent of the coupling constant. Using functional integral methods, we study the behaviour of these quantities in the 2D BCS-BEC crossover and comment on the possible reasons for this scale independence. RS was supported by DAE, Govt. of India. MR was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1006532. ET was supported by NSERC and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  4. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    DOE PAGES

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transitionmore » from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.« less

  5. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover. PMID:26688102

  6. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Vasin, M.; Ryzhov, V.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d+zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T)ε[0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T=0) = 1 and Λ(T →∞) = 0. Lastly, our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.

  7. Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point.

    PubMed

    Vasin, M; Ryzhov, V; Vinokur, V M

    2015-12-21

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.

  8. Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures: Crossover from Singular Critical to Regular Classical Behavior.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zheng-Yu.

    According to the modern phase-transition theory, thermodynamic properties of a system near a critical point exhibit singular scaled behavior and universal critical exponents and universal scaling functions. Fluids near the vapor-liquid critical point are assumed to belong to the universality class of three-dimensional Ising-like systems. However, the region where the asymptotic power -law behavior applies is quite small, and correction-to -scaling terms have to be introduced in order to compare theory and experimental results in a finite range around the critical point. On the other hand, outside the critical region various analytic equations of state are being used to represent the thermodynamic surface of a fluid from the ideal-gas limit to the high-density limit. These analytic equations of state have a mean-field Landau-Ginzburg expansion near the critical point and fail to describe the singular thermodynamic behavior of fluids in the critical region. In this dissertation, we propose and discuss a theoretical procedure for the crossover from the asymptotic to the analytic behavior based on a further development of the work of Nicoll and Albright (1985a) for both one -component fluids and fluid mixtures. The theory is based on the following observations. The singular behavior in the critical region is produced by the enormous critical fluctuations which extend over distances much larger than the range of the intermolecular interactions. The detailed molecular nature of the system becomes unimportant near the critical point in such a way that the critical system looks "similar" at different length-scales and hence the system becomes renormalizable. The universal features of a critical system disappear in the classical limit far away from the critical point where the fluctuations become unimportant. We also present in this dissertation a crossover theory for fluid mixtures in the critical region. Except for the crossover phenomena which have been briefly described

  9. Estimating efficacy in trials with selective crossover.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Adam R; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-03-15

    When one arm in a trial has a worse early endpoint such as recurrence, a data-monitoring committee might recommend that all participants are offered the apparently superior treatment. The resultant crossover makes it difficult to measure differences between arms thereafter, including for longer-term endpoints such as mortality and disease-specific mortality. In this paper, we consider estimators of the efficacy of treatment on those who would not cross over if randomised to the apparently inferior arm. Binomial and proportional hazards maximum likelihood estimators are developed. The binomial estimator is applied to analysis of a breast cancer treatment trial and compared with intention-to-treat and inverse probability weighting estimators. Full and partial likelihood proportional-hazard model estimators are assessed through computer simulations, where they had similar bias and variance. The new efficacy estimators extend those for all-or-none compliance to this important problem. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Laser frequency stabilization using bichromatic crossover spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Taek; Seb Moon, Han

    2015-03-07

    We propose a Doppler-free spectroscopic method named bichromatic crossover spectroscopy (BCS), which we then use for the frequency stabilization of an off-resonant frequency that does not correspond to an atomic transition. The observed BCS in the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition of {sup 87}Rb is related to the hyperfine structure of the conventional saturated absorption spectrum of this transition. Furthermore, the Doppler-free BCS is numerically calculated by considering all of the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S{sub 1/2} → 5P{sub 1/2} transition in an atomic vapor cell, and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Finally, we successfully achieve modulation-free off-resonant locking at the center frequency between the two 5S{sub 1/2}(F = 1 and 2) → 5P{sub 1/2}(F′ = 1) transitions using a polarization rotation of the BCS. The laser frequency stability was estimated to be the Allan variance of 2.1 × 10{sup −10} at 1 s.

  11. Dimensional crossover in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bhowmick, Aklant K.; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-11-01

    We analyze nonlinear dynamics of large scale coherent structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows. Group theory based analysis is applied with a detailed consideration of RM dynamics invariant with respect to p2mm (3D rectangular), p4mm (3D square) and pm1 (2D) groups. Symmetry dictates that asymptotic solutions form a 2 parameter family for rectangular flows and a 1 parameter family for 3D square and 2D flows. For 3D square and 2D symmetry, asymptotic solutions are obtained for the 1st and 2nd order of approximation and the fastest growth rate occurs at zero bubble curvatures. Fourier amplitudes exponentially decay with increase in order showing that solutions are convergent. Both 2D and 3D square solutions are stable with respect to symmetry conserving perturbations. Isotropic 3D square solutions are universally stable, while 2D solutions are unstable to anisotropic perturbations. Furthermore, the 3D and 2D solutions cannot be continuously transformed from one to another, and the dimensional crossover is discontinuous. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  12. Dimensional crossover in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Bhowmick, Aklant; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-10-01

    We analyze nonlinear dynamics of large scale coherent structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows. Group theoretic analysis is applied with a detailed consideration of p2mm (3D rectangular), p4mm (3D square) and pm1 (2D). Symmetry dictates that asymptotic solutions form a 2 parameter family for rectangular flows and a 1 parameter family for 3D square and 2D flows. For 3D square and 2D symmetry, asymptotic solutions are obtained for the 1st and 2nd order of approximation and the fastest growth rate occurs at zero bubble curvatures. Fourier amplitudes exponentially decay with increase in order showing that solutions are convergent. Both 2D and 3D square solutions are stable with respect to symmetry conserving perturbations. Isotropic 3D square solutions are universally stable, while 2D solutions are unstable to anisotropic perturbations. Furthermore, the 3D and 2D solutions cannot be continuously transformed from one form to another and the dimensional crossover is discontinuous. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  13. Electrostatically-tuned dimensional crossover in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Michelle; Cheng, Guanglei; Huang, Mengchen; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    The electron system at the interface of two complex oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, exhibits a number of interesting strongly-correlated electronic properties, such as superconductivity and spin-orbit coupling. Reduced dimensionality is made accessible through nanowire devices created with conducting AFM lithography. Here, we describe an electrostatically-controlled dimensionality crossover in weak antilocalization behavior of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanowires at low temperature. These measurements give insight to the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and dimensionality. Characterizing the behavior of the strongly-correlated electronic properties in these reduced dimensions is necessary in order to develop this system as a multifunctional nanoelectronics platform. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: ARO (W911NF-08-1-0317), AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0524 (JL) and FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE), and NSF (DMR-1104191, DMR-1124131 (JL), ONR N00014-15-1-2847 (JL) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  14. Microelectromechanical systems integrating molecular spin crossover actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique-Juarez, Maria D.; Rat, Sylvain; Mathieu, Fabrice; Saya, Daisuke; Séguy, Isabelle; Leïchlé, Thierry; Nicu, Liviu; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2016-08-01

    Silicon MEMS cantilevers coated with a 200 nm thin layer of the molecular spin crossover complex [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(phen)] (H2B(pz)2 = dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate and phen = 1,10-phenantroline) were actuated using an external magnetic field and their resonance frequency was tracked by means of integrated piezoresistive detection. The light-induced spin-state switching of the molecules from the ground low spin to the metastable high spin state at 10 K led to a well-reproducible shift of the cantilever's resonance frequency (Δfr = -0.52 Hz). Control experiments at different temperatures using coated as well as uncoated devices along with simple calculations support the assignment of this effect to the spin transition. This latter translates into changes in mechanical behavior of the cantilever due to the strong spin-state/lattice coupling. A guideline for the optimization of device parameters is proposed so as to efficiently harness molecular scale movements for large-scale mechanical work, thus paving the road for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) actuators based on molecular materials.

  15. The dynamic crossover in dielectric relaxation behavior of ice I(h).

    PubMed

    Popov, Ivan; Puzenko, Alexander; Khamzin, Airat; Feldman, Yuri

    2015-01-14

    The main mechanism of the dielectric relaxation process of ordinary hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and its temperature dependence remains unclear. The most interesting and as yet unexplained feature of ice is the presence of the dynamical crossover in relaxation time behavior around Tc = 230 ± 3 K. Since there are no phase transitions in the ice at this temperature (first or second order), we cannot correlate the origin of this crossover with any structural change. Here we present a model according to which the temperature of the crossover is defined by the polarization mechanism. The dielectric relaxation driven by the diffusion of L-D orientational Bjerrum defects (at high temperature, T > Tc) is transformed into a dielectric relaxation dominated by the diffusion of intrinsic ionic H3O(+)/OH(-) defects (at low temperature, T < Tc). In the framework of the model, we propose an analytical equation for the complex dielectric permittivity that takes into account the contribution of both types of defects.

  16. Electronic Spin Crossover of Iron in Ferroperclase in Earth?s Lower Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J F; Vanko, G; Jacobsen, S D; Iota, V; Struzhkin, V V; Prakapenka, V B; Kuznetsov, A; Yoo, C S

    2007-01-25

    Pressure-induced electronic spin-pairing transitions of iron and associated effects on the physical properties have been reported to occur in the lower-mantle ferropericlase, silicate perosvkite, and perhaps in post silicate perovskite at high pressures and room temperature. These recent results are motivating geophysicists and geodynamicists to reevaluate the implications of spin transitions on the seismic heterogeneity, composition, as well as the stability of the thermal upwellings of the Earth's lower mantle. Here we have measured the spin states of iron in ferropericlase and its crystal structure up to 95 GPa and 2000 K using a newly constructed X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffraction with the laser-heated diamond cell. Our results show that an isosymmetric spin crossover occurs over a pressure-temperature range extending from the upper part to the lower part of the lower mantle, and low-spin ferropericlase likely exists in the lowermost mantle. Although continuous changes in physical and chemical properties are expected to occur across the spin crossover, the spin crossover results in peculiar behavior in the thermal compression and sound velocities. Therefore, knowledge of the fraction of the spin states in the lower-mantle phases is thus essential to correctly evaluate the composition, geophysics, and dynamics of the Earth's lower mantle.

  17. Self-affinity and Crossover of A Clay Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, J. O.; Huru Bergene, H.; Hansen, A.; Manificat, G.

    Self-affine dehydrated colloidal deposits on fresh mica surfaces of the synthetic 2:1 smectite clay laponite have been studied by means of Atomic Force Microscopy. AFM images of these prepared assemblies of sol and gel aggregates have been analyzed both by means of standard AFM software, and wavelet methods. The deposited surfaces show an anti-persistent to persistent crossover with a clay concentration dependent crossover length. It is thus concluded that the investigated electrolyte concentrations play a minor role

  18. Crossover Cutting During Hamstring Fatigue Produces Transverse Plane Knee Control Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, John A.; Caborn, David N.M.; Shapiro, Robert; Johnson, Darren L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of eccentric work-induced hamstring fatigue on sagittal and transverse plane (axial) knee and ankle biodynamics and kinetics during a running crossover cut directional change (functional pivot shift). Design and Setting: A pretest-posttest, single-group intervention experimental design was employed. All data were collected in a biodynamics laboratory. Subjects: Twenty healthy athletic females were trained for 3 weeks in crossover cutting before testing. Measurements: Data were sampled during 3 unfatigued and 3 fatigued (20% eccentric isokinetic knee-flexor torque reduction) crossover cut trials. Three-dimensional kinematic and ground reaction-force data were sampled at 200 Hz and 1000 Hz, respectively, and joint moment estimates were calculated. Data were standardized to initial force-plate heelstrike for comparisons of mean differences between conditions using paired t tests with Bonferroni adjustments. Pearson product-moment correlations compared kinematic and eccentric hamstring-torque relationships. Results: During internal rotation phase 1, between heelstrike and impact absorption, mean internal rotation velocity increased by 21.2°/s ± 114°/s. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak transverse plane knee rotation during propulsion decreased by 3.1° ± 9°. During internal rotation phase II, mean peak ankle plantar flexor moment onsets occurred 12.7 ± 53 milliseconds earlier, and this activation demonstrated a moderately positive relationship with the onset of mean peak knee internal rotation during propulsion and a weak negative relationship with mean peak hamstring torque/lean body weight. Conclusions: The increased knee internal rotation velocity during phase I indicates transverse plane dynamic knee-control deficits during hamstring fatigue. Earlier peak ankle plantar-flexor moments and decreased internal rotation during phase II in the presence of hamstring fatigue may represent compensatory attempts at dynamic

  19. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  20. Separable Crossover-Promoting and Crossover-Constraining Aspects of Zip1 Activity during Budding Yeast Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voelkel-Meiman, Karen; Johnston, Cassandra; Thappeta, Yashna; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; Hochwagen, Andreas; MacQueen, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on the presence of crossover events distributed among all chromosomes. MutSγ and MutLγ homologs (Msh4/5 and Mlh1/3) facilitate the formation of a prominent group of meiotic crossovers that mature within the context of an elaborate chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC). SC proteins are required for intermediate steps in the formation of MutSγ-MutLγ crossovers, but whether the assembled SC structure per se is required for MutSγ-MutLγ-dependent crossover recombination events is unknown. Here we describe an interspecies complementation experiment that reveals that the mature SC is dispensable for the formation of Mlh3-dependent crossovers in budding yeast. Zip1 forms a major structural component of the budding yeast SC, and is also required for MutSγ and MutLγ-dependent crossover formation. Kluyveromyces lactis ZIP1 expressed in place of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP1 in S. cerevisiae cells fails to support SC assembly (synapsis) but promotes wild-type crossover levels in those nuclei that progress to form spores. While stable, full-length SC does not assemble in S. cerevisiae cells expressing K. lactis ZIP1, aggregates of K. lactis Zip1 displayed by S. cerevisiae meiotic nuclei are decorated with SC-associated proteins, and K. lactis Zip1 promotes the SUMOylation of the SC central element protein Ecm11, suggesting that K. lactis Zip1 functionally interfaces with components of the S. cerevisiae synapsis machinery. Moreover, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers rely on S. cerevisiae synapsis initiation proteins Zip3, Zip4, Spo16, as well as the Mlh3 protein, as do the crossovers mediated by S. cerevisiae Zip1. Surprisingly, however, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers are largely Msh4/Msh5 (MutSγ)-independent. This separation-of-function version of Zip1 thus reveals that neither assembled SC nor MutSγ is required for Mlh3-dependent crossover formation per se in budding yeast. Our data

  1. Dimensional crossover of hard parallel cylinders confined on cylindrical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Velasco, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    We derive, from the dimensional-crossover criterion, a fundamental-measure density functional for parallel hard curved rectangles moving on a cylindrical surface. We derive it from the density functional of circular arcs of length σ with centers of mass located on an external circumference of radius R(0). The latter functional in turn is obtained from the corresponding two-dimensional functional for a fluid of hard disks of radius R on a flat surface with centers of mass confined onto a circumference of radius R(0). Thus the curved length of closest approach between the two centers of mass of hard disks on this circumference is σ=2R(0)sin(-1)(R/R(0)), the length of the circular arcs. From the density functional of circular arcs, and by applying a dimensional expansion procedure to the spatial dimension orthogonal to the plane of the circumference, we finally obtain the density functional of curved rectangles of edge lengths σ and L. Along with the derivation, we show that, when the centers of mass of the disks are confined to the exterior circumference of a circle of radius R(0),(i) for R(0)>R, the exact Percus one-dimensional (1D) density functional of circular arcs of length 2R(0)sin(-1)(R/R(0)) is obtained, and (ii) for R(0)R, the obtained functional is equivalent to that of parallel hard rectangles on a flat surface of the same lengths, except that now the density profile of curved rectangles is a periodic function of the azimuthal angle, ρ(φ,z)=ρ(φ+2π,z). The phase behavior of a fluid of aligned curved rectangles is obtained by calculating the free-energy branches of smectic, columnar, and crystalline phases for different values of the ratio R(0)/R in the range 1phase turns out to be the most stable except for R(0)/R=4, where the crystalline phase becomes reentrant in a small range of packing fractions. When R

  2. Transport in thin insulating films close to the Boson-Fermion Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, J. C.; Zhang, X.; Hollen, S. M.; Zhao, C.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.

    2015-03-01

    In two-dimensional systems, sufficient levels of disorder are known to localize Cooper Pairs into a phase incoherent insulating state. While many theoretical and experimental works have shown this state's existence, its ubiquity close to the disorder tuned Superconductor to Insulator transition is still an open problem. Recent experiments on nanopatterned Pb0.9Bi0.1 films have suggested a crossover from Bosonic to Fermionic transport deep in the insulating phase, indicating that the Cooper Pair Insulator (CPI) only persists to a finite level of microscopic disorder. The normal state resistance at which this crossover occurs is governed by the extent coupling constant inhomogeneities on the scale of the coherence length, which allow the formation of locally phase coherent superconducting islands in the insulating state. By tuning the scale of these inhomogeneities and examining the extent of the CPI state, we argue that the disorder tuned Superconductor to Insulator transition proceeds via pair breaking and Anderson localization of fermions when the level spacing in the islands approaches the size of the mean field gap. This work was supported by the NSF through grants No. DMR-1307290 and DMR-0907357 and by the AFRL, the ONR, and the AFOSR. Currently at the Center for Emergent Materials, Ohio State University.

  3. Magnetic properties of the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol)

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Iguchi, Motoi; Oku, Takeo; Fujiwara, Motoyasu

    2010-04-15

    Influence of chemical substitution in the Fe{sup II} spin crossover complex on magnetic properties in emulsion polymerization of trifluoroethylmethacrylate using poly(vinyl alcohol) as a protective colloid was investigated near its high spin/low spin (HS/LS) phase transition. The obvious bi-stability of the HS/LS phase transition was considered by the identification of multiple spin states between the quintet (S=2) states to single state (S=0) across the excited triplet state (S=1). Magnetic parameters of gradual shifts of anisotropy g-tensor supported by the molecular distortion of the spin crossover complex would arise from a Jahn-Teller effect regarding ligand field theory on the basis of a B3LYP density functional theory using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum and X-ray powder diffraction. - Graphical abstract: AFM surface image of the emulsion particles with the spin crossover complex.

  4. [Case-crossover design: Basic essentials and applications].

    PubMed

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Tobías, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Taracido, Margarita; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Case-crossover analysis is an observational epidemiological design that was proposed by Maclure in 1991 to assess whether a given intermittent or unusual exposure may have triggered an immediate short-term, acute event. The present article outlines the basics of case-crossover designs, as well as their applications and limitations. The case-crossover design is based on exclusively selecting case subjects. To calculate relative risk, exposure during the period of time prior to the event (case period) is compared against the same subject's exposure during one or more control periods. This method is only appropriate when the exposures are transient in time and have acute short-term effects. For exposures in which there is no trend, a unidirectional approach is the most frequent and consists of selecting one or more control periods prior to the case period. When the exposure displays a time trend (e.g., air pollution), a unidirectional approach will yield biased estimates, and therefore bidirectional case-crossover designs are used, which select control time intervals preceding and subsequent to that of the event. The case-crossover design is being increasingly used across a wide range of fields, including factors triggering traffic, occupational and domestic accidents and acute myocardial infarction, and those involved in air pollution and health and pharmacoepidemiology, among others. Insofar as data-analysis is concerned, case-crossover designs can generally be regarded as matched case-control studies and consequently conditional logistic regression can be applied. Lastly, this study analyzes practical examples of distinct applications of the case-crossover design.

  5. Detection of crossover time scales in multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Erjia; Leung, Yee

    2013-04-01

    Fractal is employed in this paper as a scale-based method for the identification of the scaling behavior of time series. Many spatial and temporal processes exhibiting complex multi(mono)-scaling behaviors are fractals. One of the important concepts in fractals is crossover time scale(s) that separates distinct regimes having different fractal scaling behaviors. A common method is multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). The detection of crossover time scale(s) is, however, relatively subjective since it has been made without rigorous statistical procedures and has generally been determined by eye balling or subjective observation. Crossover time scales such determined may be spurious and problematic. It may not reflect the genuine underlying scaling behavior of a time series. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical procedure to model complex fractal scaling behaviors and reliably identify the crossover time scales under MF-DFA. The scaling-identification regression model, grounded on a solid statistical foundation, is first proposed to describe multi-scaling behaviors of fractals. Through the regression analysis and statistical inference, we can (1) identify the crossover time scales that cannot be detected by eye-balling observation, (2) determine the number and locations of the genuine crossover time scales, (3) give confidence intervals for the crossover time scales, and (4) establish the statistically significant regression model depicting the underlying scaling behavior of a time series. To substantive our argument, the regression model is applied to analyze the multi-scaling behaviors of avian-influenza outbreaks, water consumption, daily mean temperature, and rainfall of Hong Kong. Through the proposed model, we can have a deeper understanding of fractals in general and a statistical approach to identify multi-scaling behavior under MF-DFA in particular.

  6. Macrocycle-based spin-crossover materials.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Fatima; Sebki, Ghania; Patinec, Véronique; Marchivie, Mathieu; Triki, Smail; Handel, Henri; Yefsah, Said; Tripier, Raphaël; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Coronado, Eugenio

    2009-11-02

    New iron(II) complexes of formula [Fe(L1)](BF(4))(2) (1) and [Fe(L2)](BF(4))(2) x H(2)O (2) (L1 = 1,7-bis(2'-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane; L2 = 1,8-bis(2'-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) have been synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystal structure determinations of 1 and 2 reveal in both cases discrete iron(II) monomeric structures in which the two functionalized tetraazamacrocycles (L1 and L2) act as hexadentate ligands; the iron(II) ions are coordinated with six nitrogen atoms: four from the macrocycle and two from two pyridine groups occupying two cis positions around the metal ion. In 1, the N-Fe-N bond angles indicate that the Fe(II) ion adopts an unusual distorted trigonal prismatic geometry. In agreement with the observed paramagnetic behavior, the average of the six Fe-N distances at 293 K (2.218(6) A) and at 90 K (2.209(2) A) correspond well with distances observed for high-spin (HS) Fe(II) complexes with a coordination index of 6. For 2, the Fe(II) ion adopts a distorted octahedral geometry for which the six Fe-N distances (average 2.197(4) A) at room temperature are in the range expected for HS Fe(II) complexes. The crystal structure solved at 90 K showed a strong modification of the iron coordination sphere, suggesting the presence of a spin-crossover transition from HS to low spin (LS). Surprisingly, the averaged Fe-N value (2.077(4) A) at this temperature is not in agreement with the magnetic measurements since the chi(m)T product versus T showed a full LS state at 90 K. This may be explained by the presence of important distortions arising from the macrocycle constraints. To understand how the crystal and the lattice parameters were affected by the magnetic transition, the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of 2 was determined in the range 293-90 K: the a and

  7. Monte Carlo - Metropolis Investigations of Shape and Matrix Effects in 2D and 3D Spin-Crossover Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerroudj, Salim; Caballero, Rafael; De Zela, Francisco; Jureschi, Catalin; Linares, Jorge; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2016-08-01

    The Ising like model, taking into account short-, long-range interaction as well as surface effects is used to investigate size and shape effects on the thermal behaviour of 2D and 3D spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles embedded in a matrix. We analyze the role of the parametert, representing the ratio between the number of surface and volume molecules, on the unusual thermal hysteresis behaviour (appearance of the hysteresis and a re-entrance phase transition) at small scales.

  8. Interference-mediated synaptonemal complex formation with embedded crossover designation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangran; Espagne, Eric; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zickler, Denise; Kleckner, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological systems exhibit complex patterns at length scales ranging from the molecular to the organismic. Along chromosomes, events often occur stochastically at different positions in different nuclei but nonetheless tend to be relatively evenly spaced. Examples include replication origin firings, formation of chromatin loops along chromosome axes and, during meiosis, localization of crossover recombination sites (“crossover interference”). We present evidence in the fungus Sordaria macrospora that crossover interference is part of a broader pattern that includes synaptonemal complex (SC) nucleation. This pattern comprises relatively evenly spaced SC nucleation sites, among which a subset are crossover sites that show a classical interference distribution. This pattern ensures that SC forms regularly along the entire length of the chromosome as required for the maintenance of homolog pairing while concomitantly having crossover interactions locally embedded within the SC structure as required for both DNA recombination and structural events of chiasma formation. This pattern can be explained by a threshold-based designation and spreading interference process. This model can be generalized to give diverse types of related and/or partially overlapping patterns, in two or more dimensions, for any type of object. PMID:25380597

  9. Solving the Traveling Salesman Problem through Extended Changing Crossover Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryouei

    In order to efficiently obtain an approximate solution of the traveling salesman problem (TSP), extended changing crossover operators (ECXOs) which can substitute any crossover operator of genetic algorithms (GAs) and ant colony optimization (ACO) for another crossover operator at any time is proposed. In this investigation our ECXO uses both EX (or ACO) and EXX (Edge Exchange Crossover) in early generations to create local optimum sub-paths, and it uses EAX (Edge Assembly Crossover) to create a global optimum solution after generations. With EX or ACO any individual or any ant determines the next city he visits from lengths of edges or tours' lengths deposited on edges as pheromone, and he generates local optimum paths. With EXX the generated path converges to a provisional optimal path. With EAX a parent exchanges his edges with another parent's ones reciprocally to create sub-cyclic paths, before restructuring a cyclic path by combining the sub-cyclic paths with making distances between them minimum. In this paper validity of ECXO is verified by our C experiments using medium-sized problems in TSPLIB, and it is shown that ECXO can find the best solution earlier than EAX.

  10. Orbital Transfer Vehicle Engine Technology High Velocity Ratio Diffusing Crossover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-01-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  11. Orbital transfer vehicle engine technology high velocity ratio diffusing crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lariviere, Brian W.

    1992-12-01

    High speed, high efficiency head rise multistage pumps require continuous passage diffusing crossovers to effectively convey the pumped fluid from the exit of one impeller to the inlet of the next impeller. On Rocketdyne's Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), the MK49-F, a three stage high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump, utilizes a 6.23 velocity ratio diffusing crossover. This velocity ratio approaches the diffusion limits for stable and efficient flow over the operating conditions required by the OTV system. The design of the high velocity ratio diffusing crossover was based on advanced analytical techniques anchored by previous tests of stationary two-dimensional diffusers with steady flow. To secure the design and the analytical techniques, tests were required with the unsteady whirling characteristics produced by an impeller. A tester was designed and fabricated using a 2.85 times scale model of the MK49-F turbopumps first stage, including the inducer, impeller, and the diffusing crossover. Water and air tests were completed to evaluate the large scale turbulence, non-uniform velocity, and non-steady velocity on the pump and crossover head and efficiency. Suction performance tests from 80 percent to 124 percent of design flow were completed in water to assess these pump characteristics. Pump and diffuser performance from the water and air tests were compared with the actual MK49-F test data in liquid hydrogen.

  12. A Link between Meiotic Prophase Progression and CrossoverControl

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Peter M.; Farruggio, Alfonso P.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-07-06

    During meiosis, most organisms ensure that homologous chromosomes undergo at least one exchange of DNA, or crossover, to link chromosomes together and accomplish proper segregation. How each chromosome receives a minimum of one crossover is unknown. During early meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans and many other species, chromosomes adopt a polarized organization within the nucleus, which normally disappears upon completion of homolog synapsis. Mutations that impair synapsis even between a single pair of chromosomes in C. elegans delay this nuclear reorganization. We quantified this delay by developing a classification scheme for discrete stages of meiosis. Immunofluorescence localization of RAD-51 protein revealed that delayed meiotic cells also contained persistent recombination intermediates. Through genetic analysis, we found that this cytological delay in meiotic progression requires double-strand breaks and the function of the crossover-promoting heteroduplex HIM-14 (Msh4) and MSH-5. Failure of X chromosome synapsis also resulted in impaired crossover control on autosomes, which may result from greater numbers and persistence of recombination intermediates in the delayed nuclei. We conclude that maturation of recombination events on chromosomes promotes meiotic progression, and is coupled to the regulation of crossover number and placement. Our results have broad implications for the interpretation of meiotic mutants, as we have shown that asynapsis of a single chromosome pair can exert global effects on meiotic progression and recombination frequency.

  13. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  14. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; ...

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  15. Effects of crossover hydrogen on platinum dissolution and agglomeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tommy T. H.; Rogers, Erin; Young, Alan P.; Ye, Siyu; Colbow, Vesna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    The durability of catalysts in the polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is identified as a critical limiting factor for wide commercialization of fuel cells. Even though much progress has been made in understanding the degradation mechanisms, the phenomena of Pt dissolution and agglomeration and their contributing factors are not fully understood. In the present investigation, the effects of crossover hydrogen on Pt degradation are studied using an accelerated stress test (AST). The end-of-test (EOT) membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results provided mechanistic understanding of Pt dissolution and agglomeration: Pt growth and agglomeration were found to be less severe with more crossover hydrogen due likely to the chemical reduction of Pt oxides by crossover hydrogen and the subsequently decrease in the amount of Pt ions formed via the oxide pathway.

  16. Influence analysis on crossover design experiment in bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufen; Ke, Bo-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Crossover designs are commonly used in bioequivalence studies. However, the results can be affected by some outlying observations, which may lead to the wrong decision on bioequivalence. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of aberrant observations. Chow and Tse in 1990 discussed this issue by considering the methods based on the likelihood distance and estimates distance. Perturbation theory provides a useful tool for the sensitivity analysis on statistical models. Hence, in this paper, we develop the influence functions via the perturbation scheme proposed by Hampel as an alternative approach on the influence analysis for a crossover design experiment. Moreover, the comparisons between the proposed approach and the method proposed by Chow and Tse are investigated. Two real data examples are provided to illustrate the results of these approaches. Our proposed influence functions show excellent performance on the identification of outlier/influential observations and are suitable for use with small sample size crossover designs commonly used in bioequivalence studies.

  17. Self-affine crossover length in a layered silicate deposit.

    PubMed

    Fossum, J O; Bergene, H H; Hansen, Alex; O'Rourke, B; Manificat, G

    2004-03-01

    Self-affine dehydrated colloidal deposits on fresh mica surfaces of the synthetic layered silicate 2:1 smectite clay laponite have been studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images of these prepared assemblies of sol and gel aggregates have been analyzed both by means of standard AFM Fourier software and a wavelet method. The deposited surfaces show a persistence to antipersistent crossover with a clay concentration dependent crossover length. It is concluded that the crossover length is associated with aggregate size, and further that the persistent roughness at small length scales signals near compact clusters of fractal dimension three, whereas the antipersistent roughness at large length scales signals a sedimentation process.

  18. Self-affine crossover length in a layered silicate deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, J. O.; Bergene, H. H.; Hansen, Alex; O'Rourke, B.; Manificat, G.

    2004-03-01

    Self-affine dehydrated colloidal deposits on fresh mica surfaces of the synthetic layered silicate 2:1 smectite clay laponite have been studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images of these prepared assemblies of sol and gel aggregates have been analyzed both by means of standard AFM Fourier software and a wavelet method. The deposited surfaces show a persistence to antipersistent crossover with a clay concentration dependent crossover length. It is concluded that the crossover length is associated with aggregate size, and further that the persistent roughness at small length scales signals near compact clusters of fractal dimension three, whereas the antipersistent roughness at large length scales signals a sedimentation process.

  19. Dimensional crossover of the dephasing time in disordered mesoscopic rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiber, M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.; Marquardt, F.; von Delft, J.; Lerner, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    We study dephasing by electron interactions in a small disordered quasi-one-dimensional (1D) ring weakly coupled to leads. We use an influence functional for quantum Nyquist noise to describe the crossover for the dephasing time τφ(T) from diffusive or ergodic 1D (τφ-1∝T2/3,T1) to zero-dimensional (0D) behavior (τφ-1∝T2) as T drops below the Thouless energy. The crossover to 0D, predicted earlier for two-dimensional and three-dimensional systems, has so far eluded experimental observation. The ring geometry holds promise of meeting this long-standing challenge, since the crossover manifests itself not only in the smooth part of the magnetoconductivity but also in the amplitude of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillations. This allows signatures of dephasing in the ring to be cleanly extracted by filtering out those of the leads.

  20. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  1. Universal Fermi liquid crossover and quantum criticality in a mesoscopic system.

    PubMed

    Keller, A J; Peeters, L; Moca, C P; Weymann, I; Mahalu, D; Umansky, V; Zaránd, G; Goldhaber-Gordon, D

    2015-10-08

    Quantum critical systems derive their finite-temperature properties from the influence of a zero-temperature quantum phase transition. The paradigm is essential for understanding unconventional high-Tc superconductors and the non-Fermi liquid properties of heavy fermion compounds. However, the microscopic origins of quantum phase transitions in complex materials are often debated. Here we demonstrate experimentally, with support from numerical renormalization group calculations, a universal crossover from quantum critical non-Fermi liquid behaviour to distinct Fermi liquid ground states in a highly controllable quantum dot device. Our device realizes the non-Fermi liquid two-channel Kondo state, based on a spin-1/2 impurity exchange-coupled equally to two independent electronic reservoirs. On detuning the exchange couplings we observe the Fermi liquid scale T*, at energies below which the spin is screened conventionally by the more strongly coupled channel. We extract a quadratic dependence of T* on gate voltage close to criticality, and validate an asymptotically exact description of the universal crossover between strongly correlated non-Fermi liquid and Fermi liquid states.

  2. Experimental Evidence for a Liquid-Liquid Crossover in Deeply Cooled Confined Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupane, Antonio; Fomina, Margarita; Piazza, Irina; Peters, Judith; Schirò, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    In this work we investigate, by means of elastic neutron scattering, the pressure dependence of mean square displacements (MSD) of hydrogen atoms of deeply cooled water confined in the pores of a three-dimensional disordered SiO2 xerogel; experiments have been performed at 250 and 210 K from atmospheric pressure to 1200 bar. The "pressure anomaly" of supercooled water (i.e., a mean square displacement increase with increasing pressure) is observed in our sample at both temperatures; however, contrary to previous simulation results and to the experimental trend observed in bulk water, the pressure effect is smaller at lower (210 K) than at higher (250 K) temperature. Elastic neutron scattering results are complemented by differential scanning calorimetry data that put in evidence, besides the glass transition at about 170 K, a first-order-like endothermic transition occurring at about 230 K that, in view of the neutron scattering results, can be attributed to a liquid-liquid crossover. Our results give experimental evidence for the presence, in deeply cooled confined water, of a crossover occurring at about 230 K (at ambient pressure) from a liquid phase predominant at 210 K to another liquid phase predominant at 250 K; therefore, they are fully consistent with the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  3. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  4. Spin-Polarized Fermi Gases in 1D, 3D, and Crossover Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We report recent results on mapping the superfluid transition as a function of atomic interaction and global spin polarization in a two-component, 3D gas of fermionic lithium. The atomic interactions are controlled using a Feshbach resonance to tune between the strongly interacting BEC regime and the weakly interacting BCS regime. Previously, a 3D gas was found to have an unpolarized superfluid core that is enclosed by polarized shells. By applying a 2D optical lattice we confine our gas in one-dimensional tubes. In this 1D gas, in contrast to the 3D gas, we found a partially polarized superfluid core and either fully polarized or fully paired wings depending on the overall spin polarization. In the current experiment, we have mapped the phase diagram of the 1D/3D crossover by increasing the inter-tube coupling. The exotic superfluid state, FFLO, is predicted to occupy a large portion of the phase diagram in the crossover regime, making it an ideal location in parameter space for its detection. ARO, NSF, ONR, and The Welch Foundation.

  5. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments.

    PubMed

    Corradini, D; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  6. Subcritical-supercritical bifurcation crossover in directional solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Williams, L.; Cummins, H. )

    1994-12-01

    The Mullins-Sekerka planar-cellular instability in directional solidification should be subcritical when the partition coefficient [ital k][lt]0.45 and latent heat is ignored. However, Merchant and Davis [Phys. Rev. Lett. [bold 63], 573 (1989)] predicted that as the solute concentration is reduced, the increasingly important thermal diffusion field would lead to a crossover from a subcritical to a supercritical bifurcation. We have performed directional solidification experiments on a series of succinonitrile samples containing different concentrations of Coumarin 152, and have found preliminary evidence for the predicted crossover at a concentration [ital C][sub [ital t

  7. PREFACE: Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids Dynamic crossover phenomena in water and other glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2012-02-01

    dynamics of the water molecules in the solution is observed in the single-particle relaxational dynamics in the μeV (nanosecond) time scale, but not in the collective dynamics on the meV (picosecond) time scale. Mallamace et al discuss the dynamic crossover phenomenon in both bulk water and protein hydration water. They collect previous and new experimental data from different experimental techniques and molecular dynamic simulations, and are able to develop a unified picture for the different dynamical findings. Gallo et al present a MD study of confined water in MCM-41S-15 in order to test the applicability of Mode Coupling Theory (MCT) to the dynamics of the hydration water confined in the cylindrical pores of nominal diameter 15 Å. They find that the self dynamics of the hydration water is well described by MCT down to the crossover temperature TC. However, below TC the predictions of idealized MCT no longer apply, since hopping processes intervene and water turns into a strong liquid. Soper raises some questions as to the validity of the analysis method employed to determine the density of water confined in porous silica material MCM-41-S15 from recent neutron scattering experiments. Professors Stanley, Franzese and his collaborators describe an efficient Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained model of water to study the phase diagram of a water monolayer confined in a fixed disordered matrix of hydrophobic nanoparticles between two hydrophobic plates. They find a drastic change of phase behavior of the confined water, such as shortening of the liquid-liquid phase transition line, upon increasing the concentration of the hydrophobic nano-particles. Sciortino and collaborators compute the equilibrium phase diagram of two simple models for patchy particles with three and five patches in a very broad range of pressure and temperature. The three-patch model produces a stable gas-liquid critical point. Yun Liu et al investigate, via small angle neutron scattering and

  8. In-Network Processing of an Iceberg Join Query in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on 2-Way Fragment Semijoins

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold) are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one. PMID:25774710

  9. In-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks based on 2-way fragment semijoins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunchul

    2015-03-12

    We investigate the in-network processing of an iceberg join query in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). An iceberg join is a special type of join where only those joined tuples whose cardinality exceeds a certain threshold (called iceberg threshold) are qualified for the result. Processing such a join involves the value matching for the join predicate as well as the checking of the cardinality constraint for the iceberg threshold. In the previous scheme, the value matching is carried out as the main task for filtering non-joinable tuples while the iceberg threshold is treated as an additional constraint. We take an alternative approach, meeting the cardinality constraint first and matching values next. In this approach, with a logical fragmentation of the join operand relations on the aggregate counts of the joining attribute values, the optimal sequence of 2-way fragment semijoins is generated, where each fragment semijoin employs a Bloom filter as a synopsis of the joining attribute values. This sequence filters non-joinable tuples in an energy-efficient way in WSNs. Through implementation and a set of detailed experiments, we show that our alternative approach considerably outperforms the previous one.

  10. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  11. 50 CFR 660.120 - Trawl fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trawl fishery-crossover provisions. 660.120 Section 660.120 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  12. Design and analysis of crossover trials for absorbing binary endpoints.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha; Follmann, Dean

    2010-09-01

    The crossover is a popular and efficient trial design used in the context of patient heterogeneity to assess the effect of treatments that act relatively quickly and whose benefit disappears with discontinuation. Each patient can serve as her own control as within-individual treatment and placebo responses are compared. Conventional wisdom is that these designs are not appropriate for absorbing binary endpoints, such as death or HIV infection. We explore the use of crossover designs in the context of these absorbing binary endpoints and show that they can be more efficient than the standard parallel group design when there is heterogeneity in individuals' risks. We also introduce a new two-period design where first period "survivors" are rerandomized for the second period. This design combines the crossover design with the parallel design and achieves some of the efficiency advantages of the crossover design while ensuring that the second period groups are comparable by randomization. We discuss the validity of the new designs and evaluate both a mixture model and a modified Mantel-Haenszel test for inference. The mixture model assumes no carryover or period effects while the Mantel-Haenszel approach conditions out period effects. Simulations are used to compare the different designs and an example is provided to explore practical issues in implementation.

  13. The critical crossover at the n-hexane-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonov, A. M.

    2010-06-15

    According to estimates of the parameters of the critical crossover in monolayers of long-chain alcohol molecules adsorbed at the n-hexane-water interface, all systems in which this phenomenon is observed are characterized by the same value of the critical exponent {nu} {approx} 1.8.

  14. Electronic crossover in the normal state of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, A.; Mali, M.; Roos, J.; Brinkmann, D.; Karpinski, J.; Kaldis, E.

    1997-09-01

    By performing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), respectively, with Cu, O, and Y isotopes in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, we have found the following major results: (i) The Y, Cu, and O shift data support, for planes and chains, the validity of the {open_quotes}single-spin fluid model.{close_quotes} (ii) Around T{sup {dagger}}=180 K, {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in the temperature behavior of several NMR/NQR quantities have been detected. (iii) The anomalies do not arise from a structural phase transition; instead they reflect an electronic crossover which involves enhanced charge fluctuations in planes and chains accompanied by a charge (hole) transfer from chain to plane. (iv) As a possible mechanism of the crossover, a charge-density-wave instability is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Perturbation of spin crossover behavior by covalent post-synthetic modification of a porous metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Clements, John E; Price, Jason R; Neville, Suzanne M; Kepert, Cameron J

    2014-09-15

    Covalent post-synthetic modification is a versatile method for gaining high-level synthetic control over functionality within porous metal-organic frameworks and for generating new materials not accessible through one-step framework syntheses. Here we apply this topotactic synthetic approach to a porous spin crossover framework and show through detailed comparison of the structures and properties of the as-synthesised and covalently modified phases that the modification reaction proceeds quantitatively by a thermally activated single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to yield a material with lowered spin-switching temperature, decreased lattice cooperativity, and altered color. Structure-function relationships to emerge from this comparison show that the approach provides a new route for tuning spin crossover through control over both outer-sphere and steric interactions.

  16. Altered Crossover Distribution and Frequency in Spermatocytes of Infertile Men with Azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Ren, He; Ferguson, Kyle; Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Vinning, Tanya; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2016-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair to facilitate the exchange of DNA at crossover sites along the chromosomes. The frequency and distribution of crossover formation are tightly regulated to ensure the proper progression of meiosis. Using immunofluorescence techniques, our group and others have studied the meiotic proteins in spermatocytes of infertile men, showing that this population displays a reduced frequency of crossovers compared to fertile men. An insufficient number of crossovers is thought to promote chromosome missegregation, in which case the faulty cell may face meiotic arrest or contribute to the production of aneuploid sperm. Increasing evidence in model organisms has suggested that the distribution of crossovers may also be important for proper chromosome segregation. In normal males, crossovers are shown to be rare near centromeres and telomeres, while frequent in subtelomeric regions. Our study aims to characterize the crossover distribution in infertile men with non-obstructive (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA) along chromosomes 13, 18 and 21. Eight of the 16 NOA men and five of the 21 OA men in our study displayed reduced crossover frequency compared to control fertile men. Seven NOA men and nine OA men showed altered crossover distributions on at least one of the chromosome arms studied compared to controls. We found that although both NOA and OA men displayed altered crossover distributions, NOA men may be at a higher risk of suffering both altered crossover frequencies and distributions compared to OA men. Our data also suggests that infertile men display an increase in crossover formation in regions where they are normally inhibited, specifically near centromeres and telomeres. Finally, we demonstrated a decrease in crossovers near subtelomeres, as well as increased average crossover distance to telomeres in infertile men. As telomere-guided mechanisms are speculated to play a role in crossover formation in subtelomeres, future

  17. The Internet- and Digital Signature-Based Prescription Order Communication System Using Synchronized Smart Cards in the 2-Way Type Terminal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    smart card tinder the network- and...and using their individually master smart cards are applied to all contents of the prescription stored on a patient’s slave smart card at the synchronized status in the 2-way type

  18. Geodetic constraints from multi-beam laser altimeter crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, G. A.; Rowlands, D. D.; Smith, D. E.

    2010-06-01

    The round-trip travel time measurements made by spacecraft laser altimeters are primarily used to construct topographic maps of the target body. The accuracy of the calculated bounce point locations of the laser pulses depends on the quality of the spacecraft trajectory reconstruction. The trajectory constraints from Doppler and range radio tracking data can be supplemented by altimetric “crossovers”, to greatly improve the reconstruction of the spacecraft trajectory. Crossovers have been used successfully in the past (e.g., Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on Mars Global Surveyor), but only with single-beam altimeters. The same algorithms can be used with a multi-beam laser altimeter, but we present a method using the unique cross-track topographic information present in the multi-beam data. Those crossovers are especially adapted to shallow (small angle) intersections, as the overlapping area is large, reducing the inherent ambiguities of single-beam data in that situation. We call those “swath crossovers”. They prove particularly useful in the case of polar-orbiting spacecraft over slowly rotating bodies, because all the non-polar crossovers have small intersection angles. To demonstrate this method, we perform a simplified simulation based on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and its five-beam Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter. We show that swath crossovers over one lunar month can independently, from geometry alone, recover the imposed orbital perturbations with great accuracy (5 m horizontal, < 1 m vertical, about one order of magnitude smaller than the imposed perturbations). We also present new types of constraints that can be derived from the swath crossovers, and designed to be used in a precision orbit determination setup. In future work, we will use such multi-beam altimetric constraints with data from LRO.

  19. What's Mine Is Yours: The Crossover of Day-Specific Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Angela; Sonnentag, Sabine; Niessen, Cornelia; Unger, Dana

    2012-01-01

    This diary study examines the daily crossover of self-esteem within working couples. By integrating self-esteem research into the crossover framework, we hypothesized that the day-specific self-esteem experienced by one partner after work crosses over to the other partner. Furthermore, we proposed that this daily crossover process is moderated by…

  20. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  1. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  2. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand operated crossover between main tracks..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.203 Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection. At hand-operated crossover between main tracks, protection shall be provided by...

  3. Growth Performance, Carcass Yield, and Quality and Chemical Traits of Meat from Commercial Korean Native Ducks with 2-Way Crossbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Heo, K. N.; Hong, E. C.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, M. J.; Choo, H. J.; Choi, H. C.; Mushtaq, M. M. H.; Parvin, R.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the performance and meat characteristics of commercial Korean native duck (KND). A total of 180 1-d-old ducklings of 2-way crossbreds from A and B lines (from National Institute of Animal Science) were used in this work and divided into 4 groups (3 replicates/group, 15 birds/replicate). The four groups were 4 crossbreds as AA (A line [♀]×A line [♂]), AB (A line [♀]×B line [♂]), BB (Pure line B strains) and BA (B strains [♀]×A strain [♂]). Ducks were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal for 0 to 3 wk (22.4% crude protein [CP], 2,945 kcal/kg metabolizable energy [ME]) and 3 to 8 wk (18.4% CP, 3,047 kcal/kg ME). As a result of this study, average body weight of 4 crossbreds were 625, 1,617, 2,466, and 2,836 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, and significantly increased over the period of time (p<0.05). Body weight of BB group was greater than other crossbreds at the age of 6 weeks (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in weekly body weight gains (p<0.05), which were 573, 991, 850, and 371 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks old, respectively. Uniformity of 4 crossbreds was 84.9%, 80.5%, and 72.5% at 6, 7, and 8 weeks, respectively, and there was no difference among crossbreds. Body weight gain of BB crossbred was highest among crossbreds (p<0.05). Weekly feed intake significantly increased with weeks as 669, 1,839, 2,812, and 3,381 g at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks respectively (p<0.05). Feed intakes of AA and BB crossbreds were higher at 2 to 4 weeks old than others and that of BB crossbred was highest at 4 to 6 weeks old (p<0.05). Weekly feed conversion ratios were 1.17, 1.86, 3.32, and 9.37 at 0 to 2, 2 to 4, 4 to 6, and 6 to 8 weeks old, respectively, and it increased with age (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion ratio among crossbreds. Carcass yields of 4 crossbreds were 73.6%, 71.6%, 73.5%, and 71.7%, respectively, so there was no significant difference among crossbreds. There was no

  4. Comparison of different pairing fluctuation approaches to BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, Kathryn Chen Qijin Chien, C.-C. He Yan

    2010-02-15

    The subject of BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is particularly exciting because of its realization in ultracold atomic Fermi gases and its possible relevance to high temperature superconductors. In this paper we review the body of theoretical work on this subject, which represents a natural extension of the seminal papers by Leggett and by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink (NSR). The former addressed only the ground state, now known as the 'BCS-Leggett' wave-function, and the key contributions of the latter pertain to calculations of the superfluid transition temperature T{sub c}. These two papers have given rise to two main and, importantly, distinct, theoretical schools in the BCS-BEC crossover literature. The first of these extends the BCS-Leggett ground state to finite temperature and the second extends the NSR scheme away from T{sub c} both in the superfluid and normal phases. It is now rather widely accepted that these extensions of NSR produce a different ground state than that first introduced by Leggett. This observation provides a central motivation for the present paper which seeks to clarify the distinctions in the two approaches. Our analysis shows how the NSR-based approach views the bosonic contributions more completely but treats the fermions as 'quasi-free'. By contrast, the BCS-Leggett based approach treats the fermionic contributions more completely but treats the bosons as 'quasi-free'. In a related fashion, the NSR-based schemes approach the crossover between BCS and BEC by starting from the BEC limit and the BCS-Leggett based scheme approaches this crossover by starting from the BCS limit. Ultimately, one would like to combine these two schemes. There are, however, many difficult problems to surmount in any attempt to bridge the gap in the two theory classes. In this paper we review the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches. The flexibility of the BCS-Leggett based approach and its ease of handling make it widely used in T=0

  5. Two-dimensional metal-insulator transition as a strong localization induced crossover phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2014-06-01

    Low-disorder and high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) electron (or hole) systems confined in semiconductor heterostructures undergo an apparent metal-insulator transition (MIT) at low temperatures as the carrier density (n) is varied. In some situations, the 2D MIT can be caused at a fixed low carrier density by changing an externally applied in-plane magnetic field parallel to the 2D layer. The goal of the current work is to obtain the critical density (nc) for the 2D MIT with the system being an effective metal (Anderson insulator) for density n above (below) nc. We study the 2D MIT phenomenon theoretically as a possible strong localization induced crossover process controlled by the Ioffe-Regel criterion, kFl=1, where kF(n) is the 2D Fermi wave vector and l (n) is the disorder-limited quantum mean free path on the metallic side. Calculating the quantum mean free path in the effective metallic phase from a realistic Boltzmann transport theory including disorder scattering effects, we solve the integral equation (with l depending on n through multidimensional integrals) defined by the Ioffe-Regel criterion to obtain the nonuniversal critical density nc as a function of the applicable physical experimental parameters including disorder strength, in-plane magnetic field, spin and valley degeneracy, background dielectric constant and carrier effective mass, and temperature. The key physics underlying the nonuniversal parameter dependence of the critical density is the density dependence of the screened Coulomb disorder. Our calculated results for the crossover critical density nc appear to be in qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with the available experimental data in different 2D semiconductor systems lending credence to the possibility that the apparent 2D MIT signals the onset of the strong localization crossover in disordered 2D systems. We also compare the calculated critical density obtained from the Ioffe-Regel criterion with that obtained from a

  6. An Exercise Program to Prevent Falls in Institutionalized Elderly with Cognitive Deficits: A Crossover Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen; Gianan, Faith V; Pang, Lorrin

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults in the United States, with the institutionalized elderly at elevated risk for injury and death. Physical weakness and mental frailty, prevalent in institutionalized elderly, are major risk factors for falls. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program that addresses both the physical and mental aspects of exercise to reduce falls in institutionalized elderly. Twenty-seven volunteer subjects residing in an assisted living facility participated in the 24 week randomized crossover study. After demographic, fall history, and mental status examinations, subjects were randomly assigned first to ten weeks of either an exercise class or a control group, followed by a four week “washout period” of no activity, then cross assigned to ten weeks as either a control group or exercise class, respectively. Falls as well as mental status changes were monitored during the study. After adjusting for differences in baseline risk between the control and treatment groups, and for potential residual effects of the treatment during the crossover phase, a statistically significant (P = .025) reduction in falls was found during treatment compared to the control periods. No change in mental status was seen. This small, pilot study shows that exercise programs, which emphasize mental strengthening as well as physical fitness, have the potential to reduce falls among mentally impaired, institutionalized seniors. PMID:24251085

  7. Numerical Evidence of Quantum Melting of Spin Ice: Quantum-to-Classical Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Onoda, Shigeki

    2015-08-01

    Unbiased quantum Monte Carlo simulations are performed on the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 pyrochlore X X Z model with an antiferromagnetic longitudinal and the weak ferromagnetic transverse exchange couplings, J and J⊥ . The specific heat exhibits a broad peak at TCSI˜0.2 J associated with a crossover to a classical Coulomb liquid regime showing a suppressed spin-ice monopole density, a broadened pinch-point singularity, and the Pauling entropy for |J⊥|≪J , as in classical spin ice. On further cooling, the entropy restarts decaying for J⊥>J⊥c˜-0.104 J , producing another broad specific heat peak for a crossover to a bosonic quantum Coulomb liquid, where the spin correlation contains both photon and quantum spin-ice monopole contributions. With negatively increasing J⊥ across J⊥c, a first-order thermal phase transition occurs from the quantum Coulomb liquid to an X Y ferromagnet. Relevance to magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore oxides is discussed.

  8. A real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarat, Sabyasachi; Majumdar, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    The BCS to BEC crossover in attractive Fermi systems is a prototype of weak to strong coupling evolution in many body physics. While extensive numerical results are available, and several approximate methods have been developed, most of these schemes are unsuccessful in the presence of spatial inhomogeneity. Such situations call for a real space approach that can handle large spatial scales and retain the crucial thermal fluctuations. With this in mind we present comprehensive results of a real space auxiliary field approach to the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model in two dimensions. The scheme reproduces the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov ground state, and leads to a T c scale that agrees with quantum Monte Carlo estimates to within a few percent. We provide results on the T c , amplitude and phase fluctuations, density of states, and the momentum resolved spectral function, over the entire interaction and temperature window. We suggest how the method generalises successfully to the presence of disorder, trapping, and population imbalance.

  9. Skating crossovers on a motorized flywheel: a preliminary experimental design to test effect on speed and on crossovers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aynsley M; Krause, David A; Stuart, Michael J; Montelpare, William J; Sorenson, Matthew C; Link, Andrew A; Gaz, Daniel V; Twardowski, Casey P; Larson, Dirk R; Stuart, Michael B

    2013-12-01

    Ice hockey requires frequent skater crossovers to execute turns. Our investigation aimed to determine the effectiveness of training crossovers on a motorized, polyethylene high-resistance flywheel. We hypothesized that high school hockey players training on the flywheel would perform as well as their peers training on ice. Participants were 23 male high-school hockey players (age 15-19 years). The study used an experimental prospective design to compare players who trained for 9 sessions on the 22-foot flywheel with players who trained for 9 sessions on a similarly sized on-ice circle. Both groups were compared with control subjects who were randomly selected from the same participant pool as those training on ice. All players were tested before and after their 3-week training regimens, and control subjects were asked to not practice crossovers between testing. Group 1 trained in a hockey training facility housing the flywheel, and group 2 trained in the ice hockey arena where testing occurred. Primary outcome measures tested in both directions were: (a) speed (time in seconds) required to skate crossovers for 3 laps of a marked face-off circle, (b) cadence of skating crossovers on the similarly sized circles, and (c) a repeat interval speed test, which measures anaerobic power. No significant changes were found between groups in on-ice testing before and after training. Among the group 1 players, 7 of 8 believed they benefited from flywheel training. Group 2 players, who trained on ice, did not improve performance significantly over group 1 players. Despite the fact that no significant on-ice changes in performance were observed in objective measures, players who trained on the flywheel subjectively reported that the flywheel is an effective cost-effective alternative to training on ice. This is a relevant finding when placed in context with limited availability of on-ice training.

  10. Effect of sex, age and genetics on crossover interference in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Shen, Botong; Jiang, Jicai; Li, Jinquan; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Crossovers generated by homologous recombination ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis. Crossover interference results in chiasmata being more evenly distributed along chromosomes, but the mechanism underlying crossover interference remains elusive. Based on large pedigrees of Holstein and Jersey cattle with genotype data, we extracted three-generation families, including 147,327 male and 71,687 female meioses in Holstein, and 108,163 male and 37,008 female meioses in Jersey, respectively. We identified crossovers in these meioses and fitted the Housworth-Stahl “interference-escape” model to study crossover interference patterns in the cattle genome. Our result reveals that the degree of crossover interference is stronger in females than in males. We found evidence for inter-chromosomal variation in the level of crossover interference, with smaller chromosomes exhibiting stronger interference. In addition, crossover interference levels decreased with maternal age. Finally, sex-specific GWAS analyses identified one locus near the NEK9 gene on chromosome 10 to have a significant effect on crossover interference levels. This locus has been previously associated with recombination rate in cattle. Collectively, this large-scale analysis provided a comprehensive description of crossover interference across chromosome, sex and age groups, identified associated candidate genes, and produced useful insights into the mechanism of crossover interference. PMID:27892966

  11. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Leão, Juscelino B.; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-09-01

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  12. Dynamic crossover in deeply cooled water confined in MCM-41 at 4 kbar and its relation to the liquid-liquid transition hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhe; Le, Peisi; Ito, Kanae; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Leão, Juscelino B.; Tyagi, Madhusudan

    2015-09-21

    With quasi-elastic neutron scattering, we study the single-particle dynamics of the water confined in a hydrophilic silica material, MCM-41, at 4 kbar. A dynamic crossover phenomenon is observed at 219 K. We compare this dynamic crossover with the one observed at ambient pressure and find that (a) above the crossover temperature, the temperature dependence of the characteristic relaxation time at ambient pressure exhibits a more evident super-Arrhenius behavior than that at 4 kbar. Especially, at temperatures below about 230 K, the relaxation time at 4 kbar is even smaller than that at ambient pressure. This feature is different from many other liquids. (b) Below the crossover temperature, the Arrhenius behavior found at ambient pressure has a larger activation energy compared to the one found at 4 kbar. We ascribe the former to the difference between the local structure of the low-density liquid (LDL) phase and that of the high-density liquid (HDL) phase, and the latter to the difference between the strength of the hydrogen bond of the LDL and that of the HDL. Therefore, we conclude that the phenomena observed in this paper are consistent with the LDL-to-HDL liquid-liquid transition hypothesis.

  13. The spatial regulation of meiotic recombination hotspots: are all DSB hotspots crossover hotspots?

    PubMed

    Serrentino, Maria-Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie

    2012-07-15

    A key step for the success of meiosis is programmed homologous recombination, during which crossovers, or exchange of chromosome arms, take place. Crossovers increase genetic diversity but their main function is to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. Defects in crossover number and position produce aneuploidies that represent the main cause of miscarriages and chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome. Recombination is initiated by the formation of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs), which occur preferentially at places called DSB hotspots. Among all DSBs generated, only a small fraction is repaired by crossover, the other being repaired by other homologous recombination pathways. Crossover maps have been generated in a number of organisms, defining crossover hotspots. With the availability of genome-wide maps of DSBs as well as the ability to measure genetically the repair outcome at several hotspots, it is becoming more and more clear that not all DSB hotspots behave the same for crossover formation, suggesting that chromosomal features distinguish different types of hotspots.

  14. Control of Meiotic Crossovers: From Double-Strand Break Formation to Designation

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Meiosis, the mechanism of creating haploid gametes, is a complex cellular process observed across sexually reproducing organisms. Fundamental to meiosis is the process of homologous recombination, whereby DNA double-strand breaks are introduced into the genome and are subsequently repaired to generate either noncrossovers or crossovers. Although homologous recombination is essential for chromosome pairing during prophase I, the resulting crossovers are critical for maintaining homolog interactions and enabling accurate segregation at the first meiotic division. Thus, the placement, timing, and frequency of crossover formation must be exquisitely controlled. In this review, we discuss the proteins involved in crossover formation, the process of their formation and designation, and the rules governing crossovers, all within the context of the important landmarks of prophase I. We draw together crossover designation data across organisms, analyze their evolutionary divergence, and propose a universal model for crossover regulation. PMID:27648641

  15. Crossover behavior in hydrogen sensing mechanism for palladium ultrathin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S. B.; Ramanathan, M.; Skudlarek, G.; Wang, H. H.; Illinois Math and Science Academy

    2010-01-01

    Palladium has been extensively studied as a material for hydrogen sensors because of the simplicity of its reversible resistance change when exposed to hydrogen gas. Various palladium films and nanostructures have been used, and different responses have been observed with these diverse morphologies. In some cases, such as with nanowires, the resistance will decrease, whereas in others, such as with thick films, the resistance will increase. Each of these mechanisms has been explored for several palladium structures, but the crossover between them has not been systematically investigated. Here we report on a study aimed at deciphering the nanostructure-property relationships of ultrathin palladium films used as hydrogen gas sensors. The crossover in these films is observed at a thickness of {approx} 5 nm. Ramifications for future sensor developments are discussed.

  16. Isospin Dependent Pairing Interactions and BCS-BEC crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Sagawa, H.; Margueron, J.; Hagino, K.

    2008-11-11

    We propose new types of density dependent contact pairing interaction which reproduce the pairing gaps in symmetric and neutron matters obtained by a microscopic treatment based on the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction. The BCS-BEC crossover of neutrons pairs in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matters is studied by using these contact interactions. It is shown that the bare and screened pairing interactions lead to different features of the BCS-BEC crossover in symmetric nuclear matter. We perform Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations for semi-magic Calcium, Nickel, Tin and Lead isotopes and N = 20, 28, 50 and 82 isotones using these density-dependent pairing interactions. Our calculations well account for the experimental data for the neutron number dependence of binding energy, two neutrons separation energy, and odd-even mass staggering of these isotopes. Especially the interaction IS+IV Bare without the medium polarization effect gives satisfactory results for all the isotopes.

  17. 3D Framework DNA Origami with Layered Crossovers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fan; Jiang, Shuoxing; Wang, Tong; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2016-10-04

    Designer DNA architectures with nanoscale geometric controls provide a programmable molecular toolbox for engineering complex nanodevices. Scaffolded DNA origami has dramatically improved our ability to design and construct DNA nanostructures with finite size and spatial addressability. Here we report a novel design strategy to engineer multilayered wireframe DNA structures by introducing crossover pairs that connect neighboring layers of DNA double helices. These layered crossovers (LX) allow the scaffold or helper strands to travel through different layers and can control the relative orientation of DNA helices in neighboring layers. Using this design strategy, we successfully constructed four versions of two-layer parallelogram structures with well-defined interlayer angles, a three-layer structure with triangular cavities, and a 9- and 15-layer square lattices. This strategy provides a general route to engineer 3D framework DNA nanostructures with controlled cavities and opportunities to design host-guest networks analogs to those produced with metal organic frameworks.

  18. Assestment of correlations and crossover scale in electroseismic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Vargas, L.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2009-04-01

    Evaluating complex fluctuations in electroseismic time series is an important task not only for earthquake prediction but also for understanding complex processes related to earthquake preparation. Previous studies have reported alterations, as the emergence of correlated dynamics in geoelectric potentials prior to an important earthquake (EQ). In this work, we apply the detrended fluctuation analysis and introduce a statistical procedure to characterize the presence of crossovers in scaling exponents, to analyze the fluctuations of geoelectric time series monitored in two sites located in Mexico. We find a complex behavior characterized by the presence of a crossover in the correlation exponents in the vicinity of a M=7.4 EQ occurred on Sept. 14, 1995. Finally, we apply the t-student test to evaluate the level of significance between short and large scaling exponents.

  19. Thermodynamics of ultracold Bose gases at a dimensional crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouvie, Ralf; Vogler, Andreas; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the thermodynamics of ultracold Bose gases in the crossover from a three-dimensional to a one-dimensional regime. In our experiment, we use a focused electron-beam to probe in situ atomic density distributions with high temporal and spatial resolution. Starting with a Bose-Einstein-Condensate in a single beam optical dipole trap we can create one-dimensional systems by loading the atoms in a two-dimensional blue-detuned optical lattice. With increasing strength of the lattices we go from a three-dimensional into a one-dimensional system. Furthermore we tune the interaction strengths of the one-dimensional quantum-gases from weak (quasi-condensate) to strong (Tonks-Girardeau). By measuring the density profiles and applying an inverse Abel-Transformation we extract the equation of states of these systems and characterize the crossover from the three-dimensional to the one-dimensional regime.

  20. Dynamical Crossover in Complex Networks near the Percolation Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Fumiya; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2011-10-01

    The return probability P0(t) of random walkers is investigated numerically for several scale-free fractal networks. Our results show that P0(t) is proportional to t-ds/2 with the non-integer spectral dimension ds as in the case of non-scale free fractal networks. We also study how the diffusion process is affected by the structural crossover from a fractal to a small-world architecture in a network near the percolation transition. It is elucidated that the corresponding dynamical crossover is scaled only by the unique characteristic time tξ regardless of whether the network is scale free or not. In addition, the scaling relation ds= 2Df/dw is found to be valid even for scale-free fractal networks, where Df and dw are the fractal and the walk dimensions. These results suggest that qualitative properties of P0(t) are irrelevant to the scale-free nature of networks.

  1. Analysis of first order reversal curves in the thermal hysteresis of spin-crossover nanoparticles within the mechanoelastic model

    SciTech Connect

    Stoleriu, Laurentiu E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian E-mail: cristian.enachescu@uaic.ro; Chakraborty, Pradip; Hauser, Andreas

    2015-05-07

    The recently obtained spin-crossover nanoparticles are possible candidates for applications in the recording media industry as materials for data storage, or as pressure and temperature sensors. For these applications, the intermolecular interactions and interactions between spin-crossover nanoparticles are extremely important, as they may be essential factors in triggering the transition between the two stable phases: the high-spin and low-spin ones. In order to find correlations between the distributions in size and interactions and the transition temperatures distribution, we apply the FORC (First Order Reversal Curves) method, using simulations based on a mechanoelastic model applied to 2D triangular lattices composed of molecules linked by springs and embedded in a surfactant. We consider two Gaussian distributions: one is the size of the nanoparticles and another is the elastic interactions between edge spin-crossover molecules and the surfactant molecules. In order to disentangle the kinetic and non-kinetic parts of the FORC distributions, we compare the results obtained for different temperature sweeping rates. We also show that the presence of few larger particles in a distribution centered around much smaller particles dramatically increases the hysteresis width.

  2. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multicomponent metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamical aspects of a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (self diffusion coefficient, self relaxation time, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx˜1300 K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs well above the melting point of the system (Tm˜900 K) in the equilibrium liquid state; and the crossover temperature Tx is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature of the system (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a nonparametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter α2 and the four-point correlation function χ4.

  3. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    DOE PAGES

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature ismore » roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.« less

  4. The case-crossover study design in pharmacoepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Joseph A 'Chris'; Suissa, Samy

    2009-02-01

    In the study of the association of transient drug exposures with acute outcomes, the case-crossover design is an efficient alternative to the case-control approach. This design based exclusively on the case series uses within-subject comparisons of drug exposures over time to estimate the rate ratio of the outcome associated with the drug under study. This design inherently removes the biasing effects of unmeasured, time-invariant confounding factors from the estimated rate ratio, but is sensitive to several assumptions. We illustrated the case-crossover design and explored its sensitivity using data from 4028 cases of gastrointestinal bleeding from the General Practice Research Database in assessing the effects of the drug warfarin. We compared the use of different time window lengths to assess exposure and considered the use of a case-time-control design to account for exposure time trends. The case-crossover approach found no excess risk of bleeding with warfarin exposure [rate ratio 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.28] using a 1-month time window. When we restricted the analysis to subjects with truly transient drug exposure, defined by 1 to 3 prescriptions in the previous year, the rate ratio was 2.59 (95% CI: 1.42-4.74). To consider the longer 1-year exposure time window, the case-time-control approach was used and resulted in a rate ratio of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.08-2.43). In conclusion, the case-crossover design is potentially a powerful approach to assess the risk of drugs. This design is, however, highly sensitive to assumptions about intermittency of drug use and the length of the exposure time window, as demonstrated with the example of bleeding associated with warfarin use.

  5. Surface and Size Effects in Spin-Crossover Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudyma, Iurii; Ivashko, Victor; Bobák, Andrej

    2017-02-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations to analyze the surface and size effects in spin-crossover nanocrystals using an Ising-like model including surface and core intermolecular interactions. The consequences of downsizing effect on the transition temperature and the width of hysteresis as finger of the system cooperativity are discussed. The critical temperature is calculated using the real-space renormalization method. The obtained results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Persistent User Bias in Case-Crossover Studies in Pharmacoepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton; Wang, Shirley; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Gagne, Joshua J

    2016-10-25

    Studying the effect of chronic medication exposure by means of a case-crossover design may result in an upward-biased odds ratio. In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design). Using Danish data resources from 1995-2012, we conducted case-crossover and case-time-control analyses for 3 medications (statins, insulin, and thyroxine) in relation to 3 outcomes (retinal detachment, wrist fracture, and ischemic stroke), all with assumed null associations. Controls were matched on age, sex, and index date, and exposure over the preceding 12 months was ascertained. For retinal detachment, the case-crossover odds ratio was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42, 1.80) for statins, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.92) for thyroxine, and 1.53 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.24) for insulin. Estimates for the retinal detachment controls were similar, leading to near-null case-time-control estimates for all 3 medication classes. For wrist fracture and stroke, the odds ratios were higher for cases than for controls, and case-time-control odds ratios were consistently above unity, thus implying significant residual bias. In case-crossover studies of medications, contamination by persistent users confers a moderate bias upward, which is partly remedied by using a control group. The optimal strategy for dealing with this problem is currently unknown.

  7. Pressure and Temperature Spin Crossover Sensors with Optical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Jorge; Codjovi, Epiphane; Garcia, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Iron(II) spin crossover molecular materials are made of coordination centres switchable between two states by temperature, pressure or a visible light irradiation. The relevant macroscopic parameter which monitors the magnetic state of a given solid is the high-spin (HS) fraction denoted nHS, i.e., the relative population of HS molecules. Each spin crossover material is distinguished by a transition temperature T1/2 where 50% of active molecules have switched to the low-spin (LS) state. In strongly interacting systems, the thermal spin switching occurs abruptly at T1/2. Applying pressure induces a shift from HS to LS states, which is the direct consequence of the lower volume for the LS molecule. Each material has thus a well defined pressure value P1/2. In both cases the spin state change is easily detectable by optical means thanks to a thermo/piezochromic effect that is often encountered in these materials. In this contribution, we discuss potential use of spin crossover molecular materials as temperature and pressure sensors with optical detection. The ones presenting smooth transitions behaviour, which have not been seriously considered for any application, are spotlighted as potential sensors which should stimulate a large interest on this well investigated class of materials. PMID:22666041

  8. Crossover among structural motifs in Pd-Au nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Beien; Guesmi, Hazar; Creuze, Jérôme; Legrand, Bernard; Mottet, Christine

    2015-11-14

    The crossovers among the most abundant structural motifs (icosahedra, decahedra and truncated octahedra) of Pd-Au nanoalloys have been determined theoretically in a size range between 2 and 7 nm and for three compositions equivalent to Pd3Au, PdAu and PdAu3. The chemical ordering and segregation optimisation are performed via Monte Carlo simulations using semi-empirical tight-binding potentials fitted to ab initio calculations. The chemical configurations are then quenched via molecular dynamic simulations in order to compare their energy and characterize the equilibrium structures as a function of the cluster size. For the smaller sizes (of around 300 atoms and fewer) the structures are also optimized at the electronic level within ab initio calculations in order to validate the semi-empirical potential. The predictions of the crossover sizes for the nanoalloys cannot be simply extrapolated from the crossover of the pure nanoparticles but imply stress release phenomena related to the size misfit between the two metals. Indeed, alloying extends the range of stability of the icosahedron beyond that of the pure systems and the energy differences between decahedra and truncated octahedra become asymptotic, around the sizes of 5-6 nm. Nevertheless, such equilibrium results should be modulated regarding kinetic considerations or possible gas adsorption under experimental conditions.

  9. Automatic identification of vessel crossovers in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L.; Barreira, N.; Penedo, M. G.; Cancela, B.

    2015-02-01

    Crossovers and bifurcations are interest points of the retinal vascular tree useful to diagnose diseases. Specifically, detecting these interest points and identifying which of them are crossings will give us the opportunity to search for arteriovenous nicking, this is, an alteration of the vessel tree where an artery is crossed by a vein and the former compresses the later. These formations are a clear indicative of hypertension, among other medical problems. There are several studies that have attempted to define an accurate and reliable method to detect and classify these relevant points. In this article, we propose a new method to identify crossovers. Our approach is based on segmenting the vascular tree and analyzing the surrounding area of each interest point. The minimal path between vessel points in this area is computed in order to identify the connected vessel segments and, as a result, to distinguish between bifurcations and crossovers. Our method was tested using retinographies from public databases DRIVE and VICAVR, obtaining an accuracy of 90%.

  10. Spin crossover in ferropericlase and some consequences for mantle velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The spin crossover in ferropericlase ((Mg,Fe)O) introduces anomalies in its thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties [1] with impactful consequences on lower mantle velocities. These anomalies fundamentally change the interpretation of the origin of lateral heterogeneities in the mid lower mantle. In particular, SCF reduces the sensitivity of longitudinal velocity (VP) to lateral temperature variations around 1700 km [2]. It also dramatically impacts the manifestation of two important types of compositional heterogeneities, i.e., change in iron concentration in Fp or in molar fraction of Fp in the aggregate. It enhances the sensitivity of Vϕ and VP to these compositional variations by several-fold. In addition, it affects the mantle adiabatic geotherm, altering the radial velocity profile. Here I will review these effects and relate them to some potential features observed in seismic tomography models. [1] Wu, Z.Q., Justo, J. F., & Wentzcovitch, R.M. (2013). Elastic anomalies in a spin-crossover system: ferropericlase at lower mantle conditions, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 228501 (2013). [2] Wu, Z.Q., & Wentzcovitch, R.M. (2014). Spin crossover in ferropericlase and velocity heterogeneities in the lower mantle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111: 10468-10472.

  11. Case-crossover design and its implementation in R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-09-01

    Case-crossover design is a variation of case-control design that it employs persons' history periods as controls. Case-crossover design can be viewed as the hybrid of case-control study and crossover design. Characteristic confounding that is constant within one person can be well controlled with this method. The relative risk and odds ratio, as well as their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), can be estimated using Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method. R codes for the calculation are provided in the main text. Readers may adapt these codes to their own task. Conditional logistic regression model is another way to estimate odds ratio of the exposure. Furthermore, it allows for incorporation of other time-varying covariates that are not constant within subjects. The model fitting per se is not technically difficult because there is well developed statistical package. However, it is challenging to convert original dataset obtained from case report form to that suitable to be passed to clogit() function. R code for this task is provided and explained in the text.

  12. Residuals and outliers in replicate design crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Schall, Robert; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Ring, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Outliers in bioequivalence trials may arise through various mechanisms, requiring different interpretation and handling of such data points. For example, regulatory authorities might permit exclusion from analysis of outliers caused by product or process failure, while exclusion of outliers caused by subject-by-treatment interaction generally is not acceptable. In standard 2 x 2 crossover studies it is not possible to distinguish between relevant types of outliers based on statistical criteria alone. However, in replicate design (2-treatment, 4-period) crossover studies three types of outliers can be distinguished: (i) Subject outliers are usually unproblematic, at least regarding the analysis of bioequivalence, and may require no further action; (ii) Subject-by-formulation outliers may affect the outcome of the bioequivalence test but generally cannot simply be removed from analysis; and (iii) Removal of single-data-point outliers from analysis may be justified in certain cases. As a very simple but effective diagnostic tool for the identification and classification of outliers in replicate design crossover studies we propose to calculate and plot three types of residual corresponding to the three different types of outliers that can be distinguished. The residuals are obtained from four mutually orthogonal linear contrasts of the four data points associated with each subject. If preferred, outlier tests can be applied to the resulting sets of residuals after suitable standardization.

  13. Master crossover functions for one-component fluids.

    PubMed

    Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Palencia, Fabien; Le Neindre, Bernard; Erkey, Can

    2008-02-01

    By introducing three well-defined dimensionless numbers, we establish the link between the scale dilatation method able to estimate master (i.e., unique) singular behaviors of the one-component fluid subclass and the universal crossover functions recently estimated [Garrabos and Bervillier, Phys. Rev. E 74, 021113 (2006)] from the bounded results of the massive renormalization scheme applied to the Phi(d)(4)(n) model of scalar order parameter (n=1) and three dimensions (d=3), representative of the Ising-like universality class. The master (i.e., rescaled) crossover functions are then able to fit the singular behaviors of any one-component fluid without adjustable parameter, using only one critical energy scale factor, one critical length scale factor, and two dimensionless asymptotic scale factors, which characterize the fluid critical interaction cell at its liquid-gas critical point. An additional adjustable parameter accounts for quantum effects in light fluids at the critical temperature. The effective extension of the thermal field range along the critical isochore where the master crossover functions seems to be valid corresponds to a correlation length greater than three times the effective range of the microscopic short-range molecular interaction.

  14. Hidden Order and Dimensional Crossover of the Charge Density Waves in TiSe2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y.-H.; Fang, X.-Y.; Mo, S.-K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A.-V.; Chou, M. Y.; Chiang, T.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) formation, a key physics issue for materials, arises from interactions among electrons and phonons that can also lead to superconductivity and other competing or entangled phases. The prototypical system TiSe2, with a particularly simple (2 × 2 × 2) transition and no Kohn anomalies caused by electron-phonon coupling, is a fascinating but unsolved case after decades of research. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements of the band structure as a function of temperature, aided by first-principles calculations, reveal a hitherto undetected but crucial feature: a (2 × 2) electronic order in each layer sets in at ~232 K before the widely recognized three-dimensional structural order at ~205 K. The dimensional crossover, likely a generic feature of such layered materials, involves renormalization of different band gaps in two stages. PMID:27897228

  15. Study of the fast photoswitching of spin crossover nanoparticles outside and inside their thermal hysteresis loop

    SciTech Connect

    Galle, G.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E.; Etrillard, C.; Letard, J.-F.; Guillaume, F.

    2013-02-11

    We have studied the low spin to high spin phase transition induced by nanosecond laser pulses outside and within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(Htrz){sub 2} trz](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spin crossover nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, whatever the temperature of the compound, the photo-switching is achieved in less than 12.5 ns. Outside the hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains up to 100 {mu}s and then relaxes. Within the thermal hysteresis loop, the photo-induced high spin state remains as long as the temperature of the sample is kept within the thermal loop. A Raman study indicates that the photo-switching can be completed using single laser pulse excitation.

  16. Hidden Order and Dimensional Crossover of the Charge Density Waves in TiSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Chan, Y.-H.; Fang, X.-Y.; Mo, S.-K.; Hussain, Z.; Fedorov, A.-V.; Chou, M. Y.; Chiang, T.-C.

    2016-11-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) formation, a key physics issue for materials, arises from interactions among electrons and phonons that can also lead to superconductivity and other competing or entangled phases. The prototypical system TiSe2, with a particularly simple (2 × 2 × 2) transition and no Kohn anomalies caused by electron-phonon coupling, is a fascinating but unsolved case after decades of research. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements of the band structure as a function of temperature, aided by first-principles calculations, reveal a hitherto undetected but crucial feature: a (2 × 2) electronic order in each layer sets in at ~232 K before the widely recognized three-dimensional structural order at ~205 K. The dimensional crossover, likely a generic feature of such layered materials, involves renormalization of different band gaps in two stages.

  17. Widom line and dynamical crossovers as routes to understand supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.

    2014-12-01

    Supercritical water is fundamental in many fields of applications and a precise characterization of the supercritical state is of uttermost importance for this liquid. In a fluid, when moving from the critical point into the single-phase region, the thermodynamic response functions show maxima reminiscent of the critical divergence. Here we study the thermodynamic properties of water in the supercritical region by analysing both available experimental data and our computer simulation results. We find that the lines connecting the maxima of the response functions converge on approaching the critical point in a single line, the Widom line. We further show that the Widom line coincides with a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behaviour clearly visible in the transport properties. These thermodynamic and dynamic features show that the supercritical state in water is far more complex than what was so far believed, indicating a new perspective in the characterization of the thermodynamics of this state.

  18. Widom line and dynamical crossovers as routes to understand supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Gallo, P; Corradini, D; Rovere, M

    2014-12-16

    Supercritical water is fundamental in many fields of applications and a precise characterization of the supercritical state is of uttermost importance for this liquid. In a fluid, when moving from the critical point into the single-phase region, the thermodynamic response functions show maxima reminiscent of the critical divergence. Here we study the thermodynamic properties of water in the supercritical region by analysing both available experimental data and our computer simulation results. We find that the lines connecting the maxima of the response functions converge on approaching the critical point in a single line, the Widom line. We further show that the Widom line coincides with a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behaviour clearly visible in the transport properties. These thermodynamic and dynamic features show that the supercritical state in water is far more complex than what was so far believed, indicating a new perspective in the characterization of the thermodynamics of this state.

  19. Impurity effects on BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Yanming; Zhang, Leifeng; Wang, Jibiao; Chen, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the effects of "nonmagnetic" impurities on the s -wave BCS-BEC crossover in atomic Fermi gases within a pairing fluctuation theory. Both pairing and impurity scattering T matrices are treated self-consistently at the same time. While the system is less sensitive to impurity scattering in the Born limit, for strong impurity scatterers, both the frequency and the gap function are highly renormalized, leading to significant suppression of the superfluid Tc, the order parameter, and the superfluid density. We also find the formation of impurity bands and smearing of coherence peak in the fermion density of states, leading to a spectrum weight transfer and finite lifetime of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. In the BCS regime, the superfluidity may be readily destroyed by the impurity of high density, leading to a superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition at zero temperature. In comparison, the superfluidity in unitary and BEC regimes is relatively more robust.

  20. Fine-Scale Crossover Rate Variation on the Caenorhabditis elegans X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Max R.; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination creates genotypic diversity within species. Recombination rates vary substantially across taxa, and the distribution of crossovers can differ significantly among populations and between sexes. Crossover locations within species have been found to vary by chromosome and by position within chromosomes, where most crossover events occur in small regions known as recombination hotspots. However, several species appear to lack hotspots despite significant crossover heterogeneity. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was previously found to have the least fine-scale variation in crossover distribution among organisms studied to date. It is unclear whether this pattern extends to the X chromosome given its unique compaction through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase in hermaphrodites. We generated 798 recombinant nested near-isogenic lines (NILs) with crossovers in a 1.41 Mb region on the left arm of the X chromosome to determine if its recombination landscape is similar to that of the autosomes. We find that the fine-scale variation in crossover rate is lower than that of other model species, and is inconsistent with hotspots. The relationship of genomic features to crossover rate is dependent on scale, with GC content, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy being negatively associated with crossovers. We also find that the abundances of 4- to 6-bp DNA motifs significantly explain crossover density. These results are consistent with recombination occurring at unevenly distributed sites of open chromatin. PMID:27172189

  1. Crossover of marital dissatisfaction during military downsizing among Russian army officers and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mina; Vinokur, Amiram D; Hamilton, V Lee; Roziner, Ilan

    2004-10-01

    This study examined mechanisms of strain crossover within couples and the moderating role of gender. Data were collected at a time of military downsizing from a sample of 1,250 Russian army officers and their spouses. The authors tested a model that incorporated 3 mechanisms for the crossover of marital dissatisfaction among dual-earner couples. The model provided support for 2 suggested crossover mechanisms: direct reactions of crossover and indirect mediated effects through social undermining. Strong evidence was also provided for gender asymmetry in the crossover process. Marital dissatisfaction crossed over from husbands to wives but not vice versa, and social undermining behavior played a role in the process of crossover of marital dissatisfaction for husbands but not for wives.

  2. Extensive Interallelic Polymorphisms Drive Meiotic Recombination into a Crossover Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dooner, Hugo K.

    2002-01-01

    Recombinants isolated from most meiotic intragenic recombination experiments in maize, but not in yeast, are borne principally on crossover chromosomes. This excess of crossovers is not explained readily by the canonical double-strand break repair model of recombination, proposed to account for a large body of yeast data, which predicts that crossovers (COs) and noncrossovers (NCOs) should be recovered equally. An attempt has been made here to identify general rules governing the recovery of the CO and NCO classes of intragenic recombinants in maize. Recombination was analyzed in bz heterozygotes between a variety of mutations derived from the same or different progenitor alleles. The mutations include point mutations, transposon insertions, and transposon excision footprints. Consequently, the differences between the bz heteroalleles ranged from just two nucleotides to many nucleotides, indels, and insertions. In this article, allelic pairs differing at only two positions are referred to as dimorphic to distinguish them from polymorphic pairs, which differ at multiple positions. The present study has revealed the following effects at these bz heteroalleles: (1) recombination between polymorphic heteroalleles produces mostly CO chromosomes; (2) recombination between dimorphic heteroalleles produces both CO and NCO chromosomes, in ratios apparently dependent on the nature of the heteroalleles; and (3) in dimorphic heterozygotes, the two NCO classes are recovered in approximately equal numbers when the two mutations are point mutations but not when one or both mutations are insertions. These observations are discussed in light of a recent version of the double-strand break repair model of recombination that postulates separate pathways for the formation of CO and NCO products. PMID:12034905

  3. Single water entropy: hydrophobic crossover and application to drug binding.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2014-09-11

    Entropy of water plays an important role in both chemical and biological processes e.g. hydrophobic effect, molecular recognition etc. Here we use a new approach to calculate translational and rotational entropy of the individual water molecules around different hydrophobic and charged solutes. We show that for small hydrophobic solutes, the translational and rotational entropies of each water molecule increase as a function of its distance from the solute reaching finally to a constant bulk value. As the size of the solute increases (0.746 nm), the behavior of the translational entropy is opposite; water molecules closest to the solute have higher entropy that reduces with distance from the solute. This indicates that there is a crossover in translational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes from negative to positive values as the size of the solute is increased. Rotational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes for all sizes increases with distance from the solute, indicating the absence of crossover in rotational entropy. This makes the crossover in total entropy (translation + rotation) of water molecule happen at much larger size (>1.5 nm) for hydrophobic solutes. Translational entropy of single water molecule scales logarithmically (Str(QH) = C + kB ln V), with the volume V obtained from the ellipsoid of inertia. We further discuss the origin of higher entropy of water around water and show the possibility of recovering the entropy loss of some hypothetical solutes. The results obtained are helpful to understand water entropy behavior around various hydrophobic and charged environments within biomolecules. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to calculate the entropy of the individual water molecules in a protein cavity that may be replaced during ligand binding.

  4. Critical Temperature Curve in BEC-BCS Crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeny |; Prokofev, Nikolay ||; Svistunov, Boris |; Troyer, Matthias

    2008-08-29

    The strongly correlated regime of the crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing to Bose-Einstein condensation can be realized by diluting a system of two-component fermions with a short-range attractive interaction. We investigate this system via a novel continuous-space-time diagrammatic determinant Monte Carlo method and determine the universal curve T{sub c}/{epsilon}{sub F} for the transition temperature between the normal and the superfluid states as a function of the scattering length with the maximum on the Bose-Einstein condensation side. At unitarity, we confirm that T{sub c}/{epsilon}{sub F}=0.152(7)

  5. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  6. Computational approach to the study of thermal spin crossover phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Rudavskyi, Andrii; Broer, Ria; Sousa, Carmen

    2014-05-14

    The key parameters associated to the thermally induced spin crossover process have been calculated for a series of Fe(II) complexes with mono-, bi-, and tridentate ligands. Combination of density functional theory calculations for the geometries and for normal vibrational modes, and highly correlated wave function methods for the energies, allows us to accurately compute the entropy variation associated to the spin transition and the zero-point corrected energy difference between the low- and high-spin states. From these values, the transition temperature, T{sub 1/2}, is estimated for different compounds.

  7. Analysis of cross-over studies with missing data.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Gerd K

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the analysis of cross-over trials with missing or incomplete data. A literature review on the topic reveals that many proposals provide correct results under the missing completely at random assumption while only some consider the more general missing at random situation. It is argued that mixed-effects models have a role in this context to recover some of the missing intra-subject from the inter-subject information, in particular when missingness is ignorable. Eventually, sensitivity analyses to deal with more general missingness mechanisms are presented.

  8. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators

    PubMed Central

    Scheurer, Mathias S.; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers. PMID:25669431

  9. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of topological Mott insulators.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, Mathias S; Rachel, Stephan; Orth, Peter P

    2015-02-11

    Interacting cold-atomic gases in optical lattices offer an experimental approach to outstanding problems of many body physics. One important example is the interplay of interaction and topology which promises to generate a variety of exotic phases such as the fractionalized Chern insulator or the topological Mott insulator. Both theoretically understanding these states of matter and finding suitable systems that host them have proven to be challenging problems. Here we propose a cold-atom setup where Hubbard on-site interactions give rise to spin liquid-like phases: weak and strong topological Mott insulators. They represent the celebrated paradigm of an interacting and topological quantum state with fractionalized spinon excitations that inherit the topology of the non-interacting system. Our proposal shall help to pave the way for a controlled experimental investigation of this exotic state of matter in optical lattices. Furthermore, it allows for the investigation of a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator by tuning the hopping between the layers.

  10. Phase Transition in Sexual Reproduction and Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawierta, Marta; Waga, Wojciech; Mackiewicz, Dorota; Biecek, Przemysław; Cebrat, Stanisław

    Using Monte Carlo model of biological evolution it is discovered that populations can switch between two different strategies of their genomes' evolution: Darwinian purifying selection and complementing the haplotypes. The first one is exploited in the large panmictic populations while the second one in the small highly inbred populations. The choice depends on the crossover frequency. There is a power law relation between the critical value of crossover frequency and the size of panmictic population. Under constant inbreeding this critical value of crossover does not depend on the population size and has a character of phase transition. Close to this value sympatric speciation is observed.

  11. DNA methylation epigenetically silences crossover hot spots and controls chromosomal domains of meiotic recombination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yelina, Nataliya E; Lambing, Christophe; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Santos, Bruno; Henderson, Ian R

    2015-10-15

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which is typically concentrated in narrow hot spots that are controlled by genetic and epigenetic information. Arabidopsis chromosomes are highly DNA methylated in the repetitive centromeres, which are also crossover-suppressed. Here we demonstrate that RNA-directed DNA methylation is sufficient to locally silence Arabidopsis euchromatic crossover hot spots and is associated with increased nucleosome density and H3K9me2. However, loss of CG DNA methylation maintenance in met1 triggers epigenetic crossover remodeling at the chromosome scale, with pericentromeric decreases and euchromatic increases in recombination. We used recombination mutants that alter interfering and noninterfering crossover repair pathways (fancm and zip4) to demonstrate that remodeling primarily involves redistribution of interfering crossovers. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show that crossover remodeling is driven by loss of CG methylation within the centromeric regions. Using cytogenetics, we profiled meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci in met1 and found them unchanged relative to wild type. We propose that met1 chromosome structure is altered, causing centromere-proximal DSBs to be inhibited from maturation into interfering crossovers. These data demonstrate that DNA methylation is sufficient to silence crossover hot spots and plays a key role in establishing domains of meiotic recombination along chromosomes.

  12. High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Linnéa; Mugal, Carina F; Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of 'strong' (G, C) over 'weak' (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups.

  13. High-Resolution Mapping of Crossover and Non-crossover Recombination Events by Whole-Genome Re-sequencing of an Avian Pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnström, Anna; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is an engine of genetic diversity and therefore constitutes a key process in evolutionary biology and genetics. While the outcome of crossover recombination can readily be detected as shuffled alleles by following the inheritance of markers in pedigreed families, the more precise location of both crossover and non-crossover recombination events has been difficult to pinpoint. As a consequence, we lack a detailed portrait of the recombination landscape for most organisms and knowledge on how this landscape impacts on sequence evolution at a local scale. To localize recombination events with high resolution in an avian system, we performed whole-genome re-sequencing at high coverage of a complete three-generation collared flycatcher pedigree. We identified 325 crossovers at a median resolution of 1.4 kb, with 86% of the events localized to <10 kb intervals. Observed crossover rates were in excellent agreement with data from linkage mapping, were 52% higher in male (3.56 cM/Mb) than in female meiosis (2.28 cM/Mb), and increased towards chromosome ends in male but not female meiosis. Crossover events were non-randomly distributed in the genome with several distinct hot-spots and a concentration to genic regions, with the highest density in promoters and CpG islands. We further identified 267 non-crossovers, whose location was significantly associated with crossover locations. We detected a significant transmission bias (0.18) in favour of ‘strong’ (G, C) over ‘weak’ (A, T) alleles at non-crossover events, providing direct evidence for the process of GC-biased gene conversion in an avian system. The approach taken in this study should be applicable to any species and would thereby help to provide a more comprehensive portray of the recombination landscape across organism groups. PMID:27219623

  14. Crossover Control Study of the Effect of Personal Care Products Containing Triclosan on the Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Poole, Angela C; Pischel, Lauren; Ley, Catherine; Suh, Gina; Goodrich, Julia K; Haggerty, Thomas D; Ley, Ruth E; Parsonnet, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Commonly prescribed antibiotics are known to alter human microbiota. We hypothesized that triclosan and triclocarban, components of many household and personal care products (HPCPs), may alter the oral and gut microbiota, with potential consequences for metabolic function and weight. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, participants were given triclosan- and triclocarban (TCS)-containing or non-triclosan/triclocarban (nTCS)-containing HPCPs for 4 months and then switched to the other products for an additional 4 months. Blood, stool, gingival plaque, and urine samples and weight data were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals throughout the study period. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolic and endocrine markers and urine samples for triclosan. The microbiome in stool and oral samples was then analyzed. Although there was a significant difference in the amount of triclosan in the urine between the TCS and nTCS phases, no differences were found in microbiome composition, metabolic or endocrine markers, or weight. Though this study was limited by the small sample size and imprecise administration of HPCPs, triclosan at physiologic levels from exposure to HPCPs does not appear to have a significant or important impact on human oral or gut microbiome structure or on a panel of metabolic markers. IMPORTANCE Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used commercial microbicides found in toothpastes and soaps. It is unknown what effects these chemicals have on the human microbiome or on endocrine function. From this randomized crossover study, it appears that routine personal care use of triclosan and triclocarban neither exerts a major influence on microbial communities in the gut and mouth nor alters markers of endocrine function in humans.

  15. Crossover Control Study of the Effect of Personal Care Products Containing Triclosan on the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Angela C.; Pischel, Lauren; Ley, Catherine; Suh, Gina; Goodrich, Julia K.; Haggerty, Thomas D.; Ley, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Commonly prescribed antibiotics are known to alter human microbiota. We hypothesized that triclosan and triclocarban, components of many household and personal care products (HPCPs), may alter the oral and gut microbiota, with potential consequences for metabolic function and weight. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, participants were given triclosan- and triclocarban (TCS)-containing or non-triclosan/triclocarban (nTCS)-containing HPCPs for 4 months and then switched to the other products for an additional 4 months. Blood, stool, gingival plaque, and urine samples and weight data were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals throughout the study period. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolic and endocrine markers and urine samples for triclosan. The microbiome in stool and oral samples was then analyzed. Although there was a significant difference in the amount of triclosan in the urine between the TCS and nTCS phases, no differences were found in microbiome composition, metabolic or endocrine markers, or weight. Though this study was limited by the small sample size and imprecise administration of HPCPs, triclosan at physiologic levels from exposure to HPCPs does not appear to have a significant or important impact on human oral or gut microbiome structure or on a panel of metabolic markers. IMPORTANCE Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used commercial microbicides found in toothpastes and soaps. It is unknown what effects these chemicals have on the human microbiome or on endocrine function. From this randomized crossover study, it appears that routine personal care use of triclosan and triclocarban neither exerts a major influence on microbial communities in the gut and mouth nor alters markers of endocrine function in humans. PMID:27303746

  16. Free energy and configurational entropy of liquid silica: Fragile-to-strong crossover and polyamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Poole, Peter H.

    2004-04-01

    Recent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid silica, using the “BKS” model [

    Van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)
    ], have demonstrated that the liquid undergoes a dynamical crossover from super-Arrhenius, or “fragile” behavior, to Arrhenius, or “strong” behavior, as temperature T is decreased. From extensive MD simulations, we show that this fragile-to-strong crossover (FSC) can be connected to changes in the properties of the potential energy landscape, or surface (PES), of the liquid. To achieve this, we use thermodynamic integration to evaluate the absolute free energy of the liquid over a wide range of density and T . We use this free energy data, along with the concept of “inherent structures” of the PES, to evaluate the absolute configurational entropy Sc of the liquid. We find that the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient and of Sc are consistent with the prediction of Adam and Gibbs, including in the region where we observe the FSC to occur. We find that the FSC is related to a change in the properties of the PES explored by the liquid, specifically an inflection in the T dependence of the average inherent structure energy. In addition, we find that the high T behavior of Sc suggests that the liquid entropy might approach zero at finite T , behavior associated with the so-called Kauzmann paradox. However, we find that the change in the PES that underlies the FSC is associated with a change in the T dependence of Sc that elucidates how the Kauzmann paradox is avoided in this system. Finally, we also explore the relation of the observed PES changes to the recently discussed possibility that BKS silica exhibits a liquid-liquid phase transition, a behavior that has been proposed to underlie the observed polyamorphism of amorphous solid silica.

  17. Observation of a crossover in kinetic aggregation of Palladium colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafari, M.; Ranjbar, M.; Rouhani, S.

    2015-10-01

    We use field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to investigate the growth of palladium colloids over the surface of thin films of WO3/glass. The film is prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) at different temperatures. A PdCl2 (aq) droplet is injected on the surface and in the presence of steam hydrogen the droplet is dried through a reduction reaction process. Two distinct aggregation regimes of palladium colloids are observed over the substrates. We argue that the change in aggregation dynamics emerges when the measured water drop Contact Angel (CA) for the WO3/glass thin films passes a certain threshold value, namely CA ≈ 46°, where a crossover in kinetic aggregation of palladium colloids occurs. Our results suggest that the mass fractal dimension of palladium aggregates follows a power-law behavior. The fractal dimension (Df) in the fast aggregation regime, where the measured CA values vary from 27° up to 46° according to different substrate deposition temperatures, is Df = 1.75(± 0.02) - the value of Df is in excellent agreement with kinetic aggregation of other colloidal systems in fast aggregation regime. Whereas for the slow aggregation regime, with CA = 58°, the fractal dimension changes abruptly to Df = 1.92(± 0.03). We have also used a modified Box-Counting method to calculate fractal dimension of gray-level images and observe that the crossover at around CA ≈ 46° remains unchanged.

  18. Metal-to-insulator crossover in alkali doped zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Mutsuo; Jeglič, Peter; Krajnc, Andraž; Žitko, Rok; Nakano, Takehito; Nozue, Yasuo; Arčon, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the 23Na spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, in sodium loaded low-silica X (LSX) zeolite, Nan/Na12-LSX, for various loading levels of sodium atoms n across the metal-to-insulator crossover. For high loading levels of n ≥ 14.2, 1/T1T shows nearly temperature-independent behaviour between 10 K and 25 K consistent with the Korringa relaxation mechanism and the metallic ground state. As the loading levels decrease below n ≤ 11.6, the extracted density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level sharply decreases, although a residual DOS at Fermi level is still observed even in the samples that lack the metallic Drude-peak in the optical reflectance. The observed crossover is a result of a complex loading-level dependence of electric potential felt by the electrons confined to zeolite cages, where the electronic correlations and disorder both play an important role. PMID:26725368

  19. Spin-Crossover Materials towards Microwave Radiation Switches

    PubMed Central

    Kucheriv, Olesia I.; Oliynyk, Viktor V.; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr V.; Launets, Vilen L.; Gural’skiy, Il’ya A.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave electromagnetic radiation that ranges from one meter to one millimetre wavelengths is finding numerous applications for wireless communication, navigation and detection, which makes materials able to tune microwave radiation getting widespread interest. Here we offer a new way to tune GHz frequency radiation by using spin-crossover complexes that are known to change their various physical properties under the influence of diverse external stimuli. As a result of electronic re-configuration process, microwave absorption properties differ for high spin and low spin forms of the complex. The evolution of a microwave absorption spectrum for the switchable compound within the region of thermal transition indicates that the high-spin and the low-spin forms are characterized by a different attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Absorption and reflection coefficients were found to be higher in the high-spin state comparing to the low-spin state. These results reveal a considerable potential for the implementation of spin-crossover materials into different elements of microwave signal switching and wireless communication. PMID:27910956

  20. Recombination patterns in maize reveal limits to crossover homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Fang, Celestia; Olson, Mischa A; Falque, Matthieu; Martin, Olivier C; Pawlowski, Wojciech P

    2015-12-29

    During meiotic recombination, double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed in chromosomal DNA and then repaired as either crossovers (COs) or non-crossovers (NCOs). In most taxa, the number of DSBs vastly exceeds the number of COs. COs are required for generating genetic diversity in the progeny, as well as proper chromosome segregation. Their formation is tightly controlled so that there is at least one CO per pair of homologous chromosomes whereas the maximum number of COs per chromosome pair is fairly limited. One of the main mechanisms controlling the number of recombination events per meiosis is CO homeostasis, which maintains a stable CO number even when the DSB number is dramatically altered. The existence of CO homeostasis has been reported in several species, including mouse, yeast, and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, it is not known whether homeostasis exists in the same form in all species. In addition, the studies of homeostasis have been conducted using mutants and/or transgenic lines exhibiting fairly severe meiotic phenotypes, and it is unclear how important homeostasis is under normal physiological conditions. We found that, in maize, CO control is robust only to ensure one CO per chromosome pair. However, once this limit is reached, the CO number is linearly related to the DSB number. We propose that CO control is a multifaceted process whose different aspects have a varying degree of importance in different species.

  1. Low Crossover Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, G. K. Surya; Smart, Marshall; Atti, Anthony R.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T.; Surampudi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC's) using polymer electrolyte membranes are promising power sources for portable and vehicular applications. State of the art technology using Nafion(R) 117 membranes (Dupont) are limited by high methanol permeability and cost, resulting in reduced fuel cell efficiencies and impractical commercialization. Therefore, much research in the fuel cell field is focused on the preparation and testing of low crossover and cost efficient polymer electrolyte membranes. The University of Southern California in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is focused on development of such materials. Interpenetrating polymer networks are an effective method used to blend polymer systems without forming chemical links. They provide the ability to modify physical and chemical properties of polymers by optimizing blend compositions. We have developed a novel interpenetrating polymer network based on poly (vinyl - difluoride)/cross-linked polystyrenesulfonic acid polymer composites (PVDF PSSA). Sulfonation of polystyrene accounts for protonic conductivity while the non-polar, PVDF backbone provides structural integrity in addition to methanol rejection. Precursor materials were prepared and analyzed to characterize membrane crystallinity, stability and degree of interpenetration. USC JPL PVDF-PSSA membranes were also characterized to determine methanol permeability, protonic conductivity and sulfur distribution. Membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and tested for single cell performance. Tests include cell performance over a wide range of temperatures (20 C - 90 C) and cathode conditions (ambient Air/O2). Methanol crossover values are measured in situ using an in-line CO2 analyzer.

  2. Chaos based crossover and mutation for securing DICOM image.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Dhivya; Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel encryption scheme based on combining multiple chaotic maps to ensure the safe transmission of medical images. The proposed scheme uses three chaotic maps namely logistic, tent and sine maps. To achieve an efficient encryption, the proposed chao-cryptic system employs a bio-inspired crossover and mutation units to confuse and diffuse the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image pixels. The crossover unit extensively permutes the image pixels row-wise and column-wise based on the chaotic key streams generated from the Combined Logistic-Tent (CLT) system. Prior to mutation, the pixels of the crossed over image are decomposed into two images with reduced bit depth. The decomposed images are then mutated by XOR operation with quantized chaotic sequences from Combined Logistic-Sine (CLS) system. In order to validate the sternness of the proposed algorithm, the developed chao-cryptic scheme is subjected to various security analyses such as statistical, differential, key space, key sensitivity, intentional cropping attack and chosen plaintext attack analyses. The experimental results prove the proposed DICOM cryptosystem has achieved a desirable amount of protection for real time medical image security applications.

  3. Dimensional crossover of a boson gas in multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, P.; Sevilla, F. J.; Fortes, M.; Solis, M. A.; Llano, M. de; Camacho, A.

    2010-09-15

    We obtain the thermodynamic properties for a noninteracting Bose gas constrained on multilayers modeled by a periodic Kronig-Penney delta potential in one direction and allowed to be free in the other two directions. We report Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperatures, chemical potential, internal energy, specific heat, and entropy for different values of a dimensionless impenetrability P{>=}0 between layers. The BEC critical temperature T{sub c} coincides with the ideal gas BEC critical temperature T{sub 0} when P=0 and rapidly goes to zero as P increases to infinity for any finite interlayer separation. The specific heat C{sub V} as a function of absolute temperature T for finite P and plane separation a exhibits one minimum and one or two maxima in addition to the BEC, for temperatures larger than that of BEC T{sub c}. This highlights the effects due to particle confinement. We then discuss a distinctive dimensional crossover of the system through the specific heat behavior driven by the magnitude of P. For Tcrossover is revealed by a change in slope of logC{sub V}(T) and when T>T{sub c}, it is exhibited by a broad minimum in C{sub V}(T).

  4. Spin-Crossover Materials towards Microwave Radiation Switches.

    PubMed

    Kucheriv, Olesia I; Oliynyk, Viktor V; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr V; Launets, Vilen L; Gural'skiy, Il'ya A

    2016-12-02

    Microwave electromagnetic radiation that ranges from one meter to one millimetre wavelengths is finding numerous applications for wireless communication, navigation and detection, which makes materials able to tune microwave radiation getting widespread interest. Here we offer a new way to tune GHz frequency radiation by using spin-crossover complexes that are known to change their various physical properties under the influence of diverse external stimuli. As a result of electronic re-configuration process, microwave absorption properties differ for high spin and low spin forms of the complex. The evolution of a microwave absorption spectrum for the switchable compound within the region of thermal transition indicates that the high-spin and the low-spin forms are characterized by a different attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Absorption and reflection coefficients were found to be higher in the high-spin state comparing to the low-spin state. These results reveal a considerable potential for the implementation of spin-crossover materials into different elements of microwave signal switching and wireless communication.

  5. More than one dynamic crossover in protein hydration water

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Marco G.; Stokely, Kevin; Pagnotta, Sara E.; Bruni, Fabio; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Studies of liquid water in its supercooled region have helped us better understand the structure and behavior of water. Bulk water freezes at its homogeneous nucleation temperature (approximately 235 K), but protein hydration water avoids this crystallization because each water molecule binds to a protein. Here, we study the dynamics of the hydrogen bond (HB) network of a percolating layer of water molecules and compare the measurements of a hydrated globular protein with the results of a coarse-grained model that successfully reproduces the properties of hydration water. Using dielectric spectroscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of the relaxation time of proton charge fluctuations. These fluctuations are associated with the dynamics of the HB network of water molecules adsorbed on the protein surface. Using Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations, we study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the model. Both experimental and model analyses are consistent with the interesting possibility of two dynamic crossovers, (i) at approximately 252 K and (ii) at approximately 181 K. Because the experiments agree with the model, we can relate the two crossovers to the presence at ambient pressure of two specific heat maxima. The first is caused by fluctuations in the HB formation, and the second, at a lower temperature, is due to the cooperative reordering of the HB network. PMID:22135473

  6. More than one dynamic crossover in protein hydration water.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Marco G; Stokely, Kevin; Pagnotta, Sara E; Bruni, Fabio; Stanley, H Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo

    2011-12-13

    Studies of liquid water in its supercooled region have helped us better understand the structure and behavior of water. Bulk water freezes at its homogeneous nucleation temperature (approximately 235 K), but protein hydration water avoids this crystallization because each water molecule binds to a protein. Here, we study the dynamics of the hydrogen bond (HB) network of a percolating layer of water molecules and compare the measurements of a hydrated globular protein with the results of a coarse-grained model that successfully reproduces the properties of hydration water. Using dielectric spectroscopy, we measure the temperature dependence of the relaxation time of proton charge fluctuations. These fluctuations are associated with the dynamics of the HB network of water molecules adsorbed on the protein surface. Using Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field calculations, we study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the model. Both experimental and model analyses are consistent with the interesting possibility of two dynamic crossovers, (i) at approximately 252 K and (ii) at approximately 181 K. Because the experiments agree with the model, we can relate the two crossovers to the presence at ambient pressure of two specific heat maxima. The first is caused by fluctuations in the HB formation, and the second, at a lower temperature, is due to the cooperative reordering of the HB network.

  7. Dimensional crossover and universal roughness distributions in Barkhausen noise.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, S L A

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the dimensional crossover of scaling properties of avalanches (domain-wall jumps) in a single-interface model, used for the description of Barkhausen noise in disordered magnets. By varying the transverse aspect ratio A=L(y)/L(x) of simulated samples, the system dimensionality changes from two to three. We find that perturbing away from d=2 is a relevant field. The exponent tau characterizing the power-law scaling of avalanche distributions varies between 1.06(1) for d=2 and 1.275(15) for d=3, according to a crossover function f(x), x identical with (L-1x)(phi)/A, with phi=0.95(3). We discuss the possible relevance of our results to the interpretation of thin-film measurements of Barkhausen noise. We also study the probability distributions of interface roughness, sampled among successive equilibrium configurations in the Barkhausen noise regime. Attempts to fit our data to the class of universality distributions associated to 1/f(alpha) noise give alpha approximately 1-1.1 for d=2 and 3 (provided that suitable boundary conditions are used in the latter case).

  8. Analysis of Poisson frequency data under a simple crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2016-02-01

    When the frequency of occurrence for an event of interest follows a Poisson distribution, we develop asymptotic and exact procedures for testing non-equality, non-inferiority and equivalence, as well as asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the ratio of mean frequencies between two treatments under a simple crossover design. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate the performance of these test procedures and interval estimators in a variety of situations. We note that all asymptotic test procedures developed here can generally perform well with respect to Type I error and can be preferable to the exact test procedure with respect to power if the number of patients per group is moderate or large. We further find that in these cases the asymptotic interval estimator with the logarithmic transformation can be more precise than the exact interval estimator without sacrificing the accuracy with respect to the coverage probability. However, the exact test procedure and exact interval estimator can be of use when the number of patients per group is small. We use a double-blind randomized crossover trial comparing salmeterol with a placebo in exacerbations of asthma to illustrate the practical use of these estimators.

  9. Crossover from attractive to repulsive Casimir forces and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Felix M; Diehl, H W

    2008-09-05

    Systems described by an O(n) symmetrical varphi;{4} Hamiltonian are considered in a d-dimensional film geometry at their bulk critical points. The critical Casimir forces between the film's boundary planes B_{j}, j=1,2, are investigated as functions of film thickness L for generic symmetry-preserving boundary conditions partial differential_{n}phi=c[over composite function]_{j}phi. The L-dependent part of the reduced excess free energy per cross-sectional area takes the scaling form f_{res} approximately D(c_{1}L;{Phi/nu},c_{2}L;{Phi/nu})/L;{d-1} when d<4, where c_{i} are scaling fields associated with the variables c[over composite function]_{i} and Phi is a surface crossover exponent. Explicit two-loop renormalization group results for the function D(c_{1},c_{2}) at d=4- dimensions are presented. These show that (i) the Casimir force can have either sign, depending on c_{1} and c_{2}, and (ii) for appropriate choices of the enhancements c[over composite function]_{j}, crossovers from attraction to repulsion and vice versa occur as L increases.

  10. Bcs-Bec Crossover Without Appeal to Scattering Length Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    BCS-BEC (an acronym formed from Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover physics has customarily been addressed in the framework of the scattering length theory (SLT), which requires regularization/renormalization of equations involving infinities. This paper gives a frame by frame picture, as it were, of the crossover scenario without appealing to SLT. While we believe that the intuitive approach followed here will make the subject accessible to a wider readership, we also show that it sheds light on a feature that has not been under the purview of the customary approach: the role of the hole-hole scatterings vis-à-vis the electron-electron scatterings as one goes from the BCS to the BEC end. More importantly, we show that there are critical values of the concentration (n)and the interaction parameter (λ) at which the condensation of Cooper pairs takes place; this is a finding in contrast with the view that such pairs are automatically condensed.

  11. Metal-to-insulator crossover in alkali doped zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Mutsuo; Jeglič, Peter; Krajnc, Andraž; Žitko, Rok; Nakano, Takehito; Nozue, Yasuo; Arčon, Denis

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the 23Na spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, in sodium loaded low-silica X (LSX) zeolite, Nan/Na12-LSX, for various loading levels of sodium atoms n across the metal-to-insulator crossover. For high loading levels of n ≥ 14.2, 1/T1T shows nearly temperature-independent behaviour between 10 K and 25 K consistent with the Korringa relaxation mechanism and the metallic ground state. As the loading levels decrease below n ≤ 11.6, the extracted density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level sharply decreases, although a residual DOS at Fermi level is still observed even in the samples that lack the metallic Drude-peak in the optical reflectance. The observed crossover is a result of a complex loading-level dependence of electric potential felt by the electrons confined to zeolite cages, where the electronic correlations and disorder both play an important role.

  12. Majority-vote model on spatially embedded networks: Crossover from mean-field to Ising universality classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio Filho, C. I. N.; dos Santos, T. B.; Moreira, A. A.; Moreira, F. G. B.; Andrade, J. S.

    2016-05-01

    We study through Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis the nonequilibrium phase transitions of the majority-vote model taking place on spatially embedded networks. These structures are built from an underlying regular lattice over which directed long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability Pi j˜r-α , where ri j is the Manhattan distance between nodes i and j , and the exponent α is a controlling parameter [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature (London) 406, 845 (2000), 10.1038/35022643]. Our results show that the collective behavior of this system exhibits a continuous order-disorder phase transition at a critical parameter, which is a decreasing function of the exponent α . Precisely, considering the scaling functions and the critical exponents calculated, we conclude that the system undergoes a crossover among distinct universality classes. For α ≤3 the critical behavior is described by mean-field exponents, while for α ≥4 it belongs to the Ising universality class. Finally, in the region where the crossover occurs, 3 <α <4 , the critical exponents are dependent on α .

  13. Majority-vote model on spatially embedded networks: Crossover from mean-field to Ising universality classes.

    PubMed

    Sampaio Filho, C I N; Dos Santos, T B; Moreira, A A; Moreira, F G B; Andrade, J S

    2016-05-01

    We study through Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis the nonequilibrium phase transitions of the majority-vote model taking place on spatially embedded networks. These structures are built from an underlying regular lattice over which directed long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability P_{ij}∼r^{-α}, where r_{ij} is the Manhattan distance between nodes i and j, and the exponent α is a controlling parameter [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature (London) 406, 845 (2000)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/35022643]. Our results show that the collective behavior of this system exhibits a continuous order-disorder phase transition at a critical parameter, which is a decreasing function of the exponent α. Precisely, considering the scaling functions and the critical exponents calculated, we conclude that the system undergoes a crossover among distinct universality classes. For α≤3 the critical behavior is described by mean-field exponents, while for α≥4 it belongs to the Ising universality class. Finally, in the region where the crossover occurs, 3<α<4, the critical exponents are dependent on α.

  14. Effective Hamiltonian based Monte Carlo for the BCS to BEC crossover in the attractive Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasrija, Kanika; Chakraborty, Prabuddha B.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-10-01

    We present an effective Hamiltonian based real-space approach for studying the weak-coupling BCS to the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensate crossover in the two-dimensional attractive Hubbard model at finite temperatures. We introduce and justify an effective classical Hamiltonian to describe the thermal fluctuations of the relevant auxiliary fields. Our results for Tc and phase diagrams compare very well with those obtained from more sophisticated and CPU-intensive numerical methods. We demonstrate that the method works in the presence of disorder and can be a powerful tool for a real-space description of the effect of disorder on superconductivity. From a combined analysis of the superconducting order parameter, the distribution of auxiliary fields, and the quasiparticle density of states, we identify the regions of metallic, insulating, superconducting, and pseudogapped behavior. Our finding of the importance of phase fluctuations for the pseudogap behavior is consistent with the conclusions drawn from recent experiments on NbN superconductors. The method can be generalized to study superconductors with nontrivial order-parameter symmetries by identifying the relevant auxiliary variables.

  15. Crossover of the Thermal Escape Problem in Annular Spatially Distributed Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Kirill G.; Pankratov, Andrey L.

    2009-12-31

    The computer simulations of fluctuational dynamics of an annular system governed by the sine-Gordon model with a white noise source are performed. It is demonstrated that the mean escape time (MET) of a phase string for an annular structure can be much larger than for a linear one and has a strongly pronounced maximum as a function of system's length. The location of the MET maximum roughly equals the size of the kink-antikink pair, which leads to evidence of a spatial crossover between two dynamical regimes: when the phase string escapes over the potential barrier as a whole and when the creation of kink-antikink pairs is the main mechanism of the escape process. For large lengths and in the limit of small noise intensity gamma, for both MET and inverse concentration of kinks, we observe the same dependence versus the kink energy E{sub k}: approxexp(2E{sub k}/gamma) for the annular structure and approxexp(E{sub k}/gamma) for the linear one.

  16. Crossover of the thermal escape problem in annular spatially distributed systems.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Kirill G; Pankratov, Andrey L

    2009-12-31

    The computer simulations of fluctuational dynamics of an annular system governed by the sine-Gordon model with a white noise source are performed. It is demonstrated that the mean escape time (MET) of a phase string for an annular structure can be much larger than for a linear one and has a strongly pronounced maximum as a function of system's length. The location of the MET maximum roughly equals the size of the kink-antikink pair, which leads to evidence of a spatial crossover between two dynamical regimes: when the phase string escapes over the potential barrier as a whole and when the creation of kink-antikink pairs is the main mechanism of the escape process. For large lengths and in the limit of small noise intensity gamma, for both MET and inverse concentration of kinks, we observe the same dependence versus the kink energy E(k): approximately exp(2E(k)/gamma) for the annular structure and approximately exp(E(k)/gamma) for the linear one.

  17. Natural variation and dosage of the HEI10 meiotic E3 ligase control Arabidopsis crossover recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkowski, Piotr A.; Underwood, Charles J.; Lambing, Christophe; Martinez-Garcia, Marina; Lawrence, Emma J.; Ziolkowska, Liliana; Griffin, Catherine; Choi, Kyuha; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Henderson, Ian R.

    2017-01-01

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo crossover recombination, which creates genetic diversity and balances homolog segregation. Despite these critical functions, crossover frequency varies extensively within and between species. Although natural crossover recombination modifier loci have been detected in plants, causal genes have remained elusive. Using natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified two major recombination quantitative trait loci (rQTLs) that explain 56.9% of crossover variation in Col×Ler F2 populations. We mapped rQTL1 to semidominant polymorphisms in HEI10, which encodes a conserved ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates crossovers. Null hei10 mutants are haploinsufficient, and, using genome-wide mapping and immunocytology, we show that transformation of additional HEI10 copies is sufficient to more than double euchromatic crossovers. However, heterochromatic centromeres remained recombination-suppressed. The strongest HEI10-mediated crossover increases occur in subtelomeric euchromatin, which is reminiscent of sex differences in Arabidopsis recombination. Our work reveals that HEI10 naturally limits Arabidopsis crossovers and has the potential to influence the response to selection. PMID:28223312

  18. A Cross-Over Experimental Design for Testing Audiovisual Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolovitch, Harold D.; Bordeleau, Pierre

    This paper contains a description of the cross-over type of experimental design as well as a case study of its use in field testing audiovisual materials related to teaching handicapped children. Increased efficiency is an advantage of the cross-over design, while difficulty in selecting similar format audiovisual materials for field testing is a…

  19. Methods for adjusting for bias due to crossover in oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ishak, K Jack; Proskorovsky, Irina; Korytowsky, Beata; Sandin, Rickard; Faivre, Sandrine; Valle, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Trials of new oncology treatments often involve a crossover element in their design that allows patients receiving the control treatment to crossover to receive the experimental treatment at disease progression or when sufficient evidence about the efficacy of the new treatment is achieved. Crossover leads to contamination of the initial randomized groups due to a mixing of the effects of the control and experimental treatments in the reference group. This is further complicated by the fact that crossover is often a very selective process whereby patients who switch treatment have a different prognosis than those who do not. Standard statistical techniques, including those that attempt to account for the treatment switch, cannot fully adjust for the bias introduced by crossover. Specialized methods such as rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) models and inverse probability of censoring weighted (IPCW) analyses are designed to deal with selective treatment switching and have been increasingly applied to adjust for crossover. We provide an overview of the crossover problem and highlight circumstances under which it is likely to cause bias. We then describe the RPSFT and IPCW methods and explain how these methods adjust for the bias, highlighting the assumptions invoked in the process. Our aim is to facilitate understanding of these complex methods using a case study to support explanations. We also discuss the implications of crossover adjustment on cost-effectiveness results.

  20. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  1. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...) General. Employees operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1) Conduct...

  2. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  3. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  4. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...) General. Employees operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1) Conduct...

  5. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. (a)(1...) General. Employees operating or verifying the position of a hand-operated switch shall: (1) Conduct...

  6. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches....

  7. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-operated crossover switches. 218.107 Section 218.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.107 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule...

  8. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the following: (a) An arrangement of one or more track circuits and switch circuit controllers, (b) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or (c) Electric locking of the switches of the crossover. Signals governing movements over either switch...

  9. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-operated crossover switches. 218.107 Section 218.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.107 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule...

  10. 49 CFR 218.103 - Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches. 218.103 Section 218.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.103 Hand-operated switches, including crossover switches....

  11. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.220 Fixed gear fishery—crossover... fixed gear fishery....

  12. Spillover and Crossover of Exhaustion and Life Satisfaction among Dual-Earner Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2005-01-01

    This study integrates spillover research of stress transferring from work to home and crossover research of strains transferring from one spouse to another. A spillover and crossover model was tested among 191 (couples of) dual-earner parents. For both males and females, it was hypothesized that (self-reported and partners' rating of)…

  13. 50 CFR 660.320 - Open access fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-crossover provisions... West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.320 Open access fishery—crossover provisions. (a) Operating in both limited entry and open access fisheries. See provisions at § 660.60, subpart C....

  14. Biases in Attentional Orientation and Magnitude Estimation Explain Crossover: Neglect is a Disorder of Both

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeier, Mark; Pierce, Christopher A.; Chatterjee, Anjan; Anderson, Britt; Jewell, George; Dowler, Rachael; Woods, Adam J.; Glenn, Tannahill; Mark, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    Crossover refers to a pattern of performance on the line bisection test in which short lines are bisected on the side opposite the true center of long lines. Although most patients with spatial neglect demonstrate crossover, contemporary theories of neglect cannot explain it. In contrast, we show that blending the psychophysical construct of magnitude estimation with neglect theory not only explains crossover, but also addresses a quantitative feature of neglect that is independent of spatial deficits. We report a prospective validation study of the orientation/estimation hypothesis of crossover. Forty subjects (17 patients with and without neglect following unilateral brain injury and 23 normal controls) completed four experiments that examined crossover using line bisection, line bisection with cueing, and reproducing line lengths from both memory and a standard. Replicating earlier findings, all except one subject group exhibited crossover on the standard line bisection test, all groups showed a spontaneous preference to orient attention to one end of the lines, and all groups overestimated the length of short lines and underestimated long lines. Biases in attentional orientation and magnitude estimation are exaggerated in patients with neglect. The truly novel finding of this study occurred when, after removing the line from the bisection task, the direction of crossover was completely reversed in all subject groups depending on where attention was oriented. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis of crossover: (1) crossover is a normal component of performance on line bisection; (2) crossover results from the interplay of biases in attentional orientation and magnitude estimation; and (3) attentional orientation predicts the direction of crossover, whereas a disorder of magnitude estimation, not previously emphasized in neglect, accounts for the quantitative changes in length estimation that make crossover more obvious in neglect subjects

  15. Biases in attentional orientation and magnitude estimation explain crossover: neglect is a disorder of both.

    PubMed

    Mennemeier, Mark; Pierce, Christopher A; Chatterjee, Anjan; Anderson, Britt; Jewell, George; Dowler, Rachael; Woods, Adam J; Glenn, Tannahill; Mark, Victor W

    2005-08-01

    Crossover refers to a pattern of performance on the line bisection test in which short lines are bisected on the side opposite the true center of long lines. Although most patients with spatial neglect demonstrate crossover, contemporary theories of neglect cannot explain it. In contrast, we show that blending the psychophysical construct of magnitude estimation with neglect theory not only explains crossover, but also addresses a quantitative feature of neglect that is independent of spatial deficits. We report a prospective validation study of the orientation/estimation hypothesis of crossover. Forty subjects (17 patients with and without neglect following unilateral brain injury and 23 normal controls) completed four experiments that examined crossover using line bisection, line bisection with cueing, and reproducing line lengths from both memory and a standard. Replicating earlier findings, all except one subject group exhibited crossover on the standard line bisection test, all groups showed a spontaneous preference to orient attention to one end of the lines, and all groups overestimated the length of short lines and underestimated long lines. Biases in attentional orientation and magnitude estimation are exaggerated in patients with neglect. The truly novel finding of this study occurred when, after removing the line from the bisection task, the direction of crossover was completely reversed in all subject groups depending on where attention was oriented. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis of crossover: (1) crossover is a normal component of performance on line bisection; (2) crossover results from the interplay of biases in attentional orientation and magnitude estimation; and (3) attentional orientation predicts the direction of crossover, whereas a disorder of magnitude estimation, not previously emphasized in neglect, accounts for the quantitative changes in length estimation that make crossover more obvious in neglect subjects

  16. Atomic-scale dynamics of a model glass-forming metallic liquid: Dynamical crossover, dynamical decoupling, and dynamical clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, Abhishek; Egami, Takeshi; Zhang, Yang

    2015-04-01

    The phase behavior of multi-component metallic liquids is exceedingly complex because of the convoluted many-body and many-elemental interactions. Herein, we present systematic studies of the dynamic aspects of such a model ternary metallic liquid Cu40Zr51Al9 using molecular dynamics simulation with embedded atom method. We observed a dynamical crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior in the transport properties (diffusion coefficient, relaxation times, and shear viscosity) bordered at Tx ~1300K. Unlike in many molecular and macromolecular liquids, this crossover phenomenon occurs in the equilibrium liquid state well above the melting temperature of the system (Tm ~ 900K), and the crossover temperature is roughly twice of the glass-transition temperature (Tg). Below Tx, we found the elemental dynamics decoupled and the Stokes-Einstein relation broke down, indicating the onset of heterogeneous spatially correlated dynamics in the system mediated by dynamic communications among local configurational excitations. To directly characterize and visualize the correlated dynamics, we employed a non-parametric, unsupervised machine learning technique and identified dynamical clusters of atoms with similar atomic mobility. The revealed average dynamical cluster size shows an accelerated increase below Tx and mimics the trend observed in other ensemble averaged quantities that are commonly used to quantify the spatially heterogeneous dynamics such as the non-Gaussian parameter and the four-point correlation function.

  17. Dimensionality crossover and frustrated spin dynamics on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikberg, J. M.; Dahbi, M.; Saadoune, I.; Gustafsson, T.; Edström, K.; Svedlindh, P.

    2010-06-01

    Investigations of the magnetic behavior of the layered oxide, LiNi0.65Co0.25Mn0.10O2 , through ac and time-dependent susceptibility, dc linear and nonlinear susceptibility as well as neutron-diffraction measurements are presented. A ferrimagneticlike spin ordering appears at 119 K with a spontaneous magnetization coexisting with spin frustration in two dimensions (2D). At lower temperature, a cluster-glass transition is found at 17.4 K indicating a transformation to a completely frustrated state in three dimensions (3D). A dimensionality crossover with temperature, from 2D to 3D, in a magnetically frustrated system has been demonstrated. The observed magnetic behavior is believed to originate from a percolating system of spin clusters defined by disordered and frustrated exchange interactions and the findings conform well with predictions of the percolation cluster model.

  18. Quantum Corrections Crossover and Ferromagnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lihong; Wang, Weiyi; Meyer, Nicholas; Liu, Yanwen; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Ai, Ping; Xiu, Faxian

    2013-01-01

    Revelation of emerging exotic states of topological insulators (TIs) for future quantum computing applications relies on breaking time-reversal symmetry and opening a surface energy gap. Here, we report on the transport response of Bi2Te3 TI thin films in the presence of varying Cr dopants. By tracking the magnetoconductance (MC) in a low doping regime we observed a progressive crossover from weak antilocalization (WAL) to weak localization (WL) as the Cr concentration increases. In a high doping regime, however, increasing Cr concentration yields a monotonically enhanced anomalous Hall effect (AHE) accompanied by an increasing carrier density. Our results demonstrate a possibility of manipulating bulk ferromagnetism and quantum transport in magnetic TI, thus providing an alternative way for experimentally realizing exotic quantum states required by spintronic applications. PMID:23928713

  19. Crossover Phenomena in Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Used in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shi-Hao

    2009-02-01

    A systematic analysis of Shanghai and Japan stock indices for the period of Jan. 1984 to Dec. 2005 is performed. After stationarity is verified by ADF (Augmented Dickey-Fuller) test, the power spectrum of the data exhibits a power law decay as a whole characterized by 1/fβ processes with possible long range correlations. Subsequently, by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of the general volatility in the stock markets, we find that the long-range correlations are occurred among the return series and the crossover phenomena exhibit in the results obviously. Further, Shanghai stock market shows long-range correlations in short time scale and shows short-range correlations in long time scale. Whereas, for Japan stock market, the data behaves oppositely absolutely. Last, we compare the varying of scale exponent in large volatility between two stock markets. All results obtained may indicate the possibility of characteristic of multifractal scaling behavior of the financial markets.

  20. Metal ion sensing solution containing double crossover DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byeongho; Dugasani, Sreekantha R.; Cho, Youngho; Oh, Juyeong; Kim, Chulki; Seo, Min Ah; Lee, Taikjin; Jhon, Young Miin; Woo, Deok Ha; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Jae Hun

    2015-07-01

    The current study describes metal ion sensing with double crossover DNAs (DX1 and DX2), artificially designed as a platform of doping. The sample for sensing is prepared by a facile annealing method to grow the DXs lattice on a silicon/silicon oxide. Adding and incubating metal ion solution with the sensor substrate into the micro-tube lead the optical property change. Photoluminescence (PL) is employed for detecting the concentration of metal ion in the specimen. We investigated PL emission for sensor application with the divalent copper. In the range from 400 to 650 nm, the PL features of samples provide significantly different peak positions with excitation and emission detection. Metal ions contribute to modify the optical characteristics of DX with structural and functional change, which results from the intercalation of them into hydrogen bonding positioned at the center of double helix. The PL intensity is decreased gradually after doping copper ion in the DX tile on the substrate.

  1. Optimal adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Audet, Charles; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Montague, Timothy H; Parr, Alan F; Potvin, Diane; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2016-01-01

    In prior works, this group demonstrated the feasibility of valid adaptive sequential designs for crossover bioequivalence studies. In this paper, we extend the prior work to optimize adaptive sequential designs over a range of geometric mean test/reference ratios (GMRs) of 70-143% within each of two ranges of intra-subject coefficient of variation (10-30% and 30-55%). These designs also introduce a futility decision for stopping the study after the first stage if there is sufficiently low likelihood of meeting bioequivalence criteria if the second stage were completed, as well as an upper limit on total study size. The optimized designs exhibited substantially improved performance characteristics over our previous adaptive sequential designs. Even though the optimized designs avoided undue inflation of type I error and maintained power at ≥ 80%, their average sample sizes were similar to or less than those of conventional single stage designs.

  2. Crossover from adiabatic to antiadiabatic quantum pumping with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Franco; Negri, C; Pistolesi, F; Manini, Nicola; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Tosatti, Erio

    2011-08-05

    Quantum pumping, in its different forms, is attracting attention from different fields, from fundamental quantum mechanics, to nanotechnology, to superconductivity. We investigate the crossover of quantum pumping from the adiabatic to the antiadiabatic regime in the presence of dissipation, and find general and explicit analytical expressions for the pumped current in a minimal model describing a system with the topology of a ring forced by a periodic modulation of frequency ω. The solution allows following in a transparent way the evolution of pumped dc current from much smaller to much larger ω values than the other relevant energy scale, the energy splitting introduced by the modulation. We find and characterize a temperature-dependent optimal value of the frequency for which the pumped current is maximal.

  3. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  4. Crossover behavior of conductivity in a discontinuous percolation model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongmin; Cho, Y S; Araújo, N A M; Kahng, B

    2014-03-01

    When conducting bonds are occupied randomly in a two-dimensional square lattice, the conductivity of the system increases continuously as the density of those conducting bonds exceeds the percolation threshold. Such a behavior is well known in percolation theory; however, the conductivity behavior has not been studied yet when the percolation transition is discontinuous. Here we investigate the conductivity behavior through a discontinuous percolation model evolving under a suppressive external bias. Using effective medium theory, we analytically calculate the conductivity behavior as a function of the density of conducting bonds. The conductivity function exhibits a crossover behavior from a drastically to a smoothly increasing function beyond the percolation threshold in the thermodynamic limit. The analytic expression fits well our simulation data.

  5. Crossover from BCS to Bose superconductivity: A functional integral approach

    SciTech Connect

    Randeria, M.; Sa de Melo, C.A.R.; Engelbrecht, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    We use a functional integral formulation to study the crossover from cooperative Cooper pairing to the formation and condensation of tightly bound pairs in a 3D continuum model of fermions with attractive interactions. The inadequacy of a saddle point approximation with increasing coupling is pointed out, and the importance of temporal (quantum) fluctuations for normal state properties at intermediate and strong coupling is emphasized. In addition to recovering the Nozieres-Schmitt-Pink interpolation scheme for T{sub c}, and the Leggett variational results for T = 0, we also present results for evolution of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation and collective mode spectrum as a function of the coupling.

  6. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-12-07

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  7. Economic crossover parameters for outsourcing water treatment equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, K.; Khan, S.

    1998-12-31

    Outsourcing water treatment systems is an attractive alternative to installing permanent systems. The current industry trend favors leased and outsourced systems for demineralized water applications when water demands are small and no pretreatment system is required. This paper provides economic crossover parameters for power plant applications, taking life cycle costs into consideration, including operation and maintenance (O and M) and capital costs, auxiliary load and heat rate penalties, O and M personnel requirements, and other economic considerations. Furthermore, the paper establishes ground rules for such comparisons between outsourced and permanent water treatment systems considering demineralization of water as well as impact on other power plant systems. Water production costs and $/1,000 gallon cost parameters for water production are presented, with graphical references to the economic parameters discussed.

  8. Magic angle effects and angular magnetoresistance oscillations as dimensional crossovers.

    PubMed

    Lebed, A G; Bagmet, N N; Naughton, M J

    2004-10-08

    Interference effects between velocity and density of states, which occur as electrons move along open orbits in the extended Brillouin zone in anisotropic conductors, result in a change of wave functions' dimensionality at magic angle (MA) directions of a magnetic field. In particular, these 1D-->2D dimensional crossovers result in the appearance of sharp minima in a resistivity component rho perpendicular (H,alpha), perpendicular to conducting layers. This explains the main qualitative features of MA and angular magnetoresistance oscillations' phenomena observed due to the existence of quasi-one-dimensional sheets of Fermi surface in (TMTSF)2X, (DMET-TSeF)2X, and kappa-(ET)2Cu(NCS)(2) conductors.

  9. A luminescent Pt2Fe spin crossover complex.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Bernhard; Bauer, Thomas; Faus, Isabelle; Wolny, Juliusz A; Dahms, Fabian; Fuhr, Olaf; Lebedkin, Sergei; Wille, Hans-Christian; Schlage, Kai; Chevalier, Katharina; Rupp, Fabian; Diller, Rolf; Schünemann, Volker; Kappes, Manfred M; Ruben, Mario

    2017-02-14

    A heterotrinuclear [Pt2Fe] spin crossover (SCO) complex was developed and synthesized employing a ditopic bridging bpp-alkynyl ligand L and alkynyl coordinated Pt(II) terpy units: [Fe(II)(L-Pt(II))2]2(BF4)2 (1). We identified two different types of crystals of 1 which differ in their molecular packing and the number of co-crystallized solvent molecules: 1H (1·3.5CH2Cl2 in P1[combining macron]) and 1L (1·10CH2Cl2 in C2/c); while 1L shows a reversible SCO with a transition temperature of 268 K, the analogous compound 1H does not show any SCO and remains blocked in the HS state. The temperature-dependent magnetic properties of 1H and 1L were complementarily studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It has been shown that 1L performs thermal spin crossover and that 1L can be excited to a LIESST state. The vibrational properties of 1 were investigated by experimental nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy. The experimentally determined partial density of vibrational states (pDOS) was compared to a DFT-based simulation of the pDOS. The vibrational modes of the different components were assigned and visualized. In addition, the photophysical properties of 1 and L-Pt were investigated in the solid state and in solution. The ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy of 1 in solution was carried out to study the PL quenching channel via energy transfer from photoexcited Pt(II) terpy units to the Fe(II)-moiety.

  10. Force Display and Bi-Lateral Master-Slave Control with an Internal Model under the Consideration of Human Cross-Over Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahata, Nagakatsu; Nishizawa, Masanori; Itoh, Youichirou; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    Human behavior for controlling machines is quite adaptive but restrictive in gain, phase, frequency bandwidth and so on. It is often assumed by a cross-over model especially for compensatory tracking task. Force display system is increasingly important in robotics, remote manipulations, machine handling and etc. The control system design for force display and/or bi-lateral master-slave manipulator is not so easy because of gain limits, mechanical vibration, human-induced oscillation and others. Proposed is a control system design for force display and/or bi-lateral master-slave manipulator based on model-following control under the concept of human crossover model in compensatory tracking. Experimental results are also shown for an actual force display device designed by the proposed method.

  11. 3D-xy critical properties of YBa2Cu4O8 and magnetic-field-induced 3D to 1D crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyeneth, S.; Schneider, T.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Keller, H.

    2008-08-01

    We present reversible magnetization data of a YBa2Cu4O8 single crystal and analyze the evidence for 3D-xy critical behavior and a magnetic-field-induced 3D to 1D crossover. Remarkable consistency with these phenomena is observed in agreement with a magnetic-field-induced finite size effect, whereupon the correlation length transverse to the applied magnetic field cannot grow beyond the limiting magnetic length scale LH = (Φ0/(aH))1/2. By applying the appropriate scaling form we obtain the zero-field critical temperature, the 3D to 1D crossover, the vortex melting line and the universal ratios of the related scaling variables. Accordingly there is no continuous phase transition in the (H,T) plane along the Hc2 lines as predicted by the mean-field treatment.

  12. Quantum shuttle in phase space.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Tomás; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-06-27

    We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise.

  13. Indirect fuel cell based on a redox-flow battery with a new design to avoid crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siroma, Zyun; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Fujiwara, Naoko; Asahi, Masafumi; Nagai, Tsukasa; Ioroi, Tsutomu

    2013-11-01

    A new design of a redox flow battery (RFB), which is composed of two subcells separated by a gas phase of hydrogen, is proposed to eliminate the crossover of ionic species between the anolyte and catholyte. This idea not only increases the possible combinations of the two electrolytes, but also opens up the prospect of a revival of the old idea of an indirect fuel cell, which is composed of an RFB and two chemical reactors to regenerate the electrolytes using a fuel and oxygen. This paper describes the operation of a subcell as a component of an indirect fuel cell system. In the cycling test, oxidation/reduction of the electroactive species in each electrolyte were repeated with a hydrogen electrode as the counter electrode. This result demonstrates the possibility of this newly proposed RFB without crossover. In the operation of the subcell with a chemical reactor, a molecular catalyst (a rhodium porphyrin) was dissolved in the anolyte, and then a fuel was bubbled in the anolyte reservoir. As the electroactive species was reduced by the fuel, a steady-state oxidation current was observed at the cell. This demonstrates the negative half of the newly proposed indirect fuel cell.

  14. An algebraic model on the performance of a direct methanol fuel cell with consideration of methanol crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ken-Ming

    An algebraic one-dimensional model on the membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is proposed. Non-linear regression procedure was imposed on the model to retrieve important parameters: solid polymer electrolyte conductivity κ m, exchange current density of methanol electro-oxidation at anode catalyst surface i oM,ref, and mass diffusivity of methanol in aqueous phase within the porous electrode D a that correspond to the experimentally measured polarization curves. Although numerical iteration is required for a complete solution, the explicit relationships of methanol concentration, methanol crossover rate, oxygen concentration and cell discharge current density do provide a clear picture of the mass transport and electrochemical kinetics within the various porous media in the MEA. It is shown the cathode mixed potential induced by the parallel reactions of oxygen reduction and oxidation of crossover methanol elucidates the potential drop of the cathode and the decrease of the cell open circuit voltage (OCV). Methanol transport in the membrane is described by the diffusion, electro-osmosis, and pressure induced convection. Detailed accounts of the effects of anode methanol and cathode oxygen feed concentrations on the cell discharge performance are given with correlation to the physical structure and chemical compositions of the catalyst layers (CLs).

  15. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Ko; Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki

    2016-11-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. To be published as, Y. Yahashi, N. Kimoto and K. Okumura, Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell, Sci. Rep.(CC BY 4.0). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan).

  16. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T{sub c} of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE{sub HL} and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T{sub c} by exploiting the ΔH/T − T and ΔS − T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T{sub c} of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T{sub c} of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  17. Crossover comparison of atenolol, enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide and isradipine for isolated systolic systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Silagy, C A; McNeil, J J; McGrath, B P

    1992-11-15

    The benefit of antihypertensive therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with isolated systolic hypertension has now been established by the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. However, there is little information about the relative effectiveness of different drug regimens in this condition. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of 50 mg of atenolol, 10 mg of enalapril, 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and 2.5 mg of isradipine in the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension. After a 3-week placebo run-in phase, 24 subjects were randomized into a 4-period double-blind crossover study by use of an orthogonal latin square design. Treatment periods were of 6 weeks' duration with titration to a higher dose after 4 weeks in those not reaching goal blood pressure (BP). Each active treatment was followed by a 3-week placebo washout. Casual clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BP (Accutracker II) were measured at the end of each treatment phase. Routine biochemistry was also performed after the placebo run-in, at the end of each active treatment phase, and after the placebo run-out. Of the 24 subjects entered (mean age 72.3 years, 38% men) 20 completed the whole study. Mean +/- standard deviation of supine clinic and daytime ambulatory BP on entry were 181/79 +/- 21/9 mm Hg and 165/82 +/- 23/15 mm Hg, respectively. All drugs reduced mean casual and ambulatory BP significantly relative to placebo but only hydrochlorothiazide and enalapril produced a consistent hypotensive effect throughout the entire 24-hour period. Isradipine and enalapril exhibited a relatively greater effect on reducing systolic BP than either hydrochlorothiazide or atenolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: Density functional theory plus U approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-01

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (Tc) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the Tc of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔEHL and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract Tc by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in Tc of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting Tc of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  19. Predicting critical temperatures of iron(II) spin crossover materials: density functional theory plus U approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yachao

    2014-12-07

    A first-principles study of critical temperatures (T(c)) of spin crossover (SCO) materials requires accurate description of the strongly correlated 3d electrons as well as much computational effort. This task is still a challenge for the widely used local density or generalized gradient approximations (LDA/GGA) and hybrid functionals. One remedy, termed density functional theory plus U (DFT+U) approach, introduces a Hubbard U term to deal with the localized electrons at marginal computational cost, while treats the delocalized electrons with LDA/GGA. Here, we employ the DFT+U approach to investigate the T(c) of a pair of iron(II) SCO molecular crystals (α and β phase), where identical constituent molecules are packed in different ways. We first calculate the adiabatic high spin-low spin energy splitting ΔE(HL) and molecular vibrational frequencies in both spin states, then obtain the temperature dependent enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH and ΔS), and finally extract T(c) by exploiting the ΔH/T - T and ΔS - T relationships. The results are in agreement with experiment. Analysis of geometries and electronic structures shows that the local ligand field in the α phase is slightly weakened by the H-bondings involving the ligand atoms and the specific crystal packing style. We find that this effect is largely responsible for the difference in T(c) of the two phases. This study shows the applicability of the DFT+U approach for predicting T(c) of SCO materials, and provides a clear insight into the subtle influence of the crystal packing effects on SCO behavior.

  20. Effect of gas composition on Ru dissolution and crossover in polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tommy T. H.; Jia, Nengyou; Colbow, Vesna; Wessel, Silvia; Dutta, Monica

    Pt-Ru-based anodes are commonly used in polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) to provide improved CO tolerance for reformate fuel applications. However, Ru crossover from the anode to the cathode has been identified as a critical durability problem that has severe performance implications. In the present study, an anode accelerated stress test (AST) was used to simulate potential spikes that occur during fuel cell start-ups and shutdowns to induce Ru crossover. The effects of fuel gas composition, namely hydrogen and carbon dioxide concentrations, on Ru dissolution and crossover were investigated. The cell performance losses were correlated with the degree of Ru crossover as determined by the changes in cathode cyclic voltammetry (CV) characteristics and neutron activation analysis (NAA). It was found that higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel accelerated Ru crossover and that the presence of carbon dioxide hindered Ru crossover. In particular, the injection of 20 vol.% carbon dioxide during potential cycling resulted in very minor Ru crossover, which showed essentially identical performance losses and CV characteristic changes as a fuel cell composed of a Ru-free anode. The experimental results suggest that the Ru species in our Pt-Ru metal oxide catalysts need to go through a reduction step by hydrogen before dissolution. The presence of carbon dioxide may play a role in hindering the reduction step.

  1. A Pilot Study on Culottes versus Crossover Single Stenting for True Coronary Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhong, Wenliang; Luo, Yukun; Chen, Lianglong

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes of planned culottes technique with that of provisional crossover single stenting in the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL) with drug-eluting stent (DES). Methods True CBL patients (n = 104) were randomly assigned to either the provisional stenting of the side branch (crossover group) or the culottes group. Additional side branch (SB) stenting in the crossover group was required if there was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow ≤ 1 flow). The primary end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at nine months, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion/vessel revascularization and in-stent thrombosis. The secondary end point was angiographic in-segment restenosis at nine months. Results The rate of MACE at nine months was similar between the crossover and culottes groups (7.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 1.000). Additional SB stenting in the crossover group was required in 3.8% of patients. There was one procedural occlusion of SB in the crossover group. At nine months, the rate of in-segment restenosis was similar in the parent main vessel (0% vs. 1.9%, p = 1.000), main branch (1.9% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.363) and SB (17.3% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.250) between the crossover and culottes groups, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated that there is no significant difference in cumulative MACE or in-segment restenosis between crossover and culottes groups. Larger randomized clinical trials are warranted to re-evaluate the outcomes of the provisional crossover stenting versus the culottes stenting techniques utilizing DES for true CBL. PMID:27471358

  2. Nature of the possible magnetic phases in a frustrated hyperkagome iridate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindou, Ryuichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Kitaev-Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions, we studied the nature of possible magnetic phases in the frustrated hyperkagome iridate, Na4Ir3O8 (Na-438). Using Monte Carlo simulation, we showed that the phase diagram is mostly covered by two competing magnetic ordered phases, the Z2 symmetry breaking (SB) phase and the Z6 SB phase, latter of which is stabilized by the classical order by disorder. These two phases are intervened by a first-order phase-transition line with Z8-like symmetry. The critical nature at the Z6 SB ordering temperature is characterized by the three-dimensional X Y universality class, below which U(1) to Z6 crossover phenomenon appears: the Z6 spin anisotropy becomes irrelevant in a length scale shorter than a crossover length Λ* while it becomes relevant otherwise. A possible phenomenology of polycrystalline Na-438 is discussed based on this crossover phenomenon.

  3. Physiological coxa varus-genu valgus influences internal knee and ankle joint moments in females during crossover cutting.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J A; Caborn, D N M

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the ankle and knee electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic differences of 20 nonimpaired females with either neutral (group 1) or coxa varus-genu valgus (group 2) alignment during crossover cutting stance phase. Two-way mixed model ANOVA (group, session) assessed mean differences ( p<0.05) and correlation analysis further delineated relationships. During impact absorption, group 2 displayed earlier peak horizontal braking (anterior-posterior) ground reaction force timing, decreased and earlier peak internal knee extension moments (eccentric function), and earlier peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment timing (eccentric function). During the pivot phase, group 2 displayed later and eccentrically-biased peak ankle plantar flexion moments, increased peak internal knee flexion moments (eccentric function), and later peak knee internal rotation timing. Correlation analysis revealed that during impact absorption, subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus alignment (group 2) displayed a stronger relationship between knee internal rotation velocity and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.64 vs r = -0.26) and between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment onset timing ( r= 0.61 vs r= 0.24). During the pivot phase these subjects displayed a stronger relationship between peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moment onset timing ( r= -0.63 vs r= -0.09) and between peak horizontal braking forces and peak internal ankle plantar flexion moments ( r= -0.72 vs r= -0.26). Group differences suggest that subjects with coxa varus-genu valgus frontal-plane alignment have an increased dependence on both ankle dorsiflexor and plantar flexor muscle group function during crossover cutting. Greater dependence on ankle muscle group function during the performance of a task that requires considerable 3D dynamic knee joint control suggests a greater

  4. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  5. Crossover versus parallel designs: dose-escalation design comparisons for first-in-human studies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiwu; Hosmane, Balakrishna; Locke, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the statistical efficiency for rising-dose designs in the context of first-in-human studies. Specifically, we identify a class of crossover designs that are appealing in terms of both subject safety and statistical efficiency and, for a three-period, two-panel design in such a class, we compare its A-efficiency relative to the corresponding parallel designs and optimal/efficient crossover designs, respectively, under various plausible models. In the meantime, we also evaluate the impact of inclusion of baseline measurements as a covariate in the statistical analysis, for both crossover and parallel studies.

  6. Negative lattice expansion from the superconductivity--antiferromagnetism crossover in ruthenium copper oxides.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A C; Sher, F; Attfield, J P

    2005-08-11

    The mechanism of high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductivity in doped copper oxides is an enduring problem. Antiferromagnetism is established as the competing order, but the relationship between the two states in the intervening 'pseudogap' regime has become a central puzzle. The role of the crystal lattice, which is important in conventional superconductors, also remains unclear. Here we report an anomalous increase of the distance between copper oxide planes on cooling, which results in negative thermal volume expansion, for layered ruthenium copper oxides that have been doped to the boundary of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity. We propose that a crossover between these states is driven by spin ordering in the ruthenium oxide layers, revealing a novel mechanism for negative lattice expansion in solids. The differences in volume and lattice strain between the distinct superconducting and antiferromagnetic states can account for the phase segregation phenomena found extensively in low-doped copper oxides, and show that Cooper pair formation is coupled to the lattice. Unusually large variations of resistivity with magnetic field are found in these ruthenium copper oxides at low temperatures through coupling between the ordered Ru and Cu spins.

  7. Pressure-Driven Spin Crossover Involving Polyhedral Transformation in Layered Perovskite Cobalt Oxyfluoride

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Satoshi; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kawamura, Naomi; Kawakami, Takateru; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel pressure-driven spin crossover in layered cobalt oxyfluoride Sr2CoO3F with a distorted CoO5 square pyramid loosely bound with a fluoride ion. Upon increasing pressure, the spin state of the Co(III) cation gradually changes from a high spin state (S = 2) to a low spin state (S = 0) accompanied by a anomalously large volume contraction (bulk modulus, 76.8(5) GPa). The spin state change occurs on the CoO5 pyramid in a wide pressure range, but the concomitant gradual shrinkage of the Co–F bond length with pressure gives rise to a polyhedral transformation to the CoO5F octahedron without a structural phase transition, leading to the full conversion to the LS state at 12 GPa. The present results provide new effective strategy to fine-tune electronic properties of mixed anion systems by controlling the covalency in metal-ligand bonds under pressure. PMID:27805031

  8. Role of open boundary conditions on the hysteretic behaviour of one-dimensional spin crossover nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Chiruta, Daniel; Linares, Jorge E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Miyashita, Seiji E-mail: miya@spin.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-05-21

    In order to explain clearly the role of the open boundary conditions (OBCs) on phase transition in one dimensional system, we consider an Ising model with both short-range (J) and long-range (G) interactions, which has allowed us to study the cooperative nature of spin-crossover (SCO) materials at the nanometer scale. At this end, we developed a transfer-matrix method for one-dimensional (1D) SCO system with free boundary conditions, and we give numerical evidences for how the thermal spin transition curves vary as a function of the physical parameters (J, G) or an applied pressure. Moreover for OBCs case, we have derived the bulk, surface and finite-size contributions to the free energy and we have investigated the variation of these energies as function of J and system size. We have found that the surface free energy behaves like J〈σ〉{sup 2}, where 〈σ〉 is the average magnetization per site. Since the properties of the nanometric scale are dramatically influenced by the system's size (N), our analytical outcomes for the size dependence represent a step to achieve new characteristic of the future devices and also a way to find various novel properties which are absent in the bulk materials.

  9. The Hawking-Page crossover in noncommutative anti-deSitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolini, Piero; Torrieri, Giorgio

    2011-08-01

    We study the problem of a Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in a non-commutative geometry framework, thought to be an effective description of quantum-gravitational spacetime. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter solution. After studying the horizon structure, we find that the curvature singularity is smeared out by the noncommutative fluctuations. On the thermodynamics side, we show that the black hole temperature, instead of a divergent behavior at small scales, admits a maximum value. This fact implies an extension of the Hawking-Page transition into a van der Waals-like phase diagram, with a critical point at a critical cosmological constant size in Plank units and a smooth crossover thereafter. We speculate that, in the gauge-string dictionary, this corresponds to the confinement "critical point" in number of colors at finite number of flavors, a highly non-trivial parameter that can be determined through lattice simulations.

  10. Parametric representation of open quantum systems and cross-over from quantum to classical environment.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I; Verrucchi, Paola

    2013-04-23

    The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the s = 1/2 Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables (θ, ϕ), and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of ϕ, whereas as a function of θ is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-δ function in the classical limit. In such limit, because ϕ is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field.

  11. Role of open boundary conditions on the hysteretic behaviour of one-dimensional spin crossover nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiruta, Daniel; Linares, Jorge; Miyashita, Seiji; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    In order to explain clearly the role of the open boundary conditions (OBCs) on phase transition in one dimensional system, we consider an Ising model with both short-range (J) and long-range (G) interactions, which has allowed us to study the cooperative nature of spin-crossover (SCO) materials at the nanometer scale. At this end, we developed a transfer-matrix method for one-dimensional (1D) SCO system with free boundary conditions, and we give numerical evidences for how the thermal spin transition curves vary as a function of the physical parameters (J, G) or an applied pressure. Moreover for OBCs case, we have derived the bulk, surface and finite-size contributions to the free energy and we have investigated the variation of these energies as function of J and system size. We have found that the surface free energy behaves like J⟨σ⟩2, where ⟨σ⟩ is the average magnetization per site. Since the properties of the nanometric scale are dramatically influenced by the system's size (N), our analytical outcomes for the size dependence represent a step to achieve new characteristic of the future devices and also a way to find various novel properties which are absent in the bulk materials.

  12. Revealing the mechanism of the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; ...

    2015-07-18

    In our work, we report on inelastic X-ray scattering experiments combined with the molecular dynamics simulations on deeply supercritical Ar. Our results unveil the mechanism and regimes of sound propagation in the liquid matter and provide compelling evidence for the adiabatic-to-isothermal longitudinal sound propagation transition. We introduce a Hamiltonian predicting low-frequency transverse sound propagation gaps, which is confirmed by experimental findings and molecular dynamics calculations. As a result, a universal link is established between the positive sound dispersion (PSD) phenomenon and the origin of transverse sound propagation revealing the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids. The PSD and transverse phononic excitations evolvemore » consistently with theoretical predictions. Both can be considered as a universal fingerprint of the dynamic response of a liquid, which is also observable in a subdomain of supercritical phase. Furthermore, the simultaneous disappearance of both these effects at elevated temperatures is a manifestation of the Frenkel line. We expect that these findings will advance the current understanding of fluids under extreme thermodynamic conditions.« less

  13. Revealing the mechanism of the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; Stoupin, Stanislav; Cai, Yong Q.; Cunsolo, Alessandro

    2015-07-18

    In our work, we report on inelastic X-ray scattering experiments combined with the molecular dynamics simulations on deeply supercritical Ar. Our results unveil the mechanism and regimes of sound propagation in the liquid matter and provide compelling evidence for the adiabatic-to-isothermal longitudinal sound propagation transition. We introduce a Hamiltonian predicting low-frequency transverse sound propagation gaps, which is confirmed by experimental findings and molecular dynamics calculations. As a result, a universal link is established between the positive sound dispersion (PSD) phenomenon and the origin of transverse sound propagation revealing the viscous-to-elastic crossover in liquids. The PSD and transverse phononic excitations evolve consistently with theoretical predictions. Both can be considered as a universal fingerprint of the dynamic response of a liquid, which is also observable in a subdomain of supercritical phase. Furthermore, the simultaneous disappearance of both these effects at elevated temperatures is a manifestation of the Frenkel line. We expect that these findings will advance the current understanding of fluids under extreme thermodynamic conditions.

  14. Impact of a soy drink on climacteric symptoms: an open-label, crossover, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tranche, Salvador; Brotons, Carlos; Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Macías, Ramón; Hevia, Eduardo; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of a soy drink with a high concentration of isoflavones (ViveSoy®) on climacteric symptoms. Methods: An open-label, controlled, crossover clinical trial was conducted in 147 peri- and postmenopausal women. Eligible women were recruited from 13 Spanish health centers and randomly assigned to one of the two sequence groups (control or ViveSoy®, 500 mL per day, 15 g of protein and 50 mg of isoflavones). Each intervention phase lasted for 12 weeks with a 6-week washout period. Changes on the Menopause Rating Scale and quality of life questionnaires, as well as lipid profile, cardiovascular risk and carbohydrate and bone metabolism were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed-effects model. Results: A sample of 147 female volunteers was recruited of which 90 were evaluable. In both sequence groups, adherence to the intervention was high. Regular consumption of ViveSoy® reduced climacteric symptoms by 20.4% (p = 0.001) and symptoms in the urogenital domain by 21.3% (p < 0.05). It also improved health-related quality life by 18.1%, as per the MRS questionnaire (p <0.05). Conclusion: Regular consumption of ViveSoy® improves both the somatic and urogenital domain symptoms of menopause, as well as health-related quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women. PMID:26806546

  15. Hexagonal AlN: Dimensional-crossover-driven band-gap transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacaksiz, C.; Sahin, H.; Ozaydin, H. D.; Horzum, S.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment that reported the successful synthesis of hexagonal (h ) AlN [Tsipas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 251605 (2013), 10.1063/1.4851239], we investigate structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of bulk, bilayer, and monolayer structures of h -AlN by using first-principles calculations. We show that the hexagonal phase of the bulk h -AlN is a stable direct-band-gap semiconductor. The calculated phonon spectrum displays a rigid-layer shear mode at 274 cm-1 and an Eg mode at 703 cm-1, which are observable by Raman measurements. In addition, single-layer h -AlN is an indirect-band-gap semiconductor with a nonmagnetic ground state. For the bilayer structure, A A' -type stacking is found to be the most favorable one, and interlayer interaction is strong. While N -layered h -AlN is an indirect-band-gap semiconductor for N =1 -9 , we predict that thicker structures (N ≥10 ) have a direct band gap at the Γ point. The number-of-layer-dependent band-gap transitions in h -AlN is interesting in that it is significantly different from the indirect-to-direct crossover obtained in the transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Pressure-Driven Spin Crossover Involving Polyhedral Transformation in Layered Perovskite Cobalt Oxyfluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Satoshi; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kawamura, Naomi; Kawakami, Takateru; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2016-11-01

    We report a novel pressure-driven spin crossover in layered cobalt oxyfluoride Sr2CoO3F with a distorted CoO5 square pyramid loosely bound with a fluoride ion. Upon increasing pressure, the spin state of the Co(III) cation gradually changes from a high spin state (S = 2) to a low spin state (S = 0) accompanied by a anomalously large volume contraction (bulk modulus, 76.8(5) GPa). The spin state change occurs on the CoO5 pyramid in a wide pressure range, but the concomitant gradual shrinkage of the Co–F bond length with pressure gives rise to a polyhedral transformation to the CoO5F octahedron without a structural phase transition, leading to the full conversion to the LS state at 12 GPa. The present results provide new effective strategy to fine-tune electronic properties of mixed anion systems by controlling the covalency in metal-ligand bonds under pressure.

  17. Elastic interaction among transition metals in one-dimensional spin-crossover solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukheddaden, K.; Miyashita, S.; Nishino, M.

    2007-03-01

    We present an exact examination of a one-dimensional (1D) spin-phonon model describing the thermodynamical properties of spin-crossover (SC) solids. This model has the advantage of giving a physical mechanism for the interaction between the SC units. The origin of the interaction comes from the fact that the elastic constant of the spring linking two atoms depends on their electronic states. This leads to local variation of the elastic constant. Up to now, all the statistical studies of this model have been performed in the frame of the mean-field (MF) approach, which is not adequate to describe 1D systems with short-range interactions. An alternative method, based on the variational approach and taking into account the short-range correlations between neighboring molecules, was also suggested, but it consists in an extension of the previous MF approximation. Here, we solve exactly this Hamiltonian in the frame of classical statistical mechanics using the transfer-matrix technique. The temperature dependence of the high spin fraction and that of the total energy are obtained analytically. Our results clearly show that there is a clear tendency to a sharp transition when we tune the elastic constants adequately, which indicates that first-order phase transition takes place at higher dimensions. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of an interesting isomorphism between the present model and Ising model under effective interaction and effective ligand field energy, in which both depend linearly on temperature and both come from the phonon contribution. We have also studied the effect of the pressure (the tension) on the thermodynamical properties of the high spin (HS) fraction and have found a nontrivial pressure effect that while for weak tension values, the low spin state is stabilized for the pressure above a threshold value, it enhances the interaction between the HS states. Finally, we have also introduced elastic interactions between the chains. Treating

  18. Crossover from retro to specular Andreev reflections in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing experimental progress in the preparation of ultraclean graphene/superconductor (SC) interfaces enabled the recent observation of specular interband Andreev reflections (ARs) at bilayer graphene (BLG )/NbSe2 van der Waals interfaces [Efetov et al., Nat. Phys. 12, 328 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3583]. Motivated by this experiment we theoretically study the differential conductance across a BLG/SC interface at the continuous transition from high to ultralow Fermi energies EF in BLG. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism we derive analytical expressions for the differential conductance across the BLG/SC interface. We find a characteristic signature of the crossover from intraband retro (high EF) to interband specular (low EF) ARs that manifests itself in a strongly suppressed interfacial conductance when the excitation energy |ɛ |=| EF|<Δ (the SC gap). The sharpness of these conductance dips is strongly dependent on the size of the potential step at the BLG/SC interface U0.

  19. Analysis of crossover between local and massive separation on airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of massive separation on airfoils operating at high Reynolds number poses an important problem to the aerodynamicist. In the present study, the phenomenon of crossover, induced by airfoil thickness, between local separation and massive separation is investigated for low speed (incompressible), symmetric flow past realistic airfoil geometries. This problem is studied both for the infinite Reynolds number asymptotic limit using triple-deck theory and for finite Reynolds number using interacting boundary-layer theory. Numerical results are presented which illustrate how the flow evolves from local to massive separation as the airfoil thickness is increased. The results of the triple-deck and the interacting boundary-layer analyses are found to be in qualitative agreement for the NACA four digit series and an uncambered supercritical airfoil. The effect of turbulence on the evolution of the flow is also considered. Solutions are presented for turbulent flows past a NACA 0014 airfoil and a circular cylinder. For the latter case, the calculated surface pressure distribution is found to agree well with experimental data if the proper eddy pressure level is specified.

  20. Quantum crossover of the switching rate of a modulated oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, Vittorio; Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael; Dykman, Mark; Schoen, Gerd

    2012-02-01

    Experiments with Josephson bifurcation amplifiers have reached the regime where switching between coexisting stable vibrational states is due to quantum fluctuations. In switching the oscillator goes over the effective dynamical barrier that separates the states. It was found earlier that, for small damping, the barrier height calculated for T->0 is smaller than for T=0. Respectively, the switching rates calculated in these two limits are exponentially different, the effect of fragility. If other parameters are fixed, both barrier heights are proportional to the number of bound quantum states localized mostly in the basin of attraction of the corresponding stable state. Here we show that for large but finite values of the number of states the T=0 solution is stabilized. For some temperature Tc there occurs a sharp crossover to the finite-temperature regime. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical results.[4pt] [1] Vijay et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. (2009)[0pt] [2] M. Dykman et al., JETP (1988)[0pt] [3] M. Marthaler et al, PRA (2005)

  1. Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.

  2. Sequential design approaches for bioequivalence studies with crossover designs.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Diane; DiLiberti, Charles E; Hauck, Walter W; Parr, Alan F; Schuirmann, Donald J; Smith, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    The planning of bioequivalence (BE) studies, as for any clinical trial, requires a priori specification of an effect size for the determination of power and an assumption about the variance. The specified effect size may be overly optimistic, leading to an underpowered study. The assumed variance can be either too small or too large, leading, respectively, to studies that are underpowered or overly large. There has been much work in the clinical trials field on various types of sequential designs that include sample size reestimation after the trial is started, but these have seen only little use in BE studies. The purpose of this work was to validate at least one such method for crossover design BE studies. Specifically, we considered sample size reestimation for a two-stage trial based on the variance estimated from the first stage. We identified two methods based on Pocock's method for group sequential trials that met our requirement for at most negligible increase in type I error rate.

  3. Tuning size and thermal hysteresis in bistable spin crossover nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Galán-Mascarós, José Ramón; Coronado, Eugenio; Forment-Aliaga, Alicia; Monrabal-Capilla, María; Pinilla-Cienfuegos, Elena; Ceolin, Marcelo

    2010-06-21

    Nanoparticles of iron(II) triazole salts have been prepared from water-organic microemulsions. The mean size of the nanoparticles can be tuned down to 6 nm in diameter, with a narrow size distribution. A sharp spin transition from the low spin (LS) to the high spin (HS) state is observed above room temperature, with a 30-40-K-wide thermal hysteresis. The same preparation can yield second generation nanoparticles containing molecular alloys by mixing triazole with triazole derivatives, or from metallic mixtures of iron(II) and zinc(II). In these nanoparticles of 10-15 nm, the spin transition "moves" towards lower temperatures, reaching a 316 K limit for the cooling down transition and maintaining a thermal hysteresis over 15-20-K-wide. The nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, TEM, and AFM, after deposition on gold or silicon surfaces. The spin transition was characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements and EXAFS (in solid samples after solvent removal) and also by the color change between the LS (violet) and HS (colorless) states in an organic solvent suspension. The discovery of bistable magnetic nanoparticles of 6 nm with a wide thermal hysteresis above room temperature showcases the actual possibilities of spin crossover materials for nanotechnological applications.

  4. BCS-BEC crossover with unequal-mass fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Randeria, Mohit

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the crossover from BCS pairing to molecular Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in an atomic gas with two fermion species with masses m{sub {up_arrow}{ne}m{down_arrow}}tuned through a Feshbach resonance. We present results for the T=0 equation of state as a function of the scattering length including the effects of Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field ground state. We compute the ground state energy as a function of m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}}at unitarity and find excellent agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo result for m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}=}6.67 for a {sup 40}K-{sup 6}Li mixture. We show that the dimer scattering length in the BEC limit as a function of m{sub {up_arrow}/}m{sub {down_arrow}}compares well with the exact four-body results of Petrov et al. [J. Phys. B 38, S645 (2005)]. We also derive the condition for trapping frequencies to obtain an unpolarized gas in a harmonic trap.

  5. Finite size induces crossover temperature in growing spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a growing one-dimensional quenched spin model that bases on asymmetrical one-side Ising interactions in the presence of external field. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations based on Markov chain theory show that when the external field is smaller than the exchange coupling constant J there is a nonmonotonous dependence of the mean magnetization on the temperature in a finite system. The crossover temperature Tc corresponding to the maximal magnetization decays with system size, approximately as the inverse of the Lambert W function. The observed phenomenon can be understood as an interplay between the thermal fluctuations and the presence of the first cluster determined by initial conditions. The effect exists also when spins are not quenched but fully thermalized after the attachment to the chain. By performing tests on real data we conceive the model is in part suitable for a qualitative description of online emotional discussions arranged in a chronological order, where a spin in every node conveys emotional valence of a subsequent post.

  6. At grade optical crossover for monolithic optial circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Planar optical circuits may be made to cross through each other, (thus eliminating extra steps required to fabricate elevated, nonintersecting crossovers) by control of the dimensions of the crossing light conductors (10, 12) to be significantly greater than d=0.89.lambda. and the angle of crossing as nearly 90.degree. as conveniently possible. A light trap may be provided just ahead of the intersection to trap any light being reflected in the source conductor at angles greater than about 45.degree.. The light trap may take the form of triangular shaped portions (16a, 16b) on each side of the source conductor with the far side of the triangular portion receiving incident light at an angle so that incident light will be reflected to the other side, or it may take the form of windows (18a, 18b) in place of the triangular portions. Planar optical circuit boards (21-23) may be fabricated and stacked to form a keyboard (20) with intersecting conductors (26-29) and keyholes (0-9) where conductors merge at the broad side of the circuit boards. These keyholes may be prearranged to form an array or matrix of keyholes.

  7. Flooding and Clostridium difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cynthia J.; Wade, Timothy J.; Hilborn, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospitalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community-associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more commonly reported. A case-crossover study was used to assess emergency room (ER) and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection following flood events in Massachusetts from 2003 through 2007. Exposure status was based on whether or not a flood occurred prior to the case/control date during the following risk periods: 0–6 days, 7–13 days, 14–20 days, and 21–27 days. Fixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of diagnosis with C. difficile infection following a flood. There were 129 flood events and 1575 diagnoses of C. difficile infection. Among working age adults (19–64 years), ER and outpatient visits for C. difficile infection were elevated during the 7–13 days following a flood (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.69; 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.84, 3.37). This association was more substantial among males (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01–10.19). Associations during other risk periods were not observed (p < 0.05). Although we were unable to differentiate community-associated versus nosocomial infections, a potential increase in C. difficile infections should be considered as more flooding is projected due to climate change. PMID:26090609

  8. Thermopower of molecular junctions: Tunneling to hopping crossover in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, Roman; Kilgour, Michael; Segal, Dvira

    2016-12-01

    We study the electrical conductance G and the thermopower S of single-molecule junctions and reveal signatures of different transport mechanisms: off-resonant tunneling, on-resonant coherent (ballistic) motion, and multi-step hopping. These mechanisms are identified by studying the behavior of G and S while varying molecular length and temperature. Based on a simple one-dimensional model for molecular junctions, we derive approximate expressions for the thermopower in these different regimes. Analytical results are compared to numerical simulations, performed using a variant of Büttiker's probe technique, the so-called voltage-temperature probe, which allows us to phenomenologically introduce environmentally induced elastic and inelastic electron scattering effects, while applying both voltage and temperature biases across the junction. We further simulate the thermopower of GC-rich DNA sequences with mediating A:T blocks and manifest the tunneling-to-hopping crossover in both the electrical conductance and the thermopower, in accord with measurements by Li et al. [Nat. Commun. 7, 11294 (2016)].

  9. Does milk cause constipation? A crossover dietary trial.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Elesa T; Williams, Lauren T; Roberts, Tim K; Dunstan, Richard H; Jones, Peter D

    2013-01-22

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow's milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow's milk β casein A1 and cow's milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children diagnosed with CFC were recruited to one of two crossover trials: Trial 1 compared the effects of cow's milk and soy milk; Trial 2 compared the effects of cow's milk β casein A1 and cow's milk β casein A2. Resolution of constipation was defined as greater than eight bowel motions during a two week intervention. Thirteen children (18 to 144 months) participated in Trial 1 (6 boys, 7 girls). Nine participants who completed the soy epoch all experienced resolution (p < 0.05). Thirty-nine children (21 to 144 months) participated in Trial 2 (25 boys, 14 girls). Resolution of constipation was highest during the washout epoch, 81%; followed by cow's milk β casein A2, 79%; and cow's milk β casein A1, 57%; however, the proportions did not differ statistically. The results of Trial 1 demonstrate an association between CFC and cow's milk consumption but Trial 2 failed to show an effect from type of casein. Some other component in cow's milk common to both A1 and A2 milk may be causing a problem in these susceptible children.

  10. Characterization of Non-Specific Crossover in SPLITT Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P. Stephen; Hoyos, Mauricio; Kurowski, Pascal; Salhi, Dorra; Moore, Lee R.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Split-flow thin channel (SPLITT) fractionation is a technique for continuous separation of particles or macromolecules in a fluid stream into fractions according to the lateral migration induced by application of a field perpendicular to the direction of flow. Typical applications have involved isolation of different fractions from a polydisperse sample. Some specialized applications involve the separation of the fraction influenced by the transverse field from the fraction that is not. For example, immuno-magnetically labeled biological cells may be separated from non-labeled cells with the application of a transverse magnetic field gradient. In such cases, it may be critically important to minimize contamination of the labeled cells with non-labeled cells while at the same time maximizing the throughput. Such contamination is known as non-specific crossover (NSC) and refers to the real or apparent migration of non-mobile particles or cells across streamlines with the mobile material. The possible mechanisms for NSC are discussed, and experimental results interpreted in terms of shear-induced diffusion (SID) caused by viscous interactions between particles in a sheared flow. It is concluded that SID may contribute to NSC, but that further experiments and mathematical modeling are necessary to more fully explore the phenomenon. PMID:18698797

  11. Depth-dependent ordering, two-length-scale phenomena, and crossover behavior in a crystal featuring a skin layer with defects

    SciTech Connect

    Del Genio, Charo I.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Korzhenevskii, Alexander L.; Barabash, Rozaliya; Trenkler, PhD Johann; Reiter, George; Moss, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Structural defects in a crystal are responsible for the ''two-length-scale'' behavior in which a sharp central peak is superimposed over a broad peak in critical diffuse x-ray scattering. We have previously measured the scaling behavior of the central peak by scattering from a near-surface region of a V{sub 2}H crystal, which has a first-order transition in the bulk. As the temperature is lowered toward the critical temperature, a crossover in critical behavior is seen, with the temperature range nearest to the critical point being characterized by mean-field exponents. Near the transition, a small two-phase coexistence region is observed. The values of transition and crossover temperatures decay with depth. An explanation of these experimental results is here proposed by means of a theory in which edge dislocations in the near-surface region occur in walls oriented in the two directions normal to the surface. The strain caused by the dislocation lines causes the ordering in the crystal to occur as growth of roughly cylindrically shaped regions. After the regions have reached a certain size, the crossover in the critical behavior occurs, and mean-field behavior prevails. At a still lower temperature, the rest of the material between the cylindrical regions orders via a weak first-order transition.

  12. A phenomenological study of hybrid stars in which the crossover transition from quark to hadron makes the EOS stiffer in contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tong; Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Yan, Yan; Luo, Xin-Lian; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we make a phenomenological study of the mass-radii relationship of hybrid stars from the point of view of the smooth crossover phase transition. We find a way to construct stiff hybrid equations of state (EOSs) with soft EOSs of both the quark matter and the hadronic matter. For the hadron phase, we adopt the EOS softened by introducing hyperons that are considered to exist in the core of a neutron star. For the quark phase, we introduce a quark EOS based on the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) that is calculated in our previous work, and it is also a soft EOS. In contrast to the hybrid EOS based on Maxwell condition, we find that the resulting EOS is stiff and the maximum mass of the hybrid stars is still about two times of solar mass. This result indicates the rich possibilities of the crossover model.

  13. Measuring Meiotic Crossovers via Multi-Locus Genotyping of Single Pollen Grains in Barley.

    PubMed

    Dreissig, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Cápal, Petr; Kettles, Nicola; Byrne, Ed; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The detection of meiotic crossovers in crop plants currently relies on scoring DNA markers in a segregating population or cytological visualization. We investigated the feasibility of using flow-sorted haploid nuclei, Phi29 DNA polymerase-based whole-genome-amplification (WGA) and multi-locus KASP-genotyping to measure meiotic crossovers in individual barley pollen grains. To demonstrate the proof of concept, we used 24 gene-based physically mapped single nucleotide polymorphisms to genotype the WGA products of 50 single pollen nuclei. The number of crossovers per chromosome, recombination frequencies along chromosome 3H and segregation distortion were analysed and compared to a doubled haploid (DH) population of the same genotype. The number of crossovers and chromosome wide recombination frequencies show that this approach is able to produce results that resemble those obtained from other methods in a biologically meaningful way. Only the segregation distortion was found to be lower in the pollen population than in DH plants.

  14. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  15. An end to crossover designs for studies on the effect of sugar substitutes on caries?

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials and laboratory studies involving the administration of oral health treatments and foods have benefited from the observance of the so-called crossover study design. Field experience and a growing number of laboratory experiments have shown, however, that 'blind' reliance on crossover designs may in some instances lead to unexpected results and erroneous conclusions. Some dietary substances, antibiotic agents, and even fluoride applications may have long-term effects that call into question the appropriateness of the washout periods between treatments. Studies have also been conducted on compounds that have turned out to display synergistic effects. When long-term and synergistic effects are simultaneously present in trials involving a crossover design, difficulties may arise in the interpretation of results. This communication uses as an example the long-term clinical and microbiological effects of xylitol and suggests that inclusion of the crossover practice in clinical trials should be separately and carefully contemplated in each instance.

  16. Design evaluation and optimisation in crossover pharmacokinetic studies analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Bazzoli, Caroline; Mentré, France

    2012-05-20

    Bioequivalence or interaction trials are commonly studied in crossover design and can be analysed by nonlinear mixed effects models as an alternative to noncompartmental approach. We propose an extension of the population Fisher information matrix in nonlinear mixed effects models to design crossover pharmacokinetic trials, using a linearisation of the model around the random effect expectation, including within-subject variability and discrete covariates fixed or changing between periods. We use the expected standard errors of treatment effect to compute the power for the Wald test of comparison or equivalence and the number of subjects needed for a given power. We perform various simulations mimicking crossover two-period trials to show the relevance of these developments. We then apply these developments to design a crossover pharmacokinetic study of amoxicillin in piglets and implement them in the new version 3.2 of the r function PFIM.

  17. Fragile-strong fluid crossover and universal relaxation times in a confined hard-disk fluid.

    PubMed

    Yamchi, Mahdi Zaeifi; Ashwin, S S; Bowles, Richard K

    2012-11-30

    We show that a system of hard disks confined to a narrow channel exhibits a fragile-strong fluid crossover located at the maximum of the isobaric heat capacity and that the relaxation times for different channel widths fall onto a single master curve when rescaled by the relaxation times and temperatures of the crossover. Calculations of the configurational entropy and the inherent structure equation of state find that the crossover is related to properties of the jamming landscape for the model but that the Adam-Gibbs relation does not predict the relaxation behavior. We also show that a facilitated dynamics description of the system, where kinetically excited regions are identified with local packing arrangements of the disks, successfully describes the fragile-strong crossover.

  18. Time-dependent couplings and crossover length scales in nonequilibrium surface roughening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradas, Marc; López, Juan M.; Hernández-Machado, A.

    2007-07-01

    We show that time-dependent couplings may lead to nontrivial scaling properties of the surface fluctuations of the asymptotic regime in nonequilibrium kinetic roughening models. Three typical situations are studied. In the case of a crossover between two different rough regimes, the time-dependent coupling may result in anomalous scaling for scales above the crossover length. In a different setting, for a crossover from a rough to either a flat or damping regime, the time-dependent crossover length may conspire to produce a rough surface, although the most relevant term tends to flatten the surface. In addition, our analysis sheds light into an existing debate in the problem of spontaneous imbibition, where time-dependent couplings naturally arise in theoretical models and experiments.

  19. A Fine-Structure Map of Spontaneous Mitotic Crossovers in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phoebe S.; Greenwell, Patricia W.; Dominska, Margaret; Gawel, Malgorzata; Hamilton, Monica; Petes, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important mechanism for the repair of DNA damage in mitotically dividing cells. Mitotic crossovers between homologues with heterozygous alleles can produce two homozygous daughter cells (loss of heterozygosity), whereas crossovers between repeated genes on non-homologous chromosomes can result in translocations. Using a genetic system that allows selection of daughter cells that contain the reciprocal products of mitotic crossing over, we mapped crossovers and gene conversion events at a resolution of about 4 kb in a 120-kb region of chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene conversion tracts associated with mitotic crossovers are much longer (averaging about 12 kb) than the conversion tracts associated with meiotic recombination and are non-randomly distributed along the chromosome. In addition, about 40% of the conversion events have patterns of marker segregation that are most simply explained as reflecting the repair of a chromosome that was broken in G1 of the cell cycle. PMID:19282969

  20. Towards an accurate and computationally-efficient modelling of Fe(II)-based spin crossover materials.

    PubMed

    Vela, Sergi; Fumanal, Maria; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Robert, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    The DFT + U methodology is regarded as one of the most-promising strategies to treat the solid state of molecular materials, as it may provide good energetic accuracy at a moderate computational cost. However, a careful parametrization of the U-term is mandatory since the results may be dramatically affected by the selected value. Herein, we benchmarked the Hubbard-like U-term for seven Fe(ii)N6-based pseudo-octahedral spin crossover (SCO) compounds, using as a reference an estimation of the electronic enthalpy difference (ΔHelec) extracted from experimental data (T1/2, ΔS and ΔH). The parametrized U-value obtained for each of those seven compounds ranges from 2.37 eV to 2.97 eV, with an average value of U = 2.65 eV. Interestingly, we have found that this average value can be taken as a good starting point since it leads to an unprecedented mean absolute error (MAE) of only 4.3 kJ mol(-1) in the evaluation of ΔHelec for the studied compounds. Moreover, by comparing our results on the solid state and the gas phase of the materials, we quantify the influence of the intermolecular interactions on the relative stability of the HS and LS states, with an average effect of ca. 5 kJ mol(-1), whose sign cannot be generalized. Overall, the findings reported in this manuscript pave the way for future studies devoted to understand the crystalline phase of SCO compounds, or the adsorption of individual molecules on organic or metallic surfaces, in which the rational incorporation of the U-term within DFT + U yields the required energetic accuracy that is dramatically missing when using bare-DFT functionals.

  1. Cardiovascular benefits from ancient grain bread consumption: findings from a double-blinded randomized crossover intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Sereni, Alice; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Maggini, Niccolò; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Ancient grain varieties have been shown to have some beneficial effects on health. Forty-five clinically healthy subjects were included in a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial aimed at evaluating the effect of a replacement diet with bread derived from ancient grain varieties versus modern grain variety on cardiovascular risk profile. After 8 weeks of intervention, consumption of bread obtained by the ancient varieties showed a significant amelioration of various cardiovascular parameters. Indeed, the ancient varieties were shown to result in a significant reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood glucose, whereas no significant differences during the phase with the modern variety were reported. Moreover, a significant increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells were reported after the consumption of products made from the ancient "Verna" variety. The present results suggest that a dietary consumption of bread obtained from ancient grain varieties was effective in reducing cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-08-26

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented.

  3. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-08-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes’ drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented.

  4. Classical-to-quantum crossover in the critical behavior of the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Rajak, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2015-10-01

    We study the critical behavior of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in transverse field (at finite temperature) using Monte Carlo simulation and exact diagonalization (at zero temperature). We determine the phase diagram of the model by estimating the Binder cumulant. We also determine the correlation length exponent from the collapse of the scaled data. Our numerical studies here indicate that critical Binder cumulant (indicating the universality class of the transition behavior) and the correlation length exponent cross over from their "classical" to "quantum" values at a finite temperature (unlike the cases of pure systems, where such crossovers occur at zero temperature). We propose a qualitative argument supporting such an observation, employing a simple tunneling picture.

  5. Classical to quantum crossover of the cyclotron resonance in graphene: a study of the strength of intraband absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlita, M.; Crassee, I.; Faugeras, C.; Kuzmenko, A. B.; Fromm, F.; Ostler, M.; Seyller, Th; Martinez, G.; Polini, M.; Potemski, M.

    2012-09-01

    We report on absolute magneto-transmission experiments on highly doped quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene targeting the classical-to-quantum crossover of the cyclotron resonance. This study allows us to directly extract the carrier density and also other relevant quantities such as the quasiparticle velocity and the Drude weight, which is precisely measured from the strength of the cyclotron resonance. We find that the Drude weight is renormalized with respect to its non-interacting (or random phase approximation) value and that the renormalization is tied to the quasiparticle velocity enhancement. This finding is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions, which attribute the renormalization of the Drude weight in graphene to the interplay between broken Galilean invariance and electron-electron interactions.

  6. Challenges of clinical trial design when there is lack of clinical equipoise: use of a response-conditional crossover design.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chunqin; Hanna, Kim; Bril, Vera; Dalakas, Marinos C; Donofrio, Peter; van Doorn, Pieter A; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Merkies, Ingemar S J

    2012-02-01

    Clinical equipoise is widely accepted as the basis of ethics in clinical research and requires investigators to be uncertain of the relative therapeutic merits of trial comparators. When clinical equipoise is in question, innovative trial designs are needed to reduce ethical tension while satisfying regulators' requirements. We report a novel response-conditional crossover study design used in a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. During the initial 24-week period, patients crossed over to the alternative treatment at the first sign of deterioration or if they failed to improve or were unable to maintain improvement at any time after 6 weeks. This trial design addressed concerns about lack of equipoise raised by physicians interested in trial participation and proved acceptable to regulatory authorities. The trial design may be applicable to other studies where clinical equipoise is in question.

  7. Classical-to-quantum crossover in the critical behavior of the transverse-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Rajak, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2015-10-01

    We study the critical behavior of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in transverse field (at finite temperature) using Monte Carlo simulation and exact diagonalization (at zero temperature). We determine the phase diagram of the model by estimating the Binder cumulant. We also determine the correlation length exponent from the collapse of the scaled data. Our numerical studies here indicate that critical Binder cumulant (indicating the universality class of the transition behavior) and the correlation length exponent cross over from their "classical" to "quantum" values at a finite temperature (unlike the cases of pure systems, where such crossovers occur at zero temperature). We propose a qualitative argument supporting such an observation, employing a simple tunneling picture.

  8. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    PubMed Central

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes’ drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. PMID:27562151

  9. Splitter imperfections in annular split-flow thin separation channels: experimental study of nonspecific crossover.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Stephen; Decker, Keith; Nakamura, Masayuki; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Moore, Lee R; Zborowski, Maciej

    2003-12-01

    The separation performance of a split-flow thin (SPLITT) separation device depends on uniformity of channel thickness and the precise placement of the flow splitters at fixed distances between the channel walls. The observation of nonspecific crossover, that is, the transport of sample materials across the channel thickness without the influence of an applied field, has routinely been taken to indicate the presence of irregularities in splitter shape or placement. Computational fluid dynamics software may be used to predict the influence of splitter imperfections on nonspecific crossover, where it is assumed that sample transport is by convection alone. A previous study has shown how small inlet splitter imperfections can account for the relatively low levels of nonspecific crossover observed with typical annular SPLITT devices. This study, however, could not distinguish between the possible sources of nonspecific crossover; hydrodynamic lift or shear-induced diffusion could have contributed. To confirm the validity of the computational approach, a series of experiments has been carried out on a channel having a deliberately and severely bent splitter. Nonspecific crossover was measured for a range of inlet and outlet flow rate ratios, with the bent splitter placed at both the channel inlet and outlet. The severity of the splitter distortion was sufficient to produce significant nonspecific crossover over a wide range of flow conditions. Good agreement was found between experiment and prediction based on computational fluid dynamics, with experiment generally showing only slightly higher crossover than prediction. The quantitative agreement for this extreme case suggests that the contribution to nonspecific crossover due to geometrical imperfections can be well described using computational fluid dynamics.

  10. Analysis of Crossovers in the Interbeat Sequences of Elderly Individuals and Heart Failure Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; del Río Correa, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    Many physical and biological systems exhibit complex behavior characterized by long-range power-law correlations. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a scaling analysis method that provides a scaling parameter to represent the correlation properties of a signal. The study of interbeat sequences with the DFA method has revealed the presence of crossovers associated with physiological aging and heart with failure; the hinges present in the crossover region from both the elderly healthy individuals and the patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are in opposite directions. The interbeat sequences of healthy young persons do not show crossovers. In this paper we study interbeat time series of healthy young and elderly persons and patients with CHF. We use the DFA-m method, where m refers to the order of the polynomial function used for the fitting. For instance, DFA-2 filters linear trends and DFA-3 filters quadratic trends. We found that the presence of the crossovers and the direction of the hinges are conserved when we apply the DFA method for different values of m. Therefore we conclude that the DFA-m method is a reliable method to accurately quantify correlations in interbeat time series even if there are polynomial trends. We can characterize the crossovers and we can conclude that the crossovers are not a result of the trends; they are part of the system dynamics.

  11. Local chromosome context is a major determinant of crossover pathway biochemistry during budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Darpan; Goldman, Alastair SH; Lichten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers. At a Hop1-enriched locus, most VDE-initiated crossovers, like most Spo11-initiated crossovers, required the meiosis-specific MutLγ resolvase. In contrast, at a locus with lower Hop1 occupancy, most VDE-initiated crossovers were MutLγ-independent. In pch2 mutants, the two loci displayed similar Hop1 occupancy levels, and VDE-induced crossovers were similarly MutLγ-dependent. We suggest that meiotic and mitotic recombination pathways coexist within meiotic cells, and that features of meiotic chromosome structure determine whether one or the other predominates in different regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19669.001 PMID:27855779

  12. Empirical power and sample size calculations for cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies.

    PubMed

    Reich, Nicholas G; Myers, Jessica A; Obeng, Daniel; Milstone, Aaron M; Perl, Trish M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the number of studies using a cluster-randomized design has grown dramatically. In addition, the cluster-randomized crossover design has been touted as a methodological advance that can increase efficiency of cluster-randomized studies in certain situations. While the cluster-randomized crossover trial has become a popular tool, standards of design, analysis, reporting and implementation have not been established for this emergent design. We address one particular aspect of cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover trial design: estimating statistical power. We present a general framework for estimating power via simulation in cluster-randomized studies with or without one or more crossover periods. We have implemented this framework in the clusterPower software package for R, freely available online from the Comprehensive R Archive Network. Our simulation framework is easy to implement and users may customize the methods used for data analysis. We give four examples of using the software in practice. The clusterPower package could play an important role in the design of future cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies. This work is the first to establish a universal method for calculating power for both cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized clinical trials. More research is needed to develop standardized and recommended methodology for cluster-randomized crossover studies.

  13. Crossover versus Stabilometric Platform for the Treatment of Balance Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, G.; Bossio, F.; Maestri, R.; Palamara, G.; Bera, R.; Ferrazzoli, D.

    2015-01-01

    Balance dysfunctions are a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown that rehabilitation can play a role in their treatment. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of two different devices for balance training: stabilometric platform and crossover. We have enrolled 60 PD patients randomly assigned to two groups. The first one (stabilometric group) performed a 4-week cycle of balance training, using the stabilometric platform, whereas the second one (crossover group) performed a 4-week cycle of balance training, using the crossover. The outcome measures used were Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT). Results showed that TUG, BBS, and UPDRS II improved in both groups. There was not difference in the efficacy of the two balance treatments. Patients in both groups improved also the meters walked in the 6MWT at the end of rehabilitation, but the improvement was better for patients performing crossover training. Our results show that the crossover and the stabilometric platform have the same effect on balance dysfunction of Parkinsonian patients, while crossover gets better results on the walking capacity. PMID:26583142

  14. Crossover versus Stabilometric Platform for the Treatment of Balance Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Frazzitta, G; Bossio, F; Maestri, R; Palamara, G; Bera, R; Ferrazzoli, D

    2015-01-01

    Balance dysfunctions are a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have shown that rehabilitation can play a role in their treatment. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of two different devices for balance training: stabilometric platform and crossover. We have enrolled 60 PD patients randomly assigned to two groups. The first one (stabilometric group) performed a 4-week cycle of balance training, using the stabilometric platform, whereas the second one (crossover group) performed a 4-week cycle of balance training, using the crossover. The outcome measures used were Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT). Results showed that TUG, BBS, and UPDRS II improved in both groups. There was not difference in the efficacy of the two balance treatments. Patients in both groups improved also the meters walked in the 6MWT at the end of rehabilitation, but the improvement was better for patients performing crossover training. Our results show that the crossover and the stabilometric platform have the same effect on balance dysfunction of Parkinsonian patients, while crossover gets better results on the walking capacity.

  15. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  16. Coherent transport through spin-crossover magnet Fe2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing; Xie, Rong; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong

    2015-12-01

    As one of the most promising building blocks in molecular spintronics, spin crossover (SCO) complexes have attracted increasing attention due to their magnetic bistability between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Here, we explore the electronic structures and transport properties of SCO magnet Fe2 complexes with three different spin-pair configurations, namely [LS-LS], [LS-HS], and [HS-HS], by performing extensive density functional theory calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. Our calculations clearly reveal that the SCO magnet Fe2 complexes should display two-step spin transitions triggered by external stimuli, i.e. temperature or light, which confirm the previous phenomenological model and agree well with previous experimental measurements. Based on the calculated transport results, we observe a nearly perfect spin-filtering effect and negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior integrated in the SCO magnet Fe2 junction with the [HS-HS] configuration. The current through the [HS-HS] SCO magnet Fe2 complex under a small bias voltage is mainly contributed by the spin-down electrons, which is significantly larger than those of the [LS-LS] and [LS-HS] cases. The bias-dependent transmissions are responsible for the observed NDR effect. These theoretical findings suggest that SCO Fe2 complexes hold potential applications in molecular spintronic devices.As one of the most promising building blocks in molecular spintronics, spin crossover (SCO) complexes have attracted increasing attention due to their magnetic bistability between the high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states. Here, we explore the electronic structures and transport properties of SCO magnet Fe2 complexes with three different spin-pair configurations, namely [LS-LS], [LS-HS], and [HS-HS], by performing extensive density functional theory calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. Our calculations clearly reveal that the SCO

  17. Randomized Polypill Crossover Trial in People Aged 50 and Over

    PubMed Central

    Wald, David S.; Morris, Joan K.; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background A Polypill is proposed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people judged to be at risk on account of their age alone. Its efficacy in reducing cholesterol and blood pressure is uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a Polypill among individuals aged 50+ without a history of cardiovascular disease and compared the reductions with those predicted from published estimates of the effects of the individual drugs. Participants took the Polypill (amlodipine 2.5 mg, losartan 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and simvastatin 40 mg) each evening for 12 weeks and a placebo each evening for 12 weeks in random sequence. The mean within-person differences in blood pressure and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol at the end of each 12 week period were determined. Results 84 out of 86 participants completed both treatment periods. The mean systolic blood pressure was reduced by 17.9 mmHg (95% CI, 15.7–20.1) on the Polypill, diastolic blood pressure by 9.8 mmHg (8.1–11.5), and LDL cholesterol by 1.4 mmol/L (1.2–1.6), reductions of 12%, 11%, and 39% respectively. The results were almost identical to those predicted; 18.4 mmHg, 9.7 mmHg, and 1.4 mmol/L respectively. Conclusion The Polypill resulted in the predicted reductions in blood pressure and LDL cholesterol. Long term reductions of this magnitude would have a substantial effect in preventing heart attacks and strokes. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN36672232 PMID:22815989

  18. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic crossover comparison of two levodopa extension strategies.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, Peter A; Jennings, Danna; Lyons, Kelly E; Pahwa, Rajesh; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Wang, James; Guarnieri, Maria; Hubble, Jean P; Murck, Harold

    2009-07-15

    Controlled-release carbidopa and levodopa (CL-CR) and the combination of carbidopa, levodopa, and entacapone (CLE) are used for extending levodopa (L-dopa) effects. In a randomized, open-label crossover study of 17 PD subjects with wearing-off responses, we compared 8-hour L-dopa pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical effects after two doses of CL-CR (50 and 200 mg, respectively) and CLE (37.7, 150, 200 mg, respectively). PK analysis revealed the anticipated near-equivalent mean L-dopa area-under-the-concentration-curve values (639,490 ng min/mL for two doses of CLE, and 662,577 for CL-CR, P = 0.86). The mean hourly fluctuation index for L-dopa concentration was 235% for CLE and 196% for CL-CR (P = 0.004). The mean maximal concentration for the first CLE dose was 1,926 +/- 760 ng/mL and for CL-CR, 1,840 +/- 889 (P = 0.33). During the PK studies, the mean time that L-dopa concentration was > or =1,000 ng/mL for CLE was 291 +/- 88 minutes and for CL-CR, 306 +/- 86 (P = 0.33). The mean percent-time in "off" state was 18% for CLE and 28% for CL-CR (P = 0.017), "on state without dyskinesia" was 64% for CLE and 65% for CL-CR (P = 0.803), and "on state with nontroublesome dyskinesia" was 18% for CLE and 7% for CL-CR (P = 0.03). Despite less "off" time with CLE, both formulations demonstrated similar mean PK values and marked intersubject PK variability.

  19. Clarithromycin in GABA-related Hypersomnolence: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Saini, Prabhjyot; Bliwise, Donald L.; Freeman, Amanda A.; Jenkins, Andrew; Rye, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some central hypersomnolence syndromes are associated with a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors in cerebrospinal fluid. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors, including clarithromycin, have been reported to reduce sleepiness in these patients. We sought to systematically assess the effects of clarithromycin on objective vigilance and subjective sleepiness. Methods This was a five-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of clarithromycin 500 mg with breakfast and lunch, in patients with hypersomnolence syndromes (excluding narcolepsy with cataplexy) and evidence for abnormal cerebrospinal fluid potentiation of GABA-A receptors. The study occurred at a university-affiliated medical center. The primary outcome measure was median reaction time on the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at week 2 in each condition. Secondary outcomes included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the SF-36, and additional PVT measures. Results Twenty-three patients began treatment. Three patients dropped out, and final analyses were performed on twenty complete cases. Median reaction time was not significantly different between clarithromycin and placebo. Subjective measures of sleepiness were significantly improved on clarithromycin versus placebo. Altered taste perception occurred, but was the only side effect more common on clarithromycin than placebo. No serious adverse events occurred. Interpretation Subjective sleepiness, but not psychomotor vigilance, improved during a two-week course of clarithromycin. Although additional studies are needed, this suggests that clarithromycin may be a reasonable treatment option in patients with treatment-refractory hypersomnolence. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01146600) and supported by the American Sleep Medicine Foundation. PMID:26094838

  20. Bloodcurdling movies and measures of coagulation: Fear Factor crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Banne; Scheres, Luuk J J; Lijfering, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess whether, as has been hypothesised since medieval times, acute fear can curdle blood. Design Crossover trial. Setting Main meeting room of Leiden University’s Department of Clinical Epidemiology, the Netherlands, converted to a makeshift cinema. Participants 24 healthy volunteers aged ≤30 years recruited among students, alumni, and employees of the Leiden University Medical Center: 14 were assigned to watch a frightening (horror) movie followed by a non-threatening (educational) movie and 10 to watch the movies in reverse order. The movies were viewed more than a week apart at the same time of day and both lasted approximately 90 minutes. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measures were markers, or “fear factors” of coagulation activity: blood coagulant factor VIII, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragments 1+2. The secondary outcome was participant reported fear experienced during each movie using a visual analogue fear scale. Results All participants completed the study. The horror movie was perceived to be more frightening than the educational movie on a visual analogue fear scale (mean difference 5.4, 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 6.1). The difference in factor VIII levels before and after watching the movies was higher for the horror movie than for the educational movie (mean difference of differences 11.1 IU/dL (111 IU/L), 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 21.0 IU/dL). The effect of either movie on levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, D-dimer, and prothrombin fragments 1+2 did not differ. Conclusion Frightening (in this case, horror) movies are associated with an increase of blood coagulant factor VIII without actual thrombin formation in young and healthy adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02601053. PMID:26673787

  1. Nutrition intervention for migraine: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited evidence suggests that dietary interventions may offer a promising approach for migraine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet intervention on migraine severity and frequency. Methods Forty-two adult migraine sufferers were recruited from the general community in Washington, DC, and divided randomly into two groups. This 36-week crossover study included two treatments: dietary instruction and placebo supplement. Each treatment period was 16 weeks, with a 4-week washout between. During the diet period, a low-fat vegan diet was prescribed for 4 weeks, after which an elimination diet was used. Participants were assessed at the beginning, midpoint, and end of each period. Significance was determined using student’s t-tests. Results Worst headache pain in last 2 weeks, as measured by visual analog scale, was initially 6.4/10 cm (SD 2.1 cm), and declined 2.1 cm during the diet period and 0.7 cm during the supplement period (p=0.03). Average headache intensity (0–10 scale) was initially 4.2 (SD 1.4) per week, and this declined by 1.0 during the diet period and by 0.5 during the supplement period (p=0.20). Average headache frequency was initially 2.3 (SD 1.8) per week, and this declined by 0.3 during the diet period and by 0.4 during the supplement period (p=0.61). The Patient’s Global Impression of Change showed greater improvement in pain during the diet period (p<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that a nutritional approach may be a useful part of migraine treatment, but that methodologic issues necessitate further research. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01699009 and NCT01547494. PMID:25339342

  2. Cross-over: a generalizable phenomenon necessary for secondary intraneural ganglion cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Amrami, Kimberly K; Wang, Huan; Kliot, Michel; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2008-03-01

    The appearances of intraneural ganglion cysts are being elucidated. We previously introduced the cross-over phenomenon to explain how a fibular (peroneal) or tibial intraneural ganglion cyst arising from the superior tibiofibular joint could give rise to multiple cysts: cyst fluid ascending up the primarily affected nerve could reach the level of the sciatic nerve, fill its common epineurial sheath and spread circumferentially (cross over), at which time pressure fluxes could result in further ascent up the sciatic or descent down the same parent nerve or the opposite, previously unaffected fibular or tibial nerves. In this study, we hypothesized that cross-over could occur in other nerves, potentially leading to the formation of more than one intraneural ganglion cyst in such situations. We analyzed the literature and identified a single case that we could review where proximal extension of an intraneural ganglion cyst involving a nerve at a different site could theoretically undergo cross-over in another major nerve large enough for available magnetic resonance images to resolve this finding. A case of a suprascapular intraneural ganglion cyst previously reported by our group that arose from the glenohumeral joint and extended to the neck was reanalyzed for the presence or absence of cross-over. An injection of dye into the outer epineurium of the suprascapular nerve in a fresh cadaveric specimen was performed to test for cross-over experimentally. Retrospective review of this case of suprascapular intraneural ganglion cyst demonstrated evidence to support previously unrecognized cross-over at the level of the upper trunk, with predominant ascent up the C5 and the C6 nerve roots and subtle descent down the anterior and posterior divisions of the upper trunk as well as the proximal portion of the suprascapular nerve. This appearance gave rise to multiple interconnected intraneural ganglion cysts arising from a single distant connection to the glenohumeral joint

  3. Dimensional crossover in topological matter: Evolution of the multiple Dirac point in the layered system to the flat band on the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, T. T.; Volovik, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    We consider the dimensional crossover in the topological matter, which involves the transformation of different types of topologically protected zeroes in the fermionic spectrum. In the considered case, the multiple Dirac (Fermi) point in quasi 2-dimensional system evolves into the flat band on the surface of the 3-dimensional system when the number of atomic layers increases. This is accompanied by formation of the spiral nodal lines in the bulk. We also discuss the topological quantum phase transition at which the surface flat band shrinks and changes its chirality, while the nodal spiral changes its helicity.

  4. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids

    PubMed Central

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D’Errico, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips. PMID:27188334

  5. Microscopic origin of the fragile to strong crossover in supercooled water: The role of activated processes.

    PubMed

    De Marzio, M; Camisasca, G; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2017-02-28

    We perform an accurate analysis of the density self-correlation functions of TIP4P/2005 supercooled water on approaching the region of the liquid-liquid critical point. In a previous work on this model, we provided evidence of a fragile to strong crossover of the dynamical behavior in the deep supercooled region. The structural relaxation follows the Mode Coupling theory in the fragile region and then deviates from Mode Coupling regime to a strong Arrhenius behavior. This crossover is particularly important in water because it is connected to the thermodynamics of the supercooled region. To better understand the origin of this crossover, we compute now the Van Hove self-correlation functions. In particular we aim at investigating the presence and the role of the hopping phenomena that are the cause of the fragile to strong crossover in simple liquids. In TIP4P/2005 water, we find hopping processes too and we analyze how they depend on temperature and density upon approaching the fragile to strong crossover and the Mode Coupling ideal crossover temperature. Our results show that water behaves like a simple glass former. After an initial ballistic regime, the cage effect dominates the mild supercooled region, with diffusion taking place at long time. At the fragile to strong crossover, we find that hopping (activated) processes start to play a role. This is evidenced by the appearance of peaks in the Van Hove correlation functions. In the deep supercooled regime, our analysis clearly indicates that activated processes dominate the dynamics. The comparison between the Van Hove functions and the radial distribution functions allows to better understand the mechanism of hopping phenomena in supercooled water and to connect their onset directly with the crossing of the Widom Line.

  6. Covariance and crossover matrix guided differential evolution for global numerical optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, YongLi; Feng, JinFu; Hu, JunHua

    2016-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is an efficient and robust evolutionary algorithm and has wide application in various science and engineering fields. DE is sensitive to the selection of mutation and crossover strategies and their associated control parameters. However, the structure and implementation of DEs are becoming more complex because of the diverse mutation and crossover strategies that use distinct parameter settings during the different stages of the evolution. A novel strategy is used in this study to improve the crossover and mutation operations. The crossover matrix, instead of a crossover operator and its control parameter CR, is proposed to implement the function of the crossover operation. Meanwhile, Gaussian distribution centers the best individuals found in each generation based on the proposed covariance matrix, which is generated between the best individual and several better individuals. Improved mutation operator based on the crossover matrix is randomly selected to generate the trial population. This operator is used to generate high-quality solutions to improve the capability of exploitation and enhance the preference of exploration. In addition, the memory population is randomly chosen from previous generation and used to control the search direction in the novel mutation strategy. Accordingly, the diversity of the population is improved. Thus, CCDE, which is a novel efficient and simple DE variant, is presented in this paper. CCDE has been tested on 30 benchmarks and 5 real-world optimization problems from the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2014 and CEC 2011, respectively. Experimental and statistical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CCDE for global numerical and engineering optimization. CCDE can solve the test benchmark functions and engineering problems more successfully than the other DE variants and algorithms from CEC 2014.

  7. Dimensional Crossover in Quantum Networks: From Macroscopic to Mesoscopic Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopfer, Félicien; Mallet, François; Mailly, Dominique; Texier, Christophe; Montambaux, Gilles; Bäuerle, Christopher; Saminadayar, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    We report on magnetoconductance measurements of metallic networks of various sizes ranging from 10 to 106 plaquettes, with an anisotropic aspect ratio. Both Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak h/2e periodic oscillations and Aharonov-Bohm h/e periodic oscillations are observed for all networks. For large samples, the amplitude of both oscillations results from the incoherent superposition of contributions of phase coherent regions. When the transverse size becomes smaller than the phase coherent length Lϕ, one enters a new regime which is phase coherent (mesoscopic) along one direction and macroscopic along the other, leading to a new size dependence of the quantum oscillations.

  8. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  9. Does lavender aromatherapy alleviate premenstrual emotional symptoms?: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A majority of reproductive-age women experience a constellation of various symptoms in the premenstrual phase, commonly known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Despite its prevalence, however, no single treatment is universally recognized as effective, and many women turn to alternative approaches, including aromatherapy, a holistic mind and body treatment. The present study investigated the soothing effects of aromatherapy on premenstrual symptoms using lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), a relaxing essential oil, from the perspective of autonomic nervous system function. Methods Seventeen women (20.6 ± 0.2 years) with mild to moderate subjective premenstrual symptoms participated in a randomized crossover study. Subjects were examined on two separate occasions (aroma and control trials) in the late-luteal phases. Two kinds of aromatic stimulation (lavender and water as a control) were used. This experiment measured heart rate variability (HRV) reflecting autonomic nerve activity and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) as a psychological index before and after the aromatic stimulation. Results Only a 10-min inhalation of the lavender scent significantly increased the high frequency (HF) power reflecting parasympathetic nervous system activity in comparison with water (aroma effect: F = 4.50, p = 0.050; time effect: F = 5.59, p = 0.017; aroma x time effect: F = 3.17, p = 0.047). The rate of increase in HF power was greater at 10–15 min (p = 0.051) and 20–25 min (p = 0.023) in the lavender trial than in the control trial with water. In addition, POMS tests revealed that inhalation of the aromatic lavender oil significantly decreased two POMS subscales—depression–dejection (p = 0.045) and confusion (p = 0.049)—common premenstrual symptoms, in the late-luteal phase, as long as 35 min after the aroma stimulation. Conclusions The present study indicated that lavender aromatherapy as a potential therapeutic

  10. Two measures of bilingualism in the memories of immigrants and indigenous minorities: crossover memories and codeswitching.

    PubMed

    Altman, Carmit

    2015-04-01

    Two indices of bilingualism, crossover memories and codeswitching (CS), were explored in five groups of immigrant (English-Hebrew, Georgian-Hebrew Russian-Hebrew) and indigenous bilinguals (Arabic-Hebrew, Hebrew-English). Participants recalled memories in response to cue words and then were asked to report the language of retrieval and provide a more elaborate narrative. More memories were 'same language' memories, recalled in the language of the experimental session/cue word, but as many as 48 % of the memories were crossovers, i.e. memories reported in a language other than the language of the session/cue word. In an effort to examine the ecological validity of the self-reported language of the memories, the frequency of CS in the elaborated narratives was investigated. For the entire sample, more CS was found for self-reported crossover memories in L2 sessions. In a further analysis of CS in crossover memories, collapsed across L1 and L2 sessions, significant differences emerged between immigrants and indigenous bilinguals. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant bilinguals are discussed in terms of the role of activation in crossover memories.

  11. Hydrophobic hydration from small to large lengthscales: Understanding and manipulating the crossover

    PubMed Central

    Rajamani, Sowmianarayanan; Truskett, Thomas M.; Garde, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    Small and large hydrophobic solutes exhibit remarkably different hydration thermodynamics. Small solutes are accommodated in water with minor perturbations to water structure, and their hydration is captured accurately by theories that describe density fluctuations in pure water. In contrast, hydration of large solutes is accompanied by dewetting of their surfaces and requires a macroscopic thermodynamic description. A unified theoretical description of these lengthscale dependencies was presented by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [(1999) J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4570–4577]. Here, we use molecular simulations to study lengthscale-dependent hydrophobic hydration under various thermodynamic conditions. We show that the hydration of small and large solutes displays disparate dependencies on thermodynamic variables, including pressure, temperature, and additive concentration. Understanding these dependencies allows manipulation of the small-to-large crossover lengthscale, which is nanoscopic under ambient conditions. Specifically, applying hydrostatic tension or adding ethanol decreases the crossover length to molecular sizes, making it accessible to atomistic simulations. With detailed temperature-dependent studies, we further demonstrate that hydration thermodynamics changes gradually from entropic to enthalpic near the crossover. The nanoscopic lengthscale of the crossover and its sensitivity to thermodynamic variables imply that quantitative modeling of biomolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions requires elements of both molecular and macroscopic hydration physics. We also show that the small-to-large crossover is directly related to the Egelstaff-Widom lengthscale, the product of surface tension and isothermal compressibility, which is another fundamental lengthscale in liquids. PMID:15972804

  12. Hydrophobic hydration from small to large lengthscales: Understanding and manipulating the crossover.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sowmianarayanan; Truskett, Thomas M; Garde, Shekhar

    2005-07-05

    Small and large hydrophobic solutes exhibit remarkably different hydration thermodynamics. Small solutes are accommodated in water with minor perturbations to water structure, and their hydration is captured accurately by theories that describe density fluctuations in pure water. In contrast, hydration of large solutes is accompanied by dewetting of their surfaces and requires a macroscopic thermodynamic description. A unified theoretical description of these lengthscale dependencies was presented by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [(1999) J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4570-4577]. Here, we use molecular simulations to study lengthscale-dependent hydrophobic hydration under various thermodynamic conditions. We show that the hydration of small and large solutes displays disparate dependencies on thermodynamic variables, including pressure, temperature, and additive concentration. Understanding these dependencies allows manipulation of the small-to-large crossover lengthscale, which is nanoscopic under ambient conditions. Specifically, applying hydrostatic tension or adding ethanol decreases the crossover length to molecular sizes, making it accessible to atomistic simulations. With detailed temperature-dependent studies, we further demonstrate that hydration thermodynamics changes gradually from entropic to enthalpic near the crossover. The nanoscopic lengthscale of the crossover and its sensitivity to thermodynamic variables imply that quantitative modeling of biomolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions requires elements of both molecular and macroscopic hydration physics. We also show that the small-to-large crossover is directly related to the Egelstaff-Widom lengthscale, the product of surface tension and isothermal compressibility, which is another fundamental lengthscale in liquids.

  13. Factors influencing recombination frequency and distribution in a human meiotic crossover hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, Alec J; Neumann, Rita

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination events within human crossover hotspots. We now describe the detailed analysis of sperm recombination in the NID1 hotspot. Like the neighbouring MS32 hotspot, the NID1 hotspot is associated with a minisatellite, suggesting that hotspots predispose DNA to tandem repetition. Unlike MS32, crossover resolution breakpoints in NID1 avoid the minisatellite, producing a cold spot within the hotspot. This avoidance may be related to the palindromic nature of the minisatellite interfering with the generation and/or processing of recombination intermediates. The NID1 hotspot also contains a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) close to the centre, which appears to directly influence the frequency of crossover initiation. Quantitative gene conversion assays show that this SNP affects the frequency of gene conversion and crossover to a very similar extent, providing evidence that conversions and crossovers are triggered by the same recombination initiating events. The recombination-suppressing allele is over-transmitted to recombinant progeny, and provides the most dramatic example to date of recombination-mediated meiotic drive, of a magnitude sufficient to virtually guarantee that the recombination suppressor will eventually replace the more active allele in human populations.

  14. A light-induced spin crossover actuated single-chain magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Zheng, Hui; Kang, Soonchul; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kanegawa, Shinji; Duan, Chunying

    2013-11-01

    Both spin-crossover complexes and molecular nanomagnets display bistable magnetic states, potentially behaving as elementary binary units for information storage. It is a challenge to introduce spin-crossover units into molecular nanomagnets to switch the bistable state of the nanomagnets through external stimuli-tuned spin crossover. Here we report an iron(II) spin-crossover unit and paramagnetic iron(III) ions that are incorporated into a well-isolated double-zigzag chain. The chain exhibits thermally induced reversible spin-crossover and light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites. Single-chain magnet behaviour is actuated accompanying the synergy between light-induced excited spin-state trapping at the iron(II) sites and ferromagnetic interactions between the photoinduced high-spin iron(II) and low-spin iron(III) ions in the chain. The result provides a strategy to switch the bistable state of molecular nanomagnets using external stimuli such as light and heat, with the potential to erase and write information at a molecular level.

  15. Constructing higher order DNA origami arrays using DNA junctions of anti-parallel/parallel double crossovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhipeng; Park, Seongsu; Yamashita, Naoki; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    DNA origami provides a versatile method for the construction of nanostructures with defined shape, size and other properties; such nanostructures may enable a hierarchical assembly of large scale architecture for the placement of other nanomaterials with atomic precision. However, the effective use of these higher order structures as functional components depends on knowledge of their assembly behavior and mechanical properties. This paper demonstrates construction of higher order DNA origami arrays with controlled orientations based on the formation of two types of DNA junctions: anti-parallel and parallel double crossovers. A two-step assembly process, in which preformed rectangular DNA origami monomer structures themselves undergo further self-assembly to form numerically unlimited arrays, was investigated to reveal the influences of assembly parameters. AFM observations showed that when parallel double crossover DNA junctions are used, the assembly of DNA origami arrays occurs with fewer monomers than for structures formed using anti-parallel double crossovers, given the same assembly parameters, indicating that the configuration of parallel double crossovers is not energetically preferred. However, the direct measurement by AFM force-controlled mapping shows that both DNA junctions of anti-parallel and parallel double crossovers have homogeneous mechanical stability with any part of DNA origami.

  16. Bayesian analysis of time-series data under case-crossover designs: posterior equivalence and inference.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart; Ghosh, Malay

    2013-12-01

    Case-crossover designs are widely used to study short-term exposure effects on the risk of acute adverse health events. While the frequentist literature on this topic is vast, there is no Bayesian work in this general area. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the paper establishes Bayesian equivalence results that require characterization of the set of priors under which the posterior distributions of the risk ratio parameters based on a case-crossover and time-series analysis are identical. Second, the paper studies inferential issues under case-crossover designs in a Bayesian framework. Traditionally, a conditional logistic regression is used for inference on risk-ratio parameters in case-crossover studies. We consider instead a more general full likelihood-based approach which makes less restrictive assumptions on the risk functions. Formulation of a full likelihood leads to growth in the number of parameters proportional to the sample size. We propose a semi-parametric Bayesian approach using a Dirichlet process prior to handle the random nuisance parameters that appear in a full likelihood formulation. We carry out a simulation study to compare the Bayesian methods based on full and conditional likelihood with the standard frequentist approaches for case-crossover and time-series analysis. The proposed methods are illustrated through the Detroit Asthma Morbidity, Air Quality and Traffic study, which examines the association between acute asthma risk and ambient air pollutant concentrations.

  17. Anode reaction mechanism and crossover in direct dimethyl ether fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Itsuko; Liu, Yan; Mitsushima, Shigenori; Ota, Ken-ichiro; Kamiya, Nobuyuki

    The anode reaction mechanism and the crossover of a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DDMEFC) have been investigated. This was done by considering the anode products of the half-cell and DDMEFC experiments. It was found that the CO 2 current efficiency of the DDMEFC was almost 1 at 30-80 °C and that this value was higher than that of a DMFC. The main by-products of the DDMEFC were methyl formate and methanol whose amounts are negligibly small compared to CO 2. With respect to crossover, the influence of DME on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was examined with a half-cell, and the amount of crossover of DME was measured while operating an actually constructed DDMEFC. From these experiments, it was found that DME does not influence the ORR as much as methanol under similar conditions. Furthermore, the amount of crossover of DME decreased with an increase in temperature and current density and it was one-half that of methanol on open circuit and at 80 °C. The CO 2 current efficiency of the DDMEFC is higher than that of a DMFC, and the influence of crossover in the DDMEFC is less than that in the DMFC. Since the temperature dependence of the reactivity of DME is larger than that of methanol, the higher output is expected for the DDMEFC at the elevated temperature. Therefore, the DDMEFC has a promising potential as a portable power source in the future.

  18. Randomized crossover clinical trial of real and sham peripheral prism glasses for hemianopia

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Keeney, Karen; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of real relative to sham peripheral prism glasses for patients with complete homonymous hemianopia and without visual neglect. Methods Patients recruited at 13 clinics were allocated by minimization into a double-masked, crossover trial with two groups. One group received real (57Δ) oblique and sham (≤ 5Δ) horizontal prisms; the other received real horizontal and sham oblique, in counterbalanced order. A masked data collector at each clinic administered questionnaires after each 4-week crossover period. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the overall difference, across the two periods of the crossover, between the proportion of participants who wanted to continue with (said “yes” to) real prisms and the proportion who said yes to sham prisms. The secondary outcome was the difference in perceived mobility improvement between real and sham prisms. Results Of 73 patients randomized, 61 completed the crossover. A significantly higher proportion said yes to real than sham prisms (64% vs. 36%; odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.8 to 21.0). Participants who continued wear after 6 months reported greater improvement in mobility with real than sham prisms at crossover end (p=0.002); participants who discontinued wear reported no difference. Conclusion Real peripheral prism glasses were more helpful for obstacle avoidance when walking than sham glasses, with no differences between the horizontal and oblique designs. Applications to clinical practice Peripheral prism glasses provide a simple and inexpensive mobility rehabilitation intervention for hemianopia. PMID:24201760

  19. The crossover between organized and disorganized states in some non-equilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Diego Luis; Téllez, Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    We study numerically the crossover between organized and disorganized states of three non-equilibrium systems: the Poisson/coalesce random walk (PCRW), a one-dimensional spin system and a quasi one-dimensional lattice gas. In all cases, we describe this crossover in terms of the average spacing between particles/domain borders langS(t)rang and the spacing distribution functions p(n)(s). The nature of the crossover is not the same for all systems; however, we found that for all systems the nearest neighbor distribution p(0)(s) is well fitted by the Berry-Robnik model. The destruction of the level repulsion in the crossover between organized and disorganized states is present in all systems. Additionally, we found that the correlations between domains in the gas and spin systems are not strong and can be neglected in a first approximation, but for the PCRW the correlations between particles must be taken into account. To find p(n)(s) with n > 1, we propose two different analytical models based on the Berry-Robnik model. Our models give us a good approximation for the statistical behavior of these systems at their crossover and allow us to quantify the degree of order/disorder of the system.

  20. Study on nature of crossover phenomena with application to gearbox fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Li, Shunming; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a robust tool for uncovering long-range correlations hidden in the non-stationary data. Recently, crossover properties of the scaling-law curve obtained by DFA have been applied to diagnose gearbox faults. However, the nature of the crossover phenomena has not been well- explained. In this paper, an explanation for the nature of crossover phenomena is specifically given, which is conducive to discovering novel features for gearbox fault diagnosis. Firstly, an explicit exposition of the crossover phenomena is provided by analyzing the gearbox vibration signal. Secondly, the nature of crossover phenomena is specifically disclosed. Thirdly, the features with clear physical meaning are proposed to describe operating conditions of a gearbox. Then, to overcome the deficiency of feature extraction through visual observation, a piecewise-linear regression model is utilized to extract the features automatically. Lastly, several combinations of these features are used to classify the fault types. As a consequence, the proposed novel features are verified that they can well- distinguish the gearbox operating conditions with different fault types and severities, and deliver a better performance than the existing method depending on the sensitive index (SI).

  1. Spin crossover and hyperfine interactions of iron in (Mg ,Fe ) CO3 ferromagnesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Han; Huang, Sheng-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Ferromagnesite, an iron-bearing carbonate stable up to 100-115 GPa, is believed to be the major carbon carrier in the earth's lower mantle and play a key role in the earth's deep carbon cycle. In this paper, we use the local density approximation plus self-consistent Hubbard U (LDA+Usc) method to study the iron spin crossover in ferromagnesite with a wide range of iron concentration (12.5-100%). Our calculation shows that this mineral undergoes a crossover from the high-spin (HS) (S =2 ) to the low-spin (LS) (S =0 ) state at around 45-50 GPa, regardless of the iron concentration. The intermediate-spin (S =1 ) state is energetically unfavorable and not involved in spin crossover. The anomalous changes of volume, density, and bulk modulus accompanying the spin crossover obtained in our calculation are in great agreement with experiments. Our calculation also predicts that an abrupt change of the iron nuclear quadrupole splitting, from ≳2.8 mm/s to ≲0.3 mm/s, can be observed in Mössbauer spectra at 45-50 GPa as a signature of the HS-LS crossover.

  2. Mechanochemical effect in the iron(III) spin crossover complex [Fe(3-MeO-salenEt2]PF6 as studied by heat capacity calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Sorai, Michio; Burriel, Ramón; Westrum, Edgar F; Hendrickson, David N

    2008-04-10

    Magnetic and thermal properties of the iron(III) spin crossover complex [Fe(3MeO-salenEt)(2)]PF(6) are very sensitive to mechanochemical perturbations. Heat capacities for unperturbed and differently perturbed samples were precisely determined by adiabatic calorimetry at temperatures in the 10-300 K range. The unperturbed compound shows a cooperative spin crossover transition at 162.31 K, presenting a hysteresis of 2.8 K. The anomalous enthalpy and entropy contents of the transition were evaluated to be Delta(trs)H = 5.94 kJ mol(-1) and Delta(trs)S = 36.7 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. By mechanochemical treatments, (1) the phase transition temperature was lowered by 1.14 K, (2) the enthalpy and entropy gains at the phase transition due to the spin crossover phenomenon were diminished to Delta(trs)H = 4.94 kJ mol(-1) and Delta(trs)S = 31.1 J K(-1) mol(-1), and (3) the lattice heat capacities were larger than those of the unperturbed sample over the whole temperature range. In spite of different mechanical perturbations (grinding with a mortar and pestle and grinding in a ball-mill), two sets of heat capacity measurements provided basically the same results. The mechanochemical perturbation exerts its effect more strongly on the low-spin state than on the high-spin state. It shows a substantial increase of the number of iron(III) ions in the high-spin state below the transition temperature. The heat capacities of the diamagnetic cobalt(III) analogue [Co(3MeO-salenEt)(2)]PF(6) also were measured. The lattice heat capacity of the iron compounds has been estimated from either the measurements on the cobalt complex using a corresponding states law or the effective frequency distribution method. These estimations have been used for the evaluation of the transition anomaly.

  3. An evaluation of video instruction for an electric toothbrush. Comparative single-brushing cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Addy, M; Renton-Harper, P; Warren, P; Newcombe, R G

    1999-05-01

    Instructions on the use of electric toothbrushes are usually derived from the written and/or diagrammatic leaflets provided with the device or perhaps less often instruction from a professional. Videos are now widely used for information transfer and the direction of physical activities. The aim of this study was to determine whether video instruction in the use of an electric toothbrush could promote efficient use of the device. The 2-min video demonstrated the use of an oscillating, rotating electric toothbrush used by a hygienist for 15 s in each buccal and lingual quadrant. A voice-over directed the observer to follow the hygienist's movements. The study was planned as a 2-phase, single-examiner blind, randomised, cross-over study accepting there would be confounding of the 2nd period by carry-over from the 1st. A group of 24 healthy volunteers participated who had average oral hygiene and never used an electric toothbrush. 12 subjects received the video first (VN) and 12 subjects the instructional leaflet with the device (NV). Single brushings were performed after suspending tooth cleaning for 48 h. Plaque was scored before and after brushing. A 2-week washout period was permitted before the crossover. In period 1, plaque removal with the video was overall significantly greater than with written instructions. The effects for posterior teeth were greater than anterior and comparison between groups for posterior minus anterior differences were highly significant in favour of the VN group. In period 2, the effect of period was dominant with both groups achieving greater plaque removal in period 2 than period 1. Plaque removal by group VN remained considerably greater than group NV Despite the confounding influences of carry-over in this particular design of study, the results support the idea that video instruction for electric toothbrushes could be a simple and efficient way of improving plaque removal by these devices. The methodology needs to be verified in a

  4. Motor effects of radio electric asymmetric conveyer in Alzheimer's disease: results from a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Olazarán, Javier; González, Belén; Osa-Ruiz, Emma; Felipe-Ruiz, Silvia; Boyano, Inmaculada; Fontani, Vania; Castagna, Alessandro; Mendoza, Carolina; Zea, María Ascensión; Frades, Belén; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial to investigate the feasibility, safety, and motor effects of brain stimulation with radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technique in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuropostural optimization (NPO) and sham protocol were administered to 60 patients from the nursing home and day care units of the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofía Foundation. The mean age was 84.1 (SD 7.9) years and 86.7% of the subjects were female. Motor measures were collected at baseline (T1), immediately (T2), seven (T3), and 11 days (T4) after treatment and, following cross-over, immediately (T5), seven (T6), and 11 (T7) days after treatment. Close safety surveillance was conducted from seven days before T1 to the end of the study (T7), with total study duration of 35 days. Wilcoxon test was utilized in the efficacy analysis, considering T1 and T5 as independent baseline assessments and using a threshold of p < 0.05 (corrected) for statistical significance. The NPO protocol was easily administered and well accepted by the participants. Axial movements improved at T3 and T4 after NPO and at T2 after sham NPO, but no significant effects were observed in axial movements in the second phase of the trial. The effects of NPO in gait performance were not consistent. There were six falls between T2 and T7, but only two of them occurred in patients who had received NPO. In light of safety and feasibility of REAC, a trial with the more intense neuropsycho-physical optimization protocol is warranted.

  5. Universal temperature crossover behavior of electrical conductance in a single oligothiophene molecular wire.

    PubMed

    Lee, See Kei; Yamada, Ryo; Tanaka, Shoji; Chang, Gap Soo; Asai, Yoshihiro; Tada, Hirokazu

    2012-06-26

    We have observed and analyzed a universal temperature crossover behavior of electrical conductance in a single oligothiophene molecular wire. The crossover between the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence at high temperature and the temperature-invariant behavior at low temperature is found at a critical molecular wire length of 5.6 nm, where we found a change from the exponential length dependence to the length-invariant behavior. We have derived a scaling function analysis for the origin of the crossover behavior. After assuring that the analysis fits the explanation of the Keldysh Green's function calculation for the temperature dependence, we have applied it to our experimental results and found successfully that our scaling function gives a universal description of the temperature dependence for all over the temperature range.

  6. Universal low-temperature crossover in two-channel Kondo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Sela, Eran

    2012-06-01

    An exact expression is derived for the electron Green function in two-channel Kondo models with one and two impurities, describing the crossover from non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior at intermediate temperatures to standard Fermi liquid (FL) physics at low temperatures. Symmetry-breaking perturbations generically present in experiment ensure the standard low-energy FL description, but the full crossover is wholly characteristic of the unstable NFL state. Distinctive conductance lineshapes in quantum dot devices should result. We exploit a connection between this crossover and one occurring in a classical boundary Ising model to calculate real-space electron densities at finite temperature. The single universal finite-temperature Green function is then extracted by inverting the integral transformation relating these Friedel oscillations to the t matrix. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between exact results and full numerical renormalization group calculations.

  7. Crossover in the Scaling Behavior of Ion-sputtered Pd(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. C.; Kim, Y.; Noh, D. Y.; Kahng, B.; Kim, J.-S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate morphological evolution of Ar+ ion sputtered Pd(001) by in situ real-time x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) experiments. Surface roughness W, and its dynamic scaling behavior show a definite crossover across a crossover time tc. Before tc, growth exponent β, varies from 0.20 to 0.49 depending on substrate temperature, T. After tc, β drops to ˜0.1, irrespective to substrate temperature. Satellite peaks in GISAXS indicating laterally ordered structure develop as the growth time approaches tc, which become clear with further sputtering. We think that the crossover behavior near tc indicates the reduction of non-linear effect and the scaling behavior would follow the Edwards-Wilkinson model.

  8. Splitter imperfections in annular split-flow thin separation channels: effect on nonspecific crossover.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Stephen; Moore, Lee R; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2003-03-15

    The separation performance of split-flow thin (SPLITT) separation channels generally falls short of ideal behavior. There are many possible contributing factors to the loss of separation resolution, and these are discussed in the text. The possibility that small imperfections in the splitters play a significant role is examined in this study. Computational fluid dynamics is used to determine the flow pattern within an annular SPLITT channel having small imperfections in the inlet splitter. These results are used to calculate the nonspecific crossover of particles from the inner annular inlet to the outer annular outlet under various flow rate regimes. Nonspecific crossover, obtained through convective transport alone, and not the result of field-induced transport, is often used as a check of channel behavior. The results of a typical experimental determination of nonspecific crossover are included for comparison. It is concluded that geometrical imperfections can indeed play a significant role in the loss of resolution observed for these systems.

  9. Correction of Crossover Toe Deformity by Arthroscopically Assisted Plantar Plate Tenodesis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Plantar plate deficiency is the major pathology causing metatarsophalangeal joint instability. As the joint subluxates dorsally, the lumbrical is tethered at the medial side of the joint by the deep metatarsal ligament and becomes a deforming force for the development of crossover toe deformity. Plantar plate repair or reconstruction is a logical surgical treatment option. This can be performed through a dorsal or plantar approach. The purpose of this technical note is to report a minimally invasive technique of crossover toe deformity correction by suturing the plantar plate to the extensor tendon. It is indicated for symptomatic crossover toe deformity that is not responsive to nonsurgical treatment. It is contraindicated if the metatarsophalangeal joint is degenerated, destructed, or dislocated, or there is interdigital neuroma at the sides of the deformed toe, or the deformity is caused by bony deformities of the metatarsal head or the proximal phalanx.

  10. Temperature effect on the small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Djikaev, Y. S. Ruckenstein, E.

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics of hydration is expected to change gradually from entropic for small solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc. We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size effects on its hydration over the entire small-to-large lengthscale range at a series of different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on the temperature and solute size, one can also obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of both temperature and solute size. These functions can provide some interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T = 293.15 K to T = 333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of small hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data on the hydration of simple molecular solutes. Three alternative definitions for the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the small-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  11. Temperature effect on the small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Djikaev, Y S; Ruckenstein, E

    2013-11-14

    The thermodynamics of hydration is expected to change gradually from entropic for small solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc. We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size effects on its hydration over the entire small-to-large lengthscale range at a series of different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on the temperature and solute size, one can also obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of both temperature and solute size. These functions can provide some interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T = 293.15 K to T = 333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of small hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data on the hydration of simple molecular solutes. Three alternative definitions for the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the small-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  12. A Quality Control Mechanism Coordinates Meiotic Prophase Events to Promote Crossover Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Deshong, Alison J.; Ye, Alice L.; Lamelza, Piero; Bhalla, Needhi

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation relies on homologous chromosomes being linked by at least one crossover, the obligate crossover. Homolog pairing, synapsis and meiosis specific DNA repair mechanisms are required for crossovers but how they are coordinated to promote the obligate crossover is not well understood. PCH-2 is a highly conserved meiotic AAA+-ATPase that has been assigned a variety of functions; whether these functions reflect its conserved role has been difficult to determine. We show that PCH-2 restrains pairing, synapsis and recombination in C. elegans. Loss of pch-2 results in the acceleration of synapsis and homolog-dependent meiotic DNA repair, producing a subtle increase in meiotic defects, and suppresses pairing, synapsis and recombination defects in some mutant backgrounds. Some defects in pch-2 mutants can be suppressed by incubation at lower temperature and these defects increase in frequency in wildtype worms grown at higher temperature, suggesting that PCH-2 introduces a kinetic barrier to the formation of intermediates that support pairing, synapsis or crossover recombination. We hypothesize that this kinetic barrier contributes to quality control during meiotic prophase. Consistent with this possibility, defects in pch-2 mutants become more severe when another quality control mechanism, germline apoptosis, is abrogated or meiotic DNA repair is mildly disrupted. PCH-2 is expressed in germline nuclei immediately preceding the onset of stable homolog pairing and synapsis. Once chromosomes are synapsed, PCH-2 localizes to the SC and is removed in late pachytene, prior to SC disassembly, correlating with when homolog-dependent DNA repair mechanisms predominate in the germline. Indeed, loss of pch-2 results in premature loss of homolog access. Altogether, our data indicate that PCH-2 coordinates pairing, synapsis and recombination to promote crossover assurance. Specifically, we propose that the conserved function of PCH-2 is to destabilize pairing

  13. High pressure ferroelastic phase transition in SrTiO₃.

    PubMed

    Salje, E K H; Guennou, M; Bouvier, P; Carpenter, M A; Kreisel, J

    2011-07-13

    High pressure measurements of the ferroelastic phase transition of SrTiO₃ (Guennou et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 054115) showed a linear pressure dependence of the transition temperature between the cubic and tetragonal phase. Furthermore, the pressure induced transition becomes second order while the temperature dependent transition is near a tricritical point. The phase transition mechanism is characterized by the elongation and tilt of the TiO₆ octahedra in the tetragonal phase, which leads to strongly nonlinear couplings between the structural order parameter, the volume strain and the applied pressure. The phase diagram is derived from the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship and is directly related to a pressure dependent Landau potential. The nonlinearities of the pressure dependent strains lead to an increase of the fourth order Landau coefficient with increasing pressure and, hence, to a tricritical-second order crossover. This behaviour is reminiscent of the doping related crossover in isostructural KMnF₃.

  14. Crossover between universality classes in the statistics of rare events in disordered conductors.

    PubMed

    Apalkov, V M; Raikh, M E; Shapiro, B

    2002-09-16

    The crossover from orthogonal to the unitary universality classes in the distribution of the anomalously localized states (ALS) in two-dimensional disordered conductors is traced as a function of magnetic field. We demonstrate that the microscopic origin of the crossover is the change in the symmetry of the underlying disorder configurations that are responsible for ALS. These disorder configurations are of weak magnitude (compared to the Fermi energy) and of small size (compared to the mean free path). We find their shape explicitly by means of the direct optimal fluctuation method.

  15. Cooperative dynamic and diffusion behavior above and below the dynamical crossover of supercooled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picasso, Germán C.; Malaspina, David C.; Carignano, Marcelo A.; Szleifer, Igal

    2013-07-01

    Using extensive molecular dynamics simulations combined with a novel approach to analyze the molecular displacements we analyzed the change in the dynamics above and below the crossover temperature Tx for supercooled water. Our findings suggest that the crossover from fragile to strong glass former occurring at Tx is related with a change in the diffusion mechanism evidencing the presence of jump-like diffusion at lower temperatures. Also we observe that fluctuations of the local environments are intimately connected with fluctuations in the size and the amount of cooperative cluster of mobile molecules, and in particular we find a highly cooperative nature of the motion at low temperatures.

  16. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  17. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalis, Evangelos; Höfinger, Siegfried; Venturini, Alessandro; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  18. Crossover of two power laws in the anomalous diffusion of a two lipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bakalis, Evangelos E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Höfinger, Siegfried; Zerbetto, Francesco E-mail: francesco.zerbetto@unibo.it; Venturini, Alessandro

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bi-layer membrane made by the same number of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine and palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylserine lipids reveal sub-diffusional motion, which presents a crossover between two different power laws. Fractional Brownian motion is the stochastic mechanism that governs the motion in both regimes. The location of the crossover point is justified with simple geometrical arguments and is due to the activation of the mechanism of circumrotation of lipids about each other.

  19. Universal crossover from ground-state to excited-state quantum criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Byungmin; Potter, Andrew C.; Vasseur, Romain

    2017-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium properties of a nonergodic random quantum chain in which highly excited eigenstates exhibit critical properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states. The ground state and excited states of this system belong to different universality classes, characterized by infinite-randomness quantum critical behavior. Using strong-disorder renormalization group techniques, we show that the crossover between the zero and finite energy density regimes is universal. We analytically derive a flow equation describing the unitary dynamics of this isolated system at finite energy density from which we obtain universal scaling functions along the crossover.

  20. Self-assembly of fully addressable DNA nanostructures from double crossover tiles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Tong; Zhang, Suoyu; Bai, Tanxi; Mi, Yongli; Wei, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami and single-stranded tile (SST) are two proven approaches to self-assemble finite-size complex DNA nanostructures. The construction elements appeared in structures from these two methods can also be found in multi-stranded DNA tiles such as double crossover tiles. Here we report the design and observation of four types of finite-size lattices with four different double crossover tiles, respectively, which, we believe, in terms of both complexity and robustness, will be rival to DNA origami and SST structures. PMID:27484479

  1. General resistance crossover expressions for three-dimensional variable-range hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lien, Nguyen; Rosenbaum, Ralph

    1998-07-01

    We observe a crossover in the temperature dependence of the variable-range-hopping resistivity in a three-dimensional nickel-silicon film from the Mott 0953-8984/10/27/009/img5-behaviour to the soft-gap 0953-8984/10/27/009/img6-behaviour with 0953-8984/10/27/009/img7. We propose general expressions for describing such crossovers from 0953-8984/10/27/009/img5-behaviour to 0953-8984/10/27/009/img6-behaviour for any 0953-8984/10/27/009/img10 from 1/4 to 1. The theoretical expressions fit the experimental data well.

  2. Spectrum and Dynamics of the BCS-BEC Crossover from a Few-Body Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, Javier von; Greene, Chris H.

    2007-08-31

    The spectrum of two spin-up and two spin-down fermions in a trap is calculated using a correlated Gaussian basis throughout the range of the BCS-BEC crossover. These accurate calculations provide a few-body solution to the crossover problem. This solution is used to study the time evolution of the system as the scattering length is changed, mimicking experiments with Fermi gases near Fano-Feshbach resonances. The structure of avoiding crossings in the spectrum allow us to understand the dynamics of the system as a sequence of Landau-Zener transitions. Finally, we propose a ramping scheme to study atom-molecule coherence.

  3. A randomized single blind crossover trial comparing leather and commercial wrist splints for treating chronic wrist pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Jill; Nimmo, Rachel; Rowell, Wendy; Quinn, Stephen; Jones, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Background To compare the effectiveness of a custom-made leather wrist splint (LS) with a commercially available fabric splint (FS) in adults with chronic wrist pain. Methods Participants (N = 25, mean age = 54) were randomly assigned to treatment order in a 2-phase crossover trial. Splints were worn for 2 weeks, separated by a one-week washout period. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each splint phase using the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN), the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Jamar dynamometer by an observer blinded to treatment allocation. Results Both styles of wrist splint significantly reduced pain (effect size LS 0.79, FS 0.43), improved hand function and increased grip strength compared to baseline (all p < 0.05) with no increase in wrist stiffness. There was a consistent trend for the LS to be superior to the FS but this was statistically significant only for patient perceived occupational performance (p = 0.008) and satisfaction (p = 0.015). Lastly, 72% of patients preferred the custom-made leather splint compared to the commercially available splint. Conclusion Leather wrist splints were superior to a commercially available fabric splint for the short-term relief of pain and dysfunction. PMID:19843345

  4. A mixed-ligand approach for spin-crossover modulation in a linear Fe(II) coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Calvo Galve, Néstor; Coronado, Eugenio; Giménez-Marqués, Mónica; Mínguez Espallargas, Guillermo

    2014-05-05

    In this work, we present a family of Fe(II) coordination polymers of general formula [Fe(btzx)(3-3x)(btix)(3x)](ClO4)2 with interesting spin-crossover properties. These coordination polymers have been synthesized using chemical mixtures of two different but closely related ligands, 1,4-bis(tetrazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (btzx) and 1,4-bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (btix), and the effect of a gradual substitution of the ligand in the spin transition temperature has been investigated. Several chemical mixtures have been structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction indicating a clear critical amount in the composition of the mixture after which mixed phases rather than a single phase comprising mixed components are observed. Importantly, this approach causes the appearance of a new transition at lower temperatures that is not present in the pure [Fe(L)3](ClO4)2 systems.

  5. Fine-Scale Heterogeneity in Crossover Rate in the garnet-scalloped Region of the Drosophila melanogaster X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nadia D.; Stone, Eric A.; Aquadro, Charles F.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Homologous recombination affects myriad aspects of genome evolution, from standing levels of nucleotide diversity to the efficacy of natural selection. Rates of crossing over show marked variability at all scales surveyed, including species-, population-, and individual-level differences. Even within genomes, crossovers are nonrandomly distributed in a wide diversity of taxa. Although intra- and intergenomic heterogeneities in crossover distribution have been documented in Drosophila, the scale and degree of crossover rate heterogeneity remain unclear. In addition, the genetic features mediating this heterogeneity are unknown. Here we quantify fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover distribution in a 2.1-Mb region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome by localizing crossover breakpoints in 2500 individuals, each containing a single crossover in this specific X chromosome region. We show 90-fold variation in rates of crossing over at a 5-kb scale, place this variation in the context of several aspects of genome evolution, and identify several genetic features associated with crossover rates. Our results shed new light on the scale and magnitude of crossover rate heterogeneity in D. melanogaster and highlight potential features mediating this heterogeneity. PMID:23410829

  6. Fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover rate in the garnet-scalloped region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nadia D; Stone, Eric A; Aquadro, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-01

    Homologous recombination affects myriad aspects of genome evolution, from standing levels of nucleotide diversity to the efficacy of natural selection. Rates of crossing over show marked variability at all scales surveyed, including species-, population-, and individual-level differences. Even within genomes, crossovers are nonrandomly distributed in a wide diversity of taxa. Although intra- and intergenomic heterogeneities in crossover distribution have been documented in Drosophila, the scale and degree of crossover rate heterogeneity remain unclear. In addition, the genetic features mediating this heterogeneity are unknown. Here we quantify fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover distribution in a 2.1-Mb region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome by localizing crossover breakpoints in 2500 individuals, each containing a single crossover in this specific X chromosome region. We show 90-fold variation in rates of crossing over at a 5-kb scale, place this variation in the context of several aspects of genome evolution, and identify several genetic features associated with crossover rates. Our results shed new light on the scale and magnitude of crossover rate heterogeneity in D. melanogaster and highlight potential features mediating this heterogeneity.

  7. Magnetic field driven 2D-3D crossover in the S =1/2 frustrated chain magnet LiCuVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prozorova, L. A.; Sosin, S. S.; Svistov, L. E.; Büttgen, N.; Kemper, J. B.; Reyes, A. P.; Riggs, S.; Prokofiev, A.; Petrenko, O. A.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a heat-capacity study of high-quality single-crystal samples of LiCuVO4—a frustrated spin S =1/2 chain system—in a magnetic field amounting to 3/4 of the saturation field. A detailed examination of magnetic phase transitions observed in this field range shows that although the low-field helical state clearly has three-dimensional properties, the field-induced spin-modulated phase turns out to be quasi-two-dimensional. The model proposed in this paper allows one to qualitatively understand this crossover, thus eliminating the presently existing contradictions in the interpretations of NMR and neutron-scattering measurements.

  8. A Crossover Trial Evaluating an Educational-Behavioral Joint Protection Programme for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, A.; Lincoln, N.; Sutcliffe, L.

    1999-01-01

    Joint protection, a self-management technique taught to people with rheumatoid arthritis, was used in a group education program. A crossover trial (N=35) was conducted. No significant changes in measures of pain, functional disability, grip strength, self-efficacy or helplessness occurred post-education, although this may have been due to the…

  9. Dimensional crossover in Rayleigh Taylor flows driven by time dependent accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Aklant K.; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the nature of dimensional crossover i.e. transition between the nearly isotropic 3D square bubbflows les to highly anisotropic 2D flows in Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability. Power law time dependence of the acceleration is considered with the emphasis on sub-regime, where the behavior is RT type. We consider flow with rectangular symmetry and obtain the 3D square and 2D limits with leading order rectangular corrections. Solutions evolve as power law and solutions form a two parameter family parametrized by the principal curvatures of the bubble. The bubbles with ``near circular contour'' separate the 2-dimensional solution space into two distinct regimes having distinct properties under the dimensional crossover. In one regime, the elongated bubbles transform to 2D solutions, whereas in the other the elongated bubbles flatten under a dimensional crossover. 3D square bubbles are universally stable whereas 2D bubbles are unstable with respect to 3D modulations, implying that the dimensional crossover is discontinuous. The time dependence affects the growth/decay of perturbations and has no consequence on the overall stability properties of the solution. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.

  10. The Daily Spillover and Crossover of Emotional Labor: Faking Emotions at Work and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel; Rodriguez-Munoz, Alfredo; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2012-01-01

    This diary study among 75 Spanish dual earner couples investigates whether emotional labor performed by employees at work has implications for themselves and for their partner at home. On the basis of the Spillover-Crossover model, we hypothesized that individuals' surface acting at work would spill over to the home domain, and that surface acting…

  11. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  12. The Crossover Generation: Baby Boomers and the Role of the Public Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kirsty; Bannister, Marion; Sullivan, Jen

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the concept of baby boomers as a "crossover" generation, one that embodies characteristics of previous and later generations. The context is the retirement of the baby boomers and its potential impact on the public library. Ethnographic method within a constructivist framework was used, employing the techniques of…

  13. What about the leader? Crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Crossover accelerates evolution in GAs with a Babel-like fitness landscape: mathematical analyses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Iwasa, Y

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of crossover in accelerating evolution in genetic algorithms (GAs) is studied with a haploid finite population of bit sequences. A Babel-like fitness landscape is assumed. There is a single bit sequence (schema) that is significantly more advantageous than all the others. We study the time until domination of the advantageous schema (Τ&subd;). Evolution proceeds with appearance, spread, and domination of the advantageous schema. The most important process determining Τ&subd; is the appearance (creation) of the advantageous schema. Crossover helps this creation process and enhances the rate of evolution. To study this effect, we first establish an analytical method to estimate Τ&subd; with or without crossover. Then, we conduct a numerical analysis using the frequency vector representation of the population with the recurrence relations formulated after GA operations. Finally, we carry out direct computer simulations with simple GAs operating on a population of binary strings directly prepared in the computer memory to examine the performance of the two analytical methods. It is shown that Τ&subd; is reduced greatly by crossover with a mildly high rate when the mutation rate is adjusted to a moderate value and that an advantageous schema has a fairly larger order (the number of bits). From these observations, we can determine implementation criteria for GAs, which are useful when we are applying GAs to engineering problems having a conspicuously discontinuous fitness landscape.

  15. Atomoxetine for Hyperactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Placebo-Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Amelia M.; Witwer, Andrea N.; Hall, Kristy L.; Thompson, Susan; Ramadan, Yaser

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore placebo-controlled efficacy and safety of atomoxetine (ATX) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Children ages 5 to 15 with ASD and prominent ADHD symptoms were randomly assigned to order in a crossover of clinically titrated ATX and placebo, 6…

  16. Crossover Literature and Abjection: Geraldine McCaughrean's "The White Darkness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a close reading of Geraldine McCaughrean's award-winning novel, "The White Darkness". It argues that this is a key text in the increasing debate about "crossover" literature. Whereas, traditionally, adolescent books were seen to offer compensatory fantasies to the adolescent reader, McCaughrean's text goes…

  17. A Crossover Study of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents and Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Reese, R. Matthew; Valdovinos, Maria G.; Marquis, Janet G.; Fleming, Kandace K.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Risperidone has shown safety and efficacy for aggressive and destructive behaviors in short-term studies. This longer-duration study includes a broad sample. Forty subjects, aged 8-56 years (mean=22), all with mental retardation and 36 with autism spectrum disorders participated in this 22-week crossover study, with 24 weeks of open maintenance…

  18. Bias induced spin transitions of spin crossover molecules: the role of charging effect.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hua; Jia, Ting; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zeng, Zhi

    2017-03-15

    The spin transition of spin crossover molecules induced by bias voltages from low spin to high spin was observed recently and several mechanisms were suggested to understand it. However, these mechanisms fail to explain the dependence of spin transitions on the bias polarity in experiments and thus may still be questionable. Based on a first-principles study, we propose that the bias-induced spin transition is triggered by a charging effect, namely, the filling of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of spin crossover molecules. Our proposal is substantiated by three steps: (1) the spin transition from low spin to high spin can be achieved by charging the isolated spin crossover molecules with one extra electron; (2) in molecular junctions, the charging of spin crossover molecules can be realized by electron transfer from electrodes to molecules under finite bias; (3) more importantly, the electron transfer is dependent on the bias polarity due to asymmetrical couplings of the sandwiched molecule with two electrodes. This mechanism satisfactorily explains the bias-polarity dependent spin transitions in experiments [Miyamachi et al., Nat. Commun., 2012, 3, 938; Gopakumar et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2012, 51, 6262].

  19. An optimal multi-period crossover design for an application in paediatric nephrology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, John N S

    2014-02-28

    Crossover clinical trials can provide substantial benefits by eliminating inter-patient variation from treatment comparisons and by allowing multiple observations of each patient. They are particularly useful when sample sizes are necessarily small. These advantages proved particularly valuable in an assessment of clot prevention in children undergoing haemodialysis. Only small numbers of children are treated at any given time in any single dialysis unit, but each patient is obliged to attend two or three times each week, suggesting the use of a crossover trial with many periods. Standard crossover trials described in the literature (i) typically have fewer than 10 periods and (ii) are based on a model of questionable applicability to this study. This paper describes the derivation of an optimal crossover trial with 30 periods, which was used to compare two anticoagulants using nine patients. There is also a discussion of the analysis of the data obtained in the trial, which had a distribution markedly different from that anticipated when the study was designed.

  20. Investigation of crossover processes in a unitized bidirectional vanadium/air redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    grosse Austing, Jan; Nunes Kirchner, Carolina; Komsiyska, Lidiya; Wittstock, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the losses in coulombic efficiency are investigated for a vanadium/air redox flow battery (VARFB) comprising a two-layered positive electrode. Ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy is used to monitor the concentrations cV2+ and cV3+ during operation. The most likely cause for the largest part of the coulombic losses is the permeation of oxygen from the positive to the negative electrode followed by an oxidation of V2+ to V3+. The total vanadium crossover is followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the positive electrolyte after one VARFB cycle. During one cycle 6% of the vanadium species initially present in the negative electrolyte are transferred to the positive electrolyte, which can account at most for 20% of the coulombic losses. The diffusion coefficients of V2+ and V3+ through Nafion® 117 are determined as DV2+ ,N 117 = 9.05 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and DV3+ ,N 117 = 4.35 ·10-6 cm2 min-1 and are used to calculate vanadium crossover due to diffusion which allows differentiation between vanadium crossover due to diffusion and migration/electroosmotic convection. In order to optimize coulombic efficiency of VARFB, membranes need to be designed with reduced oxygen permeation and vanadium crossover.

  1. Hypothesis testing and estimation in ordinal data under a simple crossover design.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Since each patient serves as his/her own control, the crossover design can be of use to improve power as compared with the parallel-groups design in studying noncurative treatments to certain chronic diseases. Although the research studies on the crossover design have been quite intensive, the discussions on analyzing ordinal data under such a design are truly limited. We propose using the generalized odds ratio (GOR) for paired sample data to measure the relative effect on patient responses for both treatment and period in ordinal data under a simple crossover trial. Assuming the treatment and period effects are multiplicative, we note that one can easily derive the maximum likelihood estimator (LE) in closed forms for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We develop asymptotic and exact procedures for testing treatment and period effects. We further derive asymptotic and exact interval estimators for the GOR of treatment and period effects. We use the data taken from a crossover trial to assess the clarity of leaflet instructions between two devices among asthma patients to illustrate the use of these test procedures and estimators developed here.

  2. A Randomized Crossover Study of Web-Based Media Literacy to Prevent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML…

  3. Enhanced bistability by guest inclusion in Fe(II) spin crossover porous coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Lara, Francisco J; Gaspar, Ana B; Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo; Muñoz, M Carmen; Ohba, Masaaki; Ohtani, Ryo; Kitagawa, Susumu; Real, José A

    2012-05-16

    Inclusion of thiourea guest molecules in the tridimensional spin crossover porous coordination polymers {[Fe(pyrazine)[M(CN)(4)]} (M = Pd, Pt) leads to novel clathrates exhibiting unprecedented large thermal hysteresis loops of ca. 60 K wide centered near room temperature.

  4. Determination of Effective Crossover Location and Dimensions for Branched Detonation in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    Frederick R. Schauer (Member) Date ___________________________________ ________ James L. Rutledge, Capt, USAF (Member...I would like to thank Dr. Paul King, Dr. Fred Schauer , Dr. John Hoke, and Capt Jay Rutledge for taking the time to share their knowledge and... marks are left on the polycarbonate where the crossover geometry and polycarbonate meet. The burn marks are visible in the Schlieren field of view when

  5. Progress in Developing a New Field-theoretical Crossover Equation-of-State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, Joseph; Barmatz, M.; Zhong, Fang

    2003-01-01

    A new field-theoretical crossover equation-of-state model is being developed. This model of a liquid-gas critical point provides a bridge between the asymptotic equation-of-state behavior close to the transition, obtained by the Guida and Zinn-Justin parametric model [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 31, 8103 (1998)], and the expected mean field behavior farther away. The crossover is based on the beta function for the renormalized fourth-order coupling constant and incorporates the correct crossover exponents and critical amplitude ratios in both regimes. A crossover model is now being developed that is consistent with predictions along the critical isochore and along the coexistence curve of the minimal subtraction renormalization approach developed by Dohm and co-workers and recently applied to the O(1) universality class [Phys. Rev. E, 67, 021106 (2003)]. Experimental measurements of the heat capacity at constant volume, isothermal susceptibility, and coexistence curve near the He-3 critical point are being compared to the predictions of this model. The results of these comparisons will be presented.

  6. A randomized-crossover trial to decrease bacterial contamination on hospital scrubs

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Mallory A.; Thom, Kerri A.; Zhan, Min; Johnson, J. Kristie

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare worker attire may become contaminated with pathogenic organisms during a normal shift. We performed a randomized-crossover study to assess whether treatment with an antimicrobial coating would decrease bacterial contamination on scrubs. Thirty percent of all scrubs were contaminated; there was no difference in the rate of contamination between intervention/control. PMID:25333437

  7. 49 CFR 236.203 - Hand operated crossover between main tracks; protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... of the following: (a) An arrangement of one or more track circuits and switch circuit controllers, (b) Facing point locks on both switches of the crossover, with both locks operated by a single lever, or...

  8. Arabidopsis meiotic crossover hot spots overlap with H2A.Z nucleosomes at gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A; Venn, Oliver; Higgins, James D; Yelina, Nataliya E; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Franklin, F Chris H; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    PRDM9 directs human meiotic crossover hot spots to intergenic sequence motifs, whereas budding yeast hot spots overlap regions of low nucleosome density (LND) in gene promoters. To investigate hot spots in plants, which lack PRDM9, we used coalescent analysis of genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Crossovers increased toward gene promoters and terminators, and hot spots were associated with active chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z, histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), LND and low DNA methylation. Hot spot-enriched A-rich and CTT-repeat DNA motifs occurred upstream and downstream, respectively, of transcriptional start sites. Crossovers were asymmetric around promoters and were most frequent over CTT-repeat motifs and H2A.Z nucleosomes. Pollen typing, segregation and cytogenetic analysis showed decreased numbers of crossovers in the arp6 H2A.Z deposition mutant at multiple scales. During meiosis, H2A.Z forms overlapping chromosomal foci with the DMC1 and RAD51 recombinases. As arp6 reduced the number of DMC1 or RAD51 foci, H2A.Z may promote the formation or processing of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. We propose that gene chromatin ancestrally designates hot spots within eukaryotes and PRDM9 is a derived state within vertebrates.

  9. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions. 660.220 Section 660.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.220 Fixed gear...

  10. 50 CFR 660.220 - Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed gear fishery-crossover provisions. 660.220 Section 660.220 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Fixed Gear Fisheries § 660.220 Fixed gear...

  11. Two structural relaxations in protein hydration water and their dynamic crossovers.

    PubMed

    Camisasca, G; De Marzio, M; Corradini, D; Gallo, P

    2016-07-28

    We study the translational single particle dynamics of hydration water of lysozyme upon cooling by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that water close to the protein exhibits two distinct relaxations. By characterizing their behavior upon cooling, we are able to assign the first relaxation to the structural α-relaxation also present in bulk water and in other glass-forming liquids. The second, slower, relaxation can be ascribed to a dynamic coupling of hydration water motions to the fluctuations of the protein structure. Both relaxation times exhibit crossovers in the behavior upon cooling. For the α-process, we find upon cooling a crossover from a fragile behavior to a strong behavior at a temperature which is about five degrees higher than that of bulk water. The long-relaxation time appears strictly connected to the protein motion as it shows upon cooling a temperature crossover from a strong behavior with a lower activation energy to a strong behavior with a higher activation energy. The crossover temperature coincides with the temperature of the protein dynamical transition. These findings can help experimentalists to disentangle the different information coming from total correlators and to better characterize hydration water relaxations in different biomolecules.

  12. Proposed 230-kV Crossover Substation, Big Horn County, Montana: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Western proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a 230-kV substation northwest of Hardin, Big Horn County, Montana. The proposed Crossover Substation would form an interconnection between Western's Yellowtail-Custer and MPC's Colstrip-Billings 230-kV transmission lines. Impacts and mitigation strategies are discussed.

  13. Functional equation for the crossover in the model of one-dimensional Weierstrass random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudoi, Yu. G.; Kotel'nikova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the problem of one-dimensional symmetric diffusion in the framework of Markov random walks of the Weierstrass type using two-parameter scaling for the transition probability. We construct a solution for the characteristic Lyapunov function as a sum of regular (homogeneous) and singular (nonhomogeneous) solutions and find the conditions for the crossover from normal to anomalous diffusion.

  14. Studying the thermal/non-thermal crossover in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes work performed under contract NAS5-32584 for Phase 3 of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 1 November 1993 through 1 November 1994. We have made spectral observations of the hard x-ray and gamma-ray bremsstrahlung emissions from solar flares using the Burst and Transit Source Experiment (BASTE) on CGRO. These measurements of their spectrum and time profile provided valuable information on the fundamental flare processes of energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Our scientific objective was to study both the thermal and non-thermal sources of solar flare hard x-ray and gamma-ray emission.

  15. Hydrophobic hydration from small to large lengthscales: Understanding and manipulating the crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Sowmianarayanan; Truskett, Thomas M.; Garde, Shekhar

    2005-07-01

    Small and large hydrophobic solutes exhibit remarkably different hydration thermodynamics. Small solutes are accommodated in water with minor perturbations to water structure, and their hydration is captured accurately by theories that describe density fluctuations in pure water. In contrast, hydration of large solutes is accompanied by dewetting of their surfaces and requires a macroscopic thermodynamic description. A unified theoretical description of these lengthscale dependencies was presented by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [(1999) J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4570-4577]. Here, we use molecular simulations to study lengthscale-dependent hydrophobic hydration under various thermodynamic conditions. We show that the hydration of small and large solutes displays disparate dependencies on thermodynamic variables, including pressure, temperature, and additive concentration. Understanding these dependencies allows manipulation of the small-to-large crossover lengthscale, which is nanoscopic under ambient conditions. Specifically, applying hydrostatic tension or adding ethanol decreases the crossover length to molecular sizes, making it accessible to atomistic simulations. With detailed temperature-dependent studies, we further demonstrate that hydration thermodynamics changes gradually from entropic to enthalpic near the crossover. The nanoscopic lengthscale of the crossover and its sensitivity to thermodynamic variables imply that quantitative modeling of biomolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions requires elements of both molecular and macroscopic hydration physics. We also show that the small-to-large crossover is directly related to the Egelstaff-Widom lengthscale, the product of surface tension and isothermal compressibility, which is another fundamental lengthscale in liquids. Author contributions: S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. designed research; S.R. performed research; S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. analyzed data; and S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: LCW

  16. Recombination in adenovirus: analysis of crossover sites in intertypic overlap recombinants.

    PubMed

    Mautner, V; Mackay, N

    1984-11-01

    Overlap recombination has been used as a means of generating intertypic recombinants with crossover sites located within a defined region of the adenovirus genome. Using terminal DNA fragments of adenovirus type 2 and type 5 that overlap within the vicinity of the hexon coding region (51.6-59.7 map units), two different crosses could be studied; in one the overlap entirely encompasses the hexon and there are homologous regions at either side of the overlap where recombination is expected, and in the other only one side of the overlap is capable of sustaining recombination. The overall distribution of crossover sites within the overlap has been determined by restriction endonuclease mapping, and analysed in terms of the extent of homology between Ad2 and Ad5 in this region as defined by the DNA sequences (R. Kinloch, N. Mackay, and V. Mautner (1984). J. Biol. Chem., 259, 6431-6436; G. Akusjärvi, P. Aleström, M. Pettersson, M. Lager, H. Jörnvall, and U. Pettersson (1984). Submitted). Crossovers are found only in regions of relatively high DNA homology, as previously shown for intertypic recombination between temperature-sensitive viruses (M. E. G. Boursnell and V. Mautner (1981). Virology 112, 198-209). The presence of a free DNA end within the heterologous zone is insufficient to overcome the barrier to recombination. In crosses where recombination is confined to a relatively small homologous zone (45.9-53.0 mu) there is no special distribution of crossovers within the interval; no "hot spot" is discernible at the free DNA end, suggesting that a free DNA end is not especially recombinogenic, nor at the junction between the homologous and heterologous zones, suggesting that branch migration up to the heterology does not always occur. A cross designed to furnish evidence for gene conversion gave rise to a "conventional" recombinant with a crossover located within a 21-nucleotide tract of homology.

  17. Microscopic theory of cooperative spin crossover: Interaction of molecular modes with phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Palii, Andrew E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Ostrovsky, Serghei; Reu, Oleg; Klokishner, Sophia E-mail: klokishner@yahoo.com; Tsukerblat, Boris; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia

    2015-08-28

    In this article, we present a new microscopic theoretical approach to the description of spin crossover in molecular crystals. The spin crossover crystals under consideration are composed of molecular fragments formed by the spin-crossover metal ion and its nearest ligand surrounding and exhibiting well defined localized (molecular) vibrations. As distinguished from the previous models of this phenomenon, the developed approach takes into account the interaction of spin-crossover ions not only with the phonons but also a strong coupling of the electronic shells with molecular modes. This leads to an effective coupling of the local modes with phonons which is shown to be responsible for the cooperative spin transition accompanied by the structural reorganization. The transition is characterized by the two order parameters representing the mean values of the products of electronic diagonal matrices and the coordinates of the local modes for the high- and low-spin states of the spin crossover complex. Finally, we demonstrate that the approach provides a reasonable explanation of the observed spin transition in the [Fe(ptz){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal. The theory well reproduces the observed abrupt low-spin → high-spin transition and the temperature dependence of the high-spin fraction in a wide temperature range as well as the pronounced hysteresis loop. At the same time within the limiting approximations adopted in the developed model, the evaluated high-spin fraction vs. T shows that the cooperative spin-lattice transition proves to be incomplete in the sense that the high-spin fraction does not reach its maximum value at high temperature.

  18. BCS-BEC crossover physics in FeSe bulk superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibauchi, Takasada

    The physics of the crossover between weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strong-coupling Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits gives a unified framework of quantum bound (superfluid) states of interacting fermions. This crossover has been studied in the ultracold atomic systems, but is extremely difficult to be realized for electrons in solids. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and quantum oscillations, we demonstrate that the Fermi energy of the bulk superconductor FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio of the gap to Fermi energy is of the order of unity, which qualifies FeSe to be deep inside the BCS-BEC crossover regime. Thus FeSe appears to be a key material to solve the longstanding issue in the crossover physics; the presence of preformed Cooper pairs giving rise to a pseudogap above the superconducting transition temperature Tc. We report experimental signatures of preformed Cooper pairing well above Tc = 8 . 5 K in clean single crystals of FeSe. Our torque magnetometry reveals distinct diamagnetic signal below T* ~ 20 K indicating that the superconducting fluctuations above the transition temperature are strongly enhanced from the standard Gaussian theory. The transport and thermoelectric coefficients also exhibit distinct anomalies at ~T* , signaling a possible pseudogap formation. The multiband nature with the electron-hole compensation in FeSe may highlight a fundamentally new aspect of the BCS-BEC crossover physics In collaboration with S. Kasahara, T. Yamashita, Y. Matsuda (Kyoto), Y. Mizukami (Tokyo), T. Wolf, F. Hardy, C. Meingast, H. v. Löhneysen (KIT), M. D. Watson, A. I. Coldea (Oxford), T. Terashima (NIMS), W. Knafo (Toulouse), T. Hanaguri (Riken).

  19. Short Daily versus Conventional Hemodialysis for Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Deborah L.; Ruzicka, Marcel; Hebert, Paul; Fergusson, Dean; Touyz, Rhian M.; Burns, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of end stage renal disease patients with short daily hemodialysis has been associated with an improvement in blood pressure. It is unclear from these studies if anti-hypertensive management had been optimized prior to starting short daily hemodialysis. Also, the potential mechanism(s) of blood pressure improvement remain to be fully elucidated. Study Design, Setting and Participants We undertook a randomized cross-over trial in adult hypertensive patients with ESRD treated with conventional hemodialysis to determine: 1) if short-daily hemodialysis is associated with a reduction in systolic blood pressure after a 3-month blood pressure optimization period and; 2) the potential mechanism(s) of blood pressure reduction. Blood pressure was measured using Canadian Hypertension Education Program guidelines. Extracellular fluid volume (ECFV) was assessed with bioimpedance. Serum catecholamines were used to assess the sympathetic nervous system. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) were used as markers of inflammation and oxidative stress respectively. Results After a 3-month run-in phase in which systolic blood pressure improved, there was no significant difference in pre-dialysis systolic pressure between short-daily and conventional hemodialysis (p = 0.39). However, similar blood pressures were achieved on fewer anti-hypertensive medications with short daily hemodialysis compared to conventional hemodialysis (p = 0.01). Short daily hemodialysis, compared to conventional hemodialysis, was not associated with a difference in dry weight or ECFV (p = 0.77). Sympathetic nervous system activity as assessed by plasma epinephrine (p = 1.0) and norepinephrine (p = 0.52) was also not different. Markers of inflammation (p = 0.42) and oxidative stress (p = 0.83) were also similar between the two treatment arms. Conclusions Patients treated with short daily, compared to conventional hemodialysis

  20. The Effects of Milnacipran on Sleep Disturbance in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Aamir, Rozina; Jishi, Zahra; Scharf, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of milnacipran on polysomnographic (PSG) measures of sleep and subjective complaints in patients with fibromyalgia and disturbed sleep. Methods: This was a single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover PSG study. Eligible subjects (aged 28–72 y) were randomized (1:1) to milnacipran (100 mg/d) or placebo for crossover period 1, and vice versa for period 2. Each crossover period comprised a dose-escalation and dose-maintenance phase, with a 2-w taper/washout between periods. In-laboratory PSGs were collected at baseline, and at the end of each treatment period. The primary endpoints were the difference in PSG-recorded wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings after sleep onset (NAASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) between 4 w of maintenance treatment with milnacipran and placebo. Other PSG measures, subject-rated sleep, fatigue, physical functioning, and pain were assessed. Post hoc analysis was performed in subjects showing at least 25% reduction in pain from baseline in the Brief Pain Inventory Score (responders). Results: Of 19 subjects randomized, 15 completed both periods. Subjects treated with milnacipran showed no significant improvements in WASO and NAASO, but showed reduced SE (p = 0.049). Milnacipran did not show significant improvement in other PSG parameters or subjective endpoints. Two thirds of completers met responder criteria and additionally showed a significant improvement in daily effect of pain (p = 0.043) and subjective sleep quality (p = 0.040). Conclusion: The data suggest that milnacipran is not sedating in most patients with fibromyalgia and improvements in sleep are likely a result of pain improvement. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01234675 Citation: Ahmed M, Aamir R, Jishi Z, Scharf MB. The effects of milnacipran on sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study. J Clin Sleep

  1. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Dynamical crossover in 'hot' spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, G.; Cornelius, A. L.; Orendác, M.; Kajnaková, M.; Fennell, T.; Bramwell, S. T.; Gardner, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of the spin ice material Ho2Ti2O7 in its paramagnetic ('hot') phase have been investigated by a combination of neutron spin echo and ac-susceptibility techniques. Relaxation at high temperatures (T > 15 K) is proved to occur by a thermally activated single-ion process that is distinct from the process that dominates at lower temperatures (1 K < T < 15 K). It is argued that the low-temperature process must involve quantum mechanical spin tunnelling, as quasi-classical channels of relaxation are exhausted in this temperature range. Our results resolve a mystery in the physics of spin ice: why has a 15 K ac-susceptibility peak been observed in Dy2Ti2O7 but not in Ho2Ti2O7 or Ho2Sn2O7?

  2. Inhibition of the Smc5/6 Complex during Meiosis Perturbs Joint Molecule Formation and Resolution without Significantly Changing Crossover or Non-crossover Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lilienthal, Ingrid; Kanno, Takaharu; Sjögren, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division used by diploid organisms to form haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Central to this reductive division is repair of endogenous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the meiosis-specific enzyme Spo11. These DSBs are repaired in a process called homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome as a repair template, with the homolog being the preferred substrate during meiosis. Specific products of inter-homolog recombination, called crossovers, are essential for proper homolog segregation at the first meiotic nuclear division in budding yeast and mice. This study identifies an essential role for the conserved Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) 5/6 protein complex during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. Meiosis-specific smc5/6 mutants experience a block in DNA segregation without hindering meiotic progression. Establishment and removal of meiotic sister chromatid cohesin are independent of functional Smc6 protein. smc6 mutants also have normal levels of DSB formation and repair. Eliminating DSBs rescues the segregation block in smc5/6 mutants, suggesting that the complex has a function during meiotic recombination. Accordingly, smc6 mutants accumulate high levels of recombination intermediates in the form of joint molecules. Many of these joint molecules are formed between sister chromatids, which is not normally observed in wild-type cells. The normal formation of crossovers in smc6 mutants supports the notion that mainly inter-sister joint molecule resolution is impaired. In addition, return-to-function studies indicate that the Smc5/6 complex performs its most important functions during joint molecule resolution without influencing crossover formation. These results suggest that the Smc5/6 complex aids primarily in the resolution of joint molecules formed outside of canonical inter-homolog pathways. PMID:24244180

  3. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Vargas, Leonel; Tamayo, Armando; Buehn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3 ± 3.9 yr; height 178.5 ± 8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9 ± 3.4 yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100–168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects' normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD) 29.94 ± 5.65 kcals/kg/day and 2.51 ± 0.69 g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the high protein phase to 34.37 ± 5.88 kcals/kg/day and 3.32 ± 0.87 g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d) for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass. PMID:27807480

  4. Dynamic interplay between spin-crossover and host-guest function in a nanoporous metal-organic framework material.

    SciTech Connect

    Southon, P. D.; Liu, L.; Fellows, E. A.; Price, D. J.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K. S.; Letard, J.F.; Kepert, C. J.; Univ. Sydney; Monash Univ.; Universite Bordeaux

    2009-01-01

    The nanoporous metal-organic framework [Fe(pz)Ni(CN){sub 4}], 1 (where pz is pyrazine), exhibits hysteretic spin-crossover at ambient conditions and is robust to the adsorption and desorption of a wide range of small molecular guests, both gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}) and vapors (methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene). Through the comprehensive analysis of structure, host-guest properties, and spin-crossover behaviors, it is found that this pillared Hofmann system uniquely displays both guest-exchange-induced changes to spin-crossover and spin-crossover-induced changes to host-guest properties, with direct dynamic interplay between these two phenomena. Guest desorption and adsorption cause pronounced changes to the spin-crossover behavior according to a systematic trend in which larger guests stabilize the high-spin state and therefore depress the spin-crossover temperature of the host lattice. When stabilizing the alternate spin state of the host at any given temperature, these processes directly stimulate the spin-crossover process, providing a chemisensing function. Exploitation of the bistability of the host allows the modification of adsorption properties at a fixed temperature through control of the host spin state, with each state shown to display differing chemical affinities to guest sorption. Guest desorption then adsorption, and vice versa, can be used to switch between spin states in the bistable temperature region, adding a guest-dependent memory effect to this system.

  5. Delay in the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Crossover Point as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Manuel; Vigil, Luis; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vargas, Borja; García-Carretero, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) measures the complexity of a glucose time series obtained by means of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) and has proven to be a sensitive marker of glucoregulatory dysfunction. Furthermore, some authors have observed a crossover point in the DFA, signalling a change of dynamics, arguably dependent on the beta-insular function. We investigate whether the characteristics of this crossover point have any influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To this end we recruited 206 patients at increased risk of T2DM (because of obesity, essential hypertension, or a first-degree relative with T2DM). A CGMS time series was obtained, from which the DFA and the crossover point were calculated. Patients were then followed up every 6 months for a mean of 17.5 months, controlling for the appearance of T2DM diagnostic criteria. The time to crossover point was a significant predictor risk of developing T2DM, even after adjusting for other variables. The angle of the crossover was not predictive by itself but became significantly protective when the model also considered the crossover point. In summary, both a delay and a blunting of the crossover point predict the development of T2DM. PMID:27294154

  6. Crossover behavior of multiscale fluctuations in Big Data: Langevin model and substorm time-scales in Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Setty, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multiscale fluctuations in large and complex data are usually characterized by a power law with a scaling exponent but many systems require more than one exponent and thus exhibit crossover behavior. The scaling exponents, such as Hurst exponents, represent the nature of correlation in the system and the crossover shows the presence of more than one type of correlation. An accurate characterization of the crossover behavior is thus needed for a better understanding of the inherent correlations in the system, and is an important method of Big Data analysis. A multi-step process is developed for accurate computation of the crossover behavior. First the detrended fluctuation analysis is used to remove the trends in the data and the scaling exponents are computed. The crossover point is then computed by a Hyperbolic regression technique, with no prior assumptions. The time series data of the magnetic field variations during substorms in the Earth's magnetosphere is analyzed with these techniques and yields a crossover behavior with a time scale of ~4 hrs. A Langevin model derived from the data provides an excellent fit to the crossover in the scaling exponents and a good model of magnetospheric dynamics. The combination of fluctuation analysis and mathematical modeling thus yields a comprehensive approach in the analysis of Big Data.

  7. Broadband Via-Less Microwave Crossover Using Microstrip-CPW Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel; Hsieh, Wen-Ting

    2011-01-01

    The front-to-back interface between microstrip and CPW (coplanar waveguide) typically requires complex fabrication or has high radiation loss. The microwave crossover typically requires a complex fabrication step. The prior art in microstrip-CPW transition requires a physical vias connection between the microstrip and CPW line on a separate layer. The via-less version of this transition was designed empirically and does not have a close form solution. The prior art of the micro wave crossover requires either additional substrate or wire bond as an air bridge to isolate two microwave lines at the crossing junction. The disadvantages are high radiation loss, no analytical solution to the problem, lengthy simulation time, and complex fabrication procedures to generate air bridges or via. The disadvantage of the prior crossover is a complex fabrication procedure, which also affects the device reliability and yield. This microstrip-CPW transition is visualized as two microstrip-slotline transitions combined in a way that the radiation from two slotlines cancels each other out. The invention is designed based on analytical methods; thus, it significantly reduces the development time. The crossover requires no extra layer to cross two microwave signals and has low radiation loss. The invention is simple to fabricate and design. It produces low radiation loss and can be designed with low insertion loss, with some tradeoff with signal isolation. The microstrip-CPW transition is used as an interface to connect between the device and the circuit outside the package. The via-less microwave crossover is used to allow two signals to cross without using an extra layer or fabrication processing step to enable this function. This design allows the solution to be determined entirely though analytical techniques. In addition, a planar via-less microwave crossover using this technique was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed crossover at 5 GHz has a minimum

  8. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (p<0.05) in the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (p<0.05) were also seen in the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is

  9. Density and spin linear response of atomic Fermi superfluids with population imbalance in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Li, Yang; He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2014-04-01

    We present a theoretical study of the density and spin (representing the two components) linear response of Fermi superfluids with tunable attractive interactions and population imbalance. In both linear response theories, we find that the fluctuations of the order parameter must be treated on equal footing with the gauge transformations associated with the symmetries of the Hamiltonian so that important constraints including various sum rules can be satisfied. Both theories can be applied to the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover. The spin linear responses are qualitatively different with and without population imbalance because collective-mode effects from the fluctuations of the order parameter survive in the presence of population imbalance, even though the associated symmetry is not broken by the order parameter. Since a polarized superfluid becomes unstable at low temperatures in the weak and intermediate coupling regimes, we found that the density and spin susceptibilities diverge as the system approaches the unstable regime, but the emergence of phase separation preempts the divergence.

  10. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  11. One-dimensional Gaussian-core fluid: ordering and crossover from normal diffusion to single-file dynamics.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Velarde, Salvador; Pérez-Angel, Gabriel; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2016-11-09

    The peculiarity of a bounded pair potential in combination with strong confinement brings some quite interesting new phenomenology in the structure and dynamics of one-dimensional colloidal systems. Such behaviour is atypical in comparison with colloidal systems interacting with potentials that diverge at the origin. In this contribution, by means of molecular dynamics simulations, a confined one-dimensional model of particles interacting via a Gaussian-core pair potential is studied. We explore the effects of confinement, density and temperature on the structural and dynamical correlation functions. Our findings indicate that the static and dynamic liquid-state anomalies already reported in open systems are also present in this 1D model system. Using the radial distribution function and the static structure factor to characterise the spatial ordering, it is observed that the system remains fluid at all densities. However, when the reduced temperature is above 0.03, it displays typical features of a liquid regime, i.e., there exist short-range spatial correlations among particles. In contrast, at lower temperatures and densities, where the particle-particle interaction dominates, the system behaves structurally and dynamically similar to a hard-core repulsive system. In such a region, interestingly, there is a crossover from a liquid to a solid-like regime. At any given temperature, the system undergoes a sort of reentrant structural behaviour as the density increases. At either high densities or temperatures, particle correlations vanish, thus, the system exhibits structural and dynamical properties similar to those of an ideal gas. To examine a possible correlation between the structural anomalies and the diffusive behaviour, the mean-square displacement and the self-intermediate scattering function are also computed. From these observables, we establish the thermodynamic phase-space points where the dynamical behaviour is non-monotonic. In conjunction with the

  12. Heat capacity of the spin crossover complex [Fe(2-pic)3]Cl2*MeOH: a spin crossover phenomenon with weak cooperativity in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, T; Tan, Z C; Sorai, M

    2001-07-16

    Heat capacities of the spin crossover complex [Fe(2-pic)3]Cl(2)*MeOH (2-pic: 2-picolylamine or 2-aminomethylpyridine) were measured with an adiabatic calorimeter between 12 and 355 K. A broad heat capacity peak, starting from approximately 80 K, culminating at approximately 150 K, and terminating at approximately 250 K, was observed. The temperature range of the heat capacity anomaly corresponds to that where the low-spin and high-spin states coexist in the 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The enthalpy and entropy changes arising from the heat capacity anomaly were 8.88 kJ x mol(-1) and 59.5 J x K(-1) x mol(-1), respectively. The entropy gain was much larger than the contribution expected from the change in the spin-manifold R ln 5 (13.4 J x K(-1) x mol(-1)) where R is the gas constant. The remaining entropy gain is attributed to the contribution from the change in the internal vibrations. On the basis of the domain model, the number of molecules per domain was found to be very close to unity, implying a very weak cooperativity in the spin crossover occurring in the solid state of this complex.

  13. Guest tunable structure and spin crossover properties in a nanoporous coordination framework material.

    SciTech Connect

    Neville, S. M.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Duriska, M. B.; Moubaraki, B.; Murray, K. S.; Kepert, C. J.

    2009-08-11

    The electronic switching properties of the nanoporous spin crossover framework [Fe(NCS){sub 2}(bpbd){sub 2}] {center_dot} x(guest), SCOF-2, can be rationally manipulated via sorption of a range of molecular guests (acetone, ethanol, methanol, propanol, 1-acetonitrile) into the 1-D channels of this material. Pronounced changes to the spin crossover properties are related directly to the steric and electronic influence of the individual guests: the degree of lattice cooperativity, as reflected in the abruptness of the transition and presence of hysteresis, is strongly influenced by the presence of cooperative host-guest interactions, and the temperature of the transition varies with guest polarity through a proposed electrostatic interaction.

  14. Crossover from incoherent to coherent phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Yadav, Ajay K.; Cheaito, Ramez; Rossen, Pim B.; Soukiassian, Arsen; Suresha, S. J.; Duda, John C.; Foley, Brian M.; Lee, Che-Hui; Zhu, Ye; Lichtenberger, Arthur W.; Moore, Joel E.; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zurbuchen, Mark A.

    2014-02-01

    Elementary particles such as electrons or photons are frequent subjects of wave-nature-driven investigations, unlike collective excitations such as phonons. The demonstration of wave-particle crossover, in terms of macroscopic properties, is crucial to the understanding and application of the wave behaviour of matter. We present an unambiguous demonstration of the theoretically predicted crossover from diffuse (particle-like) to specular (wave-like) phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices, manifested by a minimum in lattice thermal conductivity as a function of interface density. We do so by synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides and systematically varying the interface density, with unit-cell precision, using two different epitaxial-growth techniques. These observations open up opportunities for studies on the wave nature of phonons, particularly phonon interference effects, using oxide superlattices as model systems, with extensive applications in thermoelectrics and thermal management.

  15. Polymorphism in the spin-crossover ferric complexes [(TPA)Fe(III)(TCC)]PF6.

    PubMed

    Collet, Eric; Boillot, Marie Laure; Hebert, Johan; Moisan, Nicolas; Servol, Marina; Lorenc, Maciej; Toupet, Loïc; Buron-Le Cointe, Marylise; Tissot, Antoine; Sainton, Joelle

    2009-08-01

    We have identified two polymorphs of the molecular complex [(TPA)Fe((III))(TCC)]PF(6) [TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and TCC = 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocatecholate dianion]: one is monoclinic and the other is orthorhombic. By lowering the temperature both undergo a thermal spin-crossover between a high-spin (S = 5/2) and a low-spin (S = 1/2) state, which we detected by magnetic, optical and X-ray diffraction measurements. The thermal crossover is only slightly shifted between the polymorphs. Their crystalline structures consist of similar cation layers alternating with PF(6) anion layers, packed differently in the two polymorphs. The magnetic and optical properties of the polymorphs are presented.

  16. All in the Family: Work-Family Enrichment and Crossover Among Farm Couples.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Justin M; Jex, Steve M

    2016-04-21

    This study expands upon the contextualization of the work-family interface by examining positive work-family experiences within the farming industry. Both individual and crossover effects were examined among a sample of 217 married farm couples. Results demonstrated multiple significant relationships between self-reported attitudes, work-family enrichment, and health outcomes. In addition, crossover effects reveal the importance of individual attitudes (husband work engagement and wife farm satisfaction) for spousal work-family enrichment and health outcomes. Furthermore, individual work-family enrichment was positively related to spousal psychological health and negatively related to spousal physical symptoms. Many of these findings remained significant after controlling for work-family conflict. Overall, our results suggest the potential beneficial impact of the integrated work-family dynamic associated with the farming profession for positive work-family experiences. Implications of these findings, as well as directions for future research, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. BCS-BEC crossover on the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erhai; Paramekanti, Arun

    2006-12-08

    The attractive Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice exhibits, at half filling, a quantum critical point between a semimetal with massless Dirac fermions and an s-wave superconductor (SC). We study the BCS-BEC crossover in this model away from half filling at zero temperature and show that the appropriately defined crossover line (in the interaction-density plane) passes through the quantum critical point at half filling. For a range of densities around half filling, the "underlying Fermi surface" of the SC, defined as the momentum space locus of minimum energy quasiparticle excitations, encloses an area which changes nonmonotonically with interaction. We also study fluctuations in the SC and the semimetal, and show the emergence of an undamped Leggett mode deep in the SC. Finally, we consider possible implications for ultracold atoms in optical lattices and the high temperature SCs.

  18. Unidirectional electric field-induced spin-state switching in spin crossover based microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefter, Constantin; Tan, Reasmey; Dugay, Julien; Tricard, Simon; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Carrey, Julian; Nicolazzi, William; Rotaru, Aurelian; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2016-01-01

    We report on a molecular spin-state switching phenomenon induced by an electric field in micrometric objects of the [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) spin crossover complex, organized between interdigitated electrodes. By applying an electric field step of 40 kV/cm at temperatures within the thermal hysteresis region of the first-order spin transition, the iron(II) ions are switched from the metastable high spin to the stable low spin state obtaining a rather incomplete transition but perfectly reversible by heating. A model based on the interaction between the electric field and the electric dipolar moment of spin crossover complexes, grasps the main features of the experimental data.

  19. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.

  20. Analysis of multiple exposures in the case-crossover design via sparse conditional likelihood.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Marta; Grandvalet, Yves; Adroher, Nuria Duran; Orriols, Ludivine; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-09-20

    We adapt the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso) and other sparse methods (elastic net and bootstrapped versions of lasso) to the conditional logistic regression model and provide a full R implementation. These variable selection procedures are applied in the context of case-crossover studies. We study the performances of conventional and sparse modelling strategies by simulations, then empirically compare results of these methods on the analysis of the association between exposure to medicinal drugs and the risk of causing an injurious road traffic crash in elderly drivers. Controlling the false discovery rate of lasso-type methods is still problematic, but this problem is also present in conventional methods. The sparse methods have the ability to provide a global analysis of dependencies, and we conclude that some of the variants compared here are valuable tools in the context of case-crossover studies with a large number of variables.

  1. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

  2. Observation of Classical-Quantum Crossover of 1 /f Flux Noise and Its Paramagnetic Temperature Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C. M.; Chen, Yu; Sank, D.; Petukhov, A. G.; White, T. C.; Kafri, Dvir; Chiaro, B.; Megrant, A.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Graff, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Shabani, A.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2017-02-01

    By analyzing the dissipative dynamics of a tunable gap flux qubit, we extract both sides of its two-sided environmental flux noise spectral density over a range of frequencies around 2 kBT /h ≈1 GHz , allowing for the observation of a classical-quantum crossover. Below the crossover point, the symmetric noise component follows a 1 /f power law that matches the magnitude of the 1 /f noise near 1 Hz. The antisymmetric component displays a 1 /T dependence below 100 mK, providing dynamical evidence for a paramagnetic environment. Extrapolating the two-sided spectrum predicts the linewidth and reorganization energy of incoherent resonant tunneling between flux qubit wells.

  3. A Randomized Crossover Comparison of Team-based Learning and Lecture Format on Learning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Remington, Tami L.; Wells, Trisha D.; Klein, Kristin C.; Guthrie, Sally K.; Tingen, Jeffrey M.; Marshall, Vincent D.; Dorsch, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare learning outcomes and student confidence between team-based learning (TBL) and lecture. Methods. A crossover study was conducted with 30 students divided into two sections. Each section was taught six therapeutic topics (three TBL and three lecture). There were two assessments of 24 questions each. A survey (Likert scale) assessing student confidence and attitudes was administered at the end. Results. A significantly higher overall examination score was observed for TBL as compared to lecture. Students were more confident in providing therapeutic recommendations following TBL. Higher survey scores favoring TBL were also seen related to critical-thinking skills and therapeutic knowledge. Conclusion. Learning outcomes and student confidence in performing higher-order tasks were significantly higher with TBL. The findings of this novel crossover type design showed that TBL is an effective pedagogy. PMID:27756928

  4. The fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition in confined water: nuclear magnetic resonance results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Corsaro, C.; Faraone, A.; Wanderlingh, U.; Liu, L.; Mou, C.-Y.; Chen, S. H.

    2006-04-01

    By means of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, we give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition (FST) in confined water at a temperature TL=223±2K. We have studied the dynamics of water contained in 1D cylindrical nanoporous matrices (MCM-41-S) in the temperature range 190-280K, where experiments on bulk water were so far hampered by crystallization. The FST is clearly inferred from the T dependence of the inverse of the self-diffusion coefficient of water (1/D) as a crossover point from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior. The combination of the measured self-diffusion coefficient D and the average translational relaxation time ⟨τT⟩, as measured by neutron scattering, shows the predicted breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in deeply supercooled water.

  5. The fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition in confined water: nuclear magnetic resonance results.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, F; Broccio, M; Corsaro, C; Faraone, A; Wanderlingh, U; Liu, L; Mou, C-Y; Chen, S H

    2006-04-28

    By means of a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, we give evidence of the existence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover transition (FST) in confined water at a temperature T(L)=223+/-2 K. We have studied the dynamics of water contained in 1D cylindrical nanoporous matrices (MCM-41-S) in the temperature range 190-280 K, where experiments on bulk water were so far hampered by crystallization. The FST is clearly inferred from the T dependence of the inverse of the self-diffusion coefficient of water (1D) as a crossover point from a non-Arrhenius to an Arrhenius behavior. The combination of the measured self-diffusion coefficient D and the average translational relaxation time tau(T), as measured by neutron scattering, shows the predicted breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in deeply supercooled water.

  6. Crossover from incoherent to coherent phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Yadav, Ajay K; Cheaito, Ramez; Rossen, Pim B; Soukiassian, Arsen; Suresha, S J; Duda, John C; Foley, Brian M; Lee, Che-Hui; Zhu, Ye; Lichtenberger, Arthur W; Moore, Joel E; Muller, David A; Schlom, Darrell G; Hopkins, Patrick E; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zurbuchen, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Elementary particles such as electrons or photons are frequent subjects of wave-nature-driven investigations, unlike collective excitations such as phonons. The demonstration of wave-particle crossover, in terms of macroscopic properties, is crucial to the understanding and application of the wave behaviour of matter. We present an unambiguous demonstration of the theoretically predicted crossover from diffuse (particle-like) to specular (wave-like) phonon scattering in epitaxial oxide superlattices, manifested by a minimum in lattice thermal conductivity as a function of interface density. We do so by synthesizing superlattices of electrically insulating perovskite oxides and systematically varying the interface density, with unit-cell precision, using two different epitaxial-growth techniques. These observations open up opportunities for studies on the wave nature of phonons, particularly phonon interference effects, using oxide superlattices as model systems, with extensive applications in thermoelectrics and thermal management.

  7. Crossover from random three-dimensional avalanches to correlated nano shear bands in metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Krisponeit, Jon-Olaf; Pitikaris, Sebastian; Avila, Karina E; Küchemann, Stefan; Krüger, Antje; Samwer, Konrad

    2014-04-10

    When applying mechanical stress to a bulk metallic glass it responds with elastic and/or plastic deformations. A comprehensive microscopic theory for the plasticity of amorphous solids remains an open task. Shear transformation zones consisting of dozens of atoms have been identified as smallest units of deformation. The connexion between local formation of shear transformations zones and the creation of macroscopic shear bands can be made using statistical analysis of stress/energy drops or strain slips during mechanical loading. Numerical work has proposed a power law dependence of those energy drops. Here we present an approach to circumvent the experimental resolution problem using a waiting time analysis. We report on the power law-distributed deformation behaviour and the observation of a crossover in the waiting times statistics. This crossover indicates a transition in the plastic deformation behaviour from three-dimensional random activity to a two-dimensional nano shear band sliding.

  8. Density inhomogeneity driven percolation metal-insulator transition and dimensional crossover in graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Adam, S; Cho, S; Fuhrer, M S; Das Sarma, S

    2008-07-25

    Transport in graphene nanoribbons with an energy gap in the spectrum is considered in the presence of random charged impurity centers. At low carrier density, we predict and establish that the system exhibits a density inhomogeneity driven two dimensional metal-insulator transition that is in the percolation universality class. For very narrow graphene nanoribbons (with widths smaller than the disorder induced length scale), we predict that there should be a dimensional crossover to the 1D percolation universality class with observable signatures in the transport gap. In addition, there should be a crossover to the Boltzmann transport regime at high carrier densities. The measured conductivity exponent and the critical density are consistent with this percolation transition scenario.

  9. Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Kun; Yu Zengqiang; Yin Lan

    2009-05-15

    The Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover is derived by the path-integral method. In addition to the standard Ginzburg-Landau equation, a second equation describing the total atom density is obtained. These two coupled equations are necessary to describe both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. The Ginzburg-Landau theory is valid near the transition temperature T{sub c} on both sides of the crossover. In the weakly interacting BEC region, it is also accurate at zero temperature where the Ginzburg-Landau equation can be mapped onto the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. The applicability of GP equation at finite temperature is discussed. On the BEC side, the fluctuation of the order parameter is studied and the renormalization to the molecule coupling constant is obtained.

  10. Anomalous compressibility of ferropericlase throughout the iron spin cross-over

    PubMed Central

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Justo, J. F.; Wu, Z.; da Silva, C. R. S.; Yuen, D. A.; Kohlstedt, D.

    2009-01-01

    The thermoelastic properties of ferropericlase Mg1−xFexO (x = 0.1875) throughout the iron high-to-low spin cross-over have been investigated by first principles at Earth's lower mantle conditions. This cross-over has important consequences for elasticity such as an anomalous bulk modulus (KS) reduction. At room temperature the anomaly is somewhat sharp in pressure but broadens with increasing temperature. Along a typical geotherm it occurs across most of the lower mantle with a more significant KS reduction at ≈1,400–1,600 km depth. This anomaly might also cause a reduction in the effective activation energy for diffusion creep and lead to a viscosity minimum in the mid-lower mantle, in apparent agreement with results from inversion of data related with mantle convection and postglacial rebound. PMID:19439661

  11. Real-time mass spectrometric study of the methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    The products of methanol crossover through the acid-doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane (PBI PEM) to the cathode of a prototype direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were analyzed using multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) coupled to the cathode exhaust gas outlet. It was found that the methanol crossing over reacts almost quantitatively to CO{sub 2} at the cathode with the platinum of the cathode acting as a heterogeneous catalyst. The cathode open-circuit potential is inversely proportional to the amount of CO{sub 2} formed. A poisoning effect on the oxygen reduction also was found. Methods for the estimation of the methanol crossover rate at operating fuel cells are suggested.

  12. Dimensionality crossover in ferromagnetic/superconducting films: Role of magnetic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Valdepeñas, Luis; Valdes-Bango, Fernando; Alvarez-Prado, Luis; Martin, Jose; Navarro, Elena; Velez, Maria; Alameda, Jose; Vicent, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous NdCo5 films are ferromagnetic samples with a weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy which can show small magnetic domain sizes (less than 100 nm) with labyrinthine structures. Sputtering technique is used to fabricate Nb/Al(5nm)/ NdCo5 superconducting films on Si substrates. The temperature dependence of the upper critical field shows features which could be related to an ``imprinting'' of the domain structure of NdCo5 layers in the superconducting Nb film. This peculiar proximity effect governs the superconductivity dimensionality crossover from 1D to a regime between 1D and 2D typical of superconducting wire network. This superconducting crossover can be connected to the NdCo5 magnetic history. We thank support from Spanish MINECO and CAM.

  13. The Fission Yeast FANCM Ortholog Directs Non-Crossover Recombination During Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alexander; Osman, Fekret; Sun, Weili; Nandi, Saikat; Steinacher, Roland; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of healthy gametes depends on programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are each repaired as a crossover (CO) or non-crossover (NCO) from a homologous template. Although most of these DSBs are repaired without giving COs, little is known about the genetic requirements of NCO-specific recombination. We show that Fml1, the Fanconi anemia complementation group M (FANCM)-ortholog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, directs the formation of NCOs during meiosis in competition with the Mus81-dependent pro-CO pathway. We also define the Rad51/Dmc1-mediator Swi5-Sfr1 as a major determinant in biasing the recombination process in favour of Mus81, to ensure the appropriate amount of COs to guide meiotic chromosome segregation. The conservation of these proteins from yeast to Humans suggests that this interplay may be a general feature of meiotic recombination. PMID:22723423

  14. Critical and crossover behavior in the double-Gaussian model on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, George A., Jr.; Bishop, A. R.; Fesser, K.; Beale, Paul D.; Krumhansl, J. A.

    1982-09-01

    The double-Gaussian model, as recently introduced by Baker and Bishop, is studied in the context of a lattice-dynamics Hamiltonian belonging to the familiar φ4 class. Advantage is taken of the partition-function factorability (into Ising and Gaussian components) to place bounds on the Ising-class critical temperature for various lattice dimensions and all degrees of displaciveness in the bare Hamiltonian. Further, a simple criterion for a noncritical and nonuniversal crossover from order-disorder to Gaussian behavior is evaluated in numerical detail. In one and two dimensions these critical and crossover properties are compared with predictions based on real-space decimation renormalization-group flows, as previously exploited in the φ4 model by Beale et al. The double-Gaussian model again introduces some unique analytical advantages.

  15. Critical and crossover behavior in the double Gaussian model on a lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.A. Jr.; Bishop, A.R.; Fesser, K.; Beale, P.D.; Krumhansl, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    The-double-Gaussian model, as recently introduced by Baker and Bishop, is studied in the context of a lattice-dynamics Hamiltonian belonging to the familiar phi/sup 4/ class. Advantage is taken of the partition-function factorability (into Ising and Gaussian components) to place bounds on the Ising-class critical temperature for various lattice dimensions and all degrees of displaciveness in the bare Hamiltonian. Further, a simple criterion for a noncritical and nonuniversal crossover from order-disorder to Gaussian behavior is evaluated in numerical detail. In one and two dimensions these critical and crossover properties are compared with predictions based on real-space decimation renormalization-group flows, as previously exploited in the phi/sup 4/ model by Beale et al. The double-Gaussian model again introduces some unique analytical advantages.

  16. Electrically controllable molecular spin crossover switching in Fe(phen)2 (NCS)2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Chaitali; Mandal, Swapan K.

    2016-10-01

    Spin crossover molecular complex Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 in thin film form (20-300 nm) is obtained by simple dip-coating technique on glass substrates. The growth of the molecular films is confirmed by optical and X-ray diffraction data. The morphology of the samples shows distributed nanocrystals with an average size ca. 12 nm. We measure the current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics of a device with 300 nm film thickness and show that application of electric field can induce spin state switching. The electric field experienced by individual nanocrystals separated by nanometric gap is supposed to be quite high and is plausibly playing the crucial role in instigating switching in molecular nanocrystals. The result is quite significant towards developing room temperature molecular spin cross-over switching devices in the nanoscale limit.

  17. Testing Equality of Treatments under an Incomplete Block Crossover Design with Ordinal Responses.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong

    2017-02-03

    The generalized odds ratio (GOR) for paired sample is considered to measure the relative treatment effect on patient responses in ordinal data. Under a three-treatment two-period incomplete block crossover design, both asymptotic and exact procedures are developed for testing equality between treatments with ordinal responses. Monte Carlo simulation is employed to evaluate and compare the finite-sample performance of these test procedures. A discussion on advantages and disadvantages of the proposed test procedures based on the GOR versus those based on Wald's tests under the normal random effects proportional odds model is provided. The data taken as a part of a crossover trial studying the effects of low and high doses of an analgesic versus a placebo for the relief of pain in primary dysmenorrhea over the first two periods are applied to illustrate the use of these test procedures.

  18. Evaluation of a Two-Phase Experimental Study of a Small Group ("MultiLit") Reading Intervention for Older Low-Progress Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham, Jennifer; Beaman-Wheldall, Robyn; Wheldall, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined the efficacy of a small group (Tier 2 in a three-tier Response to Intervention model) literacy intervention for older low-progress readers (in Years 3-6). This article focuses on the second phase of a two-phase, crossover randomized control trial involving 26 students. In Phase 1, the experimental group (E1)…

  19. Coordination polymers undergoing spin crossover and reversible ligand exchange in the solid.

    PubMed

    Galet, Ana; Muñoz, M Carmen; Real, José Antonio

    2006-11-04

    Here we report the synthesis and characterisation of a polymer made up of a system of parallel 2-D grids of Fe(II) ions linked by [Au(CN)2]- bridges and its transformation into a new system of three interpenetrated 3-D coordination open frameworks with the NbO topology. Reversibility of this crystal-to-crystal transformation is evidenced by X-ray crystallographic data and from their spin crossover properties.

  20. Double blind cross-over study of a new appetite suppressant AN 448.

    PubMed

    Haugen, H N

    1975-01-01

    The effects of a new appetite suppressant, AN 448, and a placebo have been compared in 30 obese individuals using a fully randomized double-blind cross-over design. 1 mg of AN 448 t.i.d. produced a significant degree of appetite suppression and a mean weight loss of more than 4 kg per individual over a 6 week period. Side effects were few and no haematological, renal or hepatic damage was observed.