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Sample records for 2-year ethnographic study

  1. Ethnographic Study: @ONE Technology Training Project Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Susan; Schiorring, Eva

    This report presents findings from an ethnographic study of technology integration and diffusion in two California community colleges. The study was commissioned to examine whether faculty behavior and student learning outcomes have changed as a result of @ONE instructional technology training and resources. The California Community Colleges…

  2. Development of Deaf Identity: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlroy, Guy; Storbeck, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores the identity development of 9 deaf participants through the narratives of their educational experiences in either mainstream or special schools for the Deaf. This exploration goes beyond a binary conceptualization of deaf identity that allows for only the medical and social models and proposes a bicultural…

  3. Performing stable angina pectoris: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Claire; Featherstone, Katie; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam; Feder, Gene Solomon

    2008-04-01

    Symptoms play a crucial part in the formulation of medical diagnoses, yet the construction and interpretation of symptom narratives is not well understood. The diagnosis of angina is largely based on symptoms, but a substantial minority of patients diagnosed with "non-cardiac" chest pain go on to have a heart attack. In this ethnographic study our aims were to understand: (1) how the patients' accounts are performed or enacted in consultations with doctors; (2) the ways in which ambiguity in the symptom narrative is managed by doctors; and (3) how doctors reach or do not reach a diagnostic decision. We observed 59 consultations of patients in a UK teaching hospital with new onset chest pain who had been referred for a specialist opinion in ambulatory care. We found that patients rarely gave a history that, without further interrogation, satisfied the doctors, who actively restructured the complex narrative until it fitted a diagnostic canon, detaching it from the patient's interpretation and explanation. A minority of doctors asked about chest pain symptoms outside the canon. Re-structuring into the canonical classification was sometimes resisted by patients who contested key concepts, like exertion. Symptom narratives were sometimes unstable, with central features changing on interrogation and re-telling. When translation was required for South Asian patients, doctors considered the history less relevant to the diagnosis. Diagnosis and effective treatment could be enhanced by research on the diagnostic and prognostic value of the terms patients use to describe their symptoms.

  4. Disability and Adulthood in Mexico: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skivington, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to better understand the cultural meaning of adulthood and disability in a large city in central Mexico. Using an ethnographic case study research design that included interviews and observations, this study addressed the research question: What is the cultural meaning and accompanying challenges of becoming an adult with…

  5. An Ethnographic Study of a Developing Virtual Organization in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Stephanie R.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study answers calls for research into the ways that virtual organizations (or innovation-driven collaborative teams) form and develop, what supports and constraints their development, and the leadership models that support the organizations' work. The study examines how a virtual organization emerged from an intersegmental…

  6. Sexual Fundamentalism and Performances of Masculinity: An Ethnographic Scene Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The study on which this paper is based examined the experiences of students in order to develop a theoretical and empirically grounded account of the dynamic social forces of inclusion and exclusion experienced by youth in their unique contexts of North American urban schooling. The ethnographic scenes, organized into four "beats," theatrically…

  7. Language and Anxiety: An Ethnographic Study of International Postgraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some findings from an ethnographic study of international postgraduate students at a university in the South of England, which involved interviews and participant observation over a 12-month academic year. One of the major themes that emerged from this research was students' anxiety over their level of English language.…

  8. Researching My Own Backyard: Inquiries into an Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulfikar, Teuku

    2014-01-01

    Ethnography is a prominent research methodology in the recent times. It is popular not only in the field of Anthropology but also in many other social sciences. My doctorate thesis was also conducted through an ethnographic study examining the ways in which young Muslims of Indonesian background living in Australia construct their identity. In…

  9. Flauto: An Ethnographic Study of a Highly Successful Private Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the instructional settings, pedagogical techniques, interpersonal dynamics and personal characteristics of a teacher and her adolescent students in a renowned private flute studio. Using ethnographic techniques including observations and interviews, four main themes emerged that seem to contribute to the satisfaction of the…

  10. A Qualitative Ethnographic Portrait of Women's Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Julee L.

    2013-01-01

    In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…

  11. An ethnographic study of three mental health triage programs.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Margaret; Endacott, Ruth; Herrman, Helen; Harvey, Carol

    2004-09-01

    Triage processes are commonly used to manage the interface between demand for, and supply of, health services. This dimension of service provision is particularly pertinent for mental health services in Australia, where demand outweighs services available. This paper draws on the experiences of using participant observation to explore mental health triage processes. Findings highlight the complexities of the researcher role and benefits of using an ethnographic approach to explore mental health triage patterns. Insider participant observation brings many challenges but also, in this study, enabled the researcher to uncover some roles and processes underpinning triage decisions in mental health services.

  12. An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.

    PubMed

    Gumpel, Thomas P; Zioni-Koren, Vered; Bekerman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In-depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying-the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative-victim, and the bystander-as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying.

  13. Religious networking organizations and social justice: an ethnographic case study.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nathan R

    2012-09-01

    The current study provides an innovative examination of how and why religious networking organizations work for social justice in their local community. Similar to a coalition or community coordinating council, religious networking organizations are formal organizations comprised of individuals from multiple religious congregations who consistently meet to organize around a common goal. Based on over a year and a half of ethnographic participation in two separate religious networking organizations focused on community betterment and social justice, this study reports on the purpose and structure of these organizations, how each used networking to create social capital, and how religion was integrated into the organizations' social justice work. Findings contribute to the growing literature on social capital, empowering community settings, and the unique role of religious settings in promoting social justice. Implications for future research and practice also are discussed.

  14. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  15. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AMONG INTENSIVE CARE NURSES: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses are the main users of supplies and equipment applied in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which are high-priced and costly. Therefore, understanding ICU nurses’ experiences about resource management contributes to the better control of the costs. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the culture of nurses’ working environment regarding the resource management in the ICUs in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this study, a focused ethnographic method was used. Twenty-eight informants among ICU nurses and other professional individuals were purposively selected and interviewed. As well, 400 hours of ethnographic observations as a participant observer was used for data gathering. Data analysis was performed using the methods described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Results: Two main themes describing the culture of ICU nurses regarding resource management included (a) consumption monitoring and auditing, and (b) prudent use. The results revealed that the efforts for resource management are conducted in the conditions of scarcity and uncertainty in supply. ICU nurses had a sense of futurism in the supply and use of resources in the unit and do the planning through taking the rules and guidelines as well as the available resources and their values into account. Improper storage of some supplies and equipment was a reaction to this uncertain condition among nurses. Conclusions: To manage the resources effectively, improvement of supply chain management in hospital seems essential. It is also necessary to hold educational classes in order to enhance the nurses’ awareness on effective supply chain and storage of the items in the unit stock. PMID:26889097

  16. Building momentum: an ethnographic study of inner-city redevelopment.

    PubMed Central

    Fullilove, M T; Green, L; Fullilove, R E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One factor contributing to the decay of inner-city areas, and to consequent excess mortality, is the massive loss of housing. This report studied the effects of a redevelopment project on social functioning in an inner-city community. METHODS: This ethnographic study included the following elements: a longitudinal study of 10 families living in renovated housing, repeated observations and photographing of the street scene, focus groups, and informal interviews with area residents. The project was located in the Bradhurst section of Harlem in New York City and was focused on a redevelopment effort sponsored by local congregations. RESULTS: Those who were able to move into newly renovated housing found that their living conditions were greatly improved. Neighborhood revitalization lagged behind the rehabilitation of individual apartment houses. This uneven redevelopment was a visual and sensory reminder of "what had been." Residents missed the warmth and social support that existed in Harlem before its decline. CONCLUSIONS: Rebuilding damaged housing contributes greatly to the well-being of inner-city residents. The current pace and scope of rebuilding are insufficient to restore lost vitality. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:10358672

  17. An ethnographic study of the construction of science on television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    1999-10-01

    The medium of television is an important manifestation of popular culture. Television stories and images frequently represent the position occupied by science and scientists in society. This study focuses on three questions. First, what is the form and content of the science that is constructed on television programs in which high school students see science? Second, how do television practitioners who deal with science approach and think about their work? Third, in what ways do high school students appropriate the science in these programs? Ethnographic methods, which did not include the technique of participant observation, were used to address these questions. Two types of text provided the basis for ethnographic analysis. First, text whose production was beyond the control of the researcher was used in the form of approximately 10 hours of programming, which included both fictional and non-fictional genres. Selection was based upon the results of questionnaires, in which students were asked to list those programs in which they saw the most science together with their reasons for each choice. Second, text whose production was somewhat within my control as researcher was used in the form of transcripts of interviews with television practitioners and students. In addition, written responses to the researcher's questions and transcripts of student discussion groups are texts that fall into this second category. The findings point to the centrality of the notion of the nature of science, which is constructed by a variety of factors. These include, first, story---representing events, people and the process of science on television. Story is shaped by plot, discourse, characters and genre. Second, images work to construct a nature of science and, in turn, constitute choices made about the composition, sequence and duration of shots. Third, who the television practitioners who produce a program are in conjunction with the culture of the institution they work for

  18. Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joseph H.

    The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

  19. The Effects of Migration on Children: An Ethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; And Others

    This report re-examines previously gathered ethnographic data derived from approximately 3,000 hours of interviews with migrants across the United States to determine what factors associated with migration affect children's educational outcomes. The data suggest the existence of a "culture of migrancy," which is manifested in similar attitudes,…

  20. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community". PMID:23561277

  1. Same sex acts involving older men. An ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Ramello, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    For many men in modern Western societies it is not uncommon to have anonymous same-sex acts in cruising places with a varying frequency depending on many factors, e.g. their biographical history, marital status, religion, and age. This paper looks at generational differences in the Italian gay community and specifically contrasts both setting and patterns of social interaction of two cohorts of men (older men and younger adults) patronizing bathhouses. The meaning of adult development and aging of sexual minorities is little understood in Italy. For the first time in history, a generation of self-identified gay men is approaching retirement, and yet we do not understand what well-being and successful development in later life mean in this community. Moreover, the aging processes among gay men who are already in their retirement years, many of whom are still "closeted," remain invisible. The ethnographic report, based on two years of participant observation, reveals the culture of the gay bath and the social and sexual spaces of older and younger gay men and their self-definitions and relationship to the "gay community".

  2. Native Hawaiian Ethnographic Study for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Proposed for Puna and Southeast Maui

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, J.K; Minerbi, L.; Kanahele, P.; Kelly, M.; Barney-Campbell, N.; Saulsbury; Trettin, L.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report makes available and archives the background scientific data and related information collected for an ethnographic study of selected areas on the islands of Hawaii and Maui. The task was undertaken during preparation of an environmental impact statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. Information is included on the ethnohistory of Puna and southeast Maui; ethnographic fieldwork comparing Puna and southeast Maui; and Pele beliefs, customs, and practices.

  3. An Ethnographic Study of Elementary Teachers', Paraprofessionals', and Students' Language Exchanges during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron-Stanton, Desiree

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic study of language shows the importance of educators' appropriate use of linguistic, nonlinguistic, and paralinguistic communication techniques when working with elementary students within two classrooms who have behavioral and emotional disorders. This study focused on communication techniques used by teachers and…

  4. The Role of the Culture of Japanese Students in Acquisition of Academic English: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertin, Patricia Anne

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines the role of Japanese students' culture and its effects on the rate of acquisition of academic English. It is based on observation of classes in Japanese schools, both in Japan and Germany, as well as in an international school, together with interviews, questionnaires, student responses and case studies over a…

  5. Healing circles: an ethnographic study of the interactions among health and healing practitioners from multiple disciplines.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Meg

    2014-07-01

    "Healing circle" is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines.

  6. Healing Circles: An Ethnographic Study of the Interactions Among Health and Healing Practitioners From Multiple Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Healing circle” is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines. PMID:25105070

  7. Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

  8. Nature's Classroom: An Ethnographic Case Study of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dorothea Jody

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines the dynamic relationship between culture and environmental education within the context of a specific Florida-based public education program. The School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC) offers the program through a three-day field trip to the study site, Nature's Classroom, and accompanying…

  9. Writing at Riverside Health Services: An Ethnographic Study in Entrepreneurial Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ethnographic study that investigated the relationships that evolve when professional nurses who own a home health care agency write for multiple, conflicting corporate discourse communities, including their lawyers, management consultants, and marketing professionals. This study revealed that conflicting…

  10. On Becoming a Civic-Minded Instructional Designer: An Ethnographic Study of an Instructional Design Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic study took place in a graduate course at a large research university in the Midwestern United States. It presents an in-depth examination of the experiences and challenges of a group of four students learning to be Instructional Design and Technology professionals who are concerned with the well-being of all members of a society,…

  11. Narratives, Artifacts and Cultural Identities: An Ethnographic Study of Communicative Practices in Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kate

    2004-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnographic research project looking at the communicative practices of children and parents in a multilingual area of London. One focus in the study was on participants' use of narrative to convey cultural identities. Narratives in the families were evoked through shared discussions of artifacts and objects displayed…

  12. Korean-American Student Perceptions on Literacy and Identity: Perspectives from an Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…

  13. What Can Ethnographic Studies Tell Us about the Consequences of Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The ethnographic literature on literacy is marked by a characteristic divide between 'ideological' and 'autonomous' positions, the former being associated with the sociocultural approach adopted within the 'New Literacy Studies' (NLS) and the work of Brian Street, and the latter with the work of Jack Goody. The polarization between the approaches…

  14. An Ethnographic Study on "Rule Making" Activities in the Kindergarten Classrooms of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kee Young

    This ethnographic study investigated the process of rule-making in two public kindergarten classrooms in Korea. Two teachers and 38 children, ages 5 and 6 years old, participated. Analyses of observation field notes and videotapes showed teachers making weekly rules for classroom, activity centers, and special activities, using both whole-group…

  15. GoPro as an Ethnographic Tool: A Wayfinding Study in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten M.; Schoonover, Dan; Spitler, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, researchers sought to capture students' authentic experience of finding books in the main library using a GoPro camera and the think-aloud protocol. The GoPro provided a first-person perspective and was an effective ethnographic tool for observing a student's individual experience, while also demonstrating what tools they use to…

  16. Teaching Children of the Poor: An Ethnographic Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice, Ed.

    This book is about teachers, teaching, and learners in poor environments in four Latin American countries: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela. Using ethnographic research methods, the study observed rural and urban schools at different periods during the school year. What emerged from the investigation is a vivid picture of teaching styles,…

  17. Latino Trajectories in Barcelona: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study of Latin American Adolescents in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The ethnographic research presented in this paper consists of two parts developed chronologically. The first part is based on a study (Corona, V., Nussbaum, L., & Unamuno, V. [2012]. The emergence of new linguistic repertoires among Barcelona's youth of Latin American origin. "International Journal of Bilingual Education and…

  18. An Ethnographic Study of Disciplinary and Pedagogic Practices in a Primary Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Suvasini

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an ethnographic study conducted in a class in a government-run primary school in Delhi. It was found that a chief concern in the school was that of disciplining children. In the observed class, this took the shape of controlling children's bodies and motor movements. It is argued that through disciplining, teachers were…

  19. The Cultural Ecology of Scholar-Practitioner Leaders: An Ethnographic Study of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this critical ethnographic study was to examine the nature and meaning of cultural ecology in relation to preparing scholar-practitioner leaders. The ethnography focused on how the discourses and practices within the disciplinary setting of leadership preparation shape the identity of social scholar-practitioner leaders. The…

  20. Sport and Physical Activity in a High Security Spanish Prison: An Ethnographic Study of Multiple Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos-Garcia, Daniel; Devis-Devis, Jose; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data generated by a two-year ethnographic study in a high security Spanish prison, this article explores the multiple meanings given to the social practices of sport and physical activity. We provide details of the following key themes that emerged from the analysis: (a) escaping time; (b) perceived therapeutic benefits; (c) social…

  1. An Ethnographic Study of a Key-Pal Project: Learning a Foreign Language through Bilingual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edasawa, Yasuyo; Kabata, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a cross-cultural bilingual communication project on students' second language learning. A collaborative key-pal project was conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Ethnographic data were collected from the students' exchanged messages…

  2. Landscapes of Literacy: An Ethnographic Study of Functional Literacy in Marginal Philippine Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canieso-Doronila, Maria Luisa

    Thirteen marginal Philippine communities were examined in an ethnographic study of the meaning of functional literacy and whether literacy invariably promotes development. The 13 sites were purposely selected to provide a broad sampling from three standpoints: (1) major livelihood and form of economic activity (farming, fishing, urban poor,…

  3. Working Memory: An Ethnographic Case Study of the Influence of Culture on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    This report overviews the rationale for conducting an ethnographic study of cultural factors that influence student aspiration in Tremont, a small rural community on Mount Desert Island, Maine. Although Tremont is the poorest community on Mount Desert Island, Tremont students scored as well or better on the Maine Educational Assessment than did…

  4. Problematising Short-Term Participant Observation and Multi-Method Ethnographic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of apprentices in England and Germany designed to explore young people's learner identities over time and in relation to particular learning environments. The research adopts a multi-method ethnographic approach, combining biographical interviews with multi-site participant observation. The article problematises the…

  5. The Rhythms of Pedagogy: An Ethnographic Study of Parenting Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Educational research is increasingly turning to conceptual frameworks from a range of disciplines in order to enrich understandings of education, pedagogy and learning. This paper draws on the work of Henri Lefebvre, specifically rhythmanalysis, to explore the nature and the function of pedagogy. The context is an ethnographic study of parenting…

  6. Engaging Study Abroad Students in Intercultural Learning through Blogging and Ethnographic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The study involved 16 American undergraduate students who used weekly blogs and conducted ethnographic interviews with native speakers to develop their intercultural competence over the course of one semester abroad. Selected blog entries, post-surveys, and final interviews were collected and analyzed to report the findings. The results show that…

  7. Examining Our Own Lenses: An Ethnographic Study of an Economics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Mary Ann

    An ethnographic study examined the role of language in an economics classroom. The researcher became an undergraduate economics student for one semester and concluded that the language practices in that economics classroom were represented neither by the transmission model nor the process approach to writing. The most valuable part of this…

  8. Language, Identity and Educational Success: An Ethnographic Study of Spanish-Speaking Children in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Stanton

    An ethnographic study examined the role of language, discrimination, and aspirations in the school success of Latino students in a small rural town. The town, located about 1,000 miles from Mexico and about 200 miles from any sizeable Latino community, contains about 200 Latinos. Almost all are Mexicans or Mexican Americans and have come to work…

  9. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  10. Personal Library Curation: An Ethnographic Study of Scholars' Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Smiljana; Cahoy, Ellysa Stern

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a Mellon Foundation-funded study conducted at Penn State University in University Park during Fall 2012 that explored scholars' information practices across disciplines encompassing the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Drawing on results of the Web-based survey and ethnographic interviews, we present…

  11. Creating a Temporary Community? An Ethnographic Study of a Residential Fieldtrip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the evolving perceptions of community sentiments, for three teachers and 36 AS-level students on a week-long residential fieldtrip. For this in-depth study I adopted an ethnographic methodology in which I participated in, observed and recounted some of the complex and fluid spatial arrangements and processes, analysing their…

  12. Institutional ethical review and ethnographic research involving injection drug users: a case study.

    PubMed

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators' responses to the committee's concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork, and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  13. Institutional Ethical Review and Ethnographic Research Involving Injection Drug Users: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ethnographic research among people who inject drugs (PWID) involves complex ethical issues. While ethical review frameworks have been critiqued by social scientists, there is a lack of social science research examining institutional ethical review processes, particularly in relation to ethnographic work. This case study describes the institutional ethical review of an ethnographic research project using observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews to examine injection drug use. The review process and the salient concerns of the review committee are recounted, and the investigators’ responses to the committee’s concerns and requests are described to illustrate how key issues were resolved. The review committee expressed concerns regarding researcher safety when conducting fieldwork and the investigators were asked to liaise with the police regarding the proposed research. An ongoing dialogue with the institutional review committee regarding researcher safety and autonomy from police involvement, as well as formal consultation with a local drug user group and solicitation of opinions from external experts, helped to resolve these issues. This case study suggests that ethical review processes can be particularly challenging for ethnographic projects focused on illegal behaviours, and that while some challenges could be mediated by modifying existing ethical review procedures, there is a need for legislation that provides legal protection of research data and participant confidentiality. PMID:24581074

  14. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  15. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. PMID:22909247

  16. The ethnographically contextualized case study method: exploring ambitious achievement in an American Indian community.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P; Alcántara, Carmela

    2010-04-01

    This article demonstrates the empirical viability of the Ethnographically Contextualized Case Study Method (ECCSM) for investigating interrelationships between cultural and psychological processes. By juxtaposing two relevant forms of data--original interview material from a single respondent and existing ethnographic evidence--the inherent idiographic limitations of the case study approach for pursuing the psychological study of culture might be transcended. Adoption of the ECCSM for the exploration of cultural ideals among an elderly Native American respondent revealed both the personal and cultural significance of ambitious achievement within this tribal community, calling into question the conventional wisdom within multicultural psychology that Native Americans are culturally disposed to passive, submissive and noncompetitive psychological orientations. This application of the proposed methodology demonstrates how important empirical insights may be obtained in unusually efficient and nuanced ways at the confluence of culture and psychology.

  17. Following the dolphins: an ethnographic study of speech and language therapy with people with learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, A; Davies, P

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine speech and language therapists' practices, and their perceptions of the knowledge and skills that they use in everyday clinical practice. The paper compares the knowledge and skills identified in a much larger consultative study of speech and language therapists' competence with the knowledge and skills identified by four speech and language therapists reflecting on a representative or 'typical' day in their working lives. This comparison between the outcome of a large survey and a more detailed ethnographic investigation of speech and language therapists' competence confirmed earlier reports that speech therapy appears to have a broad knowledge and skills base. Ethnographic analysis also revealed that this broad knowledge and skills base was, in the main, highly relevant to everyday clinical practices.

  18. Inside a Beginning Immigrant Science Teacher's Classroom: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Anne L.; Roehrig, Gillian; Wattam, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching is a highly personal endeavor shaped by "funds of knowledge" and beliefs about teaching, learning, and students. This case study examines how one Asian immigrant teacher's personal expectations and beliefs influenced his expectations of students and the teaching and instructional strategies he employed. His expectations of students'…

  19. Undocumented Student Allies and Transformative Resistance: A Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Angela Chuan-Ru; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines staff and faculty allies working to help meet the needs of undocumented students at a large research university in the western region of the U.S. Drawing on scholarly work rooted in critical race theory and ethnic studies, the authors highlight forms of transformative resistance. They focus on four key findings: (1) student…

  20. Academic Advisors of Military and Student Veterans: An Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Post-9/11 GI Bill, there is an influx of active-duty military and student veterans enrolling in postsecondary and graduate-level education. The role of an academic advisor increases significantly with this influx of enrollment. The purpose of this study was to determine how a graduate-level academic advisor perceives…

  1. Mathematics teacher professional development in and through internet use: reflections on an ethnographic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a reflection on a model for mathematics teacher professional development with respect to technology. The model was informed by three interrelated concepts: (1) a theory of teacher professional development from analysis of the field, (2) the zone theory of teacher professional learning, and (3) ethnography as a method. The model was applied in a study that focused on the uses of the Internet for primary mathematics teacher professional development, particularly to exploit the potential of the Internet for professional learning and to use it in professional work. This is illustrated through selected critical events over an eight-month ethnographic intervention in a primary mathematics classroom in Australia. Though the model is theoretically grounded, it opens up questions about the power, potential, and challenges as well as its feasibility, with respect to not only the teacher but also the ethnographer.

  2. Gamma hydroxybutyrate: an ethnographic study of recreational use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven J; Levounis, Petros

    2008-09-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychoactive substance with complex neurophysiological activity and significant potential for abuse, addiction, and dangerous toxicity. In this study, a semistructured interview was administered to 17 subjects to investigate GHB use, including: manner of use; setting; positive and negative consequences; other drug history; and sexual practices. Respondents were overwhelmingly male, but otherwise had a broad demographic background. Settings varied from nightclubs to private use at home. There was significant variability in the drug obtained, which subjects found problematic because of the narrow therapeutic window and ease of accidental overdose. Common positive experiences included increased sexual desire, decreased sexual inhibitions, and decreased anxiety. Common negative consequences included oversedation, loss of consciousness, motor incoordination, and mental confusion. Nine subjects reported that they would use GHB again, some despite severe negative consequences. Although most subjects reported negative experiences, only three felt their use was problematic, and none sought treatment for GHB abuse or addiction. Subjects were highly drug-experienced, most commonly using MDMA, ketamine, cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine. Some reported that GHB could cause poor decision making in sexual situations. This effect has significant ramifications for issues such as date rape and control of sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV. PMID:19004416

  3. Authoritative Knowledge in Initial Teacher Education: Studying the Role of Subject Textbooks through Two Ethnographic Studies of Mathematics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Player-Koro, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and…

  4. An ethnographic study of forensic nursing culture in an Australian prison hospital.

    PubMed

    Cashin, A; Newman, C; Eason, M; Thorpe, A; O'Discoll, C

    2010-02-01

    Forensic nurses are faced with unique challenges in their attempt to deliver nursing care in a custodial environment. * The impact of such challenges on the cultural dynamic of forensic nursing and consequently on healthcare delivery is largely unknown. * The aim of this ethnographic study was to explore the nursing culture within an Australian prison hospital and the migration of the culture over a 12-month period. * At the end of the study, the nursing culture was found to be one of hope, although with no clearly articulated vision of nurse-hood or patient-hood and model within which to practice nursing. * The ability to articulate practice is central to the development of mental health nursing in any context. Abstract Forensic nurses are faced with unique challenges in their attempt to deliver nursing care in a custodial environment. The impact of such challenges on the cultural dynamic of forensic nursing and consequently on healthcare delivery is largely unknown. The aim of this ethnographic study was to explore the nursing culture within an Australian prison hospital and the migration of the culture over a 12-month period. At the end of the study the nursing culture was found to be one of hope, although with no clearly articulated vision of nurse-hood or patient-hood and model within which to practice nursing.

  5. Learning and teaching as emergent features of informal settings: An ethnographic study in an environmental action group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-11-01

    Around the world, many people concerned with the state of the environment participate in environmental action groups. Much of their learning occurs informally, simply by participating in the everyday, ongoing collective life of the chosen group. Such settings provide unique opportunities for studying how people learn science in complex settings without being directly instructed. This study was designed to investigate learning and teaching that occurs through ordinary, everyday participation in environmental action. We draw on data collected during a 2-year ethnographic study of a coast-wide eelgrass-mapping project. Taking a whole activity as our unit of analysis, we articulate the forms of participation that volunteers take and theorize learning in terms of changing participation and expanding opportunities for action. The community-based eelgrass stewardship group we studied is both socially and materially heterogeneous, made up of people young and old and with different expertise. We show that changing forms of participation are emergent features of unfolding sociomaterial inter-action, not determinate roles or rules. Furthermore, the possibilities for learning expand when individuals have the opportunity to frame problems that arise in ongoing activity. In the setting of our study, attributions (dichotomies) such as off-task/on-task and teacher/learner are artificial. We suggest that by providing expanding opportunities, in the form of a variety of sociomaterial resources, science educators can rethink the design of school-based science learning environments.

  6. An Auto-Ethnographic Study of "Open Dialogue": The Illumination of Snow.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mary

    2015-12-01

    This auto-ethnographic study describes the changes in the author's thinking and clinical work connected to her first-hand experience of Open Dialogue, which is an innovative, psychosocial approach to severe psychiatric crises developed in Tornio, Finland. In charting this trajectory, there is an emphasis on three interrelated themes: the micropolitics of U.S. managed mental health care; the practice of "dialogicality" in Open Dialogue; and the historical, cultural, and scientific shifts that are encouraging the adaptation of Open Dialogue in the United States. The work of Gregory Bateson provides a conceptual framework that makes sense of the author's experience and the larger trends. The study portrays and underscores how family and network practices are essential to responding to psychiatric crises and should not be abandoned in favor of a reductionist, biomedical model. PMID:26133053

  7. An Auto-Ethnographic Study of "Open Dialogue": The Illumination of Snow.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mary

    2015-12-01

    This auto-ethnographic study describes the changes in the author's thinking and clinical work connected to her first-hand experience of Open Dialogue, which is an innovative, psychosocial approach to severe psychiatric crises developed in Tornio, Finland. In charting this trajectory, there is an emphasis on three interrelated themes: the micropolitics of U.S. managed mental health care; the practice of "dialogicality" in Open Dialogue; and the historical, cultural, and scientific shifts that are encouraging the adaptation of Open Dialogue in the United States. The work of Gregory Bateson provides a conceptual framework that makes sense of the author's experience and the larger trends. The study portrays and underscores how family and network practices are essential to responding to psychiatric crises and should not be abandoned in favor of a reductionist, biomedical model.

  8. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and information behaviour: an ethnographic study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Namuleme, Robinah Kalemeera

    2015-03-01

    This feature explores the information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. It investigates specifically the difficult issue of stigma and how this shapes the ways in which people interact with vital information. The study adopted an ethnographic whereby the researcher worked as a part-time volunteer at an HIV support centre in the North of England for over a year. This is the first time that such an approach has been reported in this feature and is interesting from this perspective alone. The very rich data which was gathered as a result of the approach is also instructive. The study formed part of a PhD thesis, which Robinah Kalemeera Namuleme completed at the University of Sheffield in March 2013. PMID:25684027

  9. Interprofessional rhetoric and operational realities: an ethnographic study of rounds in four intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the success of MIRs. We conducted a year-long comparative ethnographic study of interprofessional collaboration and patient and family involvement in four ICUs in tertiary academic hospitals in two American cities. The study included 576 h of observation of team interactions, 47 shadowing sessions and 40 clinician interviews. In line with best practices in ethnographic research, data collection and analysis were done iteratively using the constant comparative method. Member check was conducted regularly throughout the project. MIRs were implemented on all units with the explicit goals of improving team-based and patient-centered care. Operational conditions on the units, despite interprofessional commitment and engagement, appeared to thwart ICU teams from achieving these goals. Specifically, time constraints, struggles over space, and conflicts between MIRs' educational and care-plan-development functions all prevented teams from achieving collaboration and patient-involvement. Moreover, physicians' de facto control of rounds often meant that they resembled medical rounds (their historical predecessors), and sidelined other providers' contributions. This study suggests that the MIRs model, as presently practiced, might not be well suited to the provision of team-based, patient-centered care. In the interest of interprofessional collaboration, of the optimization of clinicians' time, of high-quality medical education and of patient-centered care, further research on interprofessional rounds models is needed.

  10. Interprofessional rhetoric and operational realities: an ethnographic study of rounds in four intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the success of MIRs. We conducted a year-long comparative ethnographic study of interprofessional collaboration and patient and family involvement in four ICUs in tertiary academic hospitals in two American cities. The study included 576 h of observation of team interactions, 47 shadowing sessions and 40 clinician interviews. In line with best practices in ethnographic research, data collection and analysis were done iteratively using the constant comparative method. Member check was conducted regularly throughout the project. MIRs were implemented on all units with the explicit goals of improving team-based and patient-centered care. Operational conditions on the units, despite interprofessional commitment and engagement, appeared to thwart ICU teams from achieving these goals. Specifically, time constraints, struggles over space, and conflicts between MIRs' educational and care-plan-development functions all prevented teams from achieving collaboration and patient-involvement. Moreover, physicians' de facto control of rounds often meant that they resembled medical rounds (their historical predecessors), and sidelined other providers' contributions. This study suggests that the MIRs model, as presently practiced, might not be well suited to the provision of team-based, patient-centered care. In the interest of interprofessional collaboration, of the optimization of clinicians' time, of high-quality medical education and of patient-centered care, further research on interprofessional rounds models is needed. PMID:26704051

  11. A Sociocultural Perspective on Young Deaf Children's Fingerspelling: An Ethnographic Study in a Signing Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Carin

    2014-01-01

    This study, which is part of a larger longitudinal ethnographic study of young deaf children, reports on deaf children's use of fingerspelling. The children observed were early signers using Swedish Sign Language (SSL) in communication with teachers and peers. This study centres on the functions of fingerspelling in the children's…

  12. The Impact of Foreign Postings on Accompanying Military Spouses: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Gillian; Hennessy, Catherine; Chung, Man C.; Skirton, Heather

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ethnographic study, the impact of foreign postings on spouses who accompany military personnel was explored. Individual interviews and focus groups with 34 British military spouses based in one location in southern Europe were conducted. Key findings suggested that reaction to a foreign posting was a reflection of personal attitudes, prior experiences, support, ability to adjust to change and strength of relationship with the serving spouse and community. For many the experience was positive due to the increased opportunity for family time, for others this helped to compensate for the difficulties experienced. Some military spouses experienced significant distress on the posting, particularly if the family was not well-supported. The potential implications of military spouses not adapting to foreign postings have significant implications for healthcare practice. Provision of more appropriate support resources before and during the posting would facilitate the transition for the military spouse and their family. PMID:26973933

  13. The Impact of Foreign Postings on Accompanying Military Spouses: An Ethnographic Study.

    PubMed

    Blakely, Gillian; Hennessy, Catherine; Chung, Man C; Skirton, Heather

    2014-04-26

    As part of an ethnographic study, the impact of foreign postings on spouses who accompany military personnel was explored. Individual interviews and focus groups with 34 British military spouses based in one location in southern Europe were conducted. Key findings suggested that reaction to a foreign posting was a reflection of personal attitudes, prior experiences, support, ability to adjust to change and strength of relationship with the serving spouse and community. For many the experience was positive due to the increased opportunity for family time, for others this helped to compensate for the difficulties experienced. Some military spouses experienced significant distress on the posting, particularly if the family was not well-supported. The potential implications of military spouses not adapting to foreign postings have significant implications for healthcare practice. Provision of more appropriate support resources before and during the posting would facilitate the transition for the military spouse and their family.

  14. Building a Dignified Identity: An Ethnographic Case Study of LGBT Catholics.

    PubMed

    Radojcic, Natasha

    2016-10-01

    This ethnographic case study offers insight into religiously devout sexual minorities and the reasons behind their continued participation in an anti-gay religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church. I demonstrate how members of Dignity, an organization for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Catholics, strategically use their identity as gay Catholics to initiate action, to build community, and to destigmatize other religious sexual minorities. Members leverage this unique identity to push for change and equality within the Church. At the same time, this identity also allows members to see their continued participation in the anti-gay Roman Catholic Church as activism, a positive and affirming identity, thereby alleviating potential conflict and contradiction between their sexuality and their spirituality as Roman Catholics. PMID:26855054

  15. Building a Dignified Identity: An Ethnographic Case Study of LGBT Catholics.

    PubMed

    Radojcic, Natasha

    2016-10-01

    This ethnographic case study offers insight into religiously devout sexual minorities and the reasons behind their continued participation in an anti-gay religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church. I demonstrate how members of Dignity, an organization for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Catholics, strategically use their identity as gay Catholics to initiate action, to build community, and to destigmatize other religious sexual minorities. Members leverage this unique identity to push for change and equality within the Church. At the same time, this identity also allows members to see their continued participation in the anti-gay Roman Catholic Church as activism, a positive and affirming identity, thereby alleviating potential conflict and contradiction between their sexuality and their spirituality as Roman Catholics.

  16. Turning over patient turnover: an ethnographic study of admissions, discharges, and transfers.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Sandelowski, Margarete; Higgins, Melinda K

    2013-12-01

    The impact on nursing work of patient turnover (admissions, discharges, and transfers) became evident in an ethnographic study of turbulence. The patient turnover data were generated from extensive observations, 21 formal interviews, and a year of admission and discharge records on one medical and one surgical unit. Timing of turnover events on the two units differed, but on both units admissions typically interrupted workflow more than did discharges, clustered admissions were more disruptive than staggered admissions, and patient turnover during change of shift was more disruptive than during medication administration. Understanding the complexity of patient turnover will elucidate the work involved and improve the evidence base for nurse staffing, a key determinant of quality and safety of care.

  17. Explaining Adherence Success in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Norma C; Idoko, John; Kaaya, Sylvia; Biraro, Irene Andia; Wyatt, Monique A; Agbaji, Oche; Chalamilla, Guerino; Bangsberg, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and Findings Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and “begging” transport funds, making “impossible choices” to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and “doing without.” Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise. Conclusion Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships. PMID:19175285

  18. Displays of authority in the clinical consultation: a linguistic ethnographic study of the electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of computers into general practice settings has profoundly changed the dynamics of the clinical consultation. Previous research exploring the impact of the computer (in what has been termed the 'triadic' consultation) has shown that computer use and communication between doctor and patient are intricately coordinated and inseparable. Swinglehurst et al. have recently been critical of the ongoing tendency within health communication research to focus on 'the computer' as a relatively simple 'black box', or as a material presence in the consultation. By re-focussing on the electronic patient record (EPR) and conceptualising this as a complex collection of silent but consequential voices, they have opened up new and more nuanced possibilities for analysis. This orientation makes visible a tension between the immediate contingencies of the interaction as it unfolds moment-by-moment and the more standardised, institutional demands which are embedded in the EPR ('dilemma of attention'). In this paper I extend this work, presenting an in-depth examination of how participants in the consultation manage this tension. I used linguistic ethnographic methods to study 54 video recorded consultations from a dataset collected between 2007 and 2008 in two UK general practices, combining microanalysis of the consultation with ethnographic attention to the wider organisational and institutional context. My analysis draws on the theoretical work of Erving Goffman and Mikhail Bakhtin, incorporating attention to the 'here and now' of the interaction as well as an appreciation of the 'distributed' nature of the EPR, its role in hosting and circulating new voices, and in mediating participants' talk and social practices. It reveals - in apparently fleeting moments of negotiation and contestation - the extent to which the EPR shapes the dynamic construction, display and circulation of authority in the contemporary consultation. PMID:25086422

  19. Displays of authority in the clinical consultation: a linguistic ethnographic study of the electronic patient record.

    PubMed

    Swinglehurst, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of computers into general practice settings has profoundly changed the dynamics of the clinical consultation. Previous research exploring the impact of the computer (in what has been termed the 'triadic' consultation) has shown that computer use and communication between doctor and patient are intricately coordinated and inseparable. Swinglehurst et al. have recently been critical of the ongoing tendency within health communication research to focus on 'the computer' as a relatively simple 'black box', or as a material presence in the consultation. By re-focussing on the electronic patient record (EPR) and conceptualising this as a complex collection of silent but consequential voices, they have opened up new and more nuanced possibilities for analysis. This orientation makes visible a tension between the immediate contingencies of the interaction as it unfolds moment-by-moment and the more standardised, institutional demands which are embedded in the EPR ('dilemma of attention'). In this paper I extend this work, presenting an in-depth examination of how participants in the consultation manage this tension. I used linguistic ethnographic methods to study 54 video recorded consultations from a dataset collected between 2007 and 2008 in two UK general practices, combining microanalysis of the consultation with ethnographic attention to the wider organisational and institutional context. My analysis draws on the theoretical work of Erving Goffman and Mikhail Bakhtin, incorporating attention to the 'here and now' of the interaction as well as an appreciation of the 'distributed' nature of the EPR, its role in hosting and circulating new voices, and in mediating participants' talk and social practices. It reveals - in apparently fleeting moments of negotiation and contestation - the extent to which the EPR shapes the dynamic construction, display and circulation of authority in the contemporary consultation.

  20. The Culture of a Social Program: An Ethnographic Study of the Child and Family Resource Program. Summary Volume, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jeffrey; And Others

    This report summarizes findings from an ethnographic study of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start demonstration program providing child development and family support services to low-income families with young children. Designed to describe program operations from the perspective of staff and client families, the study was…

  1. The Effect of School Culture on Science Education at an Ideologically Innovative Elementary Magnet School: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Lori T.

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated the science practices of teachers at one public elementary magnet school in light of how school culture influenced science curriculum design and instruction. The purpose of the study was to address how school culture impacted the school's overall treatment of science as a viable content area. Key informant…

  2. "You Who Have Been to School, What Have You Become?": An Ethnographic Study of University Life in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessling O'Neil, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between higher education and social mobility among students and their families in Benin, West Africa. In this study I draw on ethnographic research conducted at the public University of Abomey-Calavi in Cotonou, Benin in 2010. I utilize interviews, historical documents, and participant observation to…

  3. "Age-Appropriate Development" as Measure and Norm: An Ethnographic Study of the Practical Anthropology of Routine Paediatric Checkups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelle, Helga

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an ethnographic study of the logic of conducting routine paediatric checkups in children from birth to the age of 5 in Germany (U1 to U9). These checkups are meant as a continual evaluation of a child's developmental process and progress, and their outcomes inform decisions on children's careers in educational institutions.…

  4. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  5. Insights into freshman weight issues: An ethnographic study of how first-year college students make decisions about eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transition from high school to college represents a life turning point during which health behavior trajectories may be influenced. This study addresses the internal and external factors that guide students’ eating decisions as they are understood and relayed by students through ethnographic, qu...

  6. The Meanings of Outdoor Physical Activity for Parentally Bereaved Young People in the United Kingdom: Insights from an Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Joanne; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the meanings of outdoor physical activity in the natural environment for parentally-bereaved young people. It draws on data generated from a two-year ethnographic study that focused on the experiences of those involved with the Rocky Centre, a childhood bereavement service in the UK. Data was collected via…

  7. De Facto Language Education Policy through Teachers' Attitudes and Practices: A Critical Ethnographic Study in Three Jamaican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Shondel J.

    2014-01-01

    Using Jamaica, a former British colony where Jamaican Creole (JC) is the mass vernacular but Standard Jamaican English is the official language, as an illustrative case, this critical ethnographic study in three Jamaican schools examines the theoretical and practical challenges of language education policy (LEP) development and implementation in…

  8. Motor recovery after stroke depends on intact sustained attention: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, I H; Ridgeway, V; Greenfield, E; Parr, A

    1997-04-01

    The functional recovery of 47 right-brain-damaged stroke patients was studied over a 2-year period. The researchers hypothesized that sustained attention capacity should predict the degree of motor and functional recovery over this period because of a proposed privileged role of sustained attention in learning-based recovery of function. As predicted, significant correlations were found between sustained attention capacity at 2 months and functional status (including the Barthel Index) at 2 years. This relationship was shown to exist independently of 2-month functional status. Furthermore, compared with a left-brain-damaged group of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients, the right-brain CVA group did not recover functional ability as well over the 2-year period. This increasing difference in functional status over a 2-year period was mirrored by an emerging difference in sustained attention capacity, in favor of the left-brain CVA group.

  9. The Culture of a Social Program: An Ethnographic Study of the Child and Family Resource Program. Child & Family Resource Program Evaluation, Main Volume, Fall 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jeffrey, Ed.; and Others

    This report, devoted to the ethnographic study component of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation, consists of three major sections. The first section outlines the rationale for employing ethnographic research in evaluating the effects and effectiveness of CFRP and describes study methodology, including examinations of the…

  10. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  11. Plant identification credibility in ethnobotany: a closer look at Polish ethnographic studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper is an attempt to estimate the percentage of erroneously identified taxa in ethnographic studies concerning the use of plants and to propose a code for recording credibility of identification in historical ethnobotany publications. Methods A sample of Polish-language ethnobotanical literature (45 published sources from 1874-2005) and four collections of voucher specimens (from 1894-1975) were analyzed. Errors were detected in the publications by comparing the data with existing knowledge on the distribution of plant names and species ranges. The voucher specimens were re-examined. A one-letter code was invented for quick identification of the credibility of data published in lists of species compiled from historical or ethnographic sources, according to the source of identification: voucher specimen, Latin binominal, botanical expert, obvious widespread name, folk name, mode of use, range, physical description or photograph. To test the use of the code an up-to-date list of wild food plants used in Poland was made. Results A significant difference between the ratio of mistakes in the voucher specimen collections and the ratio of detectable mistakes in the studies without herbarium documentation was found. At least 2.3% of taxa in the publications were identified erroneously (mean rate was 6.2% per publication), and in half of these mistakes even the genus was not correct. As many as 10.0% of voucher specimens (on average 9.2% per collection) were originally erroneously identified, but three quarters of the identification mistakes remained within-genus. The species of the genera Thymus, Rumex and Rubus were most often confused within the genus. Not all of the invented credibility codes were used in the list of wild food plants, but they may be useful for other researchers. The most often used codes were the ones signifying identification by: voucher specimen, botanical expert and by a common name used throughout the country. Conclusions The

  12. Family science: An ethnographic case study of the ordinary science and literacy experiences of one family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Glenda M.

    Despite the copious research available on science learning, little is known about ways in which the public engages in free-choice science learning and even fewer studies have focused on how families engage in science to learn about the world around them. The same was true about studies of literacy development in the home until the 1980s when researchers (e.g. Bissex, 1980; Heath, 1983; Taylor, 1983) began documenting the literacy happenings and practices of young children in natural settings. Findings from intensive emergent literacy research studies have challenged traditional approaches to the teaching and learning of literacy, especially drawing attention to the active role children take in their own learning. Drawing upon those early literacy studies, this research project uses ethnographic case study methods along with a naturalistic inquiry approach, to document the daily explorations of one science-oriented family. Over a three year span, I have followed my own family, in our natural setting, through our day-to-day experiences with science and literacy as we seek to mediate and understand the world around us. In doing so, I have explored the ways we have shared knowledge and constructed learning through science books and read alouds, self-initiated inquiry learning, and communication. Throughout the three year research period, I have collected data and documented my own young children's understanding of the nature of science by observing their engagement with world around them.

  13. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Design Ethnographic case study. Setting Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. Participants 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Main outcome measures Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Methods Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as “exceptions” by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge

  14. The health-care environment on a locked psychiatric ward: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Inger M; Skärsäter, Ingela; Danielson, Ella

    2006-12-01

    Recent changes in psychiatric hospital care involving a reduction in the number of beds and time spent in hospital motivated the study of conditions of inpatient care on such wards. An ethnographic study of a locked, acute psychiatric ward in a department of psychiatry was performed with the aim of describing the health-care environment in such a ward. The ward admitted patients on both a voluntarily and involuntarily basis. Data were collected by means of 3.5 months of participant observations. The results showed a health-care environment that was overshadowed by control. Staff were in control but they also lacked control; they attempted to master the situation in line with organizational demands and they sometimes failed. At the same time, the staff tried to share the responsibility of caring for patients and next of kin. Patients were controlled by staff; they were the underdogs and dependent on staff for their care and the freedom to leave the ward. Patients tried to make themselves heard and reacted to the control by developing counter-strategies. What this study adds to earlier research is patients' pressure on staff and sometimes quite an open struggle for more control, which may be an expression for an unacceptable imbalance in power between patients and staff.

  15. Computer templates in chronic disease management: ethnographic case study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Roberts, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how electronic templates shape, enable and constrain consultations about chronic diseases. Design Ethnographic case study, combining field notes, video-recording, screen capture with a microanalysis of talk, body language and data entry—an approach called linguistic ethnography. Setting Two general practices in England. Participants and methods Ethnographic observation of administrative areas and 36 nurse-led consultations was done. Twenty-four consultations were directly observed and 12 consultations were video-recorded alongside computer screen capture. Consultations were transcribed using conversation analysis conventions, with notes on body language and the electronic record. The analysis involved repeated rounds of viewing video, annotating field notes, transcription and microanalysis to identify themes. The data was interpreted using discourse analysis, with attention to the sociotechnical theory. Results Consultations centred explicitly or implicitly on evidence-based protocols inscribed in templates. Templates did not simply identify tasks for completion, but contributed to defining what chronic diseases were, how care was being delivered and what it meant to be a patient or professional in this context. Patients’ stories morphed into data bytes; the particular became generalised; the complex was made discrete, simple and manageable; and uncertainty became categorised and contained. Many consultations resembled bureaucratic encounters, primarily oriented to completing data fields. We identified a tension, sharpened by the template, between different framings of the patient—as ‘individual’ or as ‘one of a population’. Some clinicians overcame this tension, responding creatively to prompts within a dialogue constructed around the patient's narrative. Conclusions Despite their widespread implementation, little previous research has examined how templates are actually used in practice. Templates do not simply document the

  16. Palpable Pedagogy: Expressive Arts, Leadership, and Change in Social Justice Teacher Education (An Ethnographic/Auto-Ethnographic Study of the Classroom Culture of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Course)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera, Lucy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    "Palpable Pedagogy: Expressive Arts, Leadership, and Change in Social Justice Teacher Education" is an arts-informed ethnographic study of the pedagogy and culture engendered when the expressive arts are employed in social justice teacher education. "Palpable Pedagogy" is a qualitative study that examines the power of the expressive arts to…

  17. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  18. Health seeking and access to care for children with suspected dengue in Cambodia: An ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    Background The continuing contribution of dengue fever to the hospitalization and deaths in hospital of infants and small children in Cambodia is associated with delays in presentation for medical attention, diagnosis and appropriate care. It is important to identify the reasons that influence these delays, in order to develop appropriate interventions to redress the impact of dengue. Methods Data on health seeking were collected during an ethnographic study conducted in two villages in the eastern province of Kampong Cham, Cambodia in 2004. Interviews were conducted with mothers whose children had been infected with suspected dengue fever, or who had been sick for other reasons, in 2003 and 2004. Results Women selected a therapeutic option based on perceptions of the severity of the child's condition, confidence in the particular modality, service or practitioner, and affordability of the therapy. While they knew what type of health care was required, poverty in combination with limited availability and perceptions of the poor quality of care at village health centers and public referral hospitals deterred them from doing so. Women initially used home remedies, then sought advice from public and private providers, shifting from one sector to another in a pragmatic response to the child's illness. Conclusion The lack of availability of financial resources for poor people and their continuing lack of confidence in the care provided by government centres combine to delay help seeking and inappropriate treatment of children sick with dengue. PMID:17892564

  19. Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fabiane Alves de Carvalho; de Moraes, Micaele Kedma Ribeiro; Caixeta, Joyce Cristina de Morais; da Silva, Jullieth Nadja; Lima, Amanda Sanches; Parreira, Samara Lamounier Santana; Fernandes, Viviane Lemos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Methods: Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents who were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. Results: 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% did not know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% did not consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52%) of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Conclusions: Children were exposed to environmental tobacco pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children. PMID:26298662

  20. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  1. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    PubMed

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  2. Sexual abstinence in patients with HIV infection: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W C

    1991-12-01

    Thirty-five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients were followed over a 2-year period. All agreed to abstain from sexual intercourse. This group had a low level of recurring infections. A comparison study of sexually active HIV males is underway.

  3. One teacher's experience interpreting and enacting a new science curriculum framework: An ethnographic case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Betsy Denton

    What experiences does a teacher have when interpreting and enacting curriculum frameworks and national and state standards? What does a teacher think about as she moves between the text of the written curriculum framework, her own particular experiences, and the context of a classroom? What are the negotiations that a teacher makes as she adopts and adapts curriculum policy for her own classroom? The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to explore these questions in the context of an eighth-grade science class as the teacher interpreted and enacted a new inquiry-based, constructivist curriculum framework. This yearlong study employed qualitative methods of data collection including open-ended interviews, classroom observations, guiding conversations (Cole & Knowles, 2001) and cogenerative dialogues and reflections (Roth & Tobin, 2005) with the teacher, and analysis of classroom artifacts. Constant comparative analysis and narrative analysis were used to analyze data and produce a narrative truth that emphasized verisimilitude or truthlike observations in order to capture one teacher's classroom experiences and advance an empathic form of understanding so the reader could experience the teacher's world. Reflections upon the teacher's story at the conclusion of this study suggest the following educational policy changes and areas of further study: (1) the need for more professional learning experiences for both preservice and practicing teachers that help them construct an understanding of the theoretical frameworks that underlie the curriculum they are enacting, (2) the need for more research, particularly qualitative case studies, describing learning communities in schools and constructivist leaders who have successfully facilitated authentic professional development, (3) the need for curriculum developers to address the pressing issue of depth vs. breadth in curriculum reform, and (4) the need for more studies that show how teachers adapt and improvise

  4. The Ordeal of Change: An Ethnographic Study of High School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rosetta Marantz

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a collaborative, interdisciplinary curriculum program, the Quest program. Implemented at a suburban New England high school, the program was loosely based on the tenets of the Coalition of Essential Schools. Ethnographical methodology included document analysis, participant observation,…

  5. Generating Ethnographic Research Questions: An Anthropological Contribution to the Study of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology,…

  6. What Counts? An Ethnographic Study of Infection Data Reported to a Patient Safety Program

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Leslie, Myles; Bion, Julian; Tarrant, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Context Performance measures are increasingly widely used in health care and have an important role in quality. However, field studies of what organizations are doing when they collect and report performance measures are rare. An opportunity for such a study was presented by a patient safety program requiring intensive care units (ICUs) in England to submit monthly data on central venous catheter bloodstream infections (CVC-BSIs). Methods We conducted an ethnographic study involving ∼855 hours of observational fieldwork and 93 interviews in 17 ICUs plus 29 telephone interviews. Findings Variability was evident within and between ICUs in how they applied inclusion and exclusion criteria for the program, the data collection systems they established, practices in sending blood samples for analysis, microbiological support and laboratory techniques, and procedures for collecting and compiling data on possible infections. Those making decisions about what to report were not making decisions about the same things, nor were they making decisions in the same way. Rather than providing objective and clear criteria, the definitions for classifying infections used were seen as subjective, messy, and admitting the possibility of unfairness. Reported infection rates reflected localized interpretations rather than a standardized dataset across all ICUs. Variability arose not because of wily workers deliberately concealing, obscuring, or deceiving but because counting was as much a social practice as a technical practice. Conclusions Rather than objective measures of incidence, differences in reported infection rates may reflect, at least to some extent, underlying social practices in data collection and reporting and variations in clinical practice. The variability we identified was largely artless rather than artful: currently dominant assumptions of gaming as responses to performance measures do not properly account for how categories and classifications operate in the

  7. Maternal deaths in eastern Indonesia: 20 years and still walking: an ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The delays in receiving adequate emergency maternal care described by Thaddeus and Maine twenty years ago are still occurring, as exemplified in this study of cases of maternal deaths in a subdistrict in rural eastern Indonesia. Methods An ethnographic design was conducted, recruiting eleven families who reported on cases of maternal deaths in one sub-district of Indonesia, as well as assessing the geographical and cultural context of the villages. Traditional birth attendants and village leaders provided information to the research team which was thematically and contextually analysed. Results Two stages to the first and second delays have been differentiated in this study. First, delays in the decision to seek care comprised time taken to recognise (if at all) that an emergency situation existed, followed by time taken to reach a decision to request care. The decision to request care resided variously with the family or cadre. Second, delays in reaching care comprised time taken to deliver the request for help and then time for help to arrive. A phone was not available to request care in many cases and so the request was delivered by walking or motorbike. In two cases where the decision to seek care and the delivery of the request happened in a timely way, help was delayed because the midwife and ambulance respectively were unavailable. Conclusions This study, although a small sample, confirmed that either a single delay or a sequence of delays can prove fatal. Delays were determined by both social and geographic factors, any of which alone could be limiting. Initiatives to improve maternal health outcomes need to address multiple factors: increased awareness of equitable access to maternal health care, village preparedness for emergency response, improved access to telecommunications and geographic access. PMID:24447873

  8. A meta-ethnographic synthesis on phenomenographic studies of patients' experiences of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Röing, Marta; Sanner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenography is a qualitative research approach developed within an educational framework, focusing on the qualitative experience of learning. It is also being used, to a lesser degree, in healthcare research. In the present study, we conducted a meta-ethnographic synthesis of phenomenographic studies on chronic illness, in order to give a broader perspective of how chronic illness can be experienced. Our aim was not to describe patients' various individual experiences of illness, but instead to identify the different ways chronic illness can be experienced by patients. Our synthesis and phenomenographic interpretation of 12 selected articles found that patients' experiences of chronic illness can be described in terms of a different lived body, a struggle with threat to identity and self-esteem, a diminished lifeworld, and a challenging reality. These experiences relate to each other in a process of recurring loops, where the different ways of experiencing continue to influence each other over time. According to these findings, the use of phenomenography as a research approach has the potential to add to the understanding of how chronic illness can be experienced. Patients may benefit from seeing that their illness can be experienced in many different ways and that it has many aspects, which then can lead to a better understanding and coping with their illness. We suggest that it may be worthwhile to expand the scope of phenomenography outside pedagogics. This presupposes a revision of the application to include a wider and more comprehensive description, for instance, of the different ways illness and healthcare phenomena can be experienced, and how these different ways are related to each other, with less focus on hierarchical relations.

  9. An Ethnographic Study of Barriers to Cancer Pain Management and Opioid Availability in India

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Susan L.; Maurer, Martha; Black, Fraser; Palat, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    Background. The world’s global cancer burden disproportionally affects lower income countries, where 80% of patients present with late-stage disease and have limited access to palliative care and effective pain-relieving medications, such as morphine. Consequently, millions die each year with unrelieved pain. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine barriers to opioid availability and cancer pain management in India, with an emphasis on the experiences of nurses, who are often the front-line providers of palliative care. Methods. Fifty-nine participants were recruited using a purposive, snowball sampling strategy. Ethnographic data collection included in-depth, semistructured interviews (n = 54), 400+ hours of participant observation, and review of documents over 9 months at a government cancer hospital in South India. Systematic qualitative analysis led to identification of key barriers that are exemplified by representative quotes. Results. Morphine is more available at this study site than in most of India, but access is limited to patients seen by the palliative care service, and significant gaps in supply still occur. Systems to measure and improve pain outcomes are largely absent. Key barriers related to pain management include the role of nursing, opioid misperceptions, bureaucratic hurdles, and sociocultural/infrastructure challenges. Implications. Interventions must streamline process details of morphine procurement, work within the existing sociocultural infrastructure to ensure opioids reach patients most in need, target unexpected audiences for symptom management education, and account for role expectations of health care providers. Conclusion. Macro- and micro-level policy and practice changes are needed to improve opioid availability and cancer pain management in India. PMID:24755460

  10. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Hoeft, Kristin S.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California’s rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers’ experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having ‘extra’ benefits. Once informed about fluoride’s safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable

  11. A meta-ethnographic synthesis on phenomenographic studies of patients’ experiences of chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Röing, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenography is a qualitative research approach developed within an educational framework, focusing on the qualitative experience of learning. It is also being used, to a lesser degree, in healthcare research. In the present study, we conducted a meta-ethnographic synthesis of phenomenographic studies on chronic illness, in order to give a broader perspective of how chronic illness can be experienced. Our aim was not to describe patients’ various individual experiences of illness, but instead to identify the different ways chronic illness can be experienced by patients. Our synthesis and phenomenographic interpretation of 12 selected articles found that patients’ experiences of chronic illness can be described in terms of a different lived body, a struggle with threat to identity and self-esteem, a diminished lifeworld, and a challenging reality. These experiences relate to each other in a process of recurring loops, where the different ways of experiencing continue to influence each other over time. According to these findings, the use of phenomenography as a research approach has the potential to add to the understanding of how chronic illness can be experienced. Patients may benefit from seeing that their illness can be experienced in many different ways and that it has many aspects, which then can lead to a better understanding and coping with their illness. We suggest that it may be worthwhile to expand the scope of phenomenography outside pedagogics. This presupposes a revision of the application to include a wider and more comprehensive description, for instance, of the different ways illness and healthcare phenomena can be experienced, and how these different ways are related to each other, with less focus on hierarchical relations. PMID:25690674

  12. An ethnographic study of barriers to cancer pain management and opioid availability in India.

    PubMed

    Lebaron, Virginia; Beck, Susan L; Maurer, Martha; Black, Fraser; Palat, Gayatri

    2014-05-01

    The world's global cancer burden disproportionally affects lower income countries, where 80% of patients present with late-stage disease and have limited access to palliative care and effective pain-relieving medications, such as morphine. Consequently, millions die each year with unrelieved pain. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine barriers to opioid availability and cancer pain management in India, with an emphasis on the experiences of nurses, who are often the front-line providers of palliative care. Methods. Fifty-nine participants were recruited using a purposive, snowball sampling strategy. Ethnographic data collection included in-depth, semistructured interviews (n = 54), 400+ hours of participant observation, and review of documents over 9 months at a government cancer hospital in South India. Systematic qualitative analysis led to identification of key barriers that are exemplified by representative quotes. Results. Morphine is more available at this study site than in most of India, but access is limited to patients seen by the palliative care service, and significant gaps in supply still occur. Systems to measure and improve pain outcomes are largely absent. Key barriers related to pain management include the role of nursing, opioid misperceptions, bureaucratic hurdles, and sociocultural/infrastructure challenges. Implications. Interventions must streamline process details of morphine procurement, work within the existing sociocultural infrastructure to ensure opioids reach patients most in need, target unexpected audiences for symptom management education, and account for role expectations of health care providers. Conclusion. Macro- and micro-level policy and practice changes are needed to improve opioid availability and cancer pain management in India.

  13. Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.

    PubMed

    Barker, Judith C; Guerra, Claudia; Gonzalez-Vargas, M Judy; Hoeft, Kristin S

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other population groups in the United States, caries (tooth decay) is a disproportionately prevalent disease among Latino populations, especially among low-income and rural sub-groups and children under five years of age. Fluoride is a primary preventive for caries. While water fluoridation is a major and effective public health means for delivering fluoride on a mass scale, it does not reach many rural areas or population groups such as Latinos who eschew drinking water from municipal sources. This study examines the acceptability to such groups of salt fluoridation, an alternate means of delivering fluoride long used on a global scale. An ethnographic study in California's rural Central Valley was performed. Thirty individual interviews and 5 focus groups (N = 61) were conducted in Spanish to investigate low-income Latino migrant caregivers' experiences, views and understandings of domestic salt, oral health, caries prevention and fluoride. Audio data were transcribed, translated, coded and thematically analyzed. Table salt was readily available and frequently consumed. Both adult and child daily sodium consumption was high. Despite a general feeling that it was good, and present in dentifrices or dietary supplements, most participants had little knowledge about fluoride. Concerns were raised about cardio-vascular and other possibly deleterious effects if an increase in salt consumption occurred because fluoridated salt was viewed as having 'extra' benefits. Once informed about fluoride's safety and role in caries prevention, most participants expressed willingness to use fluoridated salt, especially if it benefitted children. Reassurance about its safety and benefits, and demonstration of its taste, were important aspects of acceptance. Taste was paramount. Participants would not consume more fluoridated salt than their current salt as that would result in unpleasant changes in food flavor and taste. While salt fluoridation is acceptable, the

  14. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  15. Emotional Testimonies: An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequities poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013-2014 with first-generation Mexican immigrants (N = 40) residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N = 32). Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship among immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%), fear (65%), depression (75%), loneliness (75%), sadness (80%), and stress (85%), and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status. PMID

  16. Emotional Testimonies: An Ethnographic Study of Emotional Suffering Related to Migration from Mexico to Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly argued that social and economic inequities poorly affect overall health. One of the means through which these inequities are translated to the body is via negative emotions, which carry known psychological and physiological responses. This paper examines migration-related psychosocial stressors impacting first-generation Mexican immigrants in southern Arizona, and reports on the primary emotional experiences immigrants associate with these stressors. Data were drawn from a qualitative, ethnographic study conducted over the course of 14 months during 2013–2014 with first-generation Mexican immigrants (N = 40) residing in Tucson Arizona and service providers working directly in the immigrant community (N = 32). Results indicate that the primary structural vulnerabilities that cause emotional hardship among immigrants are pre-migration stressors and adversity, dangerous border crossings, detention and deportation, undocumented citizenship status, family separation, and extreme poverty. Many of these factors have intensified over the past decade due to increased border security and state level anti-immigrant legislation in Arizona. Immigrants connected these hardships to the emotions of trauma (50%), fear (65%), depression (75%), loneliness (75%), sadness (80%), and stress (85%), and most respondents reported suffering from three or more of these emotions. Given the heavy emotional toll of migration and the direct impact that regional legislation and border security had on well-being, this paper argues that emotion be considered an important mechanism for health declines in the immigrant community. In order to stem the frequency and intensity of emotional stress in the Mexican immigrant community in Tucson, it is imperative to support organizations and policies that promote community building and support networks and also expand access to and availability of mental health services for immigrants regardless of documentation status. PMID

  17. Auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-03-26

    Auditory sensory memory is assumed to play an important role in cognitive development, but little is known about it in young children. The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of auditory sensory memory in 2-year-old children. We recorded the mismatch negativity in response to tone stimuli presented with different interstimulus intervals. Our findings suggest that in 2-year-old children the memory representation of the standard tone remains in the sensory memory store for at least 1 s but for less than 2 s. Recording the mismatch negativity with stimuli presented at various interstimulus intervals seems to be a useful method for studying the relationship between auditory sensory memory and normal and disturbed cognitive development.

  18. Use of ethnographic research for instrument development in a case-control study of immunization use in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Coreil, J; Augustin, A; Holt, E; Halsey, N A

    1989-01-01

    A rapid ethnographic assessment of barriers to health service utilization was conducted to identify maternal factors predicting use of child immunizations in Haiti. Methods included four focus group interviews, four natural group interviews, individual interviews with 14 health care providers and participant observation at vaccination posts. Analysis of qualitative data identified five categories of maternal factors associated with immunization use: competing priorities, low motivation, socioeconomic constraints, perceived accessibility of services, fears about health or social consequences and knowledge and folk beliefs related to vaccines. Selected variables among these factors were incorporated into a survey instrument designed to compare mothers of completely vaccinated children (cases) with mothers of incompletely vaccinated children (controls). The questionnaire was administered to 299 randomly selected mothers (217 cases, 82 controls). Bivariate and multivariate analyses found that of the factors identified through ethnographic research, only vaccine-related knowledge was significantly associated with immunization status. The utility and constraints of using ethnographic research for instrument development in epidemiological studies are discussed. PMID:2621046

  19. Natrelle 410 Extra-Full Projection Silicone Breast Implants: 2-Year Results from Two Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Patricia; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety and effectiveness of the Natrelle Style 410 highly cohesive silicone gel breast implant (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) in full or moderate height and projection have been shown in a 10-year study. Extra-full projection implants may be an appropriate option for some women undergoing breast reconstruction. Methods: A total of 2795 women received at least one Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant (X-style) for breast reconstruction in two similarly designed, prospective, multicenter studies. Data collected for 2 years after implantation in these studies were pooled to evaluate complication rates and subject and physician satisfaction. Results: Most subjects (76.0 percent) underwent bilateral reconstruction; a total of 4912 devices were implanted. Complication rates at 2 years were low. The most common complications were asymmetry (4.8 percent) and capsular contracture (3.3 percent). The cumulative risk of reoperation was 21.6 percent by subject and 16.6 percent by device; the most common reasons for reoperation were scarring (n = 97), asymmetry (n = 89), implant malposition (n = 78), and infection (n = 71). Subject and physician satisfaction rates exceeded 90 percent. At 2 years, 97 percent of physicians reported that the shape of the breast reflected the shape of the implant, and that the breast implant had maintained its original position. Conclusions: The safety profile of the Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant mirrors that of its moderate projection and full projection counterparts. Both physicians and subjects were highly satisfied with the implants 2 years after surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:26090764

  20. Sexuality, vulnerability to HIV, and mental health: an ethnographic study of psychiatric institutions.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Diana de Souza; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Wainberg, Milton; Mattos, Paulo; Oliveira, Suely Broxado de

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents data from the ethnographic based formative phase of the Interdisciplinary Project on Sexuality, Mental Health, and AIDS (PRISSMA), sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and carried out in two psychiatric institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results from ethnographic observations, focus groups, and key informant interviews with different groups of mental health care providers and day hospital and outpatient mental health clients regarding conceptions of sexuality and HIV vulnerability are described. The results suggest a diversity of notions about sexuality by both groups and point out the high HIV sexual risk in this psychiatric population. This formative phase has served as the basis for the cultural adaptation and creation of a Brazilian intervention for HIV prevention in the severely mentally ill, the feasibility of which has been successfully evaluated in the pilot phase.

  1. Uric acid in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Costabile, Teresa; Russo, Cinzia; Carotenuto, Antonio; Sasso, Gabriella; Postiglione, Emanuela; De Luca Picione, Carla; Vastola, Michele; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Palladino, Raffaele; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS), and possibly relates to MS outcomes, with lower UA levels in subjects experiencing a relapse or presenting higher disability scores. The present retrospective longitudinal study evaluated UA variations in MS, in relation to clinical relapses, disability progression, and cognitive functions. We included 141 subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and performed expanded disability status scale (EDSS), symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and UA evaluation at baseline visit and after 2-year follow-up. Paired t test showed significantly lower UA levels after 2-year follow-up than at baseline (3.987 ± 1.135 and 4.167 ± 1.207 mg/dL, respectively) (p = 0.001). The difference in UA levels between 2-year follow-up and baseline related to EDSS sustained progression (p < 0.001; OR = 0.099), and presented a trend for clinical relapses at logistic regression (p = 0.211; OR = 0.711) and for the time to relapse at Cox regression (p = 0.236; HR = 0.792). Analysis of variance showed reduced baseline UA levels in subjects with impaired SDMT at baseline (p = 0.045; adjusted R(2) = 0.473) and after 2-year follow-up (p = 0.034; adjusted R(2) = 0.470). This is the first study showing a progressive reduction of UA levels during the course of RRMS, suggesting a progressive decrease of antioxidant reserves, in relation to relapse risk, disability progression and cognitive function. PMID:25673130

  2. "This does my head in". Ethnographic study of self-management by people with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2) by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups) were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours); interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer) about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined) by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment) and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources). Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints) was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial) and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them. Conclusion Self

  3. Ethnographic case study of a high school science classroom: Strategies in stem education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Lucinda N.

    Historically, science education research has promoted that learning science occurs through direct physical experiences. In recent years, the need for best practices and student motivation have been highlighted in STEM research findings. In response to the instructional challenges in STEM education, the National Research Council has provided guidelines for improving STEM literacy through best practices in science and mathematics instruction. A baseline qualitative ethnographic case study of the effect of instructional practices on a science classroom was an opportunity to understand how a teacher and students work together to learn in an International Baccalaureate life science course. This study was approached through an interpretivist lens with the assumption that learning science is socially constructed. The following were the research questions: 1.) How does the teacher implement science instruction strategies in the classroom? 2.) In what ways are students engaged in the classroom? 3.) How are science concepts communicated in the classroom? The total 35 participants included a high school science teacher and two classes of 11th grade students in the International Baccalaureate program. Using exploratory qualitative methods of research, data was collected from field notes and transcripts from a series of classroom observations, a single one-on-one interview with the teacher and two focus groups with students from each of the two classes. Three themes emerged from text coded using initial and process coding with the computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, MAXQDA. The themes were: 1.) Physical Forms of Communication Play Key Role in Instructional Strategy, 2.) Science Learning Occurs in Casual Environment Full of Distractions, and 3.) Teacher Persona Plays Vital Role in Classroom Culture. The findings provided insight into the teacher's role on students' motivation to learn science. The recommendation for STEM programs and new curriculum is a

  4. Enhancing measurement of primary health care indicators using an equity lens: An ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction One important goal of strengthening and renewal in primary healthcare (PHC) is achieving health equity, particularly for vulnerable populations. There has been a flurry of international activity toward the establishment of indicators relevant to measuring and monitoring PHC. Yet, little attention has been paid to whether current indicators: 1) are sensitive enough to detect inequities in processes or outcomes of care, particularly in relation to the health needs of vulnerable groups or 2) adequately capture the complexity of delivering PHC services across diverse groups. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse regarding what ought to be considered a PHC indicator and to provide some concrete examples illustrating the need for modification and development of new indicators given the goal of PHC achieving health equity. Methods Within the context of a larger study of PHC delivery at two Health Centers serving people facing multiple disadvantages, a mixed methods ethnographic design was used. Three sets of data collected included: (a) participant observation data focused on the processes of PHC delivery, (b) interviews with Health Center staff, and (c) interviews with patients. Results Thematic analysis suggests there is a disjuncture between clinical work addressing the complex needs of patients facing multiple vulnerabilities such as extreme levels of poverty, multiple chronic conditions, and lack of housing and extant indicators and how they are measured. Items could better measure and monitor performance at the management level including, what is delivered (e.g., focus on social determinants of health) and how services are delivered to socially disadvantaged populations (e.g., effective use of space, expectation for all staff to have welcoming and mutually respectful interactions). New indicators must be developed to capture inputs (e.g., stability of funding sources) and outputs (e.g., whole person care) in ways that better align

  5. Identifying interventions to help rural Kenyan mothers cope with food insecurity: results of a focused ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted in two areas in southern and western Kenya to identify potential interventions to improve the quality, availability and affordability of foods consumed by infants and young children. A cultural-ecological model of determinants of nutrition identified the sectors of information for data collection related to infant and young child (IYC) diet and feeding-related behaviours, and the focused ethnographic study manual was used to guide the research. The results provide qualitative evidence about facilitators and constraints to IYC nutrition in the two geographical areas and document their inter-connections. We conclude with suggestions to consider 13 potential nutrition-sensitive interventions. The studies provide empirical ethnographic support for arguments concerning the importance of combining nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to improve the nutrition of infants and young children in low-income, resource-constrained populations. They also document the value of ethnography as a component of landscape analysis in nutrition programme and policy planning. Key messages In addition to constraints on infant and young child diet that originate in environmental and technological conditions in both agro-ecological zones, other factors that affect feeding practices include features of social organisation, household access to social support, caregivers income-earning activities and their own health. The results of the ethnographies, which highlight the importance of obtaining the knowledge and perspectives of caregivers of infants and young children, reveal the interactions of the multiple factors that affect child nutrition and the need for simultaneous nutrition-sensitive interventions to complement nutrition-specific intervention actions. Most caregivers in both areas not only understood the importance of diet and food quality for child survival, they also regarded it as

  6. Trajectories of legitimate peripheral participation: Ethnographic case studies of learning ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gervase Michael Reynolds

    1999-09-01

    Current reform documents in education call for elementary and high school students to engage in "authentic" scientific practices. In the past several years a number of authors have suggested that science education research and curriculum development could benefit from insights gained by research in the social studies of science that documents and theorizes science as it is actually done. Yet, although practices of laboratory science are well understood and provide a foundation from which educational practices could be drawn, little is known about the practices of the science disciplines which deal with field research and how people are enculturated into those practices. This dissertation is constituted by a series of research papers on different (although inter-related) topics, in which I examine the enculturation into the practices of field ecology and the world-view that is associated with that enculturation. To better understand the practices of field ecology and how they develop, I conducted several projects: (i) a video ethnography of a second-year university ecology class and observations on research experiences undergraduates experience; (ii) ethnographic research with ecologists conducting field research; (iii) observations of graduate student and professional ecologists as they participated in conferences, engaged in interaction in their laboratory and social settings, and presented/discussed their findings in various settings; (iv) interviews with graduate student and professional ecologists discussing their field research experiences; (v) videotaped interviews with practicing researchers and under/graduate science and non-science students as they interpreted various ecology-related inscriptions; (vi) an analysis of the inscriptions and textual information present in the various texts (textbooks and journals) used to teach students about ecology; and, (vii) observations of elementary school students engaged in practices congruent with those of field

  7. “WE NEED SOMEWHERE TO SMOKE CRACK”: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF AN UNSANCTIONED SAFER SMOKING ROOM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Lampkin, Hugh; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many cities around the globe have experienced substantial increases in crack cocaine use. Public health programmes have begun to address crack smoking, primarily through the distribution of safer crack use equipment, but their impacts have been limited. More comprehensive safer environmental interventions, specifically safer smoking rooms (SSR), have been implemented only in select European cities. However, none have been subjected to rigorous evaluation. This ethnographic study was undertaken at an ‘unsanctioned’ SSR operated by a drug user-led organization in Vancouver, Canada, to explore how this intervention shaped crack smoking practices, public crack smoking, and related harms. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork was undertaken at this SSR from September to December 2011, and included approximately 50 hours of ethnographic observation and 23 in-depth interviews with people who smoke crack. Data were analyzed by drawing on the ‘Risk Environment’ framework and concepts of ‘symbolic’, ‘everyday’, and ‘structural’ violence. Findings Our findings illustrate how a high demand for SSRs was driven by the need to minimize exposure to policing (structural violence), drug scene violence (everyday violence), and stigma (symbolic violence) that characterized unregulated drug use settings (e.g., public spaces). Although resource scarcity and social norms operating within the local drug scene (e.g., gendered power relations) perpetuated crack pipe-sharing within unregulated drug use settings, the SSR fostered harm reduction practices by reshaping the social-structural context of crack smoking and reduced the potential for health harms. Conclusion Given the significant potential of SSRs in reducing health and social harms, there is an urgent need to scale up these interventions. Integrating SSRs into public health systems, and supplementing these interventions with health and social supports, has potential to improve the health and safety of crack

  8. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  9. Methylene chloride: a 2-year inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, K.D.; Burek, J.D.; Bell, T.J.; Kociba, R.J.; Rampy, L.W.; McKenna, M.J.

    1988-07-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 50, 200, or 500 ppm methylene chloride for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were elevated in a dose-dependent (less than linear) manner in rats exposed to 50-500 ppm methylene chloride. Histopathologic lesions related to methylene chloride exposure were confined to the liver and mammary tissue of rats. An increased incidence of hepatocellular vacuolization was observed in male and female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride. Female rats exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride also had an increased incidence of multinucleated hepatocytes and number of spontaneous benign mammary tumors/tumor-bearing rat (adenomas, fibromas, and fibroadenomas with no progression toward malignancy); the incidence of benign mammary tumors in female rats exposed to 50 or 200 ppm methylene chloride was comparable to historical control values. No increase in the number of any malignant tumor type was observed in rats exposed to concentrations as high as 500 ppm methylene chloride. Additional groups of female rats were exposed to 500 ppm methylene chloride for the first 12 months or the last 12 months of the 24-month study. The response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for the first 12 months was the same as that observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm for 2 years. Conversely, the response observed in female rats exposed to 500 ppm during the last 12 months of the study was similar to that observed in control animals. Based upon the results of this study, the no-adverse-effect level for chronic inhalation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats was judged to be 200 ppm methylene chloride.

  10. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  11. Prophylactic strategies in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a 2-year study testing a phytonutrient vs itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Chopra, V; Marotta, F; Kumari, A; Bishier, M P; He, F; Zerbinati, N; Agarwal, C; Naito, Y; Tomella, C; Sharma, A; Solimene, U

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a one week/month treatment with a phytocompound with antimycotic properties (K-712, with following 100 mg composition: 10 mg of oleoresin from Pseudowintera colorata at 30 percent concentration in Polygodial together with trace amounts of Olea europea) in recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC), as compared to once a week treatment with an azole drug for 24 months follow up. This prospective randomized study involving 122 women (19 to 63 years old) with a history of proven episodes of RVVC in the prior 12 months. Patients were allocated in two treatment groups of 61 patients each and given A) Itraconazole 200 mg orally once a week or B) 1 tab twice a day of K-712 for one week/month. Each treatment schedule was well tolerated with 19 patients in the azole group complaining of transient mild symptoms (nausea, abdominal discomfort, unpleasant taste), while only 3 patients on K-712 reported slight dyspepsia. The number of relapses was significantly lower in the K-712-treated group as compared to the itraconazole-group (22 vs 39, p less than 0.05). Moreover, the former group showed a significantly decreased number of cases resistant or dose-dependent susceptible as compared to group A (p less than 0.05 vs itraconazole) and the same occurred for the occurrence of non-albicans species (group A 64.1 percent vs group B 31.8 percent, p less than 0.05). The overall mycological cure at the end of the 2-year study showed a comparable benefit between the two groups. From these data it appears that the present antifungal phytonutrient is equally effective as itraconazole in the overall treatment of RVVC over a 2-year follow-up, but yielding a significantly better prophylactic effect and also maintenance benefit with lower relapse rate, antifungal susceptibility and growth of azole-resistant species.

  12. Intercultural Education and Literacy: An Ethnographic Study of Indigenous Knowledge and Learning in the Peruvian Amazon. Studies in Written Language and Literacy, Volume 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Sheila

    This book examines indigenous education in South America, focusing on the development of intercultural education and on an ethnographic study of educational processes and change among the Arakmbut people of the Peruvian Amazon. The Arakmbut are one of seven Harakmbut-speaking peoples who live in the Department of Madre de Dios in southeastern…

  13. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    PubMed

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity.

  14. The Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers: A Population Study of 2-Year-Old Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Cederlund, Mats; Sandberg, Eva; Gillstedt, Fredrik; Arvidsson, Thomas; Gillberg, I. Carina; Andersson, Gunilla Westman; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is more common than previously believed. ASD is increasingly diagnosed at very young ages. We report estimated ASD prevalence rates from a population study of 2-year-old children conducted in 2010 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Screening for ASD had been introduced at all child health centers at child age 21/2 years. All…

  15. La Belle Mort en Milieu Rural: a report of an ethnographic study of the good death for Quebec rural francophones.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Anne-Marie; Fillion, Lise; Wilson, Donna M; Thomas, Roger; Dumont, Serge

    2010-01-01

    An ethnographic study was undertaken in two rural areas of Quebec to conceptualize the good death. The findings reveal that a good quality of life for the dying person and his or her family and friends is essential for a good death. The resulting conceptual model emphasized four dimensions: physical, spiritual, social, and emotiona/psychological. These dimensions were determined to be similar to those discovered through a previous urban study, indicating that there may be considerable overlap between good deaths in rural and urban areas. Some findings of this Quebec French-language rural study were similar to those of an Alberta English-language rural study, indicating that rural people may have some common needs and interests with regard to the good death. As such, there could be some common elements of the good death that transcend culture or ethnicity. Chief among these is the desire of rural people to die at home or in their home communities.

  16. What is the role of individual accountability in patient safety? A multi-site ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Parker, Michael; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2016-02-01

    An enduring debate concerns how responsibility for patient safety should be distributed between organisational systems and individual professionals. Though rule-based, calculus-like approaches intended to support a 'just culture' have become popular, they perpetuate an asocial and atomised account. In this article, we use insights from practice theory--which sees organisational phenomena as accomplished in everyday actions, with individual agency and structural conditions as a mutually constitutive, dynamic duality--along with contributions from the political science and ethics literature as a starting point for analysis. Presenting ethnographic data from five hospitals, three in one high-income country and two in low-income countries, we offer an empirically informed, normative rethinking of the role of personal accountability, identifying the collective nature of the healthcare enterprise and the extent to which patient safety depends on contributions from many hands. We show that moral responsibility for actions and behaviours is an irreducible element of professional practice, but that individuals are not somehow 'outside' and separate from 'systems': they create, modify and are subject to the social forces that are an inescapable feature of any organisational system; each element acts on the other. Our work illustrates starkly the structuring effects of the broader institutional and socioeconomic context on opportunities to 'be good'. These findings imply that one of the key responsibilities of organisations and wider institutions in relation to patient safety is the fostering of the conditions of moral community. PMID:26537016

  17. From dioramas to the dinner table: An ethnographic case study of the role of science museums in family life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Kirsten M.

    What we know about learning in museums tends to come from studies of single museum visits evaluating success according to the museum's agenda, neglecting the impressive cooperative learning strategies and resources that families bring to their museum experiences. This is a report of an ethnographic case study of four families that visit science museums frequently. The study used ethnographic research and discourse analysis as combined methodological approaches, and was grounded in a sociocultural perspective that frames science as a socially and culturally constituted activity. Over eighteen months, data were collected during observations of the families in science museums, at home, and at other leisure sites. The study generated two types of findings. First, macroanalysis based on established frameworks for understanding learning in museums revealed differences in the orientation and extent of the museum visits. Additionally, a hierarchical framework for measuring science learning in museums proved insensitive. These findings underscore limitations of some of the traditional frameworks for understanding family learning in science museums. Second, microanalysis of interactions around science objects at home and in museums revealed that parents provided children with opportunities to understand the "middle ground" of science. Analysis also revealed that families adapted the science content of the museum to renegotiate family identities. Interestingly, the types of discourse most valued in science education were least important for establishing family identity. These frequent museumgoers eliminated the distance between them and science objects by transforming their meanings to establish family identity. This study demonstrates that the families' mediating strategies shape not just an understanding of science, but also a family identity that is constructed in and through interactions with science. The results of this study provide a foundation for examining how

  18. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  19. The Effect of School Culture on Science Education at an Ideologically Innovative Elementary Magnet School: An Ethnographic Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Lori T.

    2012-11-01

    This ethnographic case study investigated the science practices of teachers at one public elementary magnet school in light of how school culture influenced science curriculum design and instruction. The purpose of the study was to address how school culture impacted the school's overall treatment of science as a viable content area. Key informant teachers were interviewed to explore their personal beliefs and values, teaching, access to materials, and views of the adopted integrated thematic curriculum model and magnet structure. The resulting data, triangulated with informal observation and artifact collection, were analyzed using a theoretical framework that emphasized five interdependent school culture indicators (values, beliefs, practices, materials, and problems). Findings suggest that the school's culture adversely influenced the treatment of science.

  20. Contradictions and conflict: A meta-ethnographic study of migrant women’s experiences of breastfeeding in a new country

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies report mixed findings about rates of both exclusive and partial breastfeeding amongst women who are migrants or refugees in high income countries. It is important to understand the beliefs and experiences that impact on migrant and refugee women’s infant feeding decisions in order to appropriately support women to breastfeed in a new country. The aim of this paper is to report the findings of a meta-ethnographic study that explored migrant and refugee women’s experiences and practices related to breastfeeding in a new country. Methods CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library with Full Text databases were searched for the period January 2000 to May 2012. Out of 2355 papers retrieved 11 met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnographic synthesis was undertaken using the analytic strategies and theme synthesis techniques of reciprocal translation and refutational investigation. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Results Eight qualitative studies and three studies reporting both qualitative and quantitative data were included and one overarching theme emerged: ‘Breastfeeding in a new country: facing contradictions and conflict’. This theme comprised four sub-themes ‘Mother’s milk is best’; ‘Contradictions and conflict in breastfeeding practices’; ‘Producing breast milk requires energy and good health’; and ‘The dominant role of female relatives’. Migrant women who valued, but did not have access to, traditional postpartum practices, were more likely to cease breastfeeding. Women reported a clash between their individual beliefs and practices and the dominant practices in the new country, and also a tension with family members either in the country of origin or in the new country. Conclusion Migrant women experience tensions in their breastfeeding experience and require support from professionals who can sensitively address their individual needs

  1. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis.

  2. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  3. Youth Studies and Timescapes: Insights from an Ethnographic Study of "Young Night Drifters" in Hong Kong's Public Housing Estates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Julian M.; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on insights from the sociology of time to examine how scheduling influences social interaction and identity among young people and those who work with them. Drawing on an ethnographic analysis of "Young Night Drifters" and youth outreach social workers in Hong Kong's public housing estates, we create a framework to understand…

  4. The challenging nature of patient identifiers: an ethnographic study of patient identification at a London walk-in centre.

    PubMed

    Lichtner, Valentina; Wilson, Stephanie; Galliers, Julia R

    2008-06-01

    The correct identification of a patient's health record is the foundation of any safe patient record system. There is no building of a ;patient history', no sharing or integration of a patient's data without the retrieval and matching of existing records. Yet there can often be errors in this process and these may remain invisible until a safety incident occurs. This article presents the findings of an ethnographic study of patient identification at a walk-in centre in the UK. We offer a view of patient identifiers as used in practice and show how seemingly simple data, such as a person's name or date of birth, are more complex than they may at first appear and how they potentially pose problems for the use of integrated health records. We further report and discuss a dichotomy between the identifiers needed to access health records and the identifiers used by practitioners in their everyday work.

  5. Collapsing the Vertical–Horizontal Divide: An Ethnographic Study of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Maternal Health

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.; Storeng, Katerini T.

    2008-01-01

    Using the international maternal health field as a case study, we draw on ethnographic research to investigate how public health researchers and policy experts are responding to tensions between vertical and horizontal approaches to health improvement. Despite nominal support for an integrative health system approach, we found that competition for funds and international recognition pushes professionals toward vertical initiatives. We also highlight how research practices contribute to the dominance of vertical strategies and limit the success of evidence-based policymaking for strengthening health systems. Rather than support disease-and subfield-specific advocacy, the public health community urgently needs to engage in open dialogue regarding the international, academic, and donor-driven forces that drive professionals toward an exclusive interest in vertical programs. PMID:18309123

  6. [Caring for the health of young children in the family context: an ethnographic study of low income families].

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Vania; Trad, Leny A Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    This study examines ways of caring for the health of small children in families assisted by the Family Health Program in a low-income outlying district of Salvador over a period of nine months. Based on participant observations supplemented by semi-structured interviews, the ethnographic approach offers a close-up view of how the respondents understand childcare and its links to the social and cultural context. Childcare requirements are arrayed along three main axes, structured on the basis of the child's gender: preservation of integrity, ability to play and education. Practices related to healthcare express evaluations and decisions that take into consideration the constraints imposed by reality and different standpoints, with the medical view occupying an important but not preponderant - position. Finally, the inter-subjective character of childcare is examined, in the sense that adults obtain moral gratification through caring for children, striving to meet their needs.

  7. [Sexuality, bodily experiences, and gender: an ethnographic study of persons living with HIV in Greater Metropolitan Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Mabel

    2009-01-01

    Based on the results of an ethnographic study on daily experience with HIV in Greater Metropolitan Buenos Aires, Argentina, the article discusses behavioral approaches that reduce the sexuality of persons living with HIV to an issue of safety and protection. By articulating a social construction perspective and the notion of hegemony, the author proposes that sexuality can be understood as a process of individual and social construction shaped by power relations and social regulations. The analysis of the experiences of living with HIV in marginalized populations shows how chronic social inequality, violence, discrimination, and stigmatization generate particular characteristics of sexual issues. These social processes become driving forces that shape sexual experience as a field of danger, repression, and restriction rather than pleasure and exploration. Finally, daily confrontation with social metaphors places strain on gender relations, practices, and identities.

  8. Viewing Places: Students as Visual Ethnographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a micro-ethnographic study that took place during a summer research course for six undergraduate and four graduate students majoring in the disciplines of architecture, art education, geography, landscape architecture and an integrative arts program. The research sought to implement ethnographic, visual methods as a means to…

  9. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcome measure was the consumption of alcohol, rated according to the World Health Organization criteria for risk of chronic harm. Results: While all patients were rated “at high risk” at baseline, approximately half of them were rated “at low risk” at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The sum of patients who were at “low risk” and at “moderate risk” (improved patients) was 84% at 3 months, 70% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, and 62% at 2 years. The constancy of improvement over the 2-years was remarkable. The average maximal dose of baclofen taken was 147 mg/day. Ninety-two percentage of patients reported that they experienced the craving-suppressing effect of baclofen. Significant relationships were found between the amount in grams of alcohol taken before treatment and the maximal dose of baclofen required, and between the existence of a mental disorder and a lesser effect of baclofen. Conclusion: Baclofen produces an effortless decrease or suppression of alcohol craving when it is prescribed with no superior limit of dose. Potential limitations in the effectiveness of baclofen include the coexistence of a mental disorder, the concomitant use of other psychotropic drugs, a lack of real motivation in patients to stop drinking, and the impossibility to reach the optimal dose of baclofen because of unbearable side-effects (sometimes possibly related to too sharp a protocol of dose escalation). PMID:23316172

  10. Ethnographic Strategies in the Tracking and Retention of Street-Recruited Community-Based Samples of Substance Using Hidden Populations in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2010-01-01

    The article presents practical and methodological strategies in the tracking and retention of a longitudinal community-based sample of 300 Mexican American noninjecting users of heroin. Presented are the ethnographic strategies the research team utilized to maintain high retention rates among this highly marginalized and hidden population. Findings indicate that these ethnographic strategies are the basis for a reliable method for subject retention among drug-using populations. Further, the strategies illustrate how qualitative methods can complement the collection of quantitative data. Discussed is how these strategies can be used to identify and engage similar populations in research studies. PMID:20222780

  11. Treatment adherence among new triptan users: a 2-year cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of triptan use among newly prescribed users is low in the United States and European countries. However, triptan refill patterns in Asian primary care practices have not been well described. Methods Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan were used to conduct a retrospective cohort analysis from 2005 to 2008. All participants were followed for 2 years after receiving a new triptan prescription. Refill and 2-year retention rates of newly prescribed triptans were calculated, and predictors of the first triptan refill and 2-year retention were analyzed. Results Of the 13,951 participants with a new triptan prescription (99.9% sumatriptan), 67.4% were prescribed by a neurologist, 67.4% were prescribed at least one prophylactic agent for migraine. Of them, 34.3% adhered to the newly prescribed triptan at the first refill, 0.01% switched to another triptan, and 40.9% switched to a non-triptan acute migraine medication. The 2-year retention rate was 4.0%. The frequency of headache-related neurologic visits for 1 year before the index date, first prescription of triptan or other acute medications, first triptan prescription by a neurologist, and prophylactic use were associated with higher first refill rates. The frequency of headache-related neurologic visits 1 year before the index date and first triptan prescription by a neurologist were related to higher 2-year retention rates. Diabetes mellitus and first triptan prescription at a local medical clinic were associated with reduced probability of continued triptan use at the first refill and 2 years. Conclusions Similar to Western societies, the refill and 2-year retention rates were low in new users of triptans. Frequency of neurologic visits and triptan prescription by a neurologist were significant predictors of adherence. PMID:25117594

  12. Clinical and biologic factors related to oral implant failure: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Moheng, Patrick; Feryn, Jean-Marc

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate urinary biomarkers of bone formation and resorption as predictive factors for oral implant failure, and to contribute to the knowledge of factors related to oral implant failure. A total of 93 patients between 18 and 85 years old, with an indication of oral implant, were eligible in this 2-year prospective, open, and nonrandomized study. Patients who had bone graft before implantation or presented with prosthetic difficulties (implant-to-crown ratio < 1, and/or unfavorable intermaxillary space) were excluded. All patients received either Frialit-2 (Friadent, Mannheim, Germany), cylinder, or screwed implants or IMZ Twin Plus (Friadent), cylinder implants, with FRIOS (Friadent) titanium coating. Serum osteocalcin, and urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were measured, together with bone density at implant location. The primary endpoint (implant failure) was the implant removal (radiographic evidence of peri-implant bone loss and/or pockets). Factors related to implant failure were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models to consider within-patient effects. Of the 93 patients included, 61% were female, and 16% were current smokers. A total of 266 oral implants were placed and analyzed, with a mean number of 3.1 implants by patient. Eleven and 15% of bone locations scored at D1 and D4, respectively, for the Misch bone density scoring. The majority of implants (72%) were placed more than 3 months after tooth extraction, using a Frialit-2 system in 73% of cases. The mean of osteocalcin was 17.3 (+/-9.4) ng/L; those of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were 33.2 (+/-15.8) and 10.2 (+/-11.9) mmol per creatinine mmol, respectively. At one-year, 95.5% (95% confidence interval 92.5-97.5) of implants have not been removed. One year later, no further implant failed. In both univariate and multivariate analysis, osteocalcin, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were not significant predictive factors of oral implant

  13. Debating Race, Race-ing Debate: An Extended Ethnographic Case Study of Black Intellectual Insurgency in U.S. Intercollegiate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David Kent

    2014-01-01

    The following study is an extended ethnographic case study of a "black intellectual insurgency" within the predominantly white space of the U.S. intercollegiate policy debate activity. A growing number of black students are entering the debate activity and insisting that "whiteness" be confronted and interrogated and that…

  14. Socialization into science: An ethnographic study in a field research station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calovini, Theresa Ann

    While the place of language in building the tasks and activities of the science classroom has received attention in the education literature, how students do the work of affiliation building through language remains poorly understood. This dissertation is based on ethnographic research in an apprenticeship learning situation at a biological field research station. I carried out this research with five undergraduates apprentices. I focus on how the language used in this apprenticeship situation positioned the apprentices with science. Issues of access and diversity in science education have motivated this research but this point can be missed because the five apprentices were all fairly successful in university science. They had all secured their job for the summer as paid research assistants. Yet, even with these successful students, science had a complicated place in their lives. I draw on Gee's (1999) notion of Discourse to understand this complexity. I focus on four Discourses--- Science, Knowing about the Animals, Senior Projects and RAships, and Relationships ---which were important in the apprentices' learning about and socialization with science. I try to understand the inter-workings of these four Discourses through a detailed analysis of three conversations involving one of the participants, Michelle. Michelle's use of narrative emerged as a linguistic resource which she used to explore dilemmas she experienced in the tensions between these four Discourses. Michelle was in many ways an ideal apprentice. She did her job well and she sought and received expert advice on her Senior project. Nonetheless, Michelle faced obstacles in her pursuit of a career in science and these obstacles related to language use and her use of narrative. I show how her use of narrative either facilitated or impeded her learning, depending on the context of the interaction. My analysis of Discourse points to important issues in language use by both students and teachers, with

  15. Expanded Awareness of Student Performance: A Case Study in Applied Ethnographic Monitoring in a Bilingual Classroom. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Robert L.

    The case study of the use of a classroom observation technique to evaluate the abilities and performance of a bilingual kindergarten student previously assessed as a low achiever is described. There are three objectives: to show the validity of the ethnographic monitoring technique, to show the value of teachers as collaborating researchers, and…

  16. Teacher/Ethnographer in the Workplace: Approaches to Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Mary Kay; Ullman, Charlotte

    Use of ethnographic methods to assess learning and staff development needs for workplace adult education programs is discussed, focusing on the teacher's role as ethnographic researcher. Four stages of ethnographic research are identified: (1) open-ended, inductive study; (2) structured observation; (3) analysis; and (4) speculation and sharing of…

  17. Making Visible the Complexities of Problem Solving: An Ethnographic Study of a General Chemistry Course in a Studio Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalainoff, Melinda Zapata

    Studio classrooms, designed such that laboratory and lecture functions can occur in the same physical space, have been recognized as a promising contributing factor in promoting collaborative learning in the sciences (NRC, 2011). Moreover, in designing for instruction, a critical goal, especially in the sciences and engineering, is to foster an environment where students have opportunities for learning problem solving practices (NRC, 2012a). However, few studies show how this type of innovative learning environment shapes opportunities for learning in the sciences, which is critical to informing future curricular and instructional designs for these environments. Even fewer studies show how studio environments shape opportunities to develop problem solving practices specifically. In order to make visible how the learning environment promotes problem solving practices, this study explores problem solving phenomena in the daily life of an undergraduate General Chemistry studio class using an ethnographic perspective. By exploring problem solving as a sociocultural process, this study shows how the instructor and students co-construct opportunities for learning in whole class and small group interactional spaces afforded in this studio environment and how the differential demands on students in doing problems requires re-conceptualizing what it means to "apply a concept".

  18. Food for thought: an ethnographic study of negotiating ill health and food insecurity in a UK foodbank.

    PubMed

    Garthwaite, K A; Collins, P J; Bambra, C

    2015-05-01

    Emergency foodbanks have become an increasingly prominent and controversial feature of austerity in Europe and the USA. In the UK, foodbanks have been called a 'public health emergency'. Despite this, there has been no UK research examining the health of foodbank users. Through an ethnographic study, this paper is the first to explore the health and health perceptions of foodbank users via a case study of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, UK during a period of welfare reform and austerity. Participant observation, field notes and interviews with foodbank users and volunteers were conducted over a seventeen month period (November 2013 to March 2015) inside a Trussell Trust foodbank. Foodbank users were almost exclusively of working age, both men and women, with and without dependent children. All were on very low incomes - from welfare benefits or insecure, poorly paid employment. Many had pre-existing health problems which were exacerbated by their poverty and food insecurity. The latter meant although foodbank users were well aware of the importance and constitution of a healthy diet, they were usually unable to achieve this for financial reasons - constantly having to negotiate their food insecurity. More typically they had to access poor quality, readily available, filling, processed foods. Foodbank users are facing the everyday reality of health inequalities at a time of ongoing austerity in the UK.

  19. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Sri Lankan Government Field Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians’ decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories – so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers. PMID:23133542

  20. Equipping public health professionals for youth engagement: lessons learned from a 2-year pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Tina Binita; Rempel, Benjamin; Lodge, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence of the positive role that youth engagement programs and policies play in creating resiliency and producing positive outcomes among youth populations, such as delaying or avoiding the onset of risk-taking behaviors. Research also suggests that achieving positive outcomes ideally includes influence from the individual, the family, the school, the community, and the field of public health (available in A Research Report and Recommendations for Ontario Public Health Association). The authors conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a 2-year pilot project designed to increase the application of engagement and resiliency theory, knowledge, and skills among public health professionals engaging students from Grades 6, 7, and 8 (11- to 14-year-olds). Qualitative methods assessed public health satisfaction with training, resources, and networking activities, whereas quantitative methods assessed changes in capacity with respect to youth engagement knowledge, awareness, confidence, and skills. The findings have helped shed light on public health professional needs concerning capacity and confidence to undertake youth engagement work. Key lessons learned about making youth engagement possible and effective for public health professionals are presented. PMID:23271719

  1. Equipping public health professionals for youth engagement: lessons learned from a 2-year pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Tina Binita; Rempel, Benjamin; Lodge, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence of the positive role that youth engagement programs and policies play in creating resiliency and producing positive outcomes among youth populations, such as delaying or avoiding the onset of risk-taking behaviors. Research also suggests that achieving positive outcomes ideally includes influence from the individual, the family, the school, the community, and the field of public health (available in A Research Report and Recommendations for Ontario Public Health Association). The authors conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a 2-year pilot project designed to increase the application of engagement and resiliency theory, knowledge, and skills among public health professionals engaging students from Grades 6, 7, and 8 (11- to 14-year-olds). Qualitative methods assessed public health satisfaction with training, resources, and networking activities, whereas quantitative methods assessed changes in capacity with respect to youth engagement knowledge, awareness, confidence, and skills. The findings have helped shed light on public health professional needs concerning capacity and confidence to undertake youth engagement work. Key lessons learned about making youth engagement possible and effective for public health professionals are presented.

  2. The impact of pay-for-performance on professional boundaries in UK general practice: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Suzanne; Huby, Guro; Watkins, Francis; Checkland, Kath; McDonald, Ruth; Davies, Huw; Guthrie, Bruce

    2009-03-01

    The 2004 new General Medical Services (nGMS) contract exemplifies trends across the public services towards increased definition, measurement and regulation of professional work, with general practice income now largely dependent on the quality of care provided across a range of clinical and organisational indicators known collectively as the 'Quality and Outcomes Framework' (QOF). This paper reports an ethnographically based study of the impact of the new contract and the financial incentives contained within it on professional boundaries in UK general practice. The distribution of clinical and administrative work has changed significantly and there has been a new concentration of authority, with QOF decision making and monitoring being led by an internal QOF team of clinical and managerial staff who make the major practice-level decisions about QOF, monitor progress against targets, and intervene to resolve areas or indicators at risk of missing targets. General practitioners and nurses, however, appear to have accommodated these changes by re-creating long established narratives on professional boundaries and clinical hierarchies. This paper is concerned with the impact of these new arrangements on existing clinical hierarchies.

  3. Evidence based guidelines or collectively constructed “mindlines?” Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, John; le May, Andrée

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore in depth how primary care clinicians (general practitioners and practice nurses) derive their individual and collective healthcare decisions. Design Ethnographic study using standard methods (non-participant observation, semistructured interviews, and documentary review) over two years to collect data, which were analysed thematically. Setting Two general practices, one in the south of England and the other in the north of England. Participants Nine doctors, three nurses, one phlebotomist, and associated medical staff in one practice provided the initial data; the emerging model was checked for transferability with general practitioners in the second practice. Results Clinicians rarely accessed and used explicit evidence from research or other sources directly, but relied on “mindlines”—collectively reinforced, internalised, tacit guidelines. These were informed by brief reading but mainly by their own and their colleagues' experience, their interactions with each other and with opinion leaders, patients, and pharmaceutical representatives, and other sources of largely tacit knowledge. Mediated by organisational demands and constraints, mindlines were iteratively negotiated with a variety of key actors, often through a range of informal interactions in fluid “communities of practice,” resulting in socially constructed “knowledge in practice.” Conclusions These findings highlight the potential advantage of exploiting existing formal and informal networking as a key to conveying evidence to clinicians. PMID:15514347

  4. Entry into Nursing: An Ethnographic Study of Newly Qualified Nurses Taking on the Nursing Role in a Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Bjerknes, Mari Skancke; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2012-01-01

    The transition from student to working nurse has long been recognized as challenging. This paper presents the findings of research into the opportunities and limitations encountered by newly qualified nurses when taking on the nursing role. The study had an ethnographic design. Observation, interviews, and document analysis were used to gain insight into nurses' daily work from the perspective of recently graduated nurses. Thirteen nurses were monitored closely during their first year in a hospital setting in Norway. These new nurses generally entered the field with empathy for their patients, enthusiasm for the profession, and readiness to learn more about being a good nurse. However, their more experienced colleagues seemed to neither respect nor nurture this attitude. The new nurses experienced heavier responsibilities than expected, fragmentation of patient care, and stressful interactions with colleagues. The lack of a supportive work environment and role models increased the new nurses' experience of overwhelming responsibility in their daily work situations. The nurses learned to cope the hard way, despite the organizational culture, not because of it. Adjusting the profession's expectations of new nurses, and offering good role models and more comprehensive support programmes, would markedly ease the transition for new nurses. PMID:23050136

  5. Could In-Home Sensors Surpass Human Observation of People with Parkinson's at High Risk of Falling? An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Emma; King, Rachel; Janko, Balazs; Burnett, Malcolm; Hammersley, Nicola; Agarwal, Veena; Hannuna, Sion; Burrows, Alison; Ashburn, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Self-report underpins our understanding of falls among people with Parkinson's (PwP) as they largely happen unwitnessed at home. In this qualitative study, we used an ethnographic approach to investigate which in-home sensors, in which locations, could gather useful data about fall risk. Over six weeks, we observed five independently mobile PwP at high risk of falling, at home. We made field notes about falls (prior events and concerns) and recorded movement with video, Kinect, and wearable sensors. The three women and two men (aged 71 to 79 years) having moderate or severe Parkinson's were dependent on others and highly sedentary. We most commonly noted balance protection, loss, and restoration during chair transfers, walks across open spaces and through gaps, turns, steps up and down, and tasks in standing (all evident walking between chair and stairs, e.g.). Our unobtrusive sensors were acceptable to participants: they could detect instability during everyday activity at home and potentially guide intervention. Monitoring the route between chair and stairs is likely to give information without invading the privacy of people at high risk of falling, with very limited mobility, who spend most of the day in their sitting rooms. PMID:26981528

  6. Contextual barriers to implementation in primary care: an ethnographic study of a programme to improve chronic kidney disease care

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Natalie; Herbert, Georgia; Brewster, Liz

    2016-01-01

    Background. Context is important in implementation—we know that what works in one setting may not work in the same way elsewhere. Primary care has been described as a unique context both in relation to the care delivered and efforts to carry out research and implementation of new evidence. Objective. To explore some of the distinctive features of the primary care environment that may influence implementation. Methods. We conducted an ethnographic study involving observations, interviews and documentary analysis of the ENABLE-CKD project, which involved general practices implementing a chronic kidney disease care bundle and offering self-management support tools to patients. Analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Results. Four elements of the primary care environment emerged as important influences on the extent to which implementation was successful. First, the nature of delivering care in this setting meant that prioritizing one condition over others was problematic. Second, the lack of alignment with financial and other incentives affected engagement. Third, the project team lacked mechanisms through which engagement could be mandated. Fourth, working relationships within practices impacted on engagement. Conclusions. Those seeking to implement interventions in primary care need to consider the particular context if they are to secure successful implementation. We suggest that there are particular kinds of interventions, which may be best suited to the primary care context. PMID:27297465

  7. Gender Discourse in an Arab-Muslim High School in Israel: Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Although the school constitutes a key cultural arena for the production and reproduction of gender identities, few studies have addressed gender discourse in educational institutions in developing societies. Such studies are especially sparse in Arab society in Israel. This study goes some way to addressing what is often absent from many…

  8. Family Science: An Ethnographic Case Study of the Ordinary Science and Literacy Experiences of One Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Glenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the copious research available on science learning, little is known about ways in which the public engages in free-choice science learning and even fewer studies have focused on how families engage in science to learn about the world around them. The same was true about studies of literacy development in the home until the 1980s when…

  9. Organizational Culture in a Successful Primary School: An Ethnographic Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negis-Isik, Ayse; Gursel, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Even though they are perceived similar from outside, all schools have distinct characteristics and a culture that differ them from other schools. School culture, is one of the important factors that play role in school efficiency and success. The purpose of this study was to examine the culture of a successful school profoundly. This study was a…

  10. The Profitable Adventure of Threatened Middle-Class Families: An Ethnographic Study on Homeschooling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Deok-Hee

    2009-01-01

    South Korean society in the late 1990s was confronted with socio-economic setbacks and discursive turbulence concerning the quality of education being provided. It was at such a particular historical juncture of South Korean society that I conducted ethnographic research on homeschooling families. Based on field data collected from four…

  11. Reel Science: An Ethnographic Study of Girls' Science Identity Development In and Through Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffee, Rachel L.

    This dissertation study contributes to the research on filmmaking and identity development by exploring the ways that film production provided unique opportunities for a team of four girls to engage in science, to develop identities in science, and to see and understand science differently. Using social practice, identity, and feminist theory and New Literacies Studies as a theoretical lens and grounded theory and multimodality as analytic frameworks, I present findings that suggest that girls in this study authored identities and communicated and represented science in and through film in ways that drew on their social, cultural, and embodied resources and the material resources of the after-school science club. Findings from this study highlight the affordances of filmmaking as a venue for engaging in the disciplinary practices of science and for accessing and authoring identities in science.

  12. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD Inattention as Predictors of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Impairment Domains: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determine SCT's and ADHD-IN's unique longitudinal relationships with psychopathology, academic impairment, and social impairment over the 1- and 2-year intervals (i.e., first to third grade, second to third grade). For 1- and 2-year intervals using both mothers' and fathers' ratings, higher levels of SCT uniquely predicted higher levels of anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment whereas higher levels of ADHD-IN uniquely predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment. For 1- and 2-year intervals across different primary and secondary teachers (i.e., first/second and third grade ratings were provided by different teachers), higher scores on ADHD-IN uniquely predicted poorer outcomes across domains whereas higher scores on SCT uniquely predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD for both intervals in addition to higher levels of depression (for primary teachers only), academic impairment (for 1-year interval only), and peer rejection (2-year interval only for primary teachers). Overall, SCT was significantly associated with important outcomes independent of ADHD-IN over 1- and 2-year intervals and across four different raters. This study provides further evidence for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN in home and school settings.

  13. Towards a geography of fitness: an ethnographic case study of the gym in British bodybuilding culture.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Sudwell, Mark I; Sparkes, Andrew C

    2005-02-01

    During recent years, research in health geography has engaged with peoples' health as well as diseases, an interest reflected by therapeutic geographies and geographies of public health. At the same time, studies have focused on micro-contexts such as the body, reflected in geographies of diseased and disadvantaged bodies. However, little research has combined elements of the two approaches and engaged in research on active healthy bodies and fitness. Equally the sub-discipline of sports geography provides little insight into fitness activities because this research has tended to focus on elite sports, their fans and facilities. Given these contexts, a detailed case study is presented to demonstrate the potential for geographical research on fitness. Through an observational study of a specialist gym facility, the study investigates how bodybuilding culture and place are co-produced. Indeed, the gym provides a narrative resource and a crucial setting for individual body projects and collective body culture which involve social conflicts, cohesions and hierarchies, illegal and potentially health harming activities, as well as personal comfort and therapeutic attachments. It is argued that beyond this case study, many activities crosscut health maintenance, or conversely risks to health, and the enjoyment of sports and fitness. A greater emphasis therefore at the sub-disciplinary interface of sports and health geography on hybrid 'fitness geographies' may help researchers towards a more comprehensive understanding, and coverage, of health issues in society.

  14. Ka mauli o ka 'oina a he mauli kanaka: an ethnographic study from an Hawaiian sense of place.

    PubMed

    Oneha, M F

    2001-09-01

    Ka Mauli O Ka 'Aina A He Mauli Kanaka: The Life of the Land is the Life of the People. A sense of place has been directly linked to spiritual well being for all indigenous peoples. Yet, there is minimal evidence that demonstrates understanding and awareness of indigenous health issues from this perspective. Health, or the lack of it, appears to be related to place or the loss of it. Issues of Hawaiian health are inseparable from issues of land, water, and atmosphere. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experience of a sense of place and its relationship to health as perceived and experienced by Hawaiian participants living in Wai'anae, Hawai'i. Thirteen adult men and women, ranging in age from 36 to 80 years, participated in this ethnographic study. Two interviews conducted with each participant addressed the research question, "What is the experience of the relationship between a sense of place and health for Hawaiians?" Participants were also asked to photograph how they experienced this relationship. The qualitative data analysis computer software, Atlas.ti, was used to assist in data analysis. The findings suggest that the relationship between sense of place and health embodies four categories: (1) relationship to akua (god, spirit), (2) relationship to natural elements, (3) relationship to self and others, and (4) belonging to a particular place. Three major traditional Hawaiian concepts, which defined how the relationship between sense of place and health are experienced, were pono, mana, and kuleana. The relationship between these concepts revealed five cultural themes. Health for Hawaiians: I. is having a spiritual connection to their ancestral place; II. relates to the past, present, and future; III. is experienced with intention and understanding; IV. means an openness to the flow and use of energy; and V. is experienced as a pu'uhonua or safe place. These themes suggest implications for Hawaiian health education, practice, and further

  15. Interprofessional Rhetoric and Operational Realities: An Ethnographic Study of Rounds in Four Intensive Care Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the…

  16. Strategie di rifuto in Italiano: uno studio etnografico (Refusal Strategies in Italian: An Ethnographic Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frescura, Marina

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing previous research on speech acts, this article describes a study that analyzed the behavior of speakers of standard Italian in refusing an offer of food. The importance of "face" is explained, and the refusal strategies are classified into four categories: explicit, tactical, decisive, and conclusive. (CFM)

  17. Doing Science Their Way: An Ethnographic Study of Sixth Grade Girls' Engagement with School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuriceo, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of sixth grade girls in a moderately-sized East Coast city as they construct meaning through active engagement in a science classroom and analyzes the ways in which girls change roles and incorporate social interaction during science activities to create their own unique engagement in science.…

  18. Book Clubs: An Ethnographic Study of an Innovative Reading Practice in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The most innovative reading practices currently rely on the paradigm of dialogic reading. Book clubs, literary gatherings and study circles are emerging in different social spaces to promote reading and literary discussion amongst adults, and libraries, bookshops, cultural centres, etc. are increasingly developing strategies in this direction.…

  19. Discourses of Whiteness and Blackness: An Ethnographic Study of Three Young Children Learning to Be White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    In blatant, but nuanced and often invisible ways, racism continues to exist globally, nationally and locally, implicating us all. The insidious nature of racism is deeply rooted in the lives of young children. In order to interrupt and reverse those practices, we must know how race is constructed during the early years. This study looked closely…

  20. Implementing Learning Communities in American Higher Education: A Meta-Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noga, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Using meta-ethnography as a research method, this study identified, organized, and synthesized efforts to implement learning communities at the 19 American colleges and universities that prepared written reports at the conclusion of the 1996-1999 National Learning Communities Dissemination Project (FIPSE). The researcher used 10 research questions…

  1. Ethnographic Description As a Tool in Humanistic Geography: A Native American Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick G.

    Humanistic geography is similar to ethnography in that both are concerned with describing actions and events in terms of their meaning to those experiencing them; humanistic geography is particularly concerned with understanding subjective social space: space as perceived by members of particular human groups. A humanistic geography case study,…

  2. [AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MEDICAL PRACTICES AND KNOWELEDGE IN THE NAHUA CONTEST ( NAUPAN, PUEBLA, MEXICO)].

    PubMed

    Iorio, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the last thirty years, the improvement of biomedical acculturate had influenced the medical tradition of Nauha, in souther-eastern Mexico. The study analyses how the constituent elements of biomedical tradition are incorporated into new rhetorical, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, mixed with languages and symbols typical of local tradition.

  3. White Working Class Achievement: An Ethnographic Study of Barriers to Learning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the key barriers to learning to raise achievement of White British pupils with low-income backgrounds. The main findings suggest that the worryingly low-achievement levels of many White working class pupils have been masked by the middle class success in the English school system and government statistics that fail to…

  4. Access, Status, and Representation: Some Reflections from Two Ethnographic Studies of Elite Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben A.; Howard, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we use our experiences to demonstrate the limits of the "studying up" metaphor to capture the complexity of the dynamics involved in doing research on groups that occupy positions of power within social hierarchies. The article focuses on different facets of the research process, alternating between our individual narratives and a…

  5. Influences of Examination Policies on Chemistry Teaching Practices in Nigerian High Schools: An Ethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, David A.; Gallagher, James J.

    This paper presents research designed to study the West African Examination Council's (WAEC) policy and its impact on teaching chemistry in Nigerian secondary schools. Five knowledgeable public figures in Nigeria and Great Britain were interviewed concerning policy formulation and implementation. Five pertinent documents were analyzed.…

  6. A Qualitative Ethnographic Study of How Teachers Who Participate in Professional Learning Communities Construct Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikhwan, Susana Nunez

    2011-01-01

    A recent study conducted by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) has found that teachers who participate in high quality professional learning communities (PLC) are provided with on-going professional development that elicit focus on learning, a collaborative culture, collective inquiry, action orientation, commitment to continuous…

  7. An Ethnographic Study of Stigma and Ageism in Residential Care or Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Debra; Eckert, J. Kevin; Rubinstein, Bob; Keimig, Lynn; Clark, Leanne; Frankowski, Ann Christine; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored aspects of stigmatization for older adults who live in residential care or assisted living (RC-AL) communities and what these settings have done to address stigma. Design and Methods: We used ethnography and other qualitative data-gathering and analytic techniques to gather data from 309 participants (residents, family…

  8. An Ethnographic Study of the Social Context of Migrant Health in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Background Migrant workers in the United States have extremely poor health. This paper aims to identify ways in which the social context of migrant farm workers affects their health and health care. Methods and Findings This qualitative study employs participant observation and interviews on farms and in clinics throughout 15 months of migration with a group of indigenous Triqui Mexicans in the western US and Mexico. Study participants include more than 130 farm workers and 30 clinicians. Data are analyzed utilizing grounded theory, accompanied by theories of structural violence, symbolic violence, and the clinical gaze. The study reveals that farm working and housing conditions are organized according to ethnicity and citizenship. This hierarchy determines health disparities, with undocumented indigenous Mexicans having the worst health. Yet, each group is understood to deserve its place in the hierarchy, migrant farm workers often being blamed for their own sicknesses. Conclusions Structural racism and anti-immigrant practices determine the poor working conditions, living conditions, and health of migrant workers. Subtle racism serves to reduce awareness of this social context for all involved, including clinicians. The paper concludes with strategies toward improving migrant health in four areas: health disparities research, clinical interactions with migrant laborers, medical education, and policy making. PMID:17076567

  9. Quantitative ethnographic study of physician workflow and interactions with electronic health record systems

    PubMed Central

    Asan, Onur; Chiou, Erin; Montague, Enid

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between primary care physicians’ interactions with health information technology and primary care workflow. Clinical encounters were recorded with high-resolution video cameras to capture physicians’ workflow and interaction with two objects of interest, the electronic health record (EHR) system, and their patient. To analyze the data, a coding scheme was developed based on a validated list of primary care tasks to define the presence or absence of a task, the time spent on each task, and the sequence of tasks. Results revealed divergent workflows and significant differences between physicians’ EHR use surrounding common workflow tasks: gathering information, documenting information, and recommend/discuss treatment options. These differences suggest impacts of EHR use on primary care workflow, and capture types of workflows that can be used to inform future studies with larger sample sizes for more effective designs of EHR systems in primary care clinics. Future research on this topic and design strategies for effective health information technology in primary care are discussed. PMID:26279597

  10. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  11. An ethnographic study of nursing home culture to define organizational realities of culture change.

    PubMed

    Deutschman, Marian T

    2005-01-01

    The current system of delivery of nursing home care is costly both in dollars and in human terms. Culture change may provide solutions to both issues. Culture change has a different meaning for different organizations depending on where they are in the continuum of change. Detailed observation of staff members "in action" in three long-term care facilities over a period of several months was supplemented by formal and informal interviews of organization members to gain an understanding of the culture of the nursing home organization. Four three-hour observations in each of three facilities, representing privately-held and not-for-profit organizations in urban, suburban, and rural locations yielded insights into the routine, recruitment, training, teamwork, activities, leadership, role-modeling, mentoring, staff and resident satisfaction, weekend staffing and activities, bureaucratic structure, and sharing of best practices. Discussion of each of these issues may provide a starting point for all those facilities that are contemplating significant culture change. If the objective is to have facilities truly embrace a new set of values, then the change begins with the owners and administrators of nursing homes who need to focus on building new relationships with all the stakeholders. In-depth interviews of organization members and six chief executive officers in long-term care in the Western New York area culminated the study with the development of a fifty-question survey for decision makers.

  12. The permeable institution: an ethnographic study of three acute psychiatric wards in London.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Alan; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive

    2006-10-01

    In Asylums, Goffman [1961. Asylums. London: Penguin] identified some permeable features of the old mental hospitals but presented them as exceptions to the rule and focused on their impermeable aspects. We argue that this emphasis is no longer valid and offer an alternative ideal type that better represents the reality of everyday life in contemporary 'bricks and mortar' psychiatric institutions. We call this the "permeable institution". The research involved participant observation of between 3 and 4 months and interviews with patients, patient advocates and staff on 3 psychiatric wards. Evidence for permeability includes that ward membership is temporary and changes rapidly (patients tend to have very short stays and staff turnover is high); patients maintain contact with the outside world during their stay; and institutional identities are blurred to the point where visitors or new patients can easily mistake staff and patients for one another. Permeability has both positive consequences (e.g., reduced risk of institutionalism), and negative consequences (e.g., unwanted people coming into hospital to cause trouble, and illicit drug use among patients). Staff employ various methods to regulate their ward's permeability, within certain parameters. The metaphor of the total/closed institution remains valuable, but it fails to capture the highly permeable nature of the psychiatric institutions we studied. Analysts may therefore find the permeable institution a more helpful reference point or ideal type against which to examine and compare empirical cases. Perhaps most helpful is to conceptualise a continuum of institutional permeability with total and permeable institutions at each extreme.

  13. The media and cancer: education or entertainment? An ethnographic study of European cancer journalists

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Batura, Rekha; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The media plays a vital role in informing the public about new developments in cancer research and influencing cancer policy. This is no easy task, in view of the myriad of trials and wonder drugs that purport to be the ‘magic bullet’. However, misrepresentation can have profound consequences. In this qualitative study, we sought to understand the interaction between the media and cancer through the perspective of European science journalists by defining their attitudes towards current cancer research and challenges faced when reporting science news. A total of 67 respondents took part in this online survey, which was distributed by the European CanCer Organisation (ECCO) to all its media contacts between June and September 2013. Fifty-three per cent had over 20 years experience in reporting science news stories. The respondents utilised a number of media formats, including newsprint, online services, and radio. Fifty per cent ranked public interest as the greatest influence on their selection of cancer research topics, followed by topicality. Respondents were conscious of being fed ambiguous and exaggerated results from trials by the research community. Sixty-five per cent of respondents would appreciate access to a forum of experts willing to provide comment on new research findings. Seventy per cent highlighted the importance of prompt responses from scientists and researchers during correspondence, and the need to have advance warning of new developments (49%). To conclude – coverage of cancer related issues and scientific advances require greater collaboration between the press and cancer healthcare community to provide both credibility and accountability for the health information disseminated. Key areas include a more precise definition of the research context and differentiation of absolute and relative risks, as well as individual and population risks and an informed discussion about the realities and limitations of cancer care and research. PMID

  14. Unplanned admissions and the organisational management of heart failure: a multicentre ethnographic, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Rosemary; Glogowska, Margaret; McLachlan, Sarah; Cramer, Helen; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Rachel; Kadam, Umesh; Lasserson, Daniel; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Heart failure is a common cause of unplanned hospital admissions but there is little evidence on why, despite evidence-based interventions, admissions occur. This study aimed to identify critical points on patient pathways where risk of admission is increased and identify barriers to the implementation of evidence-based interventions. Design Multicentre, longitudinal, patient-led ethnography. Setting National Health Service settings across primary, community and secondary care in three geographical locations in England, UK. Participants 31 patients with severe or difficult to manage heart failure followed for up to 11 months; 9 carers; 55 healthcare professionals. Results Fragmentation of healthcare, inequitable provision of services and poor continuity of care presented barriers to interventions for heart failure. Critical points where a reduction in the risk of current or future admission occurred throughout the pathway. At the beginning some patients did not receive a formal clinical diagnosis, in addition patients lacked information about heart failure, self-care and knowing when to seek help. Some clinicians lacked knowledge about diagnosis and management. Misdiagnoses of symptoms and discontinuity of care resulted in unplanned admissions. Approaching end of life, patients were admitted to hospital when other options including palliative care could have been appropriate. Conclusions Findings illustrate the complexity involved in caring for people with heart failure. Fragmented healthcare and discontinuity of care added complexity and increased the likelihood of suboptimal management and unplanned admissions. Diagnosis and disclosure is a vital first step for the patient in a journey of acceptance and learning to self-care/monitor. The need for clinician education about heart failure and specialist services was acknowledged. Patient education should be seen as an ongoing ‘conversation’ with trusted clinicians and end-of-life planning should be

  15. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  16. Financial Impact of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation on Patients and Families over 2-years: Results from a Multicenter Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Denzen, Ellen M.; Thao, Viengneesee; Hahn, Theresa; Lee, Stephanie J.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Ammi, Monique; Drexler, Rebecca; Flesch, Susan; James, Heather; Omondi, Nancy; Murphy, Elizabeth; Pederson, Kate; Majhail, Navneet S.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a procedure that can significantly influence the socioeconomic wellbeing of patients, caregivers and their families. Among 30 allogeneic HCT recipients and their caregivers enrolled on a pilot study evaluating the feasibility of studying financial impact of HCT, 16 agreed to participate in the long-term phase, completed a baseline questionnaire and received phone interviews at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-HCT. Analyses showed that by 2-years post-HCT, 54% of patients who previously contributed to household earnings had not returned to work and 80% of patients/caregivers reported transplant as having moderate to great impact on household income. However, patients’ level of confidence in their ability to meet household financial obligations increased from baseline to 2-years. A relatively large proportion of patients reported inability to pay for medical care through this time period. Case studies demonstrated patient individual perception of financial impact of HCT varies considerably, regardless of actual income. We demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a study to evaluate financial impact of allogeneic HCT through 2-years post-transplantation. Some patients/caregivers continue to experience significant long-term financial burden after this procedure. Our study lays the foundation for a larger evaluation of patient/caregiver financial burden associated with HCT. PMID:27088381

  17. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  18. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2-Year-Olds: A Study of Community Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsello, Christina M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research studies have demonstrated that experienced clinicians using standardized assessment measures can make a reliable diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children under age 3. Limited data are available regarding the sensitivity and specificity of these measures in community settings. The aims of this…

  19. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  20. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  1. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  2. Re-defining one's occupational self 2 years after breast cancer: a case study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Margaret*, a 56 year-old Caucasian Stage III breast cancer survivor, participated in a 5 week occupational therapy pilot program, called Take Action. This program was designed for breast cancer survivors who self-reported changes in cognitive function following completion of chemotherapy. The goals of the program were to improve participants' knowledge and use of strategies to enhance occupational performance and to improve satisfaction and performance of meaningful daily activities or occupations. Through a client-centered and evidence-based approach, this case study highlights the importance of incorporating the survivors' sense of self into an occupation-based intervention. Occupational therapists play an important role in facilitating exploration of sense of self in the survivorship phase of care to support occupational performance in self care, productivity, work, leisure and social participation. This case study highlights the important work of redefining oneself in the survivorship phase of care. (*denotes name change). PMID:24004739

  3. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  4. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  5. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  6. Anaphylaxis in an emergency department: a 2-year study in a tertiary-care hospital.

    PubMed

    Piromrat, Kanika; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Trathong, Sommai

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in the emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital, describe the clinical features and the management of the patients and determine those with mild manifestations. A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2006 using anaphylaxis-related ICD-10 terms. Two different sets of criteria for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis were applied, first the criteria previously accepted by emergency practice, followed by the recent criteria set forth at the 2005 international meeting. Sixty-four patients fulfilled the previous criteria with an average incidence of 52.5 per 100,000 patients per year with a shift towards females in 2006. The most common presentations were cutaneous, followed by respiratory symptoms. Food allergy was the most common cause, especially prawn. After applying the recent criteria, 13 patients (20.4%) were excluded, which reduced the incidence to 42.2 per 100,000 patients per year. Long term follow up is suggested for the possible or mild cases that were re-categorized.

  7. An interactional ethnographic study of the construction of literate practices of science and writing in a university science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sena, Nuno Afonso De Freitas Lopes De

    An interactional ethnographic study informed by a sociocultural perspective was conducted to examine how a professor and students discursively and interactionally shaped the basis for engaging in the work of a community of geologists. Specifically, the study examined the role the Question of the Day, an interactive writing activity in the lecture, in affording students opportunities for learning the literate practices of science and how to incorporate them in thinking critically. A writing-intensive, introductory oceanography course given in the Geological Sciences Department was chosen because the professor designed it to emphasize writing in the discipline and science literacy within a science inquiry framework. The study was conducted in two phases: a pilot in 2002 and the current study in the Spring Quarter of 2003. Grounded in the view that members in a classroom construct a culture, this study explored the daily construction of the literate practices of science and writing. This view of classrooms was informed by four bodies of research: interactional ethnography, sociolinguistics sociology of science and Writing In the Disciplines. Through participant observation, data were collected in the lecture and laboratory settings in the form of field notes, video, interviews, and artifacts to explore issues of science literacy in discourse, social action, and writing. Examination of participation in the Question of the Day interactive writing activity revealed that it played a key role in initiating and supporting a view of science and inquiry. As the activity permitted collaboration, it encouraged students to engage in the social process to critically explore a discourse of science and key practices with and through their writing. In daily interaction, participants were shown to take up social positions as scientist and engage in science inquiry to explore theory, examine data, and articulately reformulate knowledge in making oral and written scientific arguments

  8. Using computer decision support systems in NHS emergency and urgent care: ethnographic study using normalisation process theory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are often proposed as ‘technological fixes’ for problems facing healthcare. They promise to deliver services more quickly and cheaply. Yet research on the implementation of ICTs reveals a litany of delays, compromises and failures. Case studies have established that these technologies are difficult to embed in everyday healthcare. Methods We undertook an ethnographic comparative analysis of a single computer decision support system in three different settings to understand the implementation and everyday use of this technology which is designed to deal with calls to emergency and urgent care services. We examined the deployment of this technology in an established 999 ambulance call-handling service, a new single point of access for urgent care and an established general practice out-of-hours service. We used Normalization Process Theory as a framework to enable systematic cross-case analysis. Results Our data comprise nearly 500 hours of observation, interviews with 64 call-handlers, and stakeholders and documents about the technology and settings. The technology has been implemented and is used distinctively in each setting reflecting important differences between work and contexts. Using Normalisation Process Theory we show how the work (collective action) of implementing the system and maintaining its routine use was enabled by a range of actors who established coherence for the technology, secured buy-in (cognitive participation) and engaged in on-going appraisal and adjustment (reflexive monitoring). Conclusions Huge effort was expended and continues to be required to implement and keep this technology in use. This innovation must be understood both as a computer technology and as a set of practices related to that technology, kept in place by a network of actors in particular contexts. While technologies can be ‘made to work’ in different settings, successful implementation has been

  9. An ethnographic study of Latino preschool children's oral health in rural California: Intersections among family, community, provider and regulatory sectors

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C; Horton, Sarah B

    2008-01-01

    Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or contexts of care that play central roles in creating or sustaining low income, rural children's poor oral health status. The study community of around 9,000 people, predominantly of Mexican-American origin, was located in California's agricultural Central Valley. Observations in homes, community facilities, and dental offices within the region were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 30 key informants (such as dental professionals, health educators, child welfare agents, clinic administrators and regulatory agents) and 47 primary caregivers (mothers) of children at least one of whom was under 6 years of age. Results Caregivers did not always recognize visible signs of caries among their children, nor respond quickly unless children also complained of pain. Fluctuating seasonal eligibility for public health insurance intersected with limited community infrastructure and civic amenities, including lack of public transportation, to create difficulties in access to care. The non-fluoridated municipal water supply is not widely consumed because of fears about pesticide pollution. If the dentist brought children into the clinic for multiple visits, this caused the accompanying parent hardship and occasionally resulted in the loss of his or her job. Few general dentists had received specific training in how to handle young patients. Children's dental fear and poor provider-parent communication were exacerbated by a scarcity of dentists willing to serve rural low-income populations

  10. Sustained efficacy of risedronate in men with primary and secondary osteoporosis: results of a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Johann D; Farahmand, Parvis; Faber, Herbert; Dorst, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily relative to control in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis over 2 years. Osteoporosis is a common condition in men that can have serious clinical consequences. In an earlier interim report, we found that 1 year of risedronate therapy resulted in significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD) and a significant reduction in vertebral fractures compared to control in men with osteoporosis. We conducted an open-label, prospective, match-control trial on men with primary or secondary osteoporosis in a single center, outpatient setting. Men with primary or secondary osteoporosis, as defined by a baseline lumbar spine BMD T-score < or = -2.5 and a baseline femoral neck BMD T-score < or = 2.0, were eligible for this study. Patients who had been treated with bisphosphonates or fluoride within the last 12 months were excluded. A total of 316 men were randomized to risedronate (n = 158) or control (n = 158). Patients were stratified by the presence of prevalent vertebral fractures at baseline and case by case allocated to either daily treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily plus calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU) or to a control group (daily alfacalcidol (1 microg) plus calcium (500 mg) for those with prevalent vertebral fractures; daily vitamin D (800 IU) plus calcium (1,200 mg) for those without previous vertebral fractures). Primary study end points were identified prior to study initiation as the incidence of new vertebral fractures and changes in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Other end points included incidence of nonvertebral fractures and change in body height and back pain. Compared to control, the incidence of new vertebral fractures was significantly reduced in the risedronate 5 mg daily group at 2 years [14/152 (9.2%) for risedronate vs. 35/148 (23.6%) for control (61% risk reduction; P = 0.0026)]. Treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily

  11. An ethnographic study of HIV-related risk practices among Glasgow rent boys and their clients: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M; McKeganey, N; Barnard, M

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides an early report of a continuing ethnographic study of male prostitution in Glasgow. Pilot work indicates that rent boy activity may be of considerable importance for the spread of HIV infection. Although there is little evidence of an association between rent boy activity and injecting drug use, rent boys may well be implicated in epidemic spread because many (but not all) of them report unsafe sexual practices. Some boys reported that they engaged in unprotected anal sex both actively (insertor) and passively (insertee). Although the majority of the boys' clients were covert bisexuals--married men seeking occasional, anonymous, male sexual contact--a substantial minority of clients were gay-identified. PMID:2083256

  12. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%–47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1–2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. Methods This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM−CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM−CWP− (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Results Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM−CWP− and nine became FM−CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM−CWP− and eight from FM−CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. Conclusion The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience

  13. Effect of exacerbations on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, M; Ferrer, M; Pont, A; Zalacain, R; Alvarez-Sala, J; Masa, F; Verea, H; Murio, C; Ros, F; Vidal, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to evaluate exacerbations and their impact on the health related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A 2 year follow up study was performed in 336 patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 66 (8.2) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 33 (8)% predicted. Spirometric tests, questions regarding exacerbations of COPD, and HRQL measurements (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and SF-12 Health Survey) were conducted at 6 month intervals. Results: A total of 1015 exacerbations were recorded, and 103 (30.7%) patients required at least one hospital admission during the study. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and season of assessment, frequent exacerbations had a negative effect on HRQL in patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 35–50% predicted); the change in SGRQ total score of moderate patients with ⩾3 exacerbations was almost two points per year greater (worse) than those with <3 exacerbations during the follow up (p = 0.042). For patients with severe COPD (FEV1 <35% predicted) exacerbations had no effect on HRQL. The change in SGRQ total score of patients admitted to hospital was almost 2 points per year greater (worse) than patients not admitted, but this effect failed to show statistical significance in any severity group. There was a significant and independent seasonal effect on HRQL since SGRQ total scores were, on average, 3 points better in measurements performed in spring/summer than in those measured in the winter (p<0.001). Conclusions: Frequent exacerbations significantly impair HRQL of patients with moderate COPD. A significant and independent effect of seasonality was also observed. PMID:15115864

  14. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  15. Parental height and child growth from birth to 2 years in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    PubMed

    Garza, Cutberto; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    Linear growth from birth to 2 years of children enrolled in the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was similar despite substantial parental height differences among the six study sites. Within-site variability in child length attributable to parental height was estimated by repeated measures analysis of variance using generalized linear models. This approach was also used to examine relationships among selected traits (e.g. breastfeeding duration and child morbidity) and linear growth between 6 and 24 months of age. Differences in intergenerational adult heights were evaluated within sites by comparing mid-parental heights (average of the mother's and father's heights) to the children's predicted adult height. Mid-parental height consistently accounted for greater proportions of observed variability in attained child length than did either paternal or maternal height alone. The proportion of variability explained by mid-parental height ranged from 11% in Ghana to 21% in India. The average proportion of between-child variability accounted for by mid-parental height was 16% and the analogous within-child estimate was 6%. In the Norwegian and US samples, no significant differences were observed between mid-parental and children's predicted adult heights. For the other sites, predicted adult heights exceeded mid-parental heights by 6.2-7.8 cm. To the extent that adult height is predicted by height at age 2 years, these results support the expectation that significant community-wide advances in stature are attainable within one generation when care and nutrition approximate international recommendations, notwithstanding adverse conditions likely experienced by the previous generation.

  16. The effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology: a report of a 2 year randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, Raimo; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Pykäläinen, Aila

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology in children in the early mixed dentition. The total study group comprised 68 children of both sexes (40 boys and 28 girls) aged 7.6 years [standard deviation (SD) 0.3]. The children, who had a Class II tendency in occlusion and moderate crowding of the dental arches, were randomly divided into two groups of equal size, matched according to gender. In the headgear (HG) group, treatment was initiated immediately. The mean treatment time was 16 months. In the second group, which served as the control, only interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. The records, which included dental casts and lateral cephalograms, were obtained after follow-up periods of 1 and 2 years. The lengths and the widths of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches were significantly increased in the HG group after the 2 year follow-up period. The mean increase in lower arch length and width was 2.4 mm (SD 1.7) and 2.2 mm (SD 1.2), respectively. On average, the space gain in the lower arch was half that of the upper arch. No significant changes were found in the arch dimensions of the control group. Maxillary growth restraint and labial tilting of the incisors were the most significant cephalometric findings in the HG group when compared with the controls. The use of headgear in the early mixed dentition is effective in the treatment of moderate crowding. It is noteworthy that significant space gain in the dimensions of the lower arch can be achieved by headgear application to the upper first molars.

  17. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  18. 'Western Union daddies' and their quest for authenticity: an ethnographic study of the Dominican gay sex tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research among two categories of male sex workers in the Dominican Republic in order to describe the relationships between gay male tourists and the Dominican men they hire on their trips to the Caribbean. Drawing on both qualitative interview data and quantitative surveys, the discussion examines the usefulness of theories of 'authenticity,' as they have been applied in the analysis of tourist practices more generally, in accounting for the behaviors and practices of male sex workers and their foreign gay clients. While the flow of international remittances from 'Western Union daddies' to their Dominican 'boys' creates a continuous reminder of the utilitarian nature of the exchange, both sex workers and clients are motivated to camouflage this instrumentality in their construction of a more 'authentic,' fulfilling relationship. The article examines the consequences of this ambivalent negotiation for the emotional and economic organization of gay male sex tourism in the Caribbean. PMID:18019077

  19. 'Western Union daddies' and their quest for authenticity: an ethnographic study of the Dominican gay sex tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research among two categories of male sex workers in the Dominican Republic in order to describe the relationships between gay male tourists and the Dominican men they hire on their trips to the Caribbean. Drawing on both qualitative interview data and quantitative surveys, the discussion examines the usefulness of theories of 'authenticity,' as they have been applied in the analysis of tourist practices more generally, in accounting for the behaviors and practices of male sex workers and their foreign gay clients. While the flow of international remittances from 'Western Union daddies' to their Dominican 'boys' creates a continuous reminder of the utilitarian nature of the exchange, both sex workers and clients are motivated to camouflage this instrumentality in their construction of a more 'authentic,' fulfilling relationship. The article examines the consequences of this ambivalent negotiation for the emotional and economic organization of gay male sex tourism in the Caribbean.

  20. The Ethnographer as Minister: Ethnographic Research in Ministry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Margaret Ann; Seymour, Jack L.

    1996-01-01

    Articulates an ethical and theological basis for ethnographic research in faith communities. Interviews with nine ethnographers reveal that both research and researcher are changed by the research act. Argues that ethnography is an opportunity for ministry that is empowering and educational. (MJP)

  1. Sociocultural facilitators and barriers to condom use during anal sex among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou, China: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Haochu; Lau, Joseph T F; Holroyd, Eleanor; Yi, Huso

    2010-12-01

    This ethnographic study explored how cultural belief systems shaped sexual risk practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangzhou, China. A specific focus was on how these men's sexual practices varied across sexual venues and among different partners in order to better understand sociocultural facilitators and barriers to condom use in the Guangzhou community. Qualitative data were obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews with MSM and ethnographic observations in MSM sexual venues in the city. The thematic analysis focused specifically on the accounts of unprotected sex occasions. We found that an erotic idea of "rouyu" (desire of physical flesh) embedded in a subculture of MSM and a metaphor for condom use as being inferior and promoting distance posed a considerable barrier to condom use among these MSM. Some men reported gaining a positive self-concept related to same-sex identity through unprotected sex. These MSM's subjective evaluations of HIV risk were closely tied to the perceived characteristics of sex partners and sexual venues. We conclude by advocating specific sociocultural interventions in emerging risk venues, such as saunas/bathhouses, to better meet the needs of the MSM community in Guangzhou.

  2. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  3. Implementing a Critically Quasi-Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the methodological approach of a study designed to address some fundamental questions relating to formative assessment. The paper reports on the use of a critically quasi-ethnographic approach and describes the practicalities of adopting such an approach. The validity of the study is also considered, reflecting on…

  4. Ethnographic Knowledge for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2010-01-01

    The policy brief "Ethnographic Knowledge for Early Childhood" details the contributions of current ethnographic research in the area of early childhood education. The brief's main purpose is to demonstrate how ethnography (as a methodology) helps us better understand the context of early childhood programs, the types of settings and resources…

  5. Discourse Analysis in Ethnographic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contribution of ethnographic research to discourse analysis, focusing on discourse practices as a reflection of cultural context; educational applications and the discontinuity issue; literacy as a focus of discourse-oriented ethnographic research; and implications for applied linguistics. A 9-citation annotated and a 50-citation…

  6. Ethnographic Inquiry into Second Language Acquisition and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann; Ulichny, Polly

    A discussion of ethnographic research methods in language learning research focuses on what is involved in good descriptive and analytic ethnographic research and the value of the approach in the study of English as a second language (ESL). A basic definition of ethnography is offered, some key research principles are identified, and the…

  7. Acute Chikungunya and persistent musculoskeletal pain following the 2006 Indian epidemic: a 2-year prospective rural community study.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A; Anuradha, V; Ghorpade, R; Saluja, M

    2012-05-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) data from population studies are sparse. During the 2006 epidemic, 509 clinical cases (43% attack rate) were identified in a village survey (West India); laboratory investigations demonstrated normal blood cell counts, elevated acute-phase reactants [erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and excluded malaria and dengue. Acute CHIKV was characterized by high fever, severe peripheral polyarthralgias, axial myalgias and intense fatigue in over 90% of cases; skin rash (34%) and headache (19%) were uncommon. There were 49% and 62% of survey cases seropositive for IgM (rapid assay) and IgG (immunofluorescence) anti-CHIKV antibodies, respectively. Sixty-five percent of cases recovered within 4 weeks. None of the cases died. Of the population, 4·1% and 1·6% suffered from persistent rheumatic pains, predominantly non-specific, at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Chronic inflammatory arthritis was uncommon (0·3% at 1 year) although serum IL-6 often remained elevated in chronic cases. A larger population study is required to describe post-CHIKV rheumatism and its prognosis.

  8. From the teachers' eyes: An ethnographic-case study on developing models of Informal Formative Assessments (IFA) and understanding the challenges to effective implementation in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, Asli

    The emphasis on socio-cultural theories of learning has required the understanding of multi-dimensional, dynamic and social nature of acquiring the scientific knowledge and practices. Recent policy documents suggest a focus on formative and dynamic assessment practices that will help understand and improve the complex nature of scientific learning in classrooms. This study focuses on teachers' use of "Informal Formative Assessments (IFA)" aimed at improving students' learning and teachers' frequent recognition of students' learning process. The study was designed as an ethnographic case study of four middle school teachers and their students at a local charter school. The data of the study included (a) teachers' responses to history of teaching questionnaire (b) video and audio records of teachers' assessment practices during two different scientific projects (c) video and audio records of ethnographic interviews with teachers during their reflections on their practices, and (d) field notes taken by the researcher to understand the assessment culture of the school. The analytical tools from sociolinguistics (e.g., transcripts and event maps) were prepared and discourse analysis based in an ethnographic perspective was used to analyze the data. Moreover, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) was also introduced as an alternative data analysis framework for understanding the role of division of labor among the elements of the community on the challenges and the outcomes of IFA practices. The findings from the analysis of the classroom discourse showed three different types of IFA cycles: connected, non-connected, and repeating. The analysis of the teachers' reflections showed that the effectiveness of these cycles did not only depend on whether the cycles were connected, but also on other variables such as the phase of the lessons and student's identities and abilities. Teachers' reflections during researcher-teacher meetings on the concept and the aims of IFA

  9. Exploring Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Newly Diagnosed HIV Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haochu; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is a major pathway towards secondary HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). We explored the socio-cultural environment and individual beliefs and experiences conducive to UAI in the context of Southern China. Methods We employed an ethnographic approach utilizing a socio-ecological framework to conduct repeated in-depth interviews with thirty one newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM as well as participant observations in Shenzhen based healthcare settings, MSM venues and NGO offices. Results Some men (6/31) reported continuing to practice UAI after an initial diagnosis of being HIV positive. For MSM who had existing lovers or stable partners, the fear of losing partners in a context of non-serostatus disclosure was testified to be a major concern. MSM with casual partners reported that anonymous sexual encounters and moral judgments played a significant role in their sexual risk behaviors. Simultaneously, self-reported negative emotional and psychological status, perception and idiosyncratic risk interpretation, as well as substance abuse informed the intrapersonal context for UAI. Conclusion UAI among these HIV positive MSM was embedded in an intrapersonal context, related to partner type, shaped by anonymous sexual encounters, psychological status, and moral judgments. It is important that prevention and intervention for secondary HIV transmission among newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM in China take into account these contextual factors. PMID:26461258

  10. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration. PMID:23640732

  11. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  12. Associations between weather conditions and clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a 2-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Burdorf, Alex; Rozendaal, Rianne M; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bos, Pieter K; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether there is an association between ambient weather conditions and patients' clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The design was a cohort study with a 2-year follow-up and 3-monthly measurements and prospectively collected data on weather variables. The study population consisted of 222 primary care patients with hip OA. Weather variables included temperature, wind speed, total amount of sun hours, precipitation, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain and hip disability as measured with the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function subscales. Associations between hip pain and hip disability and the weather variables were assessed using crude and multivariate adjusted linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements. On the day of questionnaire completion, mean relative humidity was associated with WOMAC pain (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.2; P=.02). Relative humidity contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC pain score. Mean barometric pressure was associated with WOMAC function (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.1; P=.02). Barometric pressure contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC function score. The other weather variables were not associated with the WOMAC pain or function score. Our results support the general opinion of OA patients that barometric pressure and relative humidity influence perceived OA symptoms. However, the contribution of these weather variables (< or = 1%) to the severity of OA symptoms is not considered to be clinically relevant.

  13. A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis of Support Services in Distance Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuquero, Jean Marie

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilized a meta-ethnographic approach to synthesize findings of five dissertations that focused on distance learning support services. The history of ethnographical studies stemmed from an anthropological background. Researchers have applied ethnographical approaches to examine and document various phenomena. This…

  14. Effects of galantamine in a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Klaus; Baseman, Alan S; Nye, Jeffrey S; Brashear, H Robert; Han, John; Sano, Mary; Davis, Bonnie; Richards, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can produce mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients, but their influence on long-term survival is not well established. This study was designed to assess patient survival and drug efficacy following a 2-year galantamine treatment in patients with mild to moderately severe AD. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind study, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive galantamine or placebo. One primary end point was safety; mortality was assessed. An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board monitored mortality for the total deaths reaching prespecified numbers, using a time-to-event method and a Cox-regression model. The primary efficacy end point was cognitive change from baseline to month 24, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyzed using intent-to-treat analysis with the ‘last observation carried forward’ approach, in an analysis of covariance model. Results In all, 1,024 galantamine- and 1,021 placebo-treated patients received study drug, with mean age ~73 years, and mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline MMSE score of 19 (4.08). A total of 32% of patients (661/2,045) completed the study, 27% (554/2,045) withdrew, and 41% (830/2,045) did not complete the study and were discontinued due to a Data Safety Monitoring Board-recommended early study termination. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the galantamine group versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] =0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37; 0.89) (P=0.011). Cognitive impairment, based on the mean (SD) change in MMSE scores from baseline to month 24, significantly worsened in the placebo (−2.14 [4.34]) compared with the galantamine group (−1.41 [4.05]) (P<0.001). Functional impairment, based on mean (SD) change in the Disability Assessment in Dementia score (secondary end point), at month 24 significantly worsened in the placebo (−10.81 [18

  15. Minimally Invasive Periodontal Treatment Using the Er,Cr: YSGG Laser. A 2-year Retrospective Preliminary Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Bret; Sung, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase, Irvine, CA) to treat moderate to advanced periodontal disease is presented as an alternative to conventional therapies. To date, there are few short- or long-term studies to demonstrate the effects of this laser in treating and maintaining periodontal health. Electronic clinical records from 16 patients – total of 126 teeth, with pocket depths ranging from 4 mm to 9 mm – were treated with the same protocol using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean baseline probing depths (PD) were 5 mm and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were 5 mm in the 4 - 6 mm pretreated laser group. The mean baseline probing depths were 7.5 and 7.6 mm for PD and CAL respectfully in the 7 – 9 mm pretreatment laser group. At the 2 year mark, the average PD was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 ± 1.2 mm. mean CAL was 3.1 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 ± 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group with an overall reduction of 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. At one and two years, both groups remained stable with PD comparable to the three-month gains. The CAL measurements at one and two years were also comparable to the three-month gains. PMID:22615717

  16. Don't let the suffering make you fade away: an ethnographic study of resilience among survivors of genocide-rape in southern Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Zraly, Maggie; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia

    2010-05-01

    Rape has been used in contemporary armed conflicts to inflict physical, psychological, cultural and social damage. In endeavoring to address the psychological damage of collective violence, some researchers and global health practitioners are turning toward post-conflict mental health promotion approaches that centrally feature resilience. Though previous findings from resilience and coping research are robust, few studies have actually investigated resilience among genocide-rape survivors in cultural context in non-Western settings. This paper presents ethnographic data gathered over 14 months (September 2005 to November 2006) in southern Rwanda on resilience among genocide-rape survivors who were members of two women's genocide survivor associations. Study methods included a content analysis of a stratified purposive sample of 44 semi-structured interviews, as well as participant-, and non-participant-observation. Resilience among genocide-rape survivors in this context was found to be shaped by the cultural-linguistic specific concepts of kwihangana (withstanding), kwongera kubaho (living again), and gukomeza ubuzima (continuing life/health), and comprised of multiple sociocultural processes that enabled ongoing social connection with like others in order to make meaning, establish normalcy, and endure suffering in daily life. The results of this research show that the process of resilience among genocide-rape survivors was the same regardless of whether genocide survivor association membership was organized around the identity of genocide-rape survivorship or the identity of widowhood. However, the genocide-rape survivors' association members were more involved with directing resilience specifically toward addressing problems associated with genocide-rape compared to the members of the genocide widows' association. The findings from this research suggest that ethnographic methods can be employed to support resilience-based post-conflict mental health promotion

  17. A Meta-Ethnographic Synthesis of Support Services for Adult Learners in Distance Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuquero, Jean M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study utilized Noblit and Hare's (1988) meta-ethnographic approach to synthesize findings of five dissertations that focused on distance learning support services for adult learners. Noblit and Hare's (1988) meta-ethnographic approach consists of seven phases. Each meta-ethnographic phase guided the identification process…

  18. Biologic resurfacing of the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint: case studies with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A; Troiano, Michael; Schoenhaus, Harold

    2009-10-01

    The goal of biologic resurfacing is to provide a smooth joint surface with a low coefficient of friction, which allows the joint to function with near normal biomechanics, as well as provide intermittent pressure, to the subchondral and cancellous bone. This unique combination often results in the formation of a "neocartilage-like" structure that can reduce pain and restore biomechanics. As well as giving a brief history of cutis arthroplasty, this article describes cases in which the ankle and first metatarsophalangeal joint underwent biologic resurfacing, with a 2-year postoperative follow up.

  19. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still have ...

  20. Quality of life after laparoscopic gastric banding: Prospective study (152 cases) with a follow-up of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Champault, Axèle; Duwat, Olivier; Polliand, Claude; Rizk, Nabil; Champault, Gérard G

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate influence of laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with morbid obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a popular bariatric operation in Europe. The objectives of surgical therapy in patients with morbid obesity are reduction of body weight, and a positive influence on the obesity-related comorbidity as well the concomitant psychologic and social restrictions of these patients. In a prospective clinical trial, development of the individual patient QOL was analyzed, after LGB in patients with morbid obesity. From October 1999 to January 2001, 152 patients [119 women, 33 men, mean age 38.4 y (range 24 to 62), mean body mass index 44.3 (range 38 to 63)] underwent evaluation for LGB according the following protocol: history of obesity; concise counseling of patients and relative on nonsurgical treatment alternatives, risk of surgery, psychologic testing, questionnaire for eating habits, necessity of lifestyle change after surgery; medical evaluation including endocrinologic and nutritionist work-up, upper GI endoscopy, evaluation of QOL using the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Decision for surgery was a multidisciplinary consensus. This group was follow-up at least 2 years, focusing on weight loss and QOL. Mean operative time was 82 minutes; mean hospital stay was 2.3 days and the mean follow-up period was 34 months. The BMI dropped from 44.3 to 29.6 kg/m and all comorbid conditions improved markedly: diabetes melitus resolved in 71% of the patients, hypertension in 33%, and sleep apnea in 90%. However, 26 patients (17%) had late complications requiring reoperation. Preoperative global GIQLI score was 95 (range 56 to 140), significant different of the healthy volunteers score (120) (70 to 140) P < 0.001. Correlated with weight loss (percentage loss of overweight and BMI), the global score of the group increased to 100 at 3 months, 104 at 6, 111 at 1 year to reach 119 at 2 years which is no

  1. Establishing a faith-based organisation nursing school within a national primary health care programme in rural Tanzania: an auto-ethnographic case study

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. Design This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Results Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1) Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public–private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2) Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3) Managing the unknown and 4) managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5) handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6) the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. Conclusions This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1) Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2) Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve themselves; 3

  2. Longitudinal 2 years field study of conventional vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in layer hens.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Miriam; Pöppel, Manfred; Fröhlich, Andreas; Breithaupt, Angele; Teifke, Jens; Blohm, Ulrike; Mettenleiter, Thomas; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm

    2010-10-01

    A licensed, inactivated vaccine based on a low pathogenic avian influenza virus strain (H5N2) was evaluated in layer hens kept under field conditions during a 2-year period. Vaccine efficacy was investigated by specific antibodies and by challenge-contact experiments using highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) H5N1. Basic immunization with two applications induced clinical protection. Virus excretion by vaccinated hens was significantly reduced compared to non-vaccinated controls; transmission to non-vaccinated and vaccinated contact birds was not fully interrupted. Vaccination efficacy is influenced by several factors including antigenic relatedness between vaccine and field strains, but also by species, age and type of commercial uses of the host. Limitations and risks of HPAIV vaccination as silent spread of HPAIV and emergence of escape mutants must be considered a priori and appropriate corrective measures have to be installed. PMID:20727963

  3. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  4. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  5. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  6. P-Nitrobenzoic acid alpha2u nephropathy in 13-week studies is not associated with renal carcinogenesis in 2-year feed studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, K D; Dunnick, J; Horton, J; Greenwell, A; Eldridge, S R; Elwell, M; Sills, R C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the renal toxicity and carcinogenicity of p-nitrobenzoic acid in F344 rats. Dose levels in 13-week and 2-year studies ranged from 630-10,000 ppm and 1,250-5,000 ppm, respectively. At 13 weeks, renal lesions included minimal to mild hyaline droplet accumulation in male rats and karyomegaly in male and female rats. At 2 years, renal lesions included proximal tubule epithelial cell hyperplasia in male rats and oncocytic hyperplasia in high-dose male and female rats, and a decreased severity of nephropathy in males and females. The hvaline droplets in renal tubular epithelial cells of male rats at 13 weeks were morphologically similar to those described in alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Using immunohistochemical methods, alpha2u-globulin accumulation was associated with the hyaline droplets. In addition, at 13 weeks, cell proliferation as detected by PCNA immunohistochemistry was significantly increased in males exposed to 5,000 and 10,000 ppm when compared to controls. Cytotoxicity associated with alpha2U-globulin nephropathy such as single-cell necrosis of the P2 segment epithelium or accumulation of granular casts in the outer medulla did not occur in the 13-week study. In addition, chronic treatment related nephrotoxic lesions attributed to accumulation of alpha2u-globulin such as linear foci of mineralization within the renal papilla, hyperplasia of the renal pelvis urothelium and kidney tumors were not observed. Although there was histologic evidence of alpha2u-globulin accumulation in male rats at 13 weeks, the minimal severity of nephropathy suggests that the degree of cytotoxicity was below the threshold, which would contribute to the development of renal tumors at 2 years.

  7. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice. PMID:24231365

  8. Examining the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services: an ethnographic study of Nepali drug users in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai-Man

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has shown that Nepali drug users in Hong Kong tend to have a low rate of usage of day-care and residential rehabilitation services, but a high rate of usage of methadone services. Little is known about the reasons behind such a pattern. Therefore, in this study, a 12-month ethnographic examination has been implemented in three sites, including a day-care center, residential rehabilitation center, and methadone clinic, to explore the experiences of 20 Nepali drug users in their use of drug-related services in Hong Kong and to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the use of drug-related services. The result shows that the reason for this pattern of service use is related to the approach of the services and the cultural perception of the service providers about the service users. The day-care and residential rehabilitation services emphasize an integrated approach, but the staff tend to overlook the heterogeneity of their clients, for example, the differences in caste and sex, and fail to provide suitable services to them, whereas the methadone service follows a biomedical model, which seldom addresses the social characteristics of the service users, which in turn minimizes the opportunity for misunderstandings between the staff and the clients. This research shows that ethnicity is a significant factor in drug treatment and that culture-specific treatment that takes into consideration the treatment approach and the heterogeneity of the clients is strongly needed. PMID:25114609

  9. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice.

  10. The impact of cognitive reserve in the outcome of first-episode psychoses: 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Amoretti, S; Bernardo, M; Bonnin, C M; Bioque, M; Cabrera, B; Mezquida, G; Solé, B; Vieta, E; Torrent, C

    2016-10-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) suggests that the premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ), years of education and leisure activities provide more efficient cognitive networks and therefore allow a better management of some conditions associated to cognitive impairment. Fifty-two DSM-IV diagnosed FEP subjects were matched with 41 healthy controls by age, gender and parental socio-economic status. All subjects were assessed clinically, neuropsychologically and functionally at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. To assess CR at baseline, three proxies have been integrated: premorbid IQ, years of education-occupation and leisure activities. Higher CR was associated with better cognitive, functional and clinical outcomes at baseline. The CR proxy was able to predict working memory, attention, executive functioning, verbal memory and global composite cognitive score accounting for 48.9%, 19.1%, 16.9%, 10.8% and 14.9% respectively of the variance at two-year follow-up. CR was also significantly predictive of PANSS negative scale score (12.5%), FAST global score (13.4%) and GAF (13%) at two-year follow-up. In addition, CR behaved as a mediator of working memory (B=4.123) and executive function (B=3.298) at baseline and of working memory (B=5.034) at 2-year follow-up. An additional analysis was performed, in order to test whether this mediation could be attributed mainly to the premorbid IQ. We obtained that this measure was not enough by itself to explain this mediation. CR may contribute to neuropsychological and functional outcome. Specific programs addressed to improve cognition and functioning conducted at the early stages of the illness may be helpful in order to prevent cognitive and functional decline.

  11. The impact of cognitive reserve in the outcome of first-episode psychoses: 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Amoretti, S; Bernardo, M; Bonnin, C M; Bioque, M; Cabrera, B; Mezquida, G; Solé, B; Vieta, E; Torrent, C

    2016-10-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) suggests that the premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ), years of education and leisure activities provide more efficient cognitive networks and therefore allow a better management of some conditions associated to cognitive impairment. Fifty-two DSM-IV diagnosed FEP subjects were matched with 41 healthy controls by age, gender and parental socio-economic status. All subjects were assessed clinically, neuropsychologically and functionally at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. To assess CR at baseline, three proxies have been integrated: premorbid IQ, years of education-occupation and leisure activities. Higher CR was associated with better cognitive, functional and clinical outcomes at baseline. The CR proxy was able to predict working memory, attention, executive functioning, verbal memory and global composite cognitive score accounting for 48.9%, 19.1%, 16.9%, 10.8% and 14.9% respectively of the variance at two-year follow-up. CR was also significantly predictive of PANSS negative scale score (12.5%), FAST global score (13.4%) and GAF (13%) at two-year follow-up. In addition, CR behaved as a mediator of working memory (B=4.123) and executive function (B=3.298) at baseline and of working memory (B=5.034) at 2-year follow-up. An additional analysis was performed, in order to test whether this mediation could be attributed mainly to the premorbid IQ. We obtained that this measure was not enough by itself to explain this mediation. CR may contribute to neuropsychological and functional outcome. Specific programs addressed to improve cognition and functioning conducted at the early stages of the illness may be helpful in order to prevent cognitive and functional decline. PMID:27511320

  12. Family Research: An Ethnographic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Howard F.

    1991-01-01

    An ethnographic approach based on in-depth interviewing, naturalistic and participant observation, narrative description, and contextual interpretation is proposed as a tool for family health care research. The multiple meanings of family, both for research clinicians and for society, are considered. The problem of how a family orientation is incorporated into biomedical' health care is discussed. PMID:21229058

  13. Mobilising Ethnographers Investigating Technologised Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to problematise understandings of the ethnographer's presence in investigating contemporary forms of technologised learning. The ubiquity of new educational technologies raises questions concerning the spaces of education and learning, and challenges, at the same time, the sense of "being there" in terms of the face-to-face…

  14. How to Conduct Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangasubana, Nisaratana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of conducting ethnographic research. Methodology definition and key characteristics are given. The stages of the research process are described including preparation, data gathering and recording, and analysis. Important issues such as reliability and validity are also discussed.

  15. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as a Support Mechanism for Novel Word Learning: A Training Study with 2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Polišenská, Kamila; Süssová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    A training study examined novel word learning in 2-year-old children and assessed two nonverbal mechanisms, pictures and gestures, which are commonly used as communication support. The aim was to (1) compare these two support mechanisms and measure their effects on expressive word learning and (2) to investigate these effects on word production…

  16. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N = 312…

  18. A retrospective study of radiographic abnormalities in the repositories of 2-year-old Thoroughbred in-training sales in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKOSHI, Daisuke; SENBA, Hiroyuki; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; MAEDA, Masaya; SHIBATA, Ryo; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age. PMID:27330400

  19. Algebra Matters: An Ethnographic Study of Successful African American Male Algebra 1 Students in a Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Alarming statistics reveal that African American male students are encountering long-standing challenges in K-12 mathematics. However, few studies have explored the phenomena associated with African American males and K-12 mathematics education, particularly at the middle school level in the context of an Algebra 1 course of study. The purpose of…

  20. In Search of a Break in the Clouds: An Ethnographic Study of Academic and Student Affairs Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcelus, Victor J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the cultures of the academic and student affairs divisions within one selective residential liberal arts institution. Specifically, the study investigates how faculty and student affairs personnel perceive their own and each other's roles as educators on the campus and how these perceptions influence the potential for…

  1. Research Tactics for Constructing Perceptions of Subject Matter in Organizational Contexts: An Ethnographic Study of Technical Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Marjorie Rush

    2001-01-01

    Describes technical communicators' abilities to learn about software within organizational constraints and resources. Notes that these writers' tactics for learning software included using it themselves, talking to co-workers, studying program specifications, learning from comments on internal reviews, and studying old manuals. Evaluates each…

  2. Permission-Seeking as an Agentive Tool for Transgressive Teaching: An Ethnographic Study of Teachers Organizing for Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.; Gustavson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This study describes how a group of teachers in a US public school developed and used permission-seeking moves as strategic and agentic tools to change their school curriculum and challenge norms of teaching. Although the notion of asking permission is typically considered disempowering in educational contexts, this study demonstrates that certain…

  3. Challenges and Possibilities of Holocaust Education and Critical Citizenship: An Ethnographic Study of a Fifth-Grade Bilingual Class Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Louise B.

    2010-01-01

    This classroom ethnography examines the engagement of fifth-grade children in a year-long study of rights, respect, and responsibility, which culminated in a focused study of tolerance and intolerance organized around literature regarding the Holocaust. A close examination of one teacher's approach to teaching about the Holocaust, the study…

  4. An Ethnographic Case Study of the Administrative Organization, Processes, and Behavior in an Innovative Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittenham, Lee Roy

    The major purposes of this study were to describe and explain, and then to generate grounded theory about the administrative organization, processes, and behavior in an innovative senior high school. The school selected for the study was nationally known for leadership in implementing individualized learning programs compatible with the model of…

  5. Making Sense of Video Games: An Ethnographic Case Study on the Meaning-Making Practices of Asian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Chia Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the growing number of studies on video games, there are still gaps in video game research, especially when it comes to describing the situated (in situ) actions of gameplay. The study explores the locally-produced meaning-making practices of video game players, and analyzes gameplay as it occurs, not as a post hoc, reconstructed event, but…

  6. How Has Recent Curriculum Reform in China Influenced School-Based Teacher Learning? An Ethnographic Study of Two Subject Departments in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jocelyn L. N.

    2012-01-01

    Curriculum reforms with a focus on helping students "learn to learn" are now an established global educational phenomenon. China has been implementing such curriculum reform and this poses challenges to teachers as they need to develop new pedagogical skills and knowledge to deal with new educational demands that arise. This ethnographic study…

  7. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  8. Inherent illnesses and attacks: an ethnographic study of interpretations of childhood Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) in Manhiça, southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood hospitalisation and child mortality in Africa. This study explores local interpretations of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs), focusing on caretakers of children under five in the context of hospital care seeking. Methods The study took place in Manhiça, southern Mozambique and used Focused Ethnographic Study tools (FES) including field exercises and interviews. Results Understandings of terms used to describe ARIs differed between caretakers and hospital staff. Children's sicknesses that hospital staff diagnosed as ARIs were interpreted by caretakers as intermittent "attacks" of xifuva, a permanent, inherent and incurable chest illness. Caretakers thought that it was possible to manage and treat the attacks, which were caused by immediate natural factors such as food or the weather, but not the underlying illness, which was seen as having more indirect and social causes. Explanations of illness could not be neatly separated into pluralistic categories, but were characterised by syncretism, with "lay" and "biomedical" terms and concepts intermingling in practical care-seeking interactions between caretakers and health staff. Conclusions Health promotion should take into account the syncretism involved in explanations of ARIs in the context of practical care seeking for children. In doing so, it should draw upon lay interpretations and terminologies in order to stress the importance of seeking hospital care for all xifuva-type illnesses as well as seeking care for any subsequent attacks of an already diagnosed xifuva. However, this should be undertaken with awareness that the meanings of the terms used in practical care-seeking interactions may change over time. Health communication about ARIs should therefore be ongoing and evidence-based, even if ARIs appear to be well understood. PMID:21752260

  9. An Ethnographic Case Study of Spatio-Temporal Practices Circulating On- and Off-Line in a Distance Learning Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat-Ryan, Katalin Judith

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the spatio-temporal practices of a distance learning class in a graduate institution in the Northeast United States. Guided by a multispatial and temporal perspective, the case study builds on Hine's (2003) and Leander and McKim's (2003) connective ethnography of offline and online research sites, and frames the research…

  10. On the Developmental Journey: An Ethnographic Study of Teacher Identity Development of NESTs and NNESTs in a US MATESOL Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Fen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the discursive process of the negotiation and construction of teacher identity in a US-based Master of Arts for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (MATESOL) program. This study explores how both native-English-speaking (NES) and non-native-English-speaking (NNES) student teachers'…

  11. Instrument-Making as Music-Making: An Ethnographic Study of "Shakuhachi" Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Instrument-making is a powerful way to teach and learn music, especially world music. This case study looks at adult music learners whose engagement in music involves instrument-making and the long lasting practice of music. A case in point is Japanese and North American practitioners of Japanese bamboo flutes, especially the end-blown…

  12. Indigenous and Western Knowledges in Science Education: An Ethnographic Study of Rural and Urban Secondary Schools and Classrooms in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hern, Darren M.

    2010-01-01

    In Kenya, indigenous knowledges related to the natural sciences are not considered in the formal science education of secondary students. Despite the prevalence of studies that examine indigenous knowledges in Kenyan school and community contexts, the perspectives of students and teachers concerning indigenous natural science knowledges and their…

  13. Country Roads Take Me...?: An Ethnographic Case Study of College Pathways among Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine college pathways or college access and success of rural, first-generation students. Most research on college pathways for low- and moderate-income students focuses on those students as a whole or on urban low-socioeconomic status (SES) students. (Caution is in order when generalizing the experiences of…

  14. Bridging the Implementation Gap: An Ethnographic Study of English Teachers' Implementation of the Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of secondary English teachers' perceptions of and implementation of the New English Curriculum Reform in China initiated in 2009. Ethnography and triangulated data collection methods were employed to gather information about three senior secondary English teachers' interpretations of the New Curriculum and their…

  15. Learning and Teaching as Emergent Features of Informal Settings: An Ethnographic Study in an Environmental Action Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Leanna; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2006-01-01

    Around the world, many people concerned with the state of the environment participate in environmental action groups. Much of their learning occurs informally, simply by participating in the everyday, ongoing collective life of the chosen group. Such settings provide unique opportunities for studying how people learn science in complex settings…

  16. A Stranger in Strange Lands: An Ethnographic Study of a College Student Writing in Two Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson

    To discover how one student learned to produce writing in different academic contexts, a study documented a Loyola College (Maryland) student's experiences with writing for a poetry class and a biology class during his sophomore year. The subject was interviewed several times, observed, and his voice taped during "writing aloud" sessions as he…

  17. Achieving Equity through Critical Science Agency: An Ethnographic Study of African American Students in a Health Science Career Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart &…

  18. Diurnal Cortisol Secretion at Home and in Child Care: A Prospective Study of 2-Year-Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Meaney, Michael; Kramer, Michael; Cote, Sylvana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that children may experience disrupted cortisol secretion in child care. The extent to which this is a transient or long-term disruption is not known, as most studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, and age-heterogeneous small sample sizes. This study aims to (a) compare cortisol secretion measured at…

  19. A call for self-reflection as professors engage the issues of science education reform: An ethnographic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licona, Miguel M.

    Science becomes distorted and undemocratic when it is categorized into disciplines that, in turn, perpetuate borders creating conditions of inequality for the general population. Science education reform represents a starting point from which to approach notions of exclusion and inaccessibility. Students not intending to major in science often encounter environments as well as professors that serve to limit their potential and thereby exclude them from greater exposure and participation in the sciences. This qualitative study considers professional practices of professors who hold key positions for the success of science teaching and learning. Through classroom observation, in-depth interviewing and a survey questionnaire, this study sheds fight on the process of science education reform. Participants included six university professors who taught a reformed science course developed under the guidance of a National Science Foundation initiative known as the Collaborative for Excellence in Teacher Preparation. The purpose of this study is to understand the nature of faculty beliefs concerning teaching and learning science for students not intending to major in science, most of whom are elementary education majors. In this study, professors' espoused belief systems were elicited while their mental models that drive behavior were observed in the classroom setting. Incongruencies between theories in practice and theories in use were uncovered and explored. Major implications for who can and cannot learn science within the context of a system that currently serves to pre-select who will succeed are uncovered as a result of this study. The constant comparative method developed by Glaser and Strauss was used to analyze the words of each individual participant as she/he worked to consider the incongruencies in her/his theory and practice (as cited in Maykut & Morehouse, 1994). Self-reflection is identified as key in the process of praxis that will aid professors in their

  20. Achieving equity through critical science agency: An ethnographic study of African American students in a health science career academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haun-Frank, Julie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of a High School Health Science Career Academy to support African American students' science career trajectories. I used three key theoretical tools---critical science agency (Basu, 2007; Calabrese Barton & Tan, 2008), power (Nespor, 1994), and cultural production (Carlone, 2004; Eisenhart & Finkel, 1998) to highlight the intersections between the career trajectory implied by the Academy (its curriculum, classroom activities, and clinical experiences) and the students' pursued career trajectories. Data was collected over five months and included individual student interviews, group interviews, parent and administrator interviews, field notes from a culminating medical course and clinical internship, and Academy recruitment documents. The results of this study suggest that participants pursued a health science career for altruistic purposes and the Academy was a resource they drew upon to do so. However, the meanings of science and science person implied by the Academy hindered the possibility for many participants' to advance their science career trajectories. While the Academy promised to expose students to a variety of high-status health care roles, they were funneled into feminine, entry-level positions. This study adds to previous underrepresentation literature by contextualizing how identity-related factors influence African American students' career attainment.

  1. Improving Quality and Safety of Care Using “Technovigilance”: An Ethnographic Case Study of Secondary Use of Data from an Electronic Prescribing and Decision Support System

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Redwood, Sabi; Leslie, Myles; Minion, Joel; Martin, Graham P; Coleman, Jamie J

    2013-01-01

    Context “Meaningful use” of electronic health records to improve quality of care has remained understudied. We evaluated an approach to improving patients’ safety and quality of care involving the secondary use of data from a hospital electronic prescribing and decision support system (ePDSS). Methods We conducted a case study of a large English acute care hospital with a well-established ePDSS. Our study was based on ethnographic observations of clinical settings (162 hours) and meetings (28 hours), informal conversations with clinical staff, semistructured interviews with ten senior executives, and the collection of relevant documents. Our data analysis was based on the constant comparative method. Findings This hospital's approach to quality and safety could be characterized as “technovigilance.” It involved treating the ePDSS as a warehouse of data on clinical activity and performance. The hospital converted the secondary data into intelligence about the performance of individuals, teams, and clinical services and used this as the basis of action for improvement. Through a combination of rapid audit, feedback to clinical teams, detailed and critical review of apparent omissions in executive-led meetings, a focus on personal professional responsibility for patients’ safety and quality care, and the correction of organizational or systems defects, technovigilance was—based on the hospital's own evidence—highly effective in improving specific indicators. Measures such as the rate of omitted doses of medication showed marked improvement. As do most interventions, however, technovigilance also had unintended consequences. These included the risk of focusing attention on aspects of patient safety made visible by the system at the expense of other, less measurable but nonetheless important, concerns. Conclusions The secondary use of electronic data can be effective for improving specific indicators of care if accompanied by a range of interventions to

  2. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  3. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing: an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Uptake of HIV testing by men remains low in high prevalence settings in many parts of Africa. By focusing on masculinity, this study explores the social context and relations that shape men’s access to HIV testing in Mam-Kiror, Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. Methods From 2009–2010 in-depth interviews were undertaken with 26 men: nine being treated for HIV, eight who had tested but dropped out of treatment, six not tested but who suspected HIV infection and three with other health problems unrelated to HIV. These data were complemented by participant observation. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results There were two main categories of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on ‘reputation’ and the other on ‘respectability’, although some of their ideals overlapped. The different forms of masculine esteem led to different motives for HIV testing. Men positioned HIV testing as a social process understood within the social context and relationships men engaged in rather than an entirely self-determined enterprise. Wives’ inferior power meant that they had less influence on men’s testing compared to friends and work colleagues who discussed frankly HIV risk and testing. Couple testing exposed men’s extra-marital relationships, threatening masculine esteem. The fear to undermine opportunities for sex in the context of competition for partners was a barrier to testing by men. The construction of men as resilient meant that they delayed to admit to problems and seek testing. However, the respectable masculine ideal to fulfil responsibilities and obligations to family was a strong motivator to seeking an HIV test and treatment by men. Conclusion The two main forms of masculine ideals prevailing in Mam-Kiror in Busia led men to have different motives for HIV testing. Reputational masculinity was largely inconsistent with the requirements of couple testing, community outreach testing and the organisation of testing services, discouraging men

  4. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  5. Instructional Faculty and Staff in Public 2-year Colleges. Statistical Analysis Report. 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:93).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    Drawing on data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty, this analysis sought to differentiate instructional faculty and staff at public two-year colleges by age (under 35 vs. 55-64) and by years of experience in the current job (under 10 years vs. 20 or more years). The report examines differences by primary teaching field,…

  6. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  7. Acoustic evidence for the development of gestural coordination in the speech of 2-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Goodell, E W; Studdert-Kennedy, M

    1993-08-01

    Studies of child phonology have often assumed that young children first master a repertoire of phonemes and then build their lexicon by forming combinations of these abstract, contrastive units. However, evidence from children's systematic errors suggests that children first build a repertoire of words as integral sequences of gestures and then gradually differentiate these sequences into their gestural and segmental components. Recently, experimental support for this position has been found in the acoustic records of the speech of 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children, suggesting that even in older children some phonemes have not yet fully segregated as units of gestural organization and control. The present longitudinal study extends this work to younger children (22- and 32-month-olds). Results demonstrate clear differences in the duration and coordination of gestures between children and adults, and a clear shift toward the patterns of adult speakers during roughly the third year of life. Details of the child-adult differences and developmental changes vary from one aspect of an utterance to another. PMID:8377484

  8. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a south China coastal city: comparison with east Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Wai, K M; Tanner, P A; Tam, C W F

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+ concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from our collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO42, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO3- and Ca2+), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed.

  9. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a South China coastal city: comparison with East Asian cities

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Wai; P.A. Tanner; C.W.F. Tam

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from the collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO{sub 3}- and Ca{sup 2+}), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. 36 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a south China coastal city: comparison with east Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Wai, K M; Tanner, P A; Tam, C W F

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+ concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from our collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO42, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO3- and Ca2+), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. PMID:16190210

  11. Changes in Intra-pelvic Obliquity Angle 0–2 Years After Total Hip Arthroplasty and Its Effects on Leg Length Discrepancy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Xian-Long

    2015-01-01

    Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective treatments for phase III and IV hip arthrosis. Lower limb length balancing is one of the determining factors of a successful surgery, particularly in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postoperative change in intra-pelvic obliquity (intra-PO) angle in the coronal plane and its effects on leg length discrepancy (LLD) within 2 years. Methods: A total of 78 patients (70 females, 8 males) were enrolled in this study. All patients were suffering from DDH with varying degrees of LLD. Pelvic plain radiographs were collected before and after the operation. The intra-PO angles were measured 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 years after THA. At the same time, postoperative LLD was measured with blocking test. Results: PO changed significantly in the first year after THA surgery (0 year vs. 0.5 year, P < 0.01; 0.5 year vs. 1 year, P < 0.01), and the changing value of intra-PO angle (ΔPO) slowed down substantially during the first 2 years after THA (0.5 year vs. 0.5–1 year, P < 0.01; 0.5–1 year vs. 1–2 years, P < 0.01). With the change in intra-PO angle, LLD also got narrow within the 1st year (0 year vs. 0.5 year, P < 0.01; 0.5 year vs. 1 year, P < 0.01). Elderly patients had a smaller intra-PO angle reduction (Group A vs. Group B, P = 0.01; Group B vs. Group C, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Intra-PO angle and LLD gap narrowed with time after THA surgery. In particular, elderly patients had smaller change in intra-PO angle. PMID:25963356

  12. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  13. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  14. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  15. Local suffering and the global discourse of mental health and human rights: An ethnographic study of responses to mental illness in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin

  16. A randomized study on migration of the Spectron EF and the Charnley flanged 40 cemented femoral components using radiostereometric analysis at 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose We performed a randomized study to determine the migration patterns of the Spectron EF femoral stem and to compare them with those of the Charnley stem, which is regarded by many as the gold standard for comparison of implants due to its extensive documentation. Patients and methods 150 patients with a mean age of 70 years were randomized, single-blinded, to receive either a cemented Charnley flanged 40 monoblock, stainless steel, vaquasheen surface femoral stem with a 22.2-mm head (n = 30) or a cemented Spectron EF modular, matte, straight, collared, cobalt-chrome femoral stem with a 28-mm femoral head and a roughened proximal third of the stem (n = 120). The patients were followed with repeated radiostereometric analysis for 2 years to assess migration. Results At 2 years, stem retroversion was 2.3° and 0.7° (p < 0.001) and posterior translation was 0.44 mm and 0.17 mm (p = 0.002) for the Charnley group (n = 26) and the Spectron EF group (n = 74), respectively. Subsidence was 0.26 mm for the Charnley and 0.20 mm for the Spectron EF (p = 0.5). Interpretation The Spectron EF femoral stem was more stable than the Charnley flanged 40 stem in our study when evaluated at 2 years. In a report from the Norwegian arthroplasty register, the Spectron EF stem had a higher revision rate due to aseptic loosening beyond 5 years than the Charnley. Initial stability is not invariably related to good long-term results. Our results emphasize the importance of prospective long-term follow-up of prosthetic implants in clinical trials and national registries and a stepwise introduction of implants. PMID:21895504

  17. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  18. Achieving Affective and Behavioral Outcomes in Culture Learning: The Case for Ethnographic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Blair E.

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous research on ethnographic interviews as a method of culture learning in foreign language classes by employing a qualitative case study methodology. Fifty-four university students in a first-year Spanish course worked in pairs to conduct a series of three ethnographic interviews with a native speaker of Spanish.…

  19. Writing and Retelling Multiple Ethnographic Tales of a Soup Kitchen for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dana L.; Creswell, John W.; Olander, Lisa

    An ethnographic study narrated three tales about a soup kitchen for the homeless and the near-homeless. To provide a cultural, ethnographic analysis, and share fieldwork experiences the study began with realist and confessional tales. These two tales emerged from the initial writing and presenting of the soup kitchen ethnography to qualitative…

  20. Co-occurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Dennison-Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the co-occurrence, and predictors of remission, of general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms during 2-year follow-up in survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Patients This prospective cohort study enrolled 520 patients from 13 medical and surgical ICUs in 4 hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-ALI. Measurements and Main Results The outcomes of interest were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety and depression subscales (scores ≥8 indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IESR, scores ≥1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms). Of the 520 enrolled patients, 274 died before 3-month follow-up; 186/196 consenting survivors (95%) completed at least one HADS and IESR assessment during 2-year follow-up, and most completed multiple assessments. Across follow-up time points, the prevalence of supra-threshold general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms ranged from 38–44%, 26–33%, and 22–24%, respectively; more than half of the patients had supra-threshold symptoms in at least one domain during 2-year follow-up. The majority (59%) of survivors with any supra-threshold symptoms were above threshold for 2 or more types of symptoms (i.e., of general anxiety, depression, and/or PTSD). In fact, the most common pattern involved simultaneous general anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms. Most patients with general anxiety, depression, or PTSD symptoms during 2-year follow-up had supra-threshold symptoms at 24-month (last) follow-up. Higher SF-36 physical functioning domain scores at the prior visit were associated with a greater likelihood of remission from general anxiety and PTSD symptoms during follow-up. Conclusions The majority of ALI survivors had clinically significant general anxiety, depressive, or PTSD symptoms, and these symptoms tended to co-occur across

  1. Ethical Challenges in Participant Observation: A Reflection on Ethnographic Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this essay I reflect on the ethical challenges of ethnographic fieldwork I personally experienced in a female gambling study. By assuming a covert research role, I was able to observe natural occurrences of female gambling activities but unable to make peace with disturbing feelings of my research concealment. By making my study overt, I was…

  2. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  3. Ethnographic Film: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module examines concerns that should be addressed when using ethnographic films to explore cross-cultural perspectives. Beginning with a brief discussion of the purpose of ethnographic films, the filmmaker's perspective is discussed, stressing…

  4. Assessing the Impact of Women's Literacies in Bangladesh: An Ethnographic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, B.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the north-west of Bangladesh. It explores conceptual and methodological issues involved in assessing the impact of adult literacy acquisition on social development. The paper compares ethnographic perspectives on literacy within the 'New Literacy Studies', and the conceptual framework provided by the…

  5. The Dani of West Irian. An Ethnographic Companion to the Film "Dead Birds". Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Karl G.

    The purpose of this study guide is to provide students of anthropology with an ethnographic accompaniment to Robert Gardiner's film about the Dani tribesmen, "Dead Birds." The first section offers an ethnographic profile of Dani culture, describing its most important features. These include: 1) their material culture, covering matters like…

  6. Evaluation of psychic change through the application of empirical and clinical techniques for a 2-year treatment: a single case study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Clara M López; Schalayeff, Cristina; Acosta, Silvia R; Vernengo, Pía; Roussos, Andrés J; Lerner, Beatríz Dorfman

    2005-07-01

    Abstract The authors present results obtained by a combination of clinical and empirical methods used in the evaluation of psychic change involving a single case study carried out during 2 years of nonmanualized psychodynamic psychotherapy (Barber & Crits-Christoph, 1993 ; Barber, Foltz, DeRubeis, & Landis, 2002 ). A multidimensional definition of change that includes clinical (psychoanalytic) and empirical perspectives is provided. The authors used material from supervision sessions and clinical meetings to assess the psychodynamic diagnosis and evolution. The following empirical techniques and instruments were used: core conflictual relationship theme (Luborsky & Crits-Christoph, 1990), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (Derogatis, 1983), and Differential Elements for a Psychodynamic Diagnostic (C. M. López Moreno et al., 1998 ). Several markers of psychic change along the therapeutic process were found. The instruments proved to be sensitive to the changes obtained during the psychotherapy. Used together, the instruments allowed an integrated evaluation of the patient's evolution during the treatment.

  7. Do deviant peer associations mediate the contributions of self-esteem to problem behavior during early adolescence? A 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    DuBois, David L; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-06-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth curve modeling and covariance structure analysis, an extension of a model proposed by DuBois et al. (2002) was evaluated for each type of problem behavior. Findings revealed that lower general self-esteem and greater peer orientation in self-esteem each predicted deviant associations with peers and that deviant peer associations, in turn, were associated with higher levels and rates of change in problem behavior. Deviant peer associations mediated the associations of general and peer-oriented self-esteem with levels and rates of change in problem behavior such that direct paths from self-esteem to problem behavior generally were nonsignificant.

  8. Improvement in hematological, visceral, and skeletal manifestations of Gaucher disease type 1 with oral eliglustat tartrate (Genz-112638) treatment: 2-year results of a phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Lukina, Elena; Watman, Nora; Arreguin, Elsa Avila; Dragosky, Marta; Iastrebner, Marcelo; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Phillips, Mici; Pastores, Gregory M.; Kamath, Ravi S.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Kaper, Mathilde; Singh, Tejdip; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Eliglustat tartrate is an investigational oral substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease type 1 that is pharmacologically distinct from intravenous enzyme replacement therapy. Eliglustat tartrate improved clinical manifestations in patients who received 50 or 100 mg twice daily for 1 year during an open-label phase 2 study (Blood. 2010;116(6):893-899). We report further improvements after 2 years of treatment in 20 patients (11 females, 9 males; mean age, 33 years) with baseline splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia and/or anemia. Statistically significant (P < .001) percentage improvements from baseline occurred in platelet count (mean ± SD, 81% ± 56%), hemoglobin level (20% ± 15%), spleen volume (−52% ± 11%), and liver volume (−24% ± 13%). Mean platelet count increased ∼ 50 000/mm3. Mean hemoglobin level increased 2.1 g/dL overall and 3.1 g/dL in 10 patients with baseline anemia. Organ volume reductions were greatest in patients with severe baseline organomegaly. Seventeen (85%) patients met established therapeutic goals for ≥ 3 of the 4 parameters. Lumbar spine bone mineral density increased 7.8% ± 10.6% (P = .01) and T-score 0.6 ± 0.8 (P = .012), with major gains in osteoporotic and osteopenic patients. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment showed that bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells was decreased (8/18 patients) or stable (10/18 patients). No safety-related trends emerged during 2 years of treatment. This multisite, open-label, single-arm phase 2 study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00358150. PMID:20713962

  9. Ethnographic Portraits of Veteran Teachers: Portraits of Survival and Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Rosetta Marantz

    This paper offers a synopsis of the findings of a full-length ethnographic study which dealt with the phenomenon of the strong, veteran teacher who has succeeded in remaining enthusiastic over the course of a 30-year career. Subjects were five secondary school teachers of varied ethnic backgrounds representing a range of disciplines and teaching…

  10. Evolution Education in Policy and Practice: An Ethnographic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution education in the US is conducted unevenly, or in cases is absent. Showing the strength of ethnography as a means of deeper explication in science education, this article explores the interactions of policy and practice in evolution education. Discussing vignettes from a larger ethnographic study, Creationist rationales and practices…

  11. Vignettes of Interviews to Enhance an Ethnographic Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Alice Juel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges of applying an ethnographic approach, combining participant observation and interviews, to a study of organizational change. The exploration is connected to reform changes, as they are constructed in the interaction between managers and teachers, in a Danish Upper Secondary High School. The data material is…

  12. Efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes of combination etanercept and sulfasalazine versus etanercept alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind randomised 2-year study

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Codreanu, C; Fiocco, U; Gaubitz, M; Geusens, P P; Kvien, T K; Pavelka, K; Sambrook, P N; Smolen, J S; Khandker, R; Singh, A; Wajdula, J; Fatenejad, S

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of etanercept and etanercept plus sulfasalazine versus sulfasalazine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite sulfasalazine therapy. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to etanercept (25 mg twice weekly; sulfasalazine was discontinued at baseline), etanercept plus sulfasalazine (unchanged regimen of 2–3 g/day) or sulfasalazine in a double-blind, randomised, 2-year study in adult patients with active RA despite sulfasalazine therapy. Efficacy was assessed using the American College of Rheumatology criteria, disease activity scores (DAS) and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Results: Demographic variables and baseline disease characteristics were comparable among treatment groups; mean DAS 5.1, 5.2 and 5.1 for etanercept (n  =  103), etanercept plus sulfasalazine (n  =  101) and sulfasalazine (n  =  50), respectively. Withdrawal due to lack of efficacy was highest with sulfasalazine (26 (52%) vs 6 (6%) for either etanercept group, p<0.001). Patients receiving etanercept or etanercept plus sulfasalazine had a more rapid initial response, which was sustained at 2 years, than those receiving sulfasalazine: mean DAS 2.8, 2.5 versus 4.5, respectively (p<0.05); ACR 20 response was achieved by 67%, 77% versus 34% of patients, respectively (p<0.01) Overall, PRO followed a similar pattern; a clinically significant improvement in health assessment questionnaire was achieved by 76%, 78% versus 40% of patients, respectively (p<0.01). Commonly reported adverse events occurring in the etanercept groups were injection site reactions and pharyngitis/laryngitis (p<0.01). Conclusion: Etanercept and etanercept plus sulfasalazine are efficacious for the long-term management of patients with RA. The addition of etanercept or substitution with etanercept should be considered as treatment options for patients not adequately responding to sulfasalazine. PMID:18794178

  13. Determinants of “return to work in good health” among workers with back pain who consult in primary care settings: a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Renée; Frémont, Pierre; Rossignol, Michel; Stock, Susan R.; Nouwen, Arie; Larocque, Isabelle; Demers, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have been linked to return to work after a back pain episode, but our understanding of this phenomenon is limited and cross-sectional dichotomous indices of return to work are not valid measures of this construct. To describe the course of “return to work in good health” (RWGH—a composite index of back pain outcome) among workers who consulted in primary care settings for back pain and identify its determinants, a 2-year prospective study was conducted. Subjects (n = 1,007, 68.4%) were workers who consulted in primary care settings of the Quebec City area for a nonspecific back pain. They completed five telephone interviews over 2 years (follow-up = 86%). Analyses linking baseline variables with 2-year outcome were conducted with polytomous logistic regression. The proportion of “success” in RWGH increased from 18% at 6 weeks to 57% at 2 years. In women, persistent pain, pain radiating to extremities, increasing job seniority, not having a unionized job, feeling that the physician did listen carefully and increasing fear-avoidance beliefs towards work and activity were determinants of “failure” in RWGH. In men, decreasing age, cigarette smoking, poor self-reported health status, pain in the thoracic area, previous back surgeries, a non-compensated injury, high pain levels, belief that job is below qualifications, likelihood of losing job, job status, satisfaction with health services and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work were all significant. RWGH among workers with back pain receives multiple influences, especially among men. In both genders, however, fear-avoidance beliefs about work are associated with failure and high self-efficacy is associated with success. PMID:16868783

  14. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  15. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  16. Impact on malaria morbidity of a programme supplying insecticide treated nets in children aged under 2 years in Tanzania: community cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Nathan, Rose; Mukasa, Oscar; Marchant, Tanya; Smith, Tom; Tanner, Marcel; Lengeler, Christian

    2001-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a social marketing programme for distributing nets treated with insecticide on malarial parasitaemia and anaemia in very young children in an area of high malaria transmission. Design Community cross sectional study. Annual, cross sectional data were collected at the beginning of the social marketing campaign (1997) and the subsequent two years. Net ownership and other risk and confounding factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Blood samples were taken from the children to assess prevalence of parasitaemia and haemoglobin levels. Setting 18 villages in the Kilombero and Ulanga districts of southwestern Tanzania. Participants A random sample of children aged under 2 years. Main outcome measures The presence of any parasitaemia in the peripheral blood sample and the presence of anaemia (classified as a haemoglobin level of <80 g/l). Results Ownership of nets increased rapidly (treated or not treated nets: from 58% to 83%; treated nets: from 10% to 61%). The mean haemoglobin level rose from 80 g/l to 89 g/l in the study children in the successive surveys. Overall, the prevalence of anaemia in the study population decreased from 49% to 26% in the two years studied. Treated nets had a protective efficacy of 62% (95% confidence interval 38% to 77%) on the prevalence of parasitaemia and of 63% (27% to 82%) on anaemia. Conclusions These results show that nets treated with insecticide have a substantial impact on morbidity when distributed in a public health setting. PMID:11157527

  17. A Typology of Ethnographic Scales for Virtual Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boellstorff, Tom

    This chapter outlines a typology of genres of ethnographic research with regard to virtual worlds, informed by extensive research the author has completed both in Second Life and in Indonesia. It begins by identifying four confusions about virtual worlds: they are not games, they need not be graphical or even visual, they are not mass media, and they need not be defined in terms of escapist role-playing. A three-part typology of methods for ethnographic research in virtual worlds focuses on the relationship between research design and ethnographic scale. One class of methods for researching virtual worlds with regard to ethnographic scale explores interfaces between virtual worlds and the actual world, whereas a second examines interfaces between two or more virtual worlds. The third class involves studying a single virtual world in its own terms. Recognizing that all three approaches have merit for particular research purposes, ethnography of virtual worlds can be a vibrant field of research, contributing to central debates about human selfhood and sociality.

  18. Attitudes to medication after kidney transplantation and their association with medication adherence and graft survival: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tielen, Mirjam; van Exel, Job; Laging, Mirjam; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Betjes, Michiel G H; Weimar, Willem; Massey, Emma K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonadherence to medication is a common problem after kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes towards medication, adherence, and the relationship with clinical outcomes. Method. Kidney recipients participated in a Q-methodological study 6 weeks after transplantation. As a measure of medication adherence, respondents completed the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale (BAASIS(©)-interview). Moreover, the intrapatient variability in the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus was calculated, which measures stability of drug intake. Data on graft survival was retrieved from patient records up to 2 years after transplantation. Results. 113 renal transplant recipients (19-75 years old) participated in the study. Results revealed three attitudes towards medication adherence-attitude 1: "confident and accurate," attitude 2: "concerned and vigilant," and attitude 3: "appearance oriented and assertive." We found association of attitudes with intrapatient variability in pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, but not with self-reported nonadherence or graft survival. However, self-reported nonadherence immediately after transplantation was associated with lower two-year graft survival. Conclusion. These preliminary findings suggest that nonadherence shortly after kidney transplantation may be a risk factor for lower graft survival in the years to follow. The attitudes to medication were not a risk factor.

  19. Acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom: a 2-year national surveillance study by the United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors' Organisation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter W; Hirsch, Sybil; Baglin, Trevor P; Dolan, Gerard; Hanley, John; Makris, Michael; Keeling, David M; Liesner, Ri; Brown, Simon A; Hay, Charles R M

    2007-03-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Previous reports have focused on referral center patients and it is unclear whether these findings are generally applicable. To improve understanding of the disease, a 2-year observational study was established to identify and characterize the presenting features and outcome of all patients with acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom. This allowed a consecutive cohort of patients, unbiased by referral or reporting practice, to be studied. A total of 172 patients with a median age of 78 years were identified, an incidence of 1.48/million/y. The cohort was significantly older than previously reported series, but bleeding manifestations and underlying diseases were similar. Bleeding was the cause of death in 9% of the cohort and remained a risk until the inhibitor had been eradicated. There was no difference in inhibitor eradication or mortality between patients treated with steroids alone and a combination of steroids and cytotoxic agents. Relapse of the inhibitor was observed in 20% of the patients who had attained first complete remission. The data provide the most complete description of acquired hemophilia A available and are applicable to patients presenting to all centers.

  20. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors.

  1. Influence of Anti-TNF and Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Therapy on Pulmonary Forced Vital Capacity Associated to Ankylosing Spondylitis: A 2-Year Follow-Up Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Jiménez, José Clemente; De la Cerda-Trujillo, Liliana Faviola; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Díaz-Rizo, Valeria; Díaz-González, Viviana; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF agents plus synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus DMARDs alone for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with reduced pulmonary function vital capacity (FVC%). Methods. In an observational study, we included AS who had FVC% <80% at baseline. Twenty patients were taking DMARDs and 16 received anti-TNF + DMARDs. Outcome measures: changes in FVC%, BASDAI, BASFI, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Borg scale after 6MWT, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire at 24 months. Results. Both DMARDs and anti-TNF + DMARDs groups had similar baseline values in FVC%. Significant improvement was achieved with anti-TNF + DMARDs in FVC%, at 24 months, when compared to DMARDs alone (P = 0.04). Similarly, patients in anti-TNF + DMARDs group had greater improvement in BASDAI, BASFI, Borg scale, and 6MWT when compared to DMARDs alone. After 2 years of follow-up, 14/16 (87.5%) in the anti-TNF + DMARDs group achieved the primary outcome: FVC% ≥80%, compared with 11/20 (55%) in the DMARDs group (P = 0.04). Conclusions. Patients with anti-TNF + DMARDs had a greater improvement in FVC% and cardiopulmonary scales at 24 months compared with DMARDs. This preliminary study supports the fact that anti-TNF agents may offer additional benefits compared to DMARDs in patients with AS who have reduced FVC%. PMID:26078986

  2. Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: a 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations.

    PubMed

    Guerlet, Edwige; Ledy, Karine; Meyer, Antoinette; Giambérini, Laure

    2007-03-30

    Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools.

  3. Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection and oral olanzapine: a 2-year, randomized, open-label study in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Detke, Holland C; Weiden, Peter J; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Choukour, Moutaz; Watson, Susan B; Brunner, Elizabeth; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2014-08-01

    We compared long-term treatment effectiveness of monthly olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) with that of oral olanzapine. Outpatients with 2 or more episodes of psychotic worsening in the past 24 months with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of lower than 70 were randomized to 405 mg/4 weeks of olanzapine LAI (n = 264) or 10 mg/d of oral olanzapine (n = 260) for 2 years of open-label treatment. Dosing thereafter was flexible (150-405 mg/4 weeks of LAI vs 5-20 mg/d of oral). Primary outcome was time to all-cause discontinuation. At baseline, patients were clinically stable (mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of 57). Seventeen percent of patients had been psychiatrically hospitalized in the previous 6 months, and 4.6% were rated nonadherent in the month before study entry. The groups did not differ significantly in median time to all-cause discontinuation (645 days for LAI, 678 days for oral; P = 0.61), discontinuation rate (53.8% for LAI, 51.2% for oral; P = 0.60), or relapse rate (20.1% for LAI, 18.5% for oral; P = 0.66). Postbaseline psychiatric hospitalization rate was low for both groups (7.6% for LAI, 9.2% for oral), but mean hospitalization duration was significantly longer for oral patients (1.80 days [20 for those hospitalized] vs 0.43 days [6 for those hospitalized], P = 0.02). There were no clinically significant group differences in adverse events or safety measures. No post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome events occurred. In conclusion, olanzapine LAI and oral olanzapine were similarly effective and well tolerated for up to 2 years of treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Treatment discontinuation for olanzapine LAI was similar to that of oral olanzapine, despite the 3-hour post-injection observation period and other precautionary procedures related to risk of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome. PMID:24781441

  4. The Prognosis of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care in the U.S. A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Bartmess-LeVasseur, Elizabeth; Acree, Mike; Pressman, Alice; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick M; Carey, Tim; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to assess the prognosis of patients presenting with acute low back pain (LBP) in a primary care setting in the U.S. Summary of Background Data Practice guidelines for acute LBP based on return-to-work outcomes underestimate the development of chronic pain in the primary care setting. Due to differences in inclusion criteria, chronic pain definitions and national health systems, prognostic cohort studies have reported a wide range of results limiting interpretation and generalization. Current data from carefully designed prognostic studies of acute LBP are lacking for the U.S. primary care system. Methods Members of a large health service organization were enrolled after seeking medical care for acute LBP, with or without sciatica, of up to 30 days duration, with no prior episode in the past 12 months and no history of spine surgery. We conducted phone interviews at baseline, six months and two years. Based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, a combination of global perceived recovery with pain intensity was used as primary outcome for chronic pain. Recurrence and multiple secondary outcomes were assessed to allow for comparison with other studies. Results 605 patients had an average pain intensity of 5.6 (numeric rating scale 0–10) and disability of 15.8 (Roland Morris scale 0–24). Eight percent had declared sick leave between pain onset and baseline interview. 13% of 521 patients (86% follow-up) suffered from chronic pain at six months and 19% of 443 patients at 2 years. At six months, 54% had experienced at least one LBP recurrence, and 47% in the subsequent 18 months. Conclusion The prognosis of strictly-defined acute LBP, with or without sciatica, is less favorable than commonly stated in practice guidelines based on failure to return to work. Broad initiatives to develop new means for the primary and secondary prevention of recurrent and chronic LBP are urgently needed. PMID:22504516

  5. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M; Mamen, A; Andersen, L B

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children at the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0.003) and diastolic (P=0.002) blood pressure, total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P=0.011), triglyceride (P=0.030) and peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001) in I-school children than in C-school children. No significant differences were observed in waist circumference, body mass index and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance between the two groups. Furthermore, the intervention, primarily carried out at moderate intensity, had the strongest impact in children with the least favorable starting point. In conclusion, a daily school-based PA intervention can beneficially modify children's CVD risk profile if the intervention has sufficient duration and includes a substantial amount of daily PA, and if the PA is implemented by expert PE teachers.

  6. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), mild cognitive impairment, and 2-year conversion to dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Trentini, Alessandro; Romani, Arianna; Bellini, Tiziana; Bosi, Cristina; Ortolani, Beatrice; Zurlo, Amedeo; Passaro, Angelina; Seripa, Davide; Zuliani, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) may confer protection against inflammatory and oxidative challenge which, in turn, plays a key-role in the onset and progression of dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum PON-1 paraoxonase/arylesterase activities might predict the clinical conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or vascular dementia (VAD). Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric assays at baseline in 141 MCI patients (median age: 77 years; interquartile range 71-81) and in 78 healthy controls (median age: 76 years; interquartile range 73-79). After 2 years of follow-up, 86 MCI remained stable (MCI/MCI), 34 converted to LOAD (MCI/LOAD), whereas 21 converted to VAD (MCI/VAD). Baseline arylesterase activity was lower in all MCI groups compared with controls (all p < 0.01), whereas paraoxonase activity was lower in MCI/VAD group compared to controls (p < 0.05) and MCI/MCI patients (p = 0.009). Low paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (I quartile) were associated to higher risk of conversion to VAD (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.37-10.25 and OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17-8.56, respectively). Our results suggest that in MCI patients low PON-1 activity might contribute to identify individuals susceptible to develop vascular dementia.

  7. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Corrosion-induced release of Cu and Zn into rainwater from brass, bronze and their pure metals. A 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Herting, Gunilla; Goidanich, Sara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Leygraf, Christofer

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year field study has been conducted in an urban environment to provide annual release rates of copper and zinc from brass (20 wt% Zn) and copper and tin from bronze (6 wt% Sn) compared to sheets of their pure alloy constituents, copper and zinc. Despite relatively low nominal bulk alloy content, substantially more zinc was released from brass compared to copper. Both metals were released at a significantly slower rate from the brass alloy, compared to the pure metals. The proportion of release rates of copper and zinc from the alloy differed significantly from their proportions in the bulk alloy. Bronze showed relatively constant release rates of copper, being similar to that of pure copper sheet. The release of tin from bronze was negligible. The results clearly show that alloys and the pure metals behave very differently when exposed to rainwater. Accordingly, release rates from pure metals cannot be used to predict release rates of individual constituents from their alloys. Generated data are of importance within REACH, the new chemical policy of the European commission, where metal alloys erroneously are being treated as mixtures of chemical substances.

  9. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination.

  10. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), mild cognitive impairment, and 2-year conversion to dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Trentini, Alessandro; Romani, Arianna; Bellini, Tiziana; Bosi, Cristina; Ortolani, Beatrice; Zurlo, Amedeo; Passaro, Angelina; Seripa, Davide; Zuliani, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) may confer protection against inflammatory and oxidative challenge which, in turn, plays a key-role in the onset and progression of dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum PON-1 paraoxonase/arylesterase activities might predict the clinical conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) or vascular dementia (VAD). Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric assays at baseline in 141 MCI patients (median age: 77 years; interquartile range 71-81) and in 78 healthy controls (median age: 76 years; interquartile range 73-79). After 2 years of follow-up, 86 MCI remained stable (MCI/MCI), 34 converted to LOAD (MCI/LOAD), whereas 21 converted to VAD (MCI/VAD). Baseline arylesterase activity was lower in all MCI groups compared with controls (all p < 0.01), whereas paraoxonase activity was lower in MCI/VAD group compared to controls (p < 0.05) and MCI/MCI patients (p = 0.009). Low paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (I quartile) were associated to higher risk of conversion to VAD (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.37-10.25 and OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17-8.56, respectively). Our results suggest that in MCI patients low PON-1 activity might contribute to identify individuals susceptible to develop vascular dementia. PMID:26178739

  11. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  12. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  13. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. PMID:22504283

  14. Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Tantalum Augment in Patients with Paprosky III or IV Acetabular Bone Defects: A Minimum 2-year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the short-term outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using tantalum augments in patients with severe acetabular bone defects. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 15 revision THAs performed in 15 patients using tantalum augments between June 2010 and December 2013. Acetabular bone defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 7 hips, type IIIB in 7, and type IV in 1. The causes of revision surgery were aseptic loosening in 12 hips and deep infection in 3. Revisions were first in 1 hip, second in 3, and third in 11. Six patients were male and 9 female with a mean age of 59 years (range, 48-75 years). Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 24-48 months). Results Mean Harris hip score was improved from 34 points (range, 12-54 points) preoperatively to 84 points (range, 38-90 points) at final follow-up. On the final follow-up radiographs, there were 12 hips (80.0%) with stable fixation of the acetabular cup, 2 (13.3%) with secondary stability after mild acetabular protrusion, and 1 (6.7%) with radiolucency around the acetabular cup without mechanical symptoms. Complications included one patient with acute hematogenous infection managed by surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic therapy. There were no cases with nerve palsy or dislocation during the follow-up period. Conclusion The present study showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision THA using tantalum augments due to severe acetabular bone defects of Paprosky type III or IV at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. PMID:27536651

  15. The good-enough science-and-politics of anthropological collaboration with evidence-based clinical research: Four ethnographic case studies.

    PubMed

    Messac, Luke; Ciccarone, Dan; Draine, Jeffrey; Bourgois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The apolitical legitimacy of "evidence-based medicine" offers a practical means for ethnography and critical social-science-and-humanities-of-health theory to transfer survival resources to structurally vulnerable populations and to engage policy and services audiences with urgent political problems imposed on the urban poor in the United States that harm health: most notably, homelessness, hyperincarceration, social service cut-backs and the War on Drugs. We present four examples of collaborations between ethnography and clinical research projects that demonstrate the potentials and limits of promoting institutional reform, political debate and action through distinct strategies of cross-methodological dialog with epidemiological and clinical services research. Ethnographic methods alone, however, are simply a technocratic add-on. They must be informed by critical theory to contribute effectively and transformatively to applied health initiatives. Ironically, technocratic, neoliberal logics of cost-effectiveness can sometimes render radical service and policy reform initiatives institutionally credible, fundable and capable of generating wider political support, even though the rhetoric of economic efficacy is a double-edged sword. To extend the impact of ethnography and interdisciplinary theories of political-economic, cultural and disciplinary power relations into applied clinical and public health research, anthropologists - and their fellow travelers - have to be able to strategically, but respectfully learn to see through the positivist logics of clinical services research as well as epidemiological epistemology in order to help clinicians achieve - and extend - their applied priorities. In retrospect, these four very differently-structured collaborations suggest the potential for "good-enough" humble scientific and political strategies to work for, and with, structurally vulnerable populations in a punitive neoliberal era of rising social inequality

  16. The good-enough science-and-politics of anthropological collaboration with evidence-based clinical research: Four ethnographic case studies.

    PubMed

    Messac, Luke; Ciccarone, Dan; Draine, Jeffrey; Bourgois, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The apolitical legitimacy of "evidence-based medicine" offers a practical means for ethnography and critical social-science-and-humanities-of-health theory to transfer survival resources to structurally vulnerable populations and to engage policy and services audiences with urgent political problems imposed on the urban poor in the United States that harm health: most notably, homelessness, hyperincarceration, social service cut-backs and the War on Drugs. We present four examples of collaborations between ethnography and clinical research projects that demonstrate the potentials and limits of promoting institutional reform, political debate and action through distinct strategies of cross-methodological dialog with epidemiological and clinical services research. Ethnographic methods alone, however, are simply a technocratic add-on. They must be informed by critical theory to contribute effectively and transformatively to applied health initiatives. Ironically, technocratic, neoliberal logics of cost-effectiveness can sometimes render radical service and policy reform initiatives institutionally credible, fundable and capable of generating wider political support, even though the rhetoric of economic efficacy is a double-edged sword. To extend the impact of ethnography and interdisciplinary theories of political-economic, cultural and disciplinary power relations into applied clinical and public health research, anthropologists - and their fellow travelers - have to be able to strategically, but respectfully learn to see through the positivist logics of clinical services research as well as epidemiological epistemology in order to help clinicians achieve - and extend - their applied priorities. In retrospect, these four very differently-structured collaborations suggest the potential for "good-enough" humble scientific and political strategies to work for, and with, structurally vulnerable populations in a punitive neoliberal era of rising social inequality

  17. The Good-Enough Science-and-Politics of Anthropological Collaboration with Evidence-Based Clinical Research: Four Ethnographic Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Messac, Luke; Ciccarone, Dan; Draine, Jeffrey; Bourgois, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The apolitical legitimacy of "evidence-based medicine" offers a practical means for ethnography and critical social-science-and-humanities-of-health theory to transfer survival resources to structurally vulnerable populations and to engage policy and services audiences with urgent political problems imposed on the urban poor in the United States that harm health: most notably, homelessness, hyperincarceration, social service cut-backs and the War on Drugs. We present four examples of collaborations between ethnography and clinical research projects that demonstrate the potentials and limits of promoting institutional reform, political debate and action through distinct strategies of cross-methodological dialogue with epidemiological and clinical services research. Ethnographic methods alone, however, are simply a technocratic add-on. They must be informed by critical theory to contribute effectively and transformatively to applied health initiatives. Ironically, technocratic, neoliberal logics of cost-effectiveness can sometimes render radical service and policy reform initiatives institutionally credible, fundable and capable of generating wider political support, even though the rhetoric of economic efficacy is a double-edged sword. To extend the impact of ethnography and interdisciplinary theories of political-economic, cultural and disciplinary power relations into applied clinical and public health research, anthropologists--and their fellow travelers--have to be able to strategically, but respectfully learn to see through the positivist logics of clinical services research as well as epidemiological epistemology in order to help clinicians achieve--and extend--their applied priorities. In retrospect, these four very differently-structured collaborations suggest the potential for "good-enough” humble scientific and political strategies to work for, and with, structurally vulnerable populations in a punitive neoliberal era of rising social inequality

  18. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  19. To Ethnograph or Not to Ethnograph? Varieties of Qualitative Research in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.; Dawson, Judith A.

    Noting the increasing interest in qualitative research in general and ethnographic research in particular, the authors of this report clarify the place of the latter within the former. The authors present six criteria for an ethnographic approach to education, illustrated with examples, and discuss ethnography's advantages and disadvantages. The…

  20. Limitation of medical care: an ethnographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ventres, W; Nichter, M; Reed, R; Frankel, R

    1993-01-01

    This ethnographic study has shown how one attempt to apply ethical principles through a routine procedure failed to fit the clinical context and, in the two cases studied, served to counteract the very foundation these principles were based on--that patients or their families have the right to determine life-and-death decisions regarding code status. The results suggest that the use of well-meaning forms that are intended to facilitate decision making can, in the absence of appropriate guidelines, routinize the doctor-patient discourse to meet bureaucratic needs, narrowing rather than expanding understanding and communication. Bioethical principles implemented in abstraction, apart from the complex intricacies of the doctor-patient-family relationship and the sociocultural influences upon which this relationship is dependent, may be counter-productive to patient interests. As bioethicists and clinicians work to implement the demands of the Patient Self-Determination Act, they will undoubtedly try to forestall legal problems, assure ethical consistency, facilitate auditing, and promote documentation by creating forms. They may look to create inventories, such as the Limitation of Medical Care form described here, or turn to other, less explicit, means of documentation. This study suggests that, in these efforts, genuine attention should be given to patient concerns, not just to the ethical or institutional needs of medicine. This shift in focus from outcome to process can enhance patient and clinician satisfaction, help resolve difficulties in reaching consensus between involved decision makers, and return the power in DNR decision making to patients and families.

  1. Ethnographic Evidence of an Emerging Transnational Arts Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Raw, Anni

    2015-01-01

    This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners’ approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners’ modes of engagement with groups, and strategies for catalysing change; clear convergences from which a core methodology in community-based participatory arts for change is distilled. It suggests the opening of liminal spaces in which participants can reflect, rehearsing fresh ways of engaging in transformative dialogues in relation to the world in which they live. This article presents the study findings as a grounded characterisation of ‘participatory arts practice’: a complex but potentially powerful mechanism, in use within numerous community health projects, and evident in diverse settings, despite little or no exchange of ideas between practitioners. PMID:26045637

  2. Thick Explanation in the Ethnographic Study of Child Socialization: A Longitudinal Study of the Problem of Schooling for Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands) Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann

    1992-01-01

    Outlines a framework for examining children's socialization that combines microlevels and macrolevels. Applies the framework to a case study of student failure in the Solomon Islands. Concludes that children's failure had less to do with home socialization than with larger societal processes that shape schooling in the Solomons. (MM)

  3. Dietary arsenic consumption and urine arsenic in an endemic population: response to improvement of drinking water quality in a 2-year consecutive study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Anirban; Deb, Debasree; Ghose, Aloke; Du Laing, Gijs; De Neve, Jan; Santra, Subhas Chandra; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first morning-void urine under variable conditions of water contamination. This was done in a 2-year consecutive study in an endemic population. Exposure of arsenic through water and diet was assessed for participants using arsenic-contaminated water (≥50 μg L(-1)) in a first year (group I) and for participants using water lower in arsenic (<50 μg L(-1)) in the next year (group II). Participants with and without arsenical skin lesions were considered in the statistical analysis. Median dose of arsenic intake through drinking water in groups I and II males was 7.44 and 0.85 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001). In females, it was 5.3 and 0.63 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p <0.0001) for groups I and II, respectively. Arsenic dose through diet was 3.3 and 2.6 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.088) in males and 2.6 and 1.9 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p = 0.0081) in females. Median arsenic levels in urine of groups I and II males were 124 and 61 μg L(-1) (p = 0.052) and in females 130 and 52 μg L(-1) (p = 0.0001), respectively. When arsenic levels in the water were reduced to below 50 μg L(-1) (Indian permissible limit), total arsenic intake and arsenic intake through the water significantly decreased, but arsenic uptake through the diet was found to be not significantly affected. Moreover, it was found that drinking water mainly contributed to variations in urine arsenic concentrations. However, differences between male and female participants also indicate that not only arsenic uptake, but also many physiological factors affect arsenic behavior in the body and its excretion. As total median arsenic exposure still often exceeded 3.0 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (the permissible lower limit established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives) after installation of the drinking water filters, it can be concluded that

  4. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  5. Using the Ethnographer's Perspective to Diagnose Problems in Educational Practice: The Experience of the New York Region of DTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenoir, Teresa C.

    This paper describes the use of the ethnographer's perspective in applying research knowledge to the improvement of educational practice. The Documentation and Technical Assistance Project (DTA) uses ethnographic methods to study problem solving in urban public schools. In the complicated culture of the urban school, social, economic and political…

  6. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  7. Dilemmas and Deliberations in Reflexive Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janean Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces insights into the challenges and dilemmas experienced whilst researching students' interpretations and understandings of the Behaviour Management in Schools policy in Western Australia. Journal records, supported by student transcripts, are woven together in a reflexive ethnographic journey--from the beginning phase of…

  8. Age 2: Findings from the 2-Year-Old Follow-Up of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Gail M.; Flanagan, Kristin Denton

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB is the first report produced using data from the second round of data collection for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a study of a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001. The report provides descriptive information about these children when they were about 2 years old. It…

  9. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments.

  10. Mental health service use by patients with dysthymic disorder: treatment use and dropout in a 7 1/2-year naturalistic follow-up study.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Brian R; Klein, Daniel N

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about long-term treatment use among patients with dysthymia. This paper describes patterns of treatment use by 85 outpatients with dysthymic disorder and a comparison group of 36 outpatients with nonchronic (episodic) major depression in a naturalistic follow-up. Patients with dysthymia had higher rates of treatment use across 7 1/2 years compared with patients with episodic major depression. Baseline variables that predicted which patients with dysthymia dropped out of treatment before recovering from dysthymic disorder included age, ethnicity, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition Axis II pathology as obtained from informant reports, higher self-reported autonomy, and receiving psychotherapy alone as compared to receiving a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Dysthymic disorder places a significant burden on the mental health services system, yet many outpatients with dysthymia may be receiving inadequate treatment. Younger patients, ethnic minority patients, and patients with personality disorders may be at increased risk of dropping out from treatment for depression. Combination treatments may increase treatment retention.

  11. 'There's a lot of tasks that can be done by any': Findings from an ethnographic study into work and organisation in UK community crisis resolution and home treatment services.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Across the United Kingdom, large numbers of crisis resolution and home treatment services have been established with the aim of providing intensive, short-term care to people who would otherwise be admitted to mental health hospital. Despite their widespread appearance, little is known about how crisis resolution and home treatment services are organised or how crisis work is done. This article arises from a larger ethnographic study (in which 34 interviews were conducted with practitioners, managers and service users) designed to generate data in these and related areas. Underpinned by systems thinking and sociological theories of the division of labour, the article examines the workplace contributions of mental health professionals and support staff. In a fast-moving environment, the work which was done, how and by whom, reflected wider professional jurisdictions and a recognisable patterning by organisational forces. System characteristics including variable shift-by-shift team composition and requirements to undertake assessments of new referrals while simultaneously providing home treatment shaped the work of some, but not all, professionals. Implications of these findings for larger systems of work are considered.

  12. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  13. Response to Intervention (RTI): An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Directors' Attitudes, Thoughts, and Perceptions Working in Rural Communities in Eastern Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Dia

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and implementation of RTI based on interviews with 11 special education directors working in rural school districts in eastern Washington. Three questions guided this study. First, what level of general knowledge of the RTI process do…

  14. The Vermont Schoolmarm and the Contemporary One-Room Schoolhouse: An Ethnographic Study of a Contemporary One-Room Schoolteacher. Occasional Paper #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Jody

    This 1987-88 study was conducted to identify, describe, and analyze the significant issues facing one of Vermont's five remaining schoolmarms. The primary subject of the study is a first-year one-room schoolteacher in a rural Vermont town. Chapter 1 offers a brief history of Vermont's one-room schools, a description of the town, the school, and…

  15. Learning to become a member of a community of scientists: An ethnographic study of student participation in weather research in two middle school classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Candice Michelle

    2000-11-01

    This research project involves the investigation of the opportunities to learn science and about science through an extended year-long weather project in two middle school science classrooms. The theoretical framework draws together two compatible but as yet unconnected bodies of literature. From studies of scientific practices, the importance of the ways science is learned through practice in authentic settings are considered. Studies of situated cognition are examined as well to discern how students learn in context-specific ways. This empirical research is unique in three important ways. First, the research took place in two different middle school classrooms and utilized extensive participant observation over the course of the entire academic year and focus group interviews with students. One of the classes was mostly Hispanic students of lower socioeconomic status. The other class was primarily Caucasian students of middle socioeconomic status. Second, the teachers in the study participated in a multi-year service program coordinated by the local university. The teachers worked with their students to complete a year-long weather project that involves data collection, representation, analysis, and interpretation. Third, the project involves long-term study of weather data. As a result, students participating in the research over the year began to challenge the claims of their peers. Few classroom studies of earth science have been conducted and published and even fewer involved student managed school science research projects. The findings from this study can be used as a model for how long-term research projects in science can be incorporated into middle school science classes. This project is thus very important in the field of science education for understanding ways to make science accessible and appealing to a variety of students.

  16. Bringing Anthropology Home: Latina/o Students, Ethnographic Research, and U.S. Rural Communities. Occasional Paper No. 57. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Victor

    Very few Latinos earn doctorates in anthropology, and the number enrolling in undergraduate programs is also not encouraging. This paper addresses the low and stagnant number of "new" Latino doctorates in anthropology, discusses reasons for this poor showing, and presents a possible solution--an approach to the study of anthropology that…

  17. Transformational Leadership: An Ethnographic Study of Principals' Influence on Instructional Effectiveness of Teaching English Language Learners in Select Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Christie M.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of the principal in successfully improving English Language Learner (ELL) educational outcomes in high poverty schools based on interviews with five elementary principals who were employed by Hillsboro School District during the SET-R grant from school years…

  18. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  19. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  20. The Congressional Fellowship as an Ethnographic Extravaganza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapani, Josh

    2006-02-01

    I knew my undergraduate degree in anthropology would come in handy one day. I never guessed, though, that with a Ph.D. in geology and two years of postdoctoral experience under my belt (and my anthropology days far behind), AGU would choose me for a year long, total-immersion ethnographic extravaganza of my very own. I have been dropped into the proverbial wilds, to live among the natives to attempt to understand their culture in all its byzantine ritual, hierarchy, and ceremony.

  1. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus.

  2. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657

  3. [Growth of breastfed and bottle-fed infants up to 2 years of age: CLACYD (Lactation, Alimentation, Growth and Development) study 1993-1995].

    PubMed

    Agrelo, F; Lobo, B; Chesta, M; Berra, S; Sabulsky, J

    1999-07-01

    Studies done in various countries show important differences in the growth of breastfed and bottle-fed children. In addition, it has been found that breast-fed children grow more slowly beginning at the age of 2 or 3 months in comparison with the reference pattern of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO). These results cast doubt on whether maximum growth is the same as optimal growth. The objective of this study was to compare the growth in weight and length, from birth to 24 months, for a group of children who were breast-fed with that of a group who were bottle-fed. The study was also intended to describe the growth of the breastfed group in relation to the NCHS/WHO norms and a WHO "12-month breast-fed pooled data set." For this research, data were analyzed from the "Cordoba: lactation, feeding, growth, and development" study (or CLACYD study, for its Spanish-language acronym). That study looked at a representative cohort, stratified by social class, of children born in 1993 in the city of Cordoba, Argentina. The researchers analyzed anthropometric data on 74 children who were breast-fed during the first year of life and on 108 bottle-fed children. The data had been recorded, using standardized techniques, at birth and at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Both groups were homogenous with respect to the age and schooling of the parents, social stratum, birth order, maternal height, and child's weight and length at birth. The living conditions (housing construction and availability of water and sewer services) were better among the group that was bottle-fed (P = 0.04). The breast-fed children had a lower weight and a shorter length at 6, 12, and 24 months than did the bottle-fed children. The breast-fed children also showed a slowing in growth with respect to the NCHS/WHO guidelines beginning in the second semester. This indicates that the NCHS/WHO norms are not totally adequate for evaluating the growth of breast

  4. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (the PROSPECT study). PROscar Safety Plus Efficacy Canadian Two year Study.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J C; Fradet, Y; Boake, R C; Pommerville, P J; Perreault, J P; Afridi, S K; Elhilali, M M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 years' treatment of moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with finasteride. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, prospective randomized study. SETTING: Outpatient care in 28 centres across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 45 to 80, in good health, with moderate BPH and no evidence of prostate cancer. A total of 613 men were entered into the study; 472 completed the 2 years of treatment. INTERVENTION: After 1 month of receiving a placebo (run-in period), patients were given either finasteride (5 mg/d) or a placebo for 2 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy: changes from baseline in BPH symptom scores, maximum urinary flow rates and prostate volume. Safety: onset, course and resolution of all adverse events during the treatment period. RESULTS: In the efficacy analyses the mean BPH symptom scores decreased 2.1 points (from 15.8 to 13.7) in the finasteride group, as compared with a decrease of 0.7 points (from 16.6 to 15.9) in the placebo group (P < or = 0.01). The maximum urinary flow rate increased by a mean of 1.4 mL/s (from 11.1 to 12.5 mL/s) in the finasteride group, as compared with an increase of 0.3 mL/s (from 10.9 to 11.2 mL/s) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). The mean prostate volume decreased by 21% (from a mean volume of 44.1 cm3 at baseline) in the treatment group; it increased by 8.4% (from a mean volume of 45.8 cm3 at baseline) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). In the safety analysis, the proportion of patients who experienced any adverse event was similar in the two groups (81.0% in the treatment group and 81.2% in the placebo group). However, the incidence of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in the finasteride group than in the placebo group (ejaculation disorder 7.7% v. 1.7% and impotence 15.8% v. 6.3%; p < or = 0.01 for both parameters). CONCLUSION: Finasteride is a well-tolerated and effective alternative to watchful

  5. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association.

  6. The Role of Human Coronaviruses in Children Hospitalized for Acute Bronchiolitis, Acute Gastroenteritis, and Febrile Seizures: A 2-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jevšnik, Monika; Steyer, Andrej; Pokorn, Marko; Mrvič, Tatjana; Grosek, Štefan; Strle, Franc; Lusa, Lara; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a variety of clinical presentations in children, but their role in disease remains uncertain. The objective of our prospective study was to investigate HCoVs associations with various clinical presentations in hospitalized children up to 6 years of age. Children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis (AB), acute gastroenteritis (AGE), or febrile seizures (FS), and children admitted for elective surgical procedures (healthy controls) were included in the study. In patients with AB, AGE, and FS, a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and blood sample were obtained upon admission and the follow-up visit 14 days later, whereas in children with AGE a stool sample was also acquired upon admission; in healthy controls a NP swab and stool sample were taken upon admission. Amplification of polymerase 1b gene was used to detect HCoVs in the specimens. HCoVs-positive specimens were also examined for the presence of several other viruses. HCoVs were most often detected in children with FS (19/192, 9.9%, 95% CI: 6–15%), followed by children with AGE (19/218, 8.7%, 95% CI: 5.3–13.3%) and AB (20/308, 6.5%, 95% CI: 4.0–9.8%). The presence of other viruses was a common finding, most frequent in the group of children with AB (19/20, 95%, 95% CI: 75.1–99.8%), followed by FS (10/19, 52.6%, 95% CI: 28.9–75.6%) and AGE (7/19, 36.8%, 95% CI: 16.3–61.6%). In healthy control children HCoVs were detected in 3/156 (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.4–5.5%) NP swabs and 1/150 (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.02–3.3%) stool samples. It seems that an etiological role of HCoVs is most likely in children with FS, considering that they had a higher proportion of positive HCoVs results than patients with AB and those with AGE, and had the highest viral load; however, the co-detection of other viruses was 52.6%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987519 PMID:27171141

  7. Decreased use of glucocorticoids in biological-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis who initiated intravenous abatacept: results from the 2-year ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Rieke; Nüßlein, Hubert; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Bensen, William G; Burmester, Gerd R; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pavelka, Karel; Chartier, Mélanie; Poncet, Coralie; Rauch, Christiane; Elbez, Yedid; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged glucocorticoid use may increase the risk of adverse safety outcomes, including cardiovascular events. The European League Against Rheumatism and the Canadian Rheumatology Association advise tapering glucocorticoid dose as rapidly as clinically feasible. There is a paucity of published data on RA that adequately describe concomitant treatment patterns. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a non-interventional cohort study of patients from Europe and Canada that investigated the long-term retention of intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. We assessed concomitant glucocorticoids in patients with established RA who had participated in ACTION and received ≥1 biological agent prior to abatacept initiation. Results The analysis included 1009 patients. Glucocorticoids were prescribed at abatacept initiation in 734 (72.7%) patients at a median 7.5 mg/day dose (n=692). Of the patients who remained on abatacept at 24 months, 40.7% were able to decrease their dose of glucocorticoids, including 26.9% who decreased their dose from >5 mg/day to ≤5 mg/day. Conclusion Reduction and/or cessation of glucocorticoid therapy is possible with intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. PMID:26925253

  8. Risedronate prevents persistent bone loss in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy: results of a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Izumi, K; Mizokami, A; Sugimoto, K; Narimoto, K; Kitagawa, Y; Koh, E; Namiki, M

    2011-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) causes bone loss. Although we reported previously that risedronate significantly recovers bone mineral density (BMD) for up to 12 months, there have been no reports with longer follow-up periods to date. This study extended our earlier series extending the follow-up period to 24 months. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed PCa without lumbar spine metastasis and underwent ADT. Lumbar spine BMD, urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDPD) and serum bone alkaline phosphatase were measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Among the total of 96 patients, we analyzed 26 and 18 patients in risedronate administration and control groups, respectively. BMD relative to the young adult mean ratio, uDPD and serum bone alkaline phosphatase of the risedronate administration group recovered significantly after 24 months compared with the control group (P<0.0001, P=0.0001, and P<0.0001, respectively). Transient blurred vision, malaise and vertigo were observed in 1 patient each among the 46 patients treated with risedronate within 28 days after first administration. Oral administration of risedronate is safe and effective for the recovery of ADT-induced bone loss in PCa patients even at 24 months after commencement of treatment.

  9. Clinical instructors' perception of a faculty development programme promoting postgraduate year-1 (PGY1) residents' ACGME six core competencies: a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Fa-Yauh; Yang, Ying-Ying; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lee, Wei-Shin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huang, Chia-Chang; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Cheng, Hao-Min; Jap, Tjin-Shing

    2011-01-01

    Objective The six core competencies designated by Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are essential for establishing a patient centre holistic medical system. The authors developed a faculty programme to promote the postgraduate year 1 (PGY(1)) resident, ACGME six core competencies. The study aims to assess the clinical instructors' perception, attitudes and subjective impression towards the various sessions of the 'faculty development programme for teaching ACGME competencies.' Methods During 2009 and 2010, 134 clinical instructors participated in the programme to establish their ability to teach and assess PGY(1) residents about ACGME competencies. Results The participants in the faculty development programme reported that the skills most often used while teaching were learnt during circuit and itinerant bedside, physical examination teaching, mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) evaluation demonstration, training workshop and videotapes of 'how to teach ACGME competencies.' Participants reported that circuit bedside teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the interpersonal and communication skills domain, and that the itinerant teaching demonstrations helped them in the professionalism domain, while physical examination teaching and mini-CEX evaluation demonstrations helped them in the patients' care domain. Both the training workshop and videotape session increase familiarity with teaching and assessing skills. Participants who applied the skills learnt from the faculty development programme the most in their teaching and assessment came from internal medicine departments, were young attending physician and had experience as PGY(1) clinical instructors. Conclusions According to the clinical instructors' response, our faculty development programme effectively increased their familiarity with various teaching and assessment skills needed to teach PGY(1) residents and ACGME competencies, and these clinical

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy: 2-year prospective open-label study of 40 subjects with refractory epilepsy and low IQ who are living in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Huf, Roger L; Mamelak, Adam; Kneedy-Cayem, Kara

    2005-05-01

    Treating seizures among patients with mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is difficult owing in large part to the presence of additional comorbidities and the resulting need for polytherapy. Therefore, a nonpharmacological treatment option is needed for this population. This prospective, open-label study documented the long-term outcome of 40 low-IQ (<70) patients living in long-term care facilities who received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Subjects were seen every 1 to 3 months by their neurologist (R.H.). Seizure frequency, antiepileptic medication, and quality-of-life information were documented preimplantation and quarterly thereafter through 2 years. The surgery and therapy were well tolerated. Seizures were reduced by at least 50% for 11 subjects. Antiepileptic medications were reduced from 3.3 per subject at baseline to an average of 2.3 per subject after 2 years. According to caregiver reports, overall quality of life improved for the majority of subjects; also, using the Client Development Evaluation Report (CDER), statistically significant improvements were reported at both 1 and 2 years in attention span, word usage, clarity of speech, standing balance, washing dishes, and household chores. VNS is a viable treatment option for low-IQ patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who are living in long-term care facilities. PMID:15820352

  11. Comparison of 2-year clinical outcomes between diabetic versus nondiabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction after 1-month stabilization: Analysis of the prospective registry of DIAMOND (DIabetic acute myocardial infarctiON Disease) in Korea: an observational registry study.

    PubMed

    Hur, Seung-Ho; Won, Ki-Bum; Kim, In-Cheol; Bae, Jang-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Ahn, Young-Keun; Park, Jong-Seon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Rak-Kyeong; Choi, Donghoon; Kim, Joon-Hong; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Hun-Sik; Choi, So-Yeon; Yoon, Jung-Han; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Rha, Seung-Woon; Jang, Wooyeong; Bae, Jang-Whan; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Lim, Do-Sun; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Kee-Sik

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the 2-year clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a cohort of the DIAMOND (DIabetic Acute Myocardial infarctiON Disease) registry. Clinical outcomes were compared between 1088 diabetic AMI patients in the DIAMOND registry after stabilization of MI and 1088 nondiabetic AMI patients from the KORMI (Korean AMI) registry after 1 : 1 propensity score matching using traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Stabilized patients were defined as patients who did not have any clinical events within 1 month after AMI. Primary outcomes were the 2-year rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), a composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI (re-MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Matched comparisons revealed that diabetic patients exhibited significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and estimated glomerular filtration rate and smaller stent size. Diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher 2-year rates of MACE (8.0% vs 3.7%), all-cause death (3.9% vs 1.4%), re-MI (2.8% vs 1.2%), and TVR (3.5% vs 1.3%) than nondiabetic patients (all P < 0.01), and higher cumulative rates in Kaplan-Meier analyses of MACE, all-cause death, and TVR (all P < 0.05). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that chronic kidney disease, LVEF < 35%, and long stent were independent predictors of MACE, and large stent diameter and the use of drug-eluting stents were protective factors against MACE. The 2-year MACE rate beyond 1 month after AMI was significantly higher in DM patients than non-DM patients, and this rate was associated with higher comorbidities, coronary lesions, and procedural characteristics in DM.

  12. Attribution of the Kazakh Traditional Dress in the Collections of the Russian Ethnographic Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunanbayeva, Sholpan B.; Ibrayeva, Akmaral G.; Abzhanov, Hangeldy M.; Sadykov, Tlegen S.; Seitkazina, Kuralay O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the collections of the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (MAE RAS) and the Russian Ethnographic Museum (REM) (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). Their study is of great importance both in the scientific-theoretical and practical aspects. In theory, their study is of particular interest, since at the turn…

  13. Using Ethnographic Methods for Development of Culture-Specific Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varjas, K.; Nastasi, B.K.; Bernstein Moore, R.; Jayasena, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cultural specificity is considered important in developing effective school- and community-based interventions. This article illustrates the use of ethnographic research to enhance understanding of students' cultural experiences and facilitate the development of culturally specific interventions. Ethnographic data were collected during formative…

  14. Finding a Way out of the Ethnographic Paradigm Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…

  15. Living Theory: Principles and Practices for Teaching Social Theory Ethnographically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Chris; Rosaldo, Manuel; Seim, Josh; Shestakofsky, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article details the principles and practices animating an "ethnographic" method of teaching social theory. As opposed to the traditional "survey" approach that aims to introduce students to the historical breadth of social thought, the primary objective of teaching ethnographically is to cultivate students as participant…

  16. Using the Learners-as-Ethnographers Approach to Enhance Intercultural Learning among American College Students Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Minhui

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…

  17. An Ethnographic Intervention Using the Five Characteristics of Effective Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri

    2010-01-01

    This paper is aimed to describe an ethnographic intervention study of supporting a Low Use Internet (LUI) teacher to use the Internet for his professional development. Five characteristics of effective professional development were identified and applied. This description is followed by a reflection on the process to get a deeper insight about…

  18. Unintended Social Reproduction in Community College Vocational ESL (VESL): An Ethnographic Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketzenberg, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study focuses on a community college VESL program in the Pacific Northwest that attempts to address the critical employment needs of a growing number of English language learners (ELLs). Immigrants are routinely barred from mainstream career and technical programs because content is linguistically inaccessible. This college VESL…

  19. How Older Adults Make Decisions regarding Smart Technology: An Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Rick D.; Mann, William; Lutz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively little research has been conducted regarding the smart technology needs of the older adult population despite the proliferation of smart technology prototypes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived smart technology needs of older adults with mobility impairments while using an ethnographic research approach to…

  20. Dream Interpretation as a Component of Researcher's Reflexivity within an Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miškolci, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Researchers' "reflexivity" about how they shape the phenomena that they study within the data collection process is often presented as a crucial component of ethnographic research methodology. Nevertheless, academic literature about ethnography is mostly silent around whether researchers' dreams are relevant to the research…

  1. Older People Becoming Successful ICT Learners over Time: Challenges and Strategies through an Ethnographical Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayago, Sergio; Forbes, Paula; Blat, Josep

    2013-01-01

    A growing ageing population and an increasing reliance on information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct activities associated with daily living means that addressing how older people learn to use ICT is timely and important. By drawing on a four-year ethnographical study with 420 older people in two different environments, this paper…

  2. The Junior High School Integrated Science: The Actual Teaching Process in the Perspective of an Ethnographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adu-Gyamfi, Kenneth; Ampiah, Joseph Ghartey

    2016-01-01

    Science education at the Basic School (Primary and Junior High School) serves as the foundation upon which higher levels of science education are pivoted. This ethnographic study sought to investigate the teaching of Integrated Science at the Junior High School (JHS) level in the classrooms of two science teachers in two schools of differing…

  3. Learning How to Mother: An Ethnographic Investigation of an Urban Breastfeeding Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Elizabeth J. Bryant

    Macrocosmic and microcosmic perspectives are employed in this ethnographic study of a La Leche League mothering/breastfeeding group in Buffalo, New York, in order to place the group in its historical perspective and cultural context and to describe its structure as a small cultural system. The first section provides an historical overview of…

  4. Rethinking Relationships/Reconfiguring Teacher Research: Teachers as Ethnographers of Culture, Childhood, and Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemer, Frances Julia; Blasi, MaryJane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we employ multiple lenses to examine a state-funded teacher research institute designed to meld ethnographic and teacher research with anthropological and sociological studies of childhood. Planned as support for the work of teachers in reservation schools, the institute's classes, book talks, methods exercises, and subsequent…

  5. Long-term effects of a diet loosely restricting carbohydrates on HbA1c levels, BMI and tapering of sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Haimoto, Hajime; Iwata, Mitsunaga; Wakai, Kenji; Umegaki, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    The aim was to assess the long-term effect of a loose restriction of carbohydrate intake (carbohydrate-reduced diet: CARD) compared to a conventional diet (CD) in type 2 diabetes. One hundred and thirty-three type 2 diabetic outpatients followed the CD (n=57, 1734+/-410 kcal, carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio=57:16:26) or CARD (n=76, 1773+/-441 kcal, carbohydrate:protein:fat ratio=45:18:33) according to their own will, and were followed up for 2 years. Glycemic control, body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterols and dose of antidiabetic drugs were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. At baseline, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and BMI levels were 7.1+/-1.0% and 24.2+/-2.9, respectively, in the CD group, and 7.4+/-1.1% and 25.1+/-3.4 in the CARD group, showing no significant differences. During the 2-year follow-up period, HbA1c levels were significantly improved in the CARD group (CD: 7.5+/-1.3%, CARD: 6.7+/-0.6%, P<0.001), and BMI decreased more significantly in the CARD group (CD: 23.8+/-3.0, CARD: 23.8+/-3.5, P<0.001). The doses of sulfonylureas clearly tapered, and serum cholesterol profiles improved significantly with the CARD. Our results warrant a long-term and large-scale randomized study of the diet for type 2 diabetes.

  6. BEYOND TEXT: USING ARRAYS TO REPRESENT AND ANALYZE ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Corey M.; Dohan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Recent methodological debates in sociology have focused on how data and analyses might be made more open and accessible, how the process of theorizing and knowledge production might be made more explicit, and how developing means of visualization can help address these issues. In ethnography, where scholars from various traditions do not necessarily share basic epistemological assumptions about the research enterprise with either their quantitative colleagues or one another, these issues are particularly complex. Nevertheless, ethnographers working within the field of sociology face a set of common pragmatic challenges related to managing, analyzing, and presenting the rich context-dependent data generated during fieldwork. Inspired by both ongoing discussions about how sociological research might be made more transparent, as well as innovations in other data-centered fields, the authors developed an interactive visual approach that provides tools for addressing these shared pragmatic challenges. They label the approach “ethnoarray” analysis. This article introduces this approach and explains how it can help scholars address widely shared logistical and technical complexities, while remaining sensitive to both ethnography’s epistemic diversity and its practitioners shared commitment to depth, context, and interpretation. The authors use data from an ethnographic study of serious illness to construct a model of an ethnoarray and explain how such an array might be linked to data repositories to facilitate new forms of analysis, interpretation, and sharing within scholarly and lay communities. They conclude by discussing some potential implications of the ethnoarray and related approaches for the scope, practice, and forms of ethnography. PMID:26834296

  7. The role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury in Chinese adolescents: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-04-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the follow-up period. Results indicate that while Year 1 depressive symptoms and family invalidation were significantly associated with the occurrence of Year 2 NSSI, Year 1 behavioral impulsivity contributed to both the occurrence and repetition of Year 2 NSSI. Findings of this study suggest that adolescents who display multiple impulsive behaviors may be at particular risk for engaging in repetitive NSSI. Clinical implications of these findings and future research directions were discussed.

  8. The Role of Ethnographic Interviewing in Climate Change Evaluation Research: Investigating Intended and Unintended program effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloro-Bidart, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ethnographic interviewing is an under-utilized tool in climate change evaluation research, even though it has the potential to serve as a powerful method of data collection. The utility of the ethnographic interview lies in its ability to elicit responses from program participants describing what a program is in practice, shedding light on both intended and unintended program impacts. Drawing on evaluation work involving a federally-funded climate change grant at the University of California, Riverside, I will discuss how to design an ethnographic interview protocol in an effort to share "best practices" with other climate change evaluators. Particular attention will be given to applying ethnographic approaches to various program types, even those differing from the one discussed. I will share some of the concrete findings from my work on this grant, to serve as examples of the kinds of data evaluators can collect when employing an ethnographic approach to interviewing. UC Riverside's climate change grant is multi-faceted, however the component studied ethnographically was a science fair mentoring program. About twenty K-12 students from high poverty, ethnically diverse schools who expressed an interest in participating in science fair were paired up with graduate student mentors to simultaneously research climate change and design authentic science fair projects to compete at various levels. Since one of the stated goals of the grant is to "stimulate…students to consider climate science as a career track through experiential education activities" I was particularly interested in how student experiences with the project might differ from school science which has historically "pushed out" ethnically diverse students like those in many of Riverside's schools. (In the program students are able to interact one-on-one with a mentor and in school settings there is typically one teacher for more than thirty students). I also sought to understand student perceptions of

  9. Interpreting Discourse: Coherence and the Analysis of Ethnographic Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Michael; Hobbs, Jerry R.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an attempt to use artificial intelligence formalisms as a formal language of description for the complex conversational behavior that occurs in ethnographic interviews. Discusses three kinds of coherence and uses them to analyze the text of an interview. (FL)

  10. Smokey Hollow Ethnographic Landscape Circa 1955 The Smokey Hollow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Smokey Hollow Ethnographic Landscape Circa 1955 - The Smokey Hollow Community, Informal boundaries by street name: North to South: East Jefferson Street to East Van Buren Street. West to East: South Gadsden Street to Marvin Street., Tallahassee, Leon County, FL

  11. Ethnographic Auditing: A New Approach to Evaluating Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David

    Ethnographic auditing is the application of ethnographic or anthropological concepts and methods to the appraisal of administrative controls over resources. Ethnographic auditing highlights the role of culture, subculture, values, rituals and physical environment in management in higher education. The ethnographic auditor measures the fiscal and…

  12. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Daas, M; Assaf, A; Dada, K; Makzoumé, J

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  13. Comprehensive study of back and leg pain improvements after adult spinal deformity surgery: analysis of 421 patients with 2-year follow-up and of the impact of the surgery on treatment satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Justin K; Smith, Justin S; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Kim, Han Jo; Rolston, John D; Eastlack, Robert; Hart, Robert A; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Kelly, Michael P; Kebaish, Khaled; Gupta, Munish; Klineberg, Eric; Hostin, Richard; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Back and leg pain are the primary outcomes of adult spinal deformity (ASD) and predict patients' seeking of surgical management. The authors sought to characterize changes in back and leg pain after operative or nonoperative management of ASD. Outcomes were assessed according to pain severity, type of surgical procedure, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab spine deformity class, and patient satisfaction. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed data in a prospective multicenter database of ASD patients. Inclusion criteria were the following: age > 18 years and presence of spinal deformity as defined by a scoliosis Cobb angle ≥ 20°, sagittal vertical axis length ≥ 5 cm, pelvic tilt angle ≥ 25°, or thoracic kyphosis angle ≥ 60°. Patients were grouped into nonoperated and operated subcohorts and by the type of surgical procedure, spine SRS-Schwab deformity class, preoperative pain severity, and patient satisfaction. Numerical rating scale (NRS) scores of back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores, physical component summary (PCS) scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs), and substantial clinical benefits (SCBs) were assessed. RESULTS Patients in whom ASD had been operatively managed were 6 times more likely to have an improvement in back pain and 3 times more likely to have an improvement in leg pain than patients in whom ASD had been nonoperatively managed. Patients whose ASD had been managed nonoperatively were more likely to have their back or leg pain remain the same or worsen. The incidence of postoperative leg pain was 37.0% at 6 weeks postoperatively and 33.3% at the 2-year follow-up (FU). At the 2-year FU, among patients with any preoperative back or leg pain, 24.3% and 37.8% were free of back and leg pain, respectively, and among patients with severe (NRS scores of 7-10) preoperative back or leg pain, 21.0% and 32.8% were free of back and leg pain, respectively

  14. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R. C.; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Morrow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. PMID:10327711

  15. Methods for successful follow-up of elusive urban populations: an ethnographic approach with homeless men.

    PubMed Central

    Conover, S.; Berkman, A.; Gheith, A.; Jahiel, R.; Stanley, D.; Geller, P. A.; Valencia, E.; Susser, E.

    1997-01-01

    Public health is paying increasing attention to elusive urban populations such as the homeless, street drug users, and illegal immigrants. Yet, valid data on the health of these populations remain scarce; longitudinal research, in particular, has been hampered by poor follow-up rates. This paper reports on the follow-up methods used in two randomized clinical trials among one such population, namely, homeless men with mental illness. Each of the two trials achieved virtually complete follow-up over 18 months. The authors describe the ethnographic approach to follow-up used in these trials and elaborate its application to four components of the follow-up: training interviewers, tracking participants, administering the research office, and conducting assessments. The ethnographic follow-up method is adaptable to other studies and other settings, and may provide a replicable model for achieving high follow-up rates in urban epidemiologic studies. PMID:9211004

  16. What's in a rehab? Ethnographic evaluation research in Indigenous Australian residential alcohol and drug rehabilitation centres.

    PubMed

    Chenhall, Richard

    2008-08-01

    Residential rehabilitation centres are a popular form of treatment for Indigenous Australians suffering from alcohol and drug misuse; however, there has been very little substantive research and evaluation in this area. Based on long-term ethnographic research, this study examines the informal aspects of a treatment programme in an Indigenous residential alcohol and drug rehabilitation service. Evaluation of such services often focuses on treatment length and/or treatment level obtained as key indicators of success. This study suggests that 'treatment' may be more complex and layered with multiple levels of meaning, which may not necessarily be captured in some evaluation designs. For the residential rehabilitation centre discussed in this paper, oscillating periods of mutual support and discipline have an important therapeutic function. Standard measures of treatment length and level obtained are meaningless without incorporating understanding of this process. This paper presents some of the ethnographic findings, alongside some of the evaluation implications of doing this kind of research.

  17. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  18. Stability assessment of a moderately conforming all-polyethylene tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective RSA study with 2 years of follow-up of the Kinemax Plus design.

    PubMed

    Adalberth, G; Nilsson, K G; Byström, S; Kolstad, K; Mallmin, H; Milbrink, J

    1999-01-01

    The magnitude and pattern of the migration of an all-polyethylene tibial component with moderately conforming articular surfaces in total knee arthroplasty was analyzed in 20 patients > or =60 years during a 2-year follow-up using radiostereometry (RSA). Most of the migration occurred during the initial 4 months, whereafter the migration diminished, reaching a mean maximum migration of 0.75 mm at 2 years. Similar patterns were found for rotation of the implant. Maximum subsidence at 2 years was 0.7 mm and was most commonly located at the posteromedial part of the tibial component. These results indicate that an all-polyethylene tibial component with moderately conforming articular geometry and with a thickness of 10-12 mm demonstrated migration patterns compatible with a favorable prognosis in regard to future aseptic loosening.

  19. Piercing the veil: ethical issues in ethnographic research.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Brian

    2009-06-01

    It is not unusual for researchers in ethnography (and sometimes Institutional Review Boards) to assume that research of "public" behavior is morally unproblematic. I examine an historical case of ethnographic research and the sustained moral outrage to the research expressed by the subjects of that research. I suggest that the moral outrage was legitimate and articulate some of the ethical issues underlying that outrage. I argue that morally problematic Ethnographic research of public behavior can derive from research practice that includes a tendency to collapse the distinction between harm and moral wrong, a failure to take account of recent work on ethical issues in privacy; failure to appreciate the deception involved in ethnographers' failure to reveal their role as researchers to subjects and finally a failure to appropriately weigh the moral significance of issues of invasion of privacy and inflicted insight in both the research process and subsequent publication of research.

  20. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  1. Needle sharing in The Netherlands: an ethnographic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Grund, J P; Kaplan, C D; Adriaans, N F

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Needle sharing has been reported to be the main cause of the rapid spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among injecting drug users. Risk behaviors such as needle sharing are, however, the end result of complicated interaction patterns in drug user networks, which have their specific rules and rituals, and larger social structures and official drug policy. METHODS. To study these interaction patterns we examined the drug administration rituals of heroin addicts in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intensive ethnographic descriptions were collected by participant observation. RESULTS. In less than 10% of the observed self-injections unsafe syringes were used. In 68% of the self-injections new, sterile syringes were used. Needle sharing as a planned sequence was not observed. Sharing was determined primarily by the availability of syringes, experience with the injecting ritual, and drug craving. In all observed needle-sharing events, subjects were aware of the risks involved and undertook efforts to clean the injection equipment. CONCLUSIONS. In contrast to psychological approaches aimed at reducing individual "risk behavior," these findings suggest that HIV prevention can be made more effective if active drug injectors are organized to help themselves and their peers prevent high-risk exchange situations. PMID:1746657

  2. Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

  3. Association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression, and the effect of depression on outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke in a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian-Tong; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Ying-Jun; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-Chao; Jiang, Chen; Wang, Cheng; Shao, Jun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association and the effect of PSD on the outcomes of ischemic stroke patients. A total of 355 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke participated in inflammatory cytokine detection by ELISA, in addition to depression, quality of life (QOL) and body performance testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate the associations between PSD risk, inflammatory cytokines and the outcomes of patients. Measurement data was evaluated using Student's t test, and counted data was measured by χ2 test. The incidence of PSD during the 2-year follow-up was 23.1%. The risk of PSD elevated with increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression levels [hazard ratio (HR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37–7.36] following the adjustment of confounders. However, no significant associations were identified between PSD and other inflammatory cytokines. QOL and body performance in the depressed group were significantly worse compared with those in the non-depressed group. The risk of stroke recurrence in patients with depression increased two-fold compared with patients without depression (HR=2.020; 95% CI, 1.123–3.635; Ptrend=0.019). No significant associations between PSD and the risk of mortality (HR=1.497; 95% CI, 0.547–4.098) were observed. In conclusion, depression is prevalent in patients following ischemic stroke. IL-6 is positively associated with the risk of PSD, and may predict its development in patients following ischemic stroke. PSD correlates with outcomes of patients, and the effective management of PSD may improve the prognosis of patients. PMID:27588080

  4. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean . E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Magne, Nicolas; Poissonnet, Gilles; Ramaioli, Alain; Lemanski, Claire; Bourdin, Sylvain; Tortochaux, Jacques; Peyrade, Frederic; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Vallicioni, Jacques; Seng Hang; Alzieu, Claude; Gery, Bernard; Chauvel, Pierre; Schneider, Maurice; Santini, Jose; Demard, Francois; Calais, Gilles

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  5. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion. PMID:27098659

  6. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion.

  7. Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

  8. Performance of p16INK4a ELISA as a primary cervical cancer screening test among a large cohort of HIV-infected women in western Kenya: a 2-year cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tara J; Smith-McCune, Karen; Reuschenbach, Miriam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Maloba, May; Huchko, Megan J

    2016-01-01

    Objective A biomarker with increased specificity for cervical dysplasia compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing would be an attractive option for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings. p16INK4a has been explored as a biomarker for screening in general populations. Design A 2-year cross-sectional study. Setting 2 large HIV primary care clinics in western Kenya. Participants 1054 HIV-infected women in western Kenya undergoing cervical cancer screening as part of routine HIV care from October 2010 to November 2012. Interventions Participants underwent p16INK4a specimen collection and colposcopy. Lesions with unsatisfactory colposcopy or suspicious for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+; including CIN2/3 or invasive cervical cancer) were biopsied. Following biopsy, disease status was determined by histopathological diagnosis. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of p16INK4a ELISA for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women and compared them to the test characteristics of current screening methods used in general as well as HIV-infected populations. Results Average p16INK4a concentration in cervical samples was 37.4 U/mL. After colposcopically directed biopsy, 127 (12%) women were determined to have CIN2+. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.664 for p16INK4a to detect biopsy-proven CIN2+. At a p16INK4a cut-off level of 9 U/mL, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 89.0%, 22.9%, 13.6% and 93.8%, respectively. The overall p16INK4a positivity at a cut-off level of 9 U/mL was 828 (78.6%) women. There were 325 (30.8%) cases of correct p16INK4a prediction to detect or rule out CIN2+, and 729 (69.2%) cases of incorrect p16INK4a prediction. Conclusions p16INK4a ELISA did not perform well as a screening test for CIN2+ detection among HIV-infected women due to low

  9. Physicians, Patients, and the Electronic Health Record: An Ethnographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ventres, William; Kooienga, Sarah; Vuckovic, Nancy; Marlin, Ryan; Nygren, Peggy; Stewart, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Little is known about the effects of the electronic health record (EHR) on physician-patient encounters. The objectives of this study were to identify the factors that influence the manner by which physicians use the EHR with patients. METHODS This ethnographic study included 4 qualitative components: 80 hours of participant observation in 4 primary care offices in the Pacific Northwest; individual interviews with 52 patients, 12 office staff members, 23 physicians, and 1 nurse-practitioner; videotaped reviews of 29 clinical encounters; and 5 focus-group interviews with physicians and computer advocates. The main outcome measures were factors that influence how physicians use the EHR. Researchers qualitatively derived these factors through serial reviews of data. RESULTS This study identified 14 factors that influence how EHRs are used and perceived in medical practice today. These factors were categorized into 4 thematic domains: (1) spatial—effect of the physical presence and location of EHRs on interactions between physicians and patients; (2) relational—perceptions of physicians and patients about the EHR and how those perceptions affected its use; (3) educational—issues of developing physicians’ proficiency with and improving patients’ understandings about EHR use; and (4) structural—institutional and technological forces that influence how physicians perceived their use of EHR. CONCLUSIONS This study found that the introduction of EHRs into practice influences multiple cognitive and social dimensions of the clinical encounter. It brings into focus important questions that through further inquiry can determine how to make best use of the EHR to enhance therapeutic relationships. PMID:16569715

  10. Critical Thinking in Classroom Discussion of Texts: An Ethnographic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne

    An ethnographic approach is taken to describe the development of student critical thinking in the Pittsburgh Discussion Project, focusing primarily on discussion experiences in three classes (one college-bound 9th-grade class and two mainstream 11th-grade classes) over the school year. Weekly discussions were audiotaped, and interviews were…

  11. Perceiving Falls within a Family Context: A Focused Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilian, Christine; Salmoni, Alan; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Kloseck, Marita

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine the perceptions of risk regarding falling held by older adults and their adult children. Using a focused ethnographic approach, older adults and adult children were interviewed in depth. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes within groups and to compare the perspectives of older…

  12. Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

  13. Ethnographic Investigations of Issues of Race in Scandinavian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Lunneblad, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this article we aim to present an overview of some of the ways in which issues of race and ethnicity are represented and researched in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. Several things are suggested. Amongst them is that educational ethnographers in Scandinavia rarely use the concept of race. The term (im)migrant(s) is used instead and the…

  14. Exploring Some Ethical Dilemmas and Obligations of the Ethnographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…

  15. Investigating the Lives of New Teachers through Ethnographic Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses key issues embedded within what some commentators are describing as a "virtual" or "digital" ethnography. Namely, that through the adoption of new (virtual) spaces for ethnographic inquiry it is possible to trouble previous notions of site, place, space and meaning when collaborating in online fields. This article is located…

  16. An Outsider's Ethnographic Thoughts about Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article gives Michael Agar's email responses to two questions put by Gavin Melles: "What are your thoughts on the advantages and dangers of developments in applied anthropology for ethnographic and anthropology practice?" and "What are your impressions of the potential and actual use of ethnography in design?" The…

  17. Novel Ethnographic Representations and the Dilemmas of Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that readers of ethnographic work need to make informed, principled and responsible decisions about the criteria they use to judge different and novel forms of representation. Two possible approaches are discussed in detail. Firstly, attention is given to the criteriological approach which believes that agreed, universal and…

  18. Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling: A Research Method for Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ethnographic decision tree modeling (EDTM; C. H. Gladwin, 1989) as a mixed method design appropriate for counseling psychology research. EDTM is introduced and located within a postpositivist research paradigm. Decision theory that informs EDTM is reviewed, and the 2 phases of EDTM are highlighted. The 1st phase, model…

  19. What Does It Mean when an Ethnographer Intervenes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores what it means to engage as an ethical researcher in the conduct of critical ethnography. During the years in which this critical ethnography of new language learners in a midwestern high school, the ethnographer actively participated in the life of the site. This paper poses the question of what such active involvement means…

  20. Seeing and Seeing through: Forum Theatre Approaches to Ethnographic Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David; Conroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnographic findings from a large qualitative research project on Religious Education in UK secondary schools uncovered contested meanings for the subject as a social practice. In order to bring to the fore some of the ways these contested meanings manifest themselves as confusions in the classroom, a performance ethnography was conducted, making…

  1. Use of Ethnographic Fiction in Social Justice Graduate Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Rita Chi-Ying; Bemak, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Ethnographic fiction is a technique for educating counseling students about the relationship of social justice to counseling practice. Preliminary data indicate it is an effective tool, with counseling students (N = 48) reporting an increased understanding and appreciation of clients' life experiences from a holistic perspective. Furthermore,…

  2. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  3. Negotiating Mothering Identities: Ethnographic and Intergenerational Insights to Gender and Social Class in a High-Poverty US Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript draws from a 4-year feminist ethnographic study of eight young girls and their caretakers in a high-poverty, predominantly White, urban community in the USA. Themes of mothers, mothering, and motherhood were dominant across 4 years of data generation and in this article I focus on the girls' and mothers' narratives to explore…

  4. Utilising a Blended Ethnographic Approach to Explore the Online and Offline Lives of Pro-Ana Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The article critically interrogates contemporary discourses and practices around "anorexia nervosa" through an ethnographic study that moves between two sites: an online pro-anorexia (pro-ana) community, and a Local Authority-funded eating disorder prevention project located in schools and youth centres in the north of England. The article…

  5. Walking the Fine Line between Fieldwork Success and Failure: Advice for New Ethnographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Peter Richard; Temple, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    While the importance of ethnographic research in developing new knowledge is widely recognised, there remains minimal detailed description and discussion of the actual practice and processes involved in completing ethnographic fieldwork. The first author's experiences and struggles as an ethnographer of a group of young men from two locations…

  6. Comparative, Diachronic, Ethnographic Research on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Most qualitative studies in international education take place in a single site in a single nation. When studies are of more than one country, they most often use more quantitative than qualitative approaches. Beatrice and John Whiting conducted the most systematic of comparative cross-cultural studies of child rearing in their "Six…

  7. Ethnographic traits in the writing of Mary Breckinridge.

    PubMed

    Ruffing-Rahal, M A

    1991-05-01

    Mary Breckinridge, founder of The Frontier Nursing Service, employed ethnographic methodologies--participant observation, interviewing and fieldwork--as foundation efforts toward construction of highly responsive health-service systems, developed under circumstances of duress, e.g. after World War I and pre-industrial Appalachia. In culturally representing the Appalachian, she drew upon two vast resources, her first-hand field experience as well as her considerable rhetorical skill. She narrated and described an enormity of selected 'realities' of Appalachian life with immediacy of detail and nonpatronizing sensitivity for 'insider' perspectives. In an era of transition with few indigenous cultural writers, Breckinridge capitalized on her family heritage in Appalachia, which further underscored the intimacy and authenticity of her accounts. As portrayed in her autobiography, crosscultural encounters of one kind and time or another supplied an infrastructure of longstanding meaning throughout her life. The final and lasting impression is that, in both skills and orientation, Breckinridge's were essentially those of the ethnographer.

  8. Ethnographic analogy, the comparative method, and archaeological special pleading.

    PubMed

    Currie, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Ethnographic analogy, the use of comparative data from anthropology to inform reconstructions of past human societies, has a troubled history. Archaeologists often express concern about, or outright reject, the practice--and sometimes do so in problematically general terms. This is odd, as (or so I argue) the use of comparative data in archaeology is the same pattern of reasoning as the 'comparative method' in biology, which is a well-developed and robust set of inferences which play a central role in discovering the biological past. In pointing out this continuity, I argue that there is no 'special pleading' on the part of archaeologists in this regard: biologists must overcome analogous epistemic difficulties in their use of comparative data. I then go on to emphasize the local, empirically tractable ways in which particular ethnographic analogies may be licensed. PMID:26774072

  9. Ethnographic analogy, the comparative method, and archaeological special pleading.

    PubMed

    Currie, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Ethnographic analogy, the use of comparative data from anthropology to inform reconstructions of past human societies, has a troubled history. Archaeologists often express concern about, or outright reject, the practice--and sometimes do so in problematically general terms. This is odd, as (or so I argue) the use of comparative data in archaeology is the same pattern of reasoning as the 'comparative method' in biology, which is a well-developed and robust set of inferences which play a central role in discovering the biological past. In pointing out this continuity, I argue that there is no 'special pleading' on the part of archaeologists in this regard: biologists must overcome analogous epistemic difficulties in their use of comparative data. I then go on to emphasize the local, empirically tractable ways in which particular ethnographic analogies may be licensed.

  10. Ethnographic approach to community organization and health empowerment.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R L; Bianchi, C; Taylor, S E

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address pertinent issues relative to the association between community organization and health empowerment methods in ethnic communities of colour. It seeks to address these issues by utilizing ethnographic procedures for documenting community health concerns and by advocating for empowerment for people of colour and their participation in coalition partnerships. Increasingly the importance of citizen participation in the planning, assessment, and implementation of community-based health initiatives has been identified as essential for effective health promotion and disease prevention programs. This article argues for the utility of a community organization approach for achieving health empowerment, and subsequently decreasing the excess deaths in communities of colour. The interface of ethnographic procedures, community organization, and development of community-owned action plans for programming health interventions is discussed.

  11. Structural Analysis and Ethnographic Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Karen Abney; Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    To illustrate how theoretical studies should blend with empirical research, this article describes how scholars changed the ways they thought about schools and poverty. It begins with a historical review of the perspective of educational theorists and public policy prior to the 1970s. Taking a Marxist perspective, Bowles and Gintis (1976)…

  12. Social Capital, Narratives of Fragmentation, and Schizophrenia: An Ethnographic Exploration of Factors Shaping African-Caribbeans’ Social Capital and Mental Health in a North London Community

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent research studies have proposed the concept of social capital—broadly defined as social networks, community cohesion, and participation—as a social risk factor for health disparities and the high rates of schizophrenia among individuals of Caribbean heritage in England. However, many of the existing studies lack sociohistorical contexts and do not capture the experiential dimensions of individuals’ social capital. This paper adds to the debate by examining the mechanisms and sociocultural processes that shape the understandings and experiences of social capital in a sample of British African-Caribbeans. Drawing on ethnographic and survey data collected over 2 years in a North London community, the paper focuses on participants’ every day experiences and the stories they tell about their community and social fragmentation. These stories suggest that social changes and historical forces interact to affect the social capital and emotional well-being of local African-Caribbean residents. I argue that my participants’ collective narratives about their social environment contribute to the emotional tone of the community, and create added stressors that may impact their mental health. PMID:23832434

  13. Social capital, narratives of fragmentation, and schizophrenia: an ethnographic exploration of factors shaping African-Caribbeans' social capital and mental health in a North London community.

    PubMed

    Eliacin, Johanne

    2013-09-01

    Recent research studies have proposed the concept of social capital-broadly defined as social networks, community cohesion, and participation-as a social risk factor for health disparities and the high rates of schizophrenia among individuals of Caribbean heritage in England. However, many of the existing studies lack sociohistorical contexts and do not capture the experiential dimensions of individuals' social capital. This paper adds to the debate by examining the mechanisms and sociocultural processes that shape the understandings and experiences of social capital in a sample of British African-Caribbeans. Drawing on ethnographic and survey data collected over 2 years in a North London community, the paper focuses on participants' every day experiences and the stories they tell about their community and social fragmentation. These stories suggest that social changes and historical forces interact to affect the social capital and emotional well-being of local African-Caribbean residents. I argue that my participants' collective narratives about their social environment contribute to the emotional tone of the community, and create added stressors that may impact their mental health.

  14. Prevalence and Antifungal Susceptibility of 442 Candida Isolates from Blood and Other Normally Sterile Sites: Results of a 2-Year (1996 to 1998) Multicenter Surveillance Study in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    St-Germain, G.; Laverdière, M.; Pelletier, R.; Bourgault, A.-M.; Libman, M.; Lemieux, C.; Noël, G.

    2001-01-01

    During a 2-year surveillance program (1996 to 1998) in Quebec, Canada, 442 strains of Candida species were isolated from 415 patients in 51 hospitals. The distribution of species was as follows: Candida albicans, 54%; C. glabrata, 15%; C. parapsilosis, 12%; C. tropicalis, 9%; C. lusitaniae, 3%; C. krusei, 3%; and Candida spp., 3%. These data, compared to those of a 1985 survey, indicate variations in species distribution, with the proportions of C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis increasing by 9 and 4%, respectively, and those of C. albicans and C. tropicalis decreasing by 10 and 7%, respectively. However, these differences are statistically significant for C. glabrata and C. tropicalis only. MICs of amphotericin B were ≥4 μg/ml for 3% of isolates, all of which were non-C. albicans species. Three percent of C. albicans isolates were resistant to flucytosine (≥32 μg/ml). Resistance to itraconazole (≥1 μg/ml) and fluconazole (≥64 μg/ml) was observed, respectively, in 1 and 1% of C. albicans, 14 and 9% of C. glabrata, 5 and 0% of C. tropicalis, and 0% of C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae isolates. Clinical data were obtained for 343 patients. The overall crude mortality rate was 38%, reflecting the multiple serious underlying illnesses found in these patients. Bloodstream infections were documented for 249 patients (73%). Overall, systemic triazoles had been administered to 10% of patients before the onset of candidiasis. The frequency of isolation of non-C. albicans species was significantly higher in this group of patients. Overall, only two C. albicans isolates were found to be resistant to fluconazole. These were obtained from an AIDS patient and a leukemia patient, both of whom had a history of previous exposure to fluconazole. At present, it appears that resistance to fluconazole in Quebec is rare and is restricted to patients with prior prolonged azole treatment. PMID:11230409

  15. The association of maternal vitamin D status with infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity in the first 2 years of life in a multi-ethnic Asian population: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Yi Lin; Quah, Phaik Ling; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Heppe, Denise; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Foong-Fong Chong, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50-75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes - small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) - growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population. PMID:27339329

  16. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Nkumama, Irene N.; Gambo, Faith K.; Muema, Daniel M.; Hassan, Amin S.; Jahangir, Margaret N.; Etyang, Timothy J.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2016-01-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected. PMID:27170641

  17. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  18. B-type natriuretic peptide and high sensitive C-reactive protein predict 2-year all cause mortality in chest pain patients: a prospective observational study from Salta, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of the Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). We have addressed whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in admission samples may improve risk stratification in chest pain patients with suspected ACS. Methods We included 982 patients consecutively admitted with chest pain and suspected ACS at nine hospitals in Salta, Northern Argentina. Total and cardiac mortality were recorded during a 2-year follow up period. Patients were divided into quartiles according to BNP and hsCRP levels, respectively, and inter quartile differences in mortality were statistically evaluated applying univariate and multivariate analyses. Results 119 patients died, and the BNP and hsCRP levels were significantly higher among these patients than in survivors. In a multivariable Cox regression model for total death and cardiac death in all patients, the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest quartile (Q4) as compared to the lowest quartile (Q1) of BNP was 2.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-4.35), p = 0.009 and 3.34 (95% CI, 1.26-8.85), p = 0.015, respectively. In the TnT positive patients (TnT > 0.01 ng/mL), the HR for total death and cardiac death in Q4 as compared to Q1 was 2.12 (95% CI, 1.07-4.18), p = 0.031 and 3.42 (95% CI, 1.13-10.32), p = 0.029, respectively. The HR for total death for hsCRP in Q4 as compared to Q1 was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.17-3.32), p = 0.011, but this biomarker did not predict cardiac death (p = 0.21). No prognostic impact of these two biomarkers was found in the TnT negative patients. Conclusion BNP and hsCRP may act as clinically useful biomarkers when obtained at admission in a population with suspected ACS. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01377402. PMID:21958326

  19. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  20. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. PMID:26865423

  1. Formative Ethnographic Research to Improve Evaluation of a Novel Water System in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alcorn, Ted E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    The accessibility of potable water is fundamental to public health. A private for-profit company is installing kiosk-based drinking-water systems in rural and peri-urban villages in Ghana, and we evaluated their performance. Preceding an observational study to measure the effect of these kiosks on the incidence of water-related disease in recipient communities, we conducted ethnographic research to assess local water-related practices and the ways these practices would affect adoption of the new technology. We conducted fieldwork in two communities in Ghana and interviewed stakeholders throughout the water sector. Our findings illustrate the complexity of water-related behaviors and indicate several factors that may sustain disease transmission despite the presence of the new technology. This formative ethnographic research also improved the precision of our subsequent evaluation of the intervention by providing a site-specific, culturally-appropriate knowledge base. This study demonstrates the value of incorporating qualitative research techniques into evaluations of water-related projects. PMID:21540392

  2. Peasants on display: the Czechoslavic Ethnographic Exhibition of 1895.

    PubMed

    Filipová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly modernized Central Europe of the late nineteenth century, folk culture, with its alleged ancient character, was still understood by some scholars as the bearer of national identity. The Czechoslavic [sic] Ethnographic Exhibition, which took place in Prague in 1895, aimed to promote the idea of the ethnically unified, but at the same time regionally diverse, identity of the Czech-speaking people living in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. Having to negotiate their identity with the ethnic Germans of Bohemia, the Czechs consciously excluded them from the event both as organizers and as exhibitors. The exhibition could therefore be seen as a symptom of its time—in the late nineteenth century Central Europe, locating national heritage was crucial and folk culture played an important role in the national politics, and not only for the Czechs. This article focuses mainly on the ethnographic exhibit entitled ‘the Exhibition Village’, which consisted of an eclectic selection of village houses and their imitations from Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. On this basis, it explores the political intentions behind the display of folk culture to both urban and rural audiences and brings attention to the question of integration of the diverse regional objects in a utopian national whole. The article thus also aims to demonstrate issues related to the use of folk artefacts for the purposes of cultural nationalism in Austria-Hungary in the late nineteenth century. PMID:21574287

  3. On ``The Congressional Fellowship as an Ethnographic Extravaganza''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2006-06-01

    Josh Trapani's emerging experience as an AGU Congressional Fellow (Eos, 87(7), 76, 2006) is educational. Spectacular developments in the physical sciences tempt us to believe that finer and finer dissection of matter and sophisticated manipulation of molecules will soon enable us to control nature at will. Increasing knowledge, though, about the Earth and its interconnected biological systems makes us skeptical about the enthusiastic vision of physical sciences. Living things, unlike the nonliving things that are the concern of physical sciences, possess the attribute of `behavior,' associated with `mind' and `instinct.'. Trapani's ethnographic extravaganza is merely a subset of behavior, which lies beyond the scope of relativity, quantum mechanics, or thermodynamics. Rationally, one would expect that with its fine program of liberal education, congressional fellowships, and prestigious academies of sciences, the United States will enjoy a most harmonious interrelationship between science and national policies. Such rational thinking, a reflection of our training in the physical sciences, is valid in the case of inanimate things that are faithfully subject to physical laws. When on occasion we feel dismayed at a lack of harmony between what science tells us and how national policies take shape, we would do well to be reminded by Trapani's ethnographic extravaganza that `behavior' of even the most technologically advanced living things transcends the rationality of the physical sciences.

  4. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A Text Size ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  5. Slicing the Onion Ethnographically: Layers and Spaces in Multilingual Language Education Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we take up the call for more multilayered and ethnographic approaches to language policy and planning (LPP) research by sharing two examples of how ethnography can illuminate local interpretation and implementation. We offer ethnographic data collected in two very different institutions--the School District of Philadelphia and the…

  6. Conceptualising the Use of Facebook in Ethnographic Research: As Tool, as Data and as Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a three-part conceptualisation of the use of Facebook in ethnographic research: as a tool, as data and as context. Longitudinal research with young adults at a time of significant change provides many challenges for the ethnographic researcher, such as maintaining channels of communication and high rates of participant…

  7. Rare models: Roger Casement, the Amazon, and the ethnographic picturesque.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    In 1910 Roger Casement was sent by the British government to investigate the alleged humanitarian abuses of the Peruvian Amazon Company in the Putumayo, a disputed border zone in North West Amazonia. Casement brought more than verbal and written testimony back to London. On 26 June, some six months after he returned from the Amazon, Casement collected two Amerindian boys - Omarino and Ricudo - from Southampton docks. This paper will reconstruct the brief period that these young men spent in Britain in the summer of 1911 and assess, in particular, to what extent they were treated as 'exhibits' by Casement, who not only introduced them to leading members of the British establishment but also arranged for them to be painted and photographed following contemporary ethnographic conventions.

  8. Challenges and responsibilities of clinical teachers in the workplace: an ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Magnier, Kirsty M; Wang, Ruolan; Dale, Vicki H M; Pead, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the complex role of the clinical teacher in the workplace, with a view to identifying effective teaching practices. An ethnographic case-study approach was taken, including participant observations and semi-structured interviews with three participants that were selected from two participating veterinary institutions. The clinical teacher has several responsibilities, such as establishing a rapport with learners and maximizing the use of case-based learning opportunities to provide instruction and support to individual learners in a safe but challenging environment. Associated difficulties include balancing the competing demands of students' learning needs and patients' welfare, as well as maximizing the learning opportunities within available case material. Participants in this study demonstrated a reflective approach, adjusting their teaching approach "in action" and "on action" as appropriate.

  9. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Followed by 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Aged ≥2 Years: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per; Juergens, Christine; Maertens, Johan; Selleslag, Dominik; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Giardina, Peter C.; Clarke, Keri; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections often occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); vaccination is important for prevention. Methods. In an open-label study, patients (n = 251) 3–6 months after allogeneic HSCT received 3 doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at 1-month intervals, a fourth dose 6 months later, and 1 dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 1 month later. Immunogenicity at prespecified time points and vaccine safety were assessed. Results. In the evaluable immunogenicity population (N = 216; mean age, 37.8 years), geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations from baseline to postdose 3 showed significant increases in antibody levels across all PCV13 serotypes (GMFR range, 2.99–23.85; 95% confidence interval lower limit, >1); there were significant declines over the next 6 months, significant increases from predose 4 to postdose 4 (GMFR range, 3.00–6.97), and little change after PPSV23 (GMFR range, 0.86–1.12). Local and systemic reactions were more frequent after dose 4. Six patients experienced serious adverse events possibly related to PCV13 (facial diplegia, injection-site erythema and pyrexia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and suspected lack of vaccine efficacy after dose 3 leading to pneumococcal infection), PCV13 and PPSV23 (Guillain-Barré syndrome), or PPSV23 (cellulitis). There were 14 deaths, none related to study vaccines. Conclusions. A 3-dose PCV13 regimen followed by a booster dose may be required to protect against pneumococcal disease in HSCT recipients. Dose 4 was associated with increased local and systemic reactions, but the overall safety profile of a 4-dose regimen was considered acceptable. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00980655. PMID:25870329

  10. "Venting" in the Workplace: An Ethnographic Study among Resident Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchard, Brendon

    The term "venting" has been used interchangeably with negatively-connotated words like "outburst,""bitching,""complaining," and with more functional words like "disclosing." A literature review of venting showed that researchers have approached the term from multiple perspectives. Because of the ambiguity of what venting is or is not, why it is…

  11. Sustaining a Nepali Telecenter: An Ethnographic Study Using Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeffrey; Sparks, Paul

    2014-01-01

    While advances have made it possible for the average Nepali to access mobile phones, computers, and digital cameras, barriers continue to impede access. Like other governments, Nepal responded in 2004 by creating about 80 telecenters to push sustainable technology to its people. Five years later, most telecenters struggle with sustainability. This…

  12. Older Japanese Adults and Mobile Phones: An Applied Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiya, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…

  13. Proposal Writing at Atherton Jordan, Inc.: An Ethnographic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIsaac, Claudia MonPere; Aschauer, Mary Ann

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the proposal-writing environment, the characteristics of proposals, and the practices of seven engineers at a Silicon Valley engineering firm that does government defense work. Finds that engineers write proposals collaboratively and have a highly structured composing process. Describes how the firm's Proposal Writing Center dramatically…

  14. A 2-year dose-response study of lesion sequences during hepatocellular carcinogenesis in the male B6C3F(1) mouse given the drinking water chemical dichloroacetic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Julia H; Carter, Harry W; Deddens, James A; Hurst, Bernadette M; George, Michael H; DeAngelo, Anthony B

    2003-01-01

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is carcinogenic to the B6C3F(1) mouse and the F344 rat. Given the carcinogenic potential of DCA in rodent liver and the known concentrations of this compound in drinking water, reliable biologically based models to reduce the uncertainty of risk assessment for human exposure to DCA are needed. Development of such models requires identification and quantification of premalignant hepatic lesions, identification of the doses at which these lesions occur, and determination of the likelihood that these lesions will progress to cancer. In this study we determined the dose response of histopathologic changes occurring in the livers of mice exposed to DCA (0.05-3.5 g/L) for 26-100 weeks. Lesions were classified as foci of cellular alteration smaller than one liver lobule (altered hepatic foci; AHF), foci of cellular alteration larger than one liver lobule (large foci of cellular alteration; LFCA), adenomas (ADs), or carcinomas (CAs). Histopathologic analysis of 598 premalignant lesions revealed that (a)) each lesion class had a predominant phenotype; (b)) AHF, LFCA, and AD demonstrated neoplastic progression with time; and (c)) independent of DCA dose and length of exposure effects, some toxic/adaptive changes in non-involved liver were related to this neoplastic progression. A lesion sequence for carcinogenesis in male B6C3F(1) mouse liver has been proposed that will enable development of a biologically based mathematical model for DCA. Because all classes of premalignant lesions and CAs were found at both lower and higher doses, these data are consistent with the conclusion that nongenotoxic mechanisms, such as negative selection, are relevant to DCA carcinogenesis at lower doses where DCA genotoxicity has not been observed. PMID:12515679

  15. Pediatric Procedural Pain-How Far Have We Come? An Ethnographic Account

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jo Ann F

    2014-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, the author explores the pediatric procedural pain management practice of healthcare providers in a non-pediatric emergency department. Data were collected for 5 months with over 100 hours of observation. Six key informants were interviewed, and 44 pediatric procedural interactions with 27 healthcare providers during the treatment of children two to eight years of age undergoing procedures were observed. Other information gathered included documents from the institution, and pain related information from the patient’s medical record. Two major themes with categories are discussed, the treatment of pain, and procedural pain. The findings of this study provide insight to the everyday practice of emergency department healthcare providers for pediatric pain in a non-pediatric setting, and identify practice issues that may adversely affect the management of pediatric procedural pain, notably the non-use of pharmacological techniques for simple needle procedures and the common use of physical restraint during painful procedures. PMID:26025793

  16. I.D.ology and the Technologies of Public (School) Space: An Ethnographic Inquiry into the Neo-Liberal Tactics of Social (Re)Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Kathleen; Fusco, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores spatial theory, and particularly a Foucauldian analysis of space, power, and the subject, as a frame within which to examine moves toward security in North American urban schools. We bring into play empirical data from an ethnographic study of New York City and Toronto schools where policies and technologies of record-keeping,…

  17. Teacher Implementation of Mathematics Curriculum Initiatives in a Test-Driven Accountability Environment: An Ethnographic Investigation into Leadership; School Culture; and Teacher's Attitudes, Beliefs, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Robert M., III

    2006-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated the implementation process of mathematics curriculum initiatives designed to improve student achievement in a test-driven accountability environment. The research focused on complex factors within the school contextual environment influencing implementation and student achievement specifically, leadership;…

  18. Ethical considerations when conducting ethnographic research in a nursing home setting.

    PubMed

    Schuster, E

    1996-01-01

    In this article I provide an overview of ethical concerns when conducting ethnographic research in nursing home settings where participants are vulnerable and submissive to authority, and I consider how particular research methodologies may benefit the participants. The focus of the article is primarily on the issues of privacy and autonomy and the relationship between the researcher and the participant. My own experiences of doing research in a nursing home will be woven throughout the article, as will the accounts of other researchers who have studied life in nursing homes. In reflecting on my work as a researcher I have come to a deeper understanding of the ethical issues involved in doing research in a nursing home and of the importance of ethically sound research.

  19. Deconstructing Fatalism: Ethnographic Perspectives on Women's Decision Making about Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Elaine M.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long held that fatalism (the belief in a lack of personal power or control over destiny or fate) constitutes a major barrier to participation in positive health behaviors and, subsequently, adversely affects health outcomes. In this paper, we present two in-depth, ethnographic studies of rural women's health decisions surrounding cancer treatments to illustrate the complexity and contestability of the long-established fatalism construct. Narrative analyses suggest that for these women, numerous and complex factors—including inadequate access to health services, a legacy of self-reliance, insufficient privacy, combined with a culturally acceptable idiom of fatalism—foster the use of, but not necessarily a rigid conviction in, the notion of fatalism. PMID:21834356

  20. Toward better compliance with iron-folic acid supplements: understanding the behavior of poor urban pregnant women through ethnographic decision models in Vadodara, India.

    PubMed

    Ghanekar, Jai; Kanani, Shubhada; Patel, Sucheta

    2002-03-01

    This study made an attempt to develop ethnographic decision models to understand and improve iron-folic acid supplement procurement and compliance-related behaviors of poor urban pregnant women in Vadodara, India, based on data obtained through the use of qualitative research tools. Open-ended, in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 pregnant women (17-32 weeks of gestation) purposively selected from four urban slums. Fortnightly home visits were made to the houses of 20 pregnant women-family member pairs to elicit behaviors related to iron-folic acid supplement procurement and compliance at the household level, from which the ethnographic decision models were developed. The hemoglobin levels of these women were also assessed. Regular counseling until delivery, based on the ethnographic data, helped to improve compliance, which resulted in 95% of the women consuming over 90% of the required dose. The mean hemoglobin level also improved from 9.6 to 11.08 g/dl until the end of the last trimester. This study highlighted the need for qualitative ethnographic data to develop such models that would help in the understanding of specific behaviors that influence program acceptance. Such data would have policy-level implications, for example, developing appropriate information-education-communication material and counseling strategies.

  1. Smoking patterns, attitudes and motives: unique characteristics among 2-year versus 4-year college students.

    PubMed

    Berg, C J; An, L C; Thomas, J L; Lust, K A; Sanem, J R; Swan, D W; Ahluwalia, J S

    2011-08-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year university completed an online survey in 2008. Current (past 30-day) smoking was reported by 43.5% of 2-year and 31.9% of 4-year college students, and daily smoking was reported by 19.9% of 2-year and 8.3% of 4-year college students. Attending a 2-year college was associated with higher rates of current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72] and daily smoking (OR = 2.84), and with less negative attitudes regarding smoking, controlling for age, gender, ethnicity and parental education. Also, compared with 4-year college student smokers, 2-year college smokers had lower motivation to smoke for social reasons, but more motivation to smoke for affect regulation, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity and parental education. Two- and 4-year college students report different smoking patterns, attitudes and motives. These distinctions might inform tobacco control messages and interventions targeting these groups of young adults.

  2. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development: Option 2 Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Option 2 Year from December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1997. The Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides products and deliverable in the form of models, data bases, methodologies, studies and analyses for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PPO3) the Program Plans and Requirements Officer (PP02), and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Progress reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section TV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work accomplishments, deliverables submitted, major meetings held, and other pertinent information. This Final Report will summarize these activities at higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 29,830 man-hours in tile performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work and reported oil in this yearly Final Report. This represents approximately 16 full-time EPs. Included are the basis Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Chicago, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  3. Workflow in Clinical Trial Sites & Its Association with Near Miss Events for Data Quality: Ethnographic, Workflow & Systems Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Araujo de Carvalho, Elias Cesar; Batilana, Adelia Portero; Claudino, Wederson; Lima Reis, Luiz Fernando; Schmerling, Rafael A.; Shah, Jatin; Pietrobon, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background With the exponential expansion of clinical trials conducted in (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) and VISTA (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey, and Argentina) countries, corresponding gains in cost and enrolment efficiency quickly outpace the consonant metrics in traditional countries in North America and European Union. However, questions still remain regarding the quality of data being collected in these countries. We used ethnographic, mapping and computer simulation studies to identify/address areas of threat to near miss events for data quality in two cancer trial sites in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Two sites in Sao Paolo and Rio Janeiro were evaluated using ethnographic observations of workflow during subject enrolment and data collection. Emerging themes related to threats to near miss events for data quality were derived from observations. They were then transformed into workflows using UML-AD and modeled using System Dynamics. 139 tasks were observed and mapped through the ethnographic study. The UML-AD detected four major activities in the workflow evaluation of potential research subjects prior to signature of informed consent, visit to obtain subject́s informed consent, regular data collection sessions following study protocol and closure of study protocol for a given project. Field observations pointed to three major emerging themes: (a) lack of standardized process for data registration at source document, (b) multiplicity of data repositories and (c) scarcity of decision support systems at the point of research intervention. Simulation with policy model demonstrates a reduction of the rework problem. Conclusions/Significance Patterns of threats to data quality at the two sites were similar to the threats reported in the literature for American sites. The clinical trial site managers need to reorganize staff workflow by using information technology more efficiently, establish new standard procedures and manage

  4. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years.

  5. Early Intervention for Children Birth Through 2 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetherby, Catherine, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Information is provided for parents of handicapped children, aged 0-2 years, on the uniqueness of each infant's learning processes and the valuable role that parents and others can play in helping their infants with special needs to make the most of their abilities. The digest examines parents' concerns during the infant's hospital stay and early…

  6. Minoxidil induced hypertrichosis in a 2 year-old child.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Freedman, Joshua; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 2 year-old male patient who developed generalized hypertrichosis after 2 months of treatment with 5% minoxidil foam for alopecia areata. This report highlights the danger of prescribing  topical minoxidil to young children and the need to correctly instruct caretakers about its administration. PMID:24555107

  7. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  8. Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

  9. Echoes from the Field: An Ethnographic Investigation of Outdoor Science Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxerman, Jonathan Zvi

    As popular as field trips are, one might think they have been well-studied. Nonetheless, field trips have not been heavily studied, and little research has mapped what actually transpires during field trips. Accordingly, to address this research gap, I asked two related research questions. The first question is a descriptive one: What happens on field trips? The second question is explanatory: What field trip events are memorable and why? I employed design research and ethnographic methodologies to study learning in naturally occurring contexts. I collaborated with middle-school science teachers to design and implement more than a dozen field trips. The field trips were nested in particular biology and earth sciences focal units. Students were tasked with making scientific observations in the field and then analyzing this data during classroom activities. Audio and video recording devices captured what happened during the field trips, classroom activities and discussions, and the interviews. I conducted comparative microanalysis of videotaped interactions. I observed dozens of events during the field trips that reverberated across time and place. I characterize the features of these events and the objects that drew interest. Then, I trace the residue across contexts. This study suggests that field trips could be more than one-off experiences and have the potential to be resources to seed and enrich learning and to augment interest in the practice of science.

  10. Communication Apprehension: Levels of First-Generation College Students at 2-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Trevor A.; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the oral communication apprehension (CA) levels of first-generation college students at a 2-year case study community institution. Overall and general-context CA were measured using the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The survey was sent by e-mail to 2,040 institutionally-identified first-generation…

  11. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  12. Students with Disabilities at 2-Year Institutions in the United States: Factors Related to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Koch, Lynn C.

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the demographic and in-college characteristics of students with disabilities at 2-year institutions, identify the types of educational services available to them, and determine how students' disability conditions and their selected demographic and…

  13. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2%) handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9%) was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00). The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p < 0.05). The high overall occurrence of enteroparasites found indicates improper hygiene and sanitation conditions. Effective educational measures should be implemented to prevent the transfer of pathogenic organisms to food via handling.

  14. [BIRTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUMS OF MODENA BETWEEN XVIII AND XIX CENTURY. THE OBSTETRIC MUSEUM, THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM, THE ETHNOGRAPHIC ANTHROPOLOGIC MUSEUM].

    PubMed

    Corradini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The interest for the study of Anatomy in Modena was particularly developed since the second half of eighteenth century, when the Duke Francesco III of Este promoted the reformation of the University and Antonio Scarpa was called from Padua to teach Anatomy. Scarpa promoted the building of the Anatomical Theatre, near the Grande Spedale, that was inaugurated in 1776. On the same year, the School of Obstetrics opened and determined the constitution of a first Cabinet or Obstetric Museum in a room next to the Theatre. After the Restoration, between 1817 and 1818, the Archduke Francesco IV of Austria Este promoted the realization of an Anatomical Museum: a big organized room in a new floor built on the Theatre. Two more rooms were added in, 1839 and a fourth one in 1853, under the direction of Paolo Gaddi. Furthermore Gaddi's interest for ethnographic studies determined the opening of the Ethnographic Anthropological Museum in 1866.

  15. Borderline personality disorder features predict negative outcomes 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Bagge, Courtney; Nickell, Angela; Stepp, Stephanie; Durrett, Christine; Jackson, Kristina; Trull, Timothy J

    2004-05-01

    In a sample of 351 young adults, the authors assessed whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) features prospectively predicted negative outcomes (poorer academic achievement and social maladjustment) over the subsequent 2 years, over and above gender and both Axis I and Axis II psychopathology. Borderline traits were significantly related to these outcomes, with impulsivity and affective instability the most highly associated. The present findings suggest that the impulsivity and affective instability associated with BPD leads to impairment in relating well with others, in meeting social role obligations, and in academic or occupational achievement. Therefore, these may be especially important features to target in interventions for BPD.

  16. Methods of mapping ethnographic data on migration, tourism labor, and health risk in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karina; Padilla, Mark; Scott, Derrick; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on a mixed-method approach to quantifying qualitative data from the results of an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study entitled “Migration, Tourism, and the HIV/Drug-Use Syndemic in the Dominican Republic”. This project represents the first large-scale mixed method study to identify social, structural, environmental, and demographic factors that may contribute to ecologies of health vulnerability within the Caribbean tourism zones. Our research has identified deportation history as a critical factor contributing to vulnerability to HIV, drugs, mental health problems, and other health conditions. Therefore, understanding the movements of our participants became a vital aspect of this research. This paper describes how we went about translating 37 interviews into visual geographic representations. These methods help develop possible strategies for confronting HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use by examining the ways that these epidemics are shaped by the realities of people’s labor migration and the spaces they inhabit. Our methods for mapping this qualitative data contribute to the ongoing, broadening capabilities of using GIS in social science research. A key contribution of this work is its integration of different methodologies from various disciplines to help better understand complex social problems.

  17. Methods of mapping ethnographic data on migration, tourism labor, and health risk in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karina; Padilla, Mark; Scott, Derrick; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on a mixed-method approach to quantifying qualitative data from the results of an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study entitled “Migration, Tourism, and the HIV/Drug-Use Syndemic in the Dominican Republic”. This project represents the first large-scale mixed method study to identify social, structural, environmental, and demographic factors that may contribute to ecologies of health vulnerability within the Caribbean tourism zones. Our research has identified deportation history as a critical factor contributing to vulnerability to HIV, drugs, mental health problems, and other health conditions. Therefore, understanding the movements of our participants became a vital aspect of this research. This paper describes how we went about translating 37 interviews into visual geographic representations. These methods help develop possible strategies for confronting HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use by examining the ways that these epidemics are shaped by the realities of people’s labor migration and the spaces they inhabit. Our methods for mapping this qualitative data contribute to the ongoing, broadening capabilities of using GIS in social science research. A key contribution of this work is its integration of different methodologies from various disciplines to help better understand complex social problems. PMID:27656039

  18. An ethnographic investigation of junior doctors' capacities to practice interprofessionally in three teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Milne, Jacqueline; Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative practice among early career staff is at the bedrock of interprofessional care. This study investigated factors influencing the enactment of interprofessional practice by using the day-to-day role of six junior doctors in three teaching hospitals as a gateway to understand the various professions' interactive behaviours. The contextual framework used for the study was Strauss' theory of negotiated order. Ethnographic techniques were applied to observe the actions and interactions of participants on typical working days in their hospital environments. Field notes were created and thematic analysis was applied to the data. Three themes explored were culture, communication, and collaboration. Issues identified highlight the bounded organisational and professional cultures within which junior doctors work, and systemic problems in interprofessional interaction and communication in the wards of hospitals. There are indications that early career doctors are interprofessional isolates. The constraints of short training terms and pressure from multi-faceted demands on junior doctors can interfere with the establishment of meaningful relationships with nurses and other health professionals. The realisation of sustained interprofessional practice is, therefore, practically and structurally difficult. Enabling factors supporting the sharing of expertise are outweighed by barriers associated with professional and hospital organisational cultures, poor interprofessional communication, and the pressure of competing individual task demands in the course of daily practice. PMID:25646898

  19. Using ethnographic methods to carry out human factors research in software engineering.

    PubMed

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2006-08-01

    This article describes how ethnographic methods were used to observe and analyze student teams working on software engineering (SE) projects. The aim of this research was to uncover the effects of the interplay of different personality types, as measured by a test based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), on the workings of an SE team. Using ethnographic methods allowed the researchers to record the effects of personality type on behavior toward teammates and how this related to the amount of disruption and positive ideas brought forward from each member, also examined in detail were issues that were either dogged by disruption or that did not have sufficient discussion devoted to them and the impact that they had on the outcomes of the project. Initial findings indicate that ethnographic methods are a valuable weapon to have in one's arsenal when carrying out research into human factors of SE. PMID:17186760

  20. Using ethnographic methods to carry out human factors research in software engineering.

    PubMed

    Karn, J S; Cowling, A J

    2006-08-01

    This article describes how ethnographic methods were used to observe and analyze student teams working on software engineering (SE) projects. The aim of this research was to uncover the effects of the interplay of different personality types, as measured by a test based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), on the workings of an SE team. Using ethnographic methods allowed the researchers to record the effects of personality type on behavior toward teammates and how this related to the amount of disruption and positive ideas brought forward from each member, also examined in detail were issues that were either dogged by disruption or that did not have sufficient discussion devoted to them and the impact that they had on the outcomes of the project. Initial findings indicate that ethnographic methods are a valuable weapon to have in one's arsenal when carrying out research into human factors of SE.

  1. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Educational Attainment in Texas 2-Year Colleges: A Multi-Year Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas 2-year colleges from the 2000 through the 2011 academic years and to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students obtaining associate degrees from Texas 2-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic…

  2. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  3. How Joint Attention Relates to Cooperation in 1- and 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Pan, Jingtong; Su, Yanjie; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention has been suggested to contribute to children's development of cooperation; however, few empirical studies have directly tested this hypothesis. Children aged 1 and 2 years participated in two joint action activities to assess their cooperation with an adult partner, who stopped participating at a specific moment during the…

  4. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  5. Japanese Female Students' Perceptions of 2-Year Colleges as a Choice for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges have played an important role in providing postsecondary education for women in postwar Japan. More recently, a dwindling college-bound population in Japan has resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of and enrollment in 2-year colleges. This study explored the motivations and aspirations of 12 Japanese female students to…

  6. Developmental Assessment of Preterm Infants at 2 Years: Validity of Parent Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Parental questionnaires are inexpensive alternatives to standardized testing for outcome measurement. The Parent Report of Children's Abilities has previously been revised (PARCA-R) and validated for use with very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. This study revalidated the PARCA-R for assessing cognition in a larger and more inclusive sample of…

  7. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  8. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  9. Science in the community: An ethnographic account of social material transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stuart Henry

    This dissertation is about the learning and use of science at the level of local community. It is an ethnographic account, and its theoretical approach draws on actor-network theory as well as neo-Marxist practice theory and the related notion of situated cognition. This theoretical basis supports a work that focuses on the many heterogeneous transformations that materials and people undergo as science is used to help bring about social and political change in a quasi-rural community. The activities that science becomes involved in, and the hybrid formations as it encounters local issues are stressed. Learning and knowing as outcomes of community action are theorized. The dissertation links four major themes throughout its narrative: scientific literacy, representations, relationships and participatory democracy. These four themes are not treated in isolation. Different facets of their relation to each other are stressed in different chapters, each of which analyze different particular case studies. This dissertation argues for the conception of a local scientific praxis, one that is markedly different than the usual notion of science, yet is necessary for the uptake of scientific information into a community.

  10. Exploring a Dutch paradox: an ethnographic investigation of gay men's mental health.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sanjay; Gerrets, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Netherlands' reputation as a world leader with respect to gay rights, homosexual Dutch men have much higher rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts than heterosexual Dutch men. Epidemiologists report similar disparities elsewhere in Western Europe and North America. These findings have been the focus of a blossoming psychological literature, inspired by minority stress theory and deploying quantitative methods. Our investigation aims to complement this body of work by adopting an ethnographic approach. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2010, we explore sociocultural and contextual factors that have received relatively little attention with respect to gay mental health. In the Netherlands - considered a model for gay equality - how can one understand high rates of psychiatric disorders among gay men? This study points to heteronormativity, complex dynamics involving long-term relationships and processes within gay subcultures as key issues. Notwithstanding their putative socioeconomic, legal and political equality, gay men struggled - at various stages of the life cycle - with internalised norms that they found difficult to fulfil. The desire to embody these ideals, and structural constraints in meeting them, could be potent sources of disappointment and distress. PMID:24236852

  11. Energy use in cultural context: an ethnographic comparison of households in Minnesota and Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sweden's reputation for energy efficiency caught the attention of the US as it sought to cope with the oil crisis of 1973 and subsequent energy problems. How did the Swedes enjoy an affluent way of life while using only 60% as much energy as the Americans. Was lesser residential energy consumption in Sweden due primarily to superior technology or to a more-conserving way of life there. In the absence of detailed household data, such questions were treated summarily, with references to the vague notion of lifestyle and with stereotypes about temperate Swedes and gluttonous Americans. This study addresses the questions of the relative roles of technology and behavior and of the veracity of such popular stereotypes. An ethnographic and holistic approach is taken to the comparison of household energy use lifestyle, and cultural context in the towns of Foley, Minnesota and Munka Ljungby, Skane, Sweden. The unit of research is the single family dwelling. The economic, energetic, and political contexts of the households are compared, and the relationships of residents to their larger societies are contrasted, especially with regard to information and support for energy conservation.

  12. Exploring a Dutch paradox: an ethnographic investigation of gay men's mental health.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sanjay; Gerrets, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Netherlands' reputation as a world leader with respect to gay rights, homosexual Dutch men have much higher rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts than heterosexual Dutch men. Epidemiologists report similar disparities elsewhere in Western Europe and North America. These findings have been the focus of a blossoming psychological literature, inspired by minority stress theory and deploying quantitative methods. Our investigation aims to complement this body of work by adopting an ethnographic approach. Drawing from fieldwork conducted in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2010, we explore sociocultural and contextual factors that have received relatively little attention with respect to gay mental health. In the Netherlands - considered a model for gay equality - how can one understand high rates of psychiatric disorders among gay men? This study points to heteronormativity, complex dynamics involving long-term relationships and processes within gay subcultures as key issues. Notwithstanding their putative socioeconomic, legal and political equality, gay men struggled - at various stages of the life cycle - with internalised norms that they found difficult to fulfil. The desire to embody these ideals, and structural constraints in meeting them, could be potent sources of disappointment and distress.

  13. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  14. Child-directed action promotes 2-year-olds' imitation.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Rebecca A; Brand, Rebecca J

    2014-02-01

    Children are voracious learners and adults are ubiquitous teachers. This project investigated whether the special infant-directed action modifications parents use when teaching their children (called "motionese" by Brand et al., Developmental Science, 2002, Vol. 5, pp. 72-83) improves 2-year-olds' imitation. Children saw an adult perform a series of acts on four novel objects using either an infant-directed style (including larger range of motion and enhanced boundary marking) or an adult-directed style. Children's imitation of the acts was higher in the infant-directed condition relative to the adult-directed condition, and both types of demonstration increased imitation relative to baseline (no demonstration). We propose that motionese provides information about actions, objects, and intentionality, thereby enhancing toddlers' observational learning.

  15. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331

  16. Increased Food Insecurity Among Mothers of 2 Year Olds with Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Hoffmann, Laurel M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Peters, Dawn; Pennise, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and food insecurity when the child is 2 years old. We studied women who had a live birth in 2004-2005 and responded to Oregon's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey 3 months postpartum (Time 1) and the follow-up survey (PRAMS-2), when the child was 2 years old (Time 2). Women answering affirmatively to the PRAMS-2 question, "In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there was not enough money for food?" were considered food insecure. CSHCN status was identified by affirmative responses to questions about needs for ongoing services (Time 2). PRAMS and PRAMS-2 responses were weighted for study design and non-response. Results report weighted analyses, unless noted. Among 1812 mothers completing PRAMS-2, 13.6 % (unweighted) had a 2-year-old CSHCN and 11.9 % (unweighted) were food insecure at Time 2. The estimated prevalence of food insecurity at 2-year follow-up was 20.7 % among families of CSHCN and 9.7 % for others. After adjustment for Time 2 marital status, education, lifetime U.S. residence, income and health conditions, multivariable logistic regression revealed that odds of food insecurity were more than two times as great for CSHCN mothers 2 years post-partum compared to non-CSHCN mothers (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.3, 4.6). Families of CSHCN face increased risk for food insecurity. Improved understanding of causal determinants of food insecurity among households of CSHCN is needed.

  17. SODA CONSUMPTION AND OVERWEIGHT STATUS OF 2-YEAR-OLD MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Marcella L; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Vargas, Gloria; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of overweight in United States children, 2 – 5 years, has increased two-fold since 1975, with the highest prevalence in Mexican-Americans. The objective of this study was to determine the association between current soda consumption and overweight in 2-year-old Mexican-American children. Research Methods and Procedures The CHAMACOS study is a longitudinal study of the health of low-income Latino pregnant women and their children living in the Salinas Valley, California. Six hundred pregnant women were enrolled (October 1999 – October 2000), and their children were followed until 2 years of age. This cross-sectional analysis includes the 354 children who completed the 2-year follow-up interview. Standing height (cm) and weight (g) were measured at 2 years. Overweight was defined as ≥ 95th percentile of the sex-specific body mass index for each child’s age. Results Fifty-five (15.5%) children were overweight. Over half (56%) reported consuming any soda in the last week. After covariate adjustment, compared to no soda consumption, <1 soda / day was not related to overweight (adj-OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.47, 1.99), but ≥1 soda / day was significantly associated with overweight (adj-OR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.43, 8.07) and the test for trend was significant (p = 0.02). Discussion At 2 years of age, the prevalence of overweight among the CHAMACOS cohort is higher than the national prevalence estimate for Mexican-American, 2–5 year olds, and is significantly associated with current soda consumption. Interventions to reduce consumption of soda in young Mexican-American children should be considered. PMID:17135613

  18. A heuristic blunder: notes on an ethnographic situation in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gros, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    During long-term fieldwork the increasing involvement of the ethnographer in the lives of others raises a series of methodological and ethical issues. These can become even more pronounced when one is working with ethnic minorities in a socialist country. Yet, a seldom acknowledged reality of ethnographic fieldwork experience are the 'little failures' that occur along the way, alongside ethnographic blunders. I argue that these are difficult to avoid and can be part of an important learning process, oftentimes for both researcher and researched. Through the detailed description of a blunder that the author made during his research in southwest China with members of the Drung ethnic minority, this article advocates for the heuristic value of such mishaps, suggesting that one can learn a lot from accidents and unexpected events while undertaking in-depth ethnographic fieldwork. In this case, this helped to shed light on the micropolitics of Drung village life in southwest Yunnan, and the place of a 'minority nationality' in wider Chinese society.

  19. A Self-Ethnographic Investigation of Continuing Education Program in Engineering Arising from Economic Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaihlavirta, Auri; Isomöttönen, Ville; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a self-ethnographic investigation of a continuing education program in engineering in Central Finland. The program was initiated as a response to local economic structural change, in order to offer re-education possibilities for a higher educated workforce currently under unemployment threat. We encountered considerable…

  20. Socio-Cultural Challenges in Conducting Ethnographic Research among Ethiopian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Patricia Guy

    2011-01-01

    Little has been written on the personal experience of the researcher as it relates to data collection, data analysis and interpretation of results. Even more scarce has been knowledge that addresses the challenges and barriers faced by 21st century researchers engaged in ethnographic data collection amidst culturally diverse populations. The…