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Sample records for 2-year field study

  1. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  2. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  3. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments. PMID:26499196

  4. In situ measured and simulated seasonal freeze-thaw cycle: A 2-year comparative study between layered and homogeneous field soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.; Sun, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Vasilyev, V. I.; Popov, V. V.; Wang, G.; Zheng, L.

    2014-11-01

    Annual freeze-thaw cycles of soil significantly impact agricultural and ecosystem services in cold regions. For advancing our understanding of freeze-thaw process, both improved measurements and simulations of coupled-heat-water-transfer (CHWT) phenomenon are needed under different field conditions. This paper focused on a comparative study between a CHWT-model simulation versus in situ measurements of liquid soil water content (LSWC) and soil temperature (ST) at two agricultural field sites. The first site consisted of a layered soil profile with sandy silt loam (0-60 cm) and clay loam (60-130 cm) layers, and the other site was a uniform sand profile (0-110 cm). Measurements were made over two winters between 2011 and 2013, i.e. the first winter is 2011-2012 (year 1) and the second winter is 2012-2013 (year 2), in the northeast of China employing an access-tube dielectric sensor combined with a temperature measurement array. During the freezing period of the year 1 winter, the soil freezing characteristic curves (SFCCs) were determined in situ in relation to the site-specific data of LSWC and ST and subsequently used for the model calibration. For the thawing process of year 1 and the freeze-thaw process of year 2, the resulting ST simulation time series were well-correlated with field measurements. In terms of the resulting LSWC, the numerical simulations also correlated well (R2 > 0.895, RMSE < 0.0381 cm3 cm-3) with the in situ observations of freezing and quasi-steady-state conditions at depths of 50- and 100-cm. The reasons for relatively reduced agreement between simulated and measured LSWC during the thawing stage (i.e., R2 > 0.702, RMSE < 0.0468 cm3 cm-3) are discussed. The resulting time series simulations confirm the model's capability for describing freeze- and thaw-front migration in layered and homogeneous freezing soils.

  5. A model of Earth's magnetic field derived from 2 years of Swarm satellite constellation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Christopher C.; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    More than 2 years of magnetic field data taken by the three-satellite constellation mission Swarm are used to derive a model of Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. This model is called SIFMplus. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of Swarm by including East-West magnetic intensity and vector field gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences of the magnetic intensity as well as of the vector components provide further information concerning the North-South gradient. The SIFMplus model provides a description of the static lithospheric field that is very similar to models determined from CHAMP data, up to at least spherical harmonic degree n=75. Also the core field part of SIFMplus, with a quadratic time dependence for n ≤ 6 and a linear time dependence for n=7-15, demonstrates the possibility to determine high-quality field models from only 2 years of Swarm data, thanks to the unique constellation aspect of Swarm. To account for the magnetic signature caused by ionospheric electric currents at polar latitudes we co-estimate, together with the model of the core, lithospheric and large-scale magnetospheric fields, a magnetic potential that depends on quasi-dipole latitude and magnetic local time.

  6. Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157959.html Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study Findings show need to coordinate care after organ transplant, researcher says To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  7. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  8. Natrelle 410 Extra-Full Projection Silicone Breast Implants: 2-Year Results from Two Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Patricia; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety and effectiveness of the Natrelle Style 410 highly cohesive silicone gel breast implant (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) in full or moderate height and projection have been shown in a 10-year study. Extra-full projection implants may be an appropriate option for some women undergoing breast reconstruction. Methods: A total of 2795 women received at least one Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant (X-style) for breast reconstruction in two similarly designed, prospective, multicenter studies. Data collected for 2 years after implantation in these studies were pooled to evaluate complication rates and subject and physician satisfaction. Results: Most subjects (76.0 percent) underwent bilateral reconstruction; a total of 4912 devices were implanted. Complication rates at 2 years were low. The most common complications were asymmetry (4.8 percent) and capsular contracture (3.3 percent). The cumulative risk of reoperation was 21.6 percent by subject and 16.6 percent by device; the most common reasons for reoperation were scarring (n = 97), asymmetry (n = 89), implant malposition (n = 78), and infection (n = 71). Subject and physician satisfaction rates exceeded 90 percent. At 2 years, 97 percent of physicians reported that the shape of the breast reflected the shape of the implant, and that the breast implant had maintained its original position. Conclusions: The safety profile of the Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant mirrors that of its moderate projection and full projection counterparts. Both physicians and subjects were highly satisfied with the implants 2 years after surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:26090764

  9. The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo Dui Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Morral, Andrew R.; Raymond, Barbara; Eibner, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up.…

  10. Age-related light scattering in rat lenses observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    Normal light scattering in the eye is determined primarily by the size of alpha-crystalline molecules. Ageing effects appear as an increase in normal lens light scattering in distinct layers. Subliminal effects of toxins on lens transparency can also cause an increase in light scattering due to protein molecule aggregation before visible opacities appear. Scheimpflug photography of the anterior eye segment with subsequent densitometric image analysis is the method of choice to evaluate such effects. To gain more insight into normal ageing and the potential effects of complex aerosols, a subset of Wistar rats (both sexes) belonging to a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was documented at baseline and after 2 years with a Topcon SL-45 Scheimpflug camera on Kodak T(max) 400 ISO film. The recording procedure, film development, and microdensitometric image analysis were all performed according to standard protocol. A second group from the same study was documented at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke or diesel engine exhaust. Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. At the baseline examination, there were no relevant differences between groups with respect to corneal density or density of defined layers in the lens capsule (1), epithelium and superficial cortex (2), deep cortex (3), supranuclear layer (4) and nucleus (5). At the 2-year examination, mean corneal density was significantly lower in females than in males. This same trend, although not significant, was also found in most layers of the lens. The most prominent differences in density over time were measured in lens layers 3 and 4, but neither corneal density nor lenticular density showed any consistent treatment-related effects in any of the layers. The data

  11. 2-year outcomes in Initial survivors with Acute Liver failure: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie E.; Rangnekar, Amol; Reddy, K. Rajender; Stravitz, Todd; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Reuben, Adrian; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Ganger, Daniel R; Chung, Raymond T.; Schilsky, Mike; Han, Steven; Hynan, Linda S.; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known. AIMS The aim of the current study is to provide an overview of the 2 year clinical outcomes amongst initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrollment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). METHODS Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed. RESULTS 2-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (p < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the 3 groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (p< 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic =0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic=0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical co-morbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. PMID:25039930

  12. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  13. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  14. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Claire; Skellgaard, Preben H; West, Torben; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC) in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i) the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii) the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii) whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points). Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2) vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2), p < 0.01. The programme achieved a clinically important difference for 27% and 24% of the clients one month and 1–2 years after the first consultation, respectively. It appeared that greater improvement in THI score was related to higher baseline THI score and possibly also to treatment by a particular CHC therapist. The absolute reduction in mean THI score after 1–2 years for clients with moderate and severe handicap was 14 and 20 points, respectively, i.e. similar to that previously reported for TRT (14–28 points). The cost of the current programme was approximately 200 EUR per client. Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of

  15. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: a 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    de Croon, Einar M; Sluiter, Judith K; Blonk, Roland W B; Broersen, Jake P J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-06-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological strain (need for recovery after work and fatigue), and turnover were obtained from 820 drivers in 1998 and 2000. In agreement with the model, the results showed that strain mediates the influence of stressful work on voluntary turnover. Also in conformity with the model, job movement to any job outside the trucking industry (i.e., interoccupational turnover) resulted in a larger strain reduction as compared to job movement within the trucking industry (intraoccupational turnover). Finally, strain was found to stimulate interoccupational turnover more strongly than it stimulated intraoccupational turnover. These findings provide a thorough validation of existing turnover theory and give new insights into the turnover (decision) process. PMID:15161404

  16. Occlusal glass ionomer cermet, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations: a 2-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lidums, A; Wilkie, R; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer silver cermet (Ketac-Silver), a posterior resin composite (Visio-Molar) used with the "sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy) for restoring conventional Class I occlusal cavity preparations. Two dentists placed 116 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 35 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for bulk loss of material and occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Losses of material and surface voids were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing or cracking being present in 33% of the restorations. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material if the restorations are likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear. PMID:7803005

  17. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    PubMed

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity. PMID:23971327

  18. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU. PMID:26526444

  19. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  20. Ankle Sprain Injuries: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Female Greek Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2007-01-01

    Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995

  1. Work–family conflict and health in Swedish working women and men: a 2-year prospective analysis (the SLOSH study)

    PubMed Central

    Baltzer, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has suggested that gender is related to perceptions of work–family conflict (WFC) and an underlying assumption is that interference of paid work with family life will burden women more than men. There is, however, mixed evidence as to whether men and women report different levels of WFC. Even less studies investigate gender differences in health outcomes of WFC. Also the number of longitudinal studies in this field is low. Methods: Based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, we prospectively examined the effects of WFC on three different health measures representing a wide spectrum off ill health (i.e. self-rated health, emotional exhaustion and problem drinking). Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse multivariate associations between WFC in 2008 and health 2 years later. Results: The results show that WFC was associated with an increased risk of emotional exhaustion among both men and women. Gender differences are suggested as WFC was related to an increased risk for poor self-rated health among women and problem drinking among men. Interaction analyses revealed that the risk of poor self-rated health was substantially more influenced by WFC among women than among men. Conclusions: We conclude that, despite the fact that women experience conflict between work and family life slightly more often than men, both men’s and women’s health is negatively affected by this phenomenon. PMID:22683777

  2. Prescription Disposal Practices: A 2-Year Ecological Study of Drug Drop Box Donations in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeier, Nicholas; Brooks, Billy; Alamian, Arsham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified controlled substance donations via permanent drug donation boxes over 2 years in a region with high prescription abuse, assessing medication characteristics, time between dispensing and donation, and weight of medications donated per capita. Methods. In partnership with Drug Enforcement Administration and local law enforcement, we analyzed permanent drug donation box collections in 8 Northeast Tennessee locations from June 2012 to April 2014. We recorded controlled substance dosage units along with the product dispensing date. Results. We collected 4841 pounds of pharmaceutical waste, 4.9% (238.5 pounds) of which were controlled substances, totaling 106 464 controlled substance doses. Analysis of dispensing dates for controlled substances indicated a median of 34 months lapsed from dispensing to donation (range = 1–484 months). The mean controlled substance donation rate was 1.39 pounds per 1000 residents. Communities with fewer than 10 000 residents had a statistically higher controlled substance donation rate (P = .002) compared with communities with 10 000 or more residents. Conclusions. Permanent drug donation boxes can be an effective mechanism to remove controlled substances from community settings. Rural and urban community residents should be provided convenient and timely access to drug disposal options. PMID:26180956

  3. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  4. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD Inattention as Predictors of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Impairment Domains: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determine SCT's and ADHD-IN's unique longitudinal relationships with psychopathology, academic impairment, and social impairment over the 1- and 2-year intervals (i.e., first to third grade, second to third grade). For 1- and 2-year intervals using both mothers' and fathers' ratings, higher levels of SCT uniquely predicted higher levels of anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment whereas higher levels of ADHD-IN uniquely predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment. For 1- and 2-year intervals across different primary and secondary teachers (i.e., first/second and third grade ratings were provided by different teachers), higher scores on ADHD-IN uniquely predicted poorer outcomes across domains whereas higher scores on SCT uniquely predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD for both intervals in addition to higher levels of depression (for primary teachers only), academic impairment (for 1-year interval only), and peer rejection (2-year interval only for primary teachers). Overall, SCT was significantly associated with important outcomes independent of ADHD-IN over 1- and 2-year intervals and across four different raters. This study provides further evidence for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN in home and school settings. PMID:26278273

  5. Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome from 2-year extensions of phase 2 studies

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Christoph; Greenbaum, Larry A; Muus, Petra; Babu, Sunil; Bedrosian, Camille L; Cohen, David J; Delmas, Yahsou; Douglas, Kenneth; Furman, Richard R; Gaber, Osama A; Goodship, Timothy; Herthelius, Maria; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Legendre, Christophe M; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sheerin, Neil; Trivelli, Antonella; Loirat, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, possibly life-threatening disease characterized by platelet activation, hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leading to renal and other end-organ damage. We originally conducted two phase 2 studies (26 weeks and 1 year) evaluating eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with progressing TMA (trial 1) and those with long duration of aHUS and chronic kidney disease (trial 2). The current analysis assessed outcomes after 2 years (median eculizumab exposure 100 and 114 weeks, respectively). At all scheduled time points, eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved from baseline, and hematologic normalization was achieved in 13 patients at week 26, and in 15 patients at both 1 and 2 years. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly improved compared with baseline and year 1. In trial 2 with 20 patients, TMA event-free status was achieved by 16 patients at week 26, 17 patients at year 1, and 19 patients at year 2. Criteria for hematologic normalization were met by 18 patients at each time point. Improvement of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or more in eGFR was achieved by 1 patient at week 26, 3 patients at 1 year, and 8 patients at 2 years. The mean change in eGFR was not significant compared with baseline, week 26, or year 1. Eculizumab was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns or meningococcal infections. Thus, a 2-year analysis found that the earlier clinical benefits achieved by eculizumab treatment of aHUS were maintained at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25651368

  6. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  7. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2-Year-Olds: A Study of Community Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsello, Christina M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research studies have demonstrated that experienced clinicians using standardized assessment measures can make a reliable diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children under age 3. Limited data are available regarding the sensitivity and specificity of these measures in community settings. The aims of this…

  8. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  9. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  10. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  11. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  12. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  13. Re-defining one's occupational self 2 years after breast cancer: a case study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Margaret*, a 56 year-old Caucasian Stage III breast cancer survivor, participated in a 5 week occupational therapy pilot program, called Take Action. This program was designed for breast cancer survivors who self-reported changes in cognitive function following completion of chemotherapy. The goals of the program were to improve participants' knowledge and use of strategies to enhance occupational performance and to improve satisfaction and performance of meaningful daily activities or occupations. Through a client-centered and evidence-based approach, this case study highlights the importance of incorporating the survivors' sense of self into an occupation-based intervention. Occupational therapists play an important role in facilitating exploration of sense of self in the survivorship phase of care to support occupational performance in self care, productivity, work, leisure and social participation. This case study highlights the important work of redefining oneself in the survivorship phase of care. (*denotes name change). PMID:24004739

  14. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  15. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  16. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  17. Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries. Aims: The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar. PMID:24678471

  18. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1. PMID:18565677

  19. Frequency and nature of spontaneous age-related eye lesions observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    A group of 160 Wistar rats (both sexes) from a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was monitored at baseline and after 1 and 2 years with a photo-slitlamp microscope and a direct ophthalmoscope to record spontaneous age-related eye lesions and treatment-related eye lesions over a period of 24 months. A second group from the same study was monitored at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) total particulate matter concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke (RASS) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. All ophthalmological examinations were performed in mydriasis, and relevant observations were documented on color slide film. At baseline, all animals with eye lesions were excluded from the study. After 1 year, only minor lesions were found: retrolental opacities (14%) and a few cases of corneal dryness with reddish lid margins. After 2 years, 23% of the animals had unilateral or bilateral retrolental opacities, but the most frequent eye lesions were posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC, 32%). Water clefts and spokes were found in 11% of the lenses and mature cataracts in 6%. All other eye lesions observed were much less frequent. There were a few cases of glaucoma, corneal dryness and stromal neovascularization. The frequency and type of lesion in animals monitored from the start of the posttreatment period was comparable to what was seen after 2 years. Toward the end of this period the frequency of mature cataracts went up to 9% and that of (secondary) glaucomas to 5%. None of the eye lesions observed showed any association in frequency or severity of expression to the treatment, either RASS or DEE, or to the sex of the animals. In comparison to the (limited) literature data available, far fewer corneal lesions were found in this

  20. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence. PMID:15161108

  1. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%–47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1–2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. Methods This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM−CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM−CWP− (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Results Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM−CWP− and nine became FM−CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM−CWP− and eight from FM−CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. Conclusion The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience

  2. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hervik, Jill; Mjåland, Odd

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes. Methods and materials Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture), who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life. Conclusion Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients. Patients who had previously been treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture complained less of hot flashes, and had a more positive outlook on life, than women who had

  3. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents. PMID:19815475

  4. The improving outcomes in intermittent exotropia study: outcomes at 2 years after diagnosis in an observational cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate current patterns of management and outcomes of intermittent distance exotropia [X(T)] in the UK. Methods This was an observational cohort study which recruited 460 children aged < 12 years with previously untreated X(T). Eligible subjects were enrolled from 26 UK hospital ophthalmology clinics between May 2005 and December 2006. Over a 2-year period of follow-up, clinical data were prospectively recorded at standard intervals from enrolment. Data collected included angle, near stereoacuity, visual acuity, control of X(T) measured with the Newcastle Control Score (NCS), and treatment. The main outcome measures were change in clinical outcomes (angle, stereoacuity, visual acuity and NCS) in treated and untreated X(T), 2 years from enrolment (or, where applicable, 6 months after surgery). Change over time was tested using the chi-square test for categorical, Wilcoxon test for non-parametric and paired-samples t-test for parametric data. Results At follow-up, data were available for 371 children (81% of the original cohort). Of these: 53% (195) had no treatment; 17% (63) had treatment for reduced visual acuity only (pure refractive error and amblyopia); 13% (50) had non surgical treatment for control (spectacle lenses, occlusion, prisms, exercises) and 17% (63) had surgery. Only 0.5% (2/371) children developed constant exotropia. The surgically treated group was the only group with clinically significant improvements in angle or NCS. However, 8% (5) of those treated surgically required second procedures for overcorrection within 6 months of the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up 21% (13) were overcorrected. Conclusions Many children in the UK with X(T) receive active monitoring only. Deterioration to constant exotropia, with or without treatment, is rare. Surgery appears effective in improving angle of X(T) and NCS, but rates of overcorrection are high. PMID:22257496

  5. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  6. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  7. Lumbar total disc replacement using ProDisc II: a prospective study with a 2-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Soo; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Chang Seok

    2006-08-01

    A lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) is believed to be a promising substitute in the surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 36 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar TDR using ProDisc II, and the factors associated with a better clinical outcome after a 2-year minimum follow-up. At the time of the latest follow-up, the success rate was 94% of 36 patients according to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration. Of the 10 patients unable to work preoperatively, 7 patients returned to work. Moreover, mean score on the visual analog scale for low back and leg pain improved significantly from 7.5 and 4.7 to 3.0 and 1.2, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, mean Oswestry disability index scores improved significantly from 69.2 to 21.0 (P<0.001). Mean disc height at the operative level increased significantly from 9.0 to 17.6 mm, and mean range of motion increased significantly from 9.7 to 12.7 degrees (P<0.01). Statistical analysis showed that the factors associated with a better clinical outcome were single level, and a higher postoperative segmental ROM at the operative level. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the lumbar TDR using ProDisc II showed excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes without any significant complication. However, future efforts need to be directed toward the evaluation of a larger number of patients with longer follow-up. PMID:16891976

  8. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration. PMID:23640732

  9. Effects of galantamine in a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Klaus; Baseman, Alan S; Nye, Jeffrey S; Brashear, H Robert; Han, John; Sano, Mary; Davis, Bonnie; Richards, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can produce mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients, but their influence on long-term survival is not well established. This study was designed to assess patient survival and drug efficacy following a 2-year galantamine treatment in patients with mild to moderately severe AD. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind study, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive galantamine or placebo. One primary end point was safety; mortality was assessed. An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board monitored mortality for the total deaths reaching prespecified numbers, using a time-to-event method and a Cox-regression model. The primary efficacy end point was cognitive change from baseline to month 24, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyzed using intent-to-treat analysis with the ‘last observation carried forward’ approach, in an analysis of covariance model. Results In all, 1,024 galantamine- and 1,021 placebo-treated patients received study drug, with mean age ~73 years, and mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline MMSE score of 19 (4.08). A total of 32% of patients (661/2,045) completed the study, 27% (554/2,045) withdrew, and 41% (830/2,045) did not complete the study and were discontinued due to a Data Safety Monitoring Board-recommended early study termination. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the galantamine group versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] =0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37; 0.89) (P=0.011). Cognitive impairment, based on the mean (SD) change in MMSE scores from baseline to month 24, significantly worsened in the placebo (−2.14 [4.34]) compared with the galantamine group (−1.41 [4.05]) (P<0.001). Functional impairment, based on mean (SD) change in the Disability Assessment in Dementia score (secondary end point), at month 24 significantly worsened in the placebo (−10.81 [18

  10. AB142. Discontinuation of dapoxetine treatment in patients with premature ejaculation: a 2-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although dapoxetine is the only oral pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) and is very effective, its discontinuation rate is high compared to PDE5 inhibitors in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This study assessed the discontinuation rate of dapoxetine treatment in patients with PE and the reasons for discontinuation a clinical setting. Methods The study enrolled 182 consecutive patients [mean age, 38.2 (range, 19-63) years] between October 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013. The PE type (life-long or acquired), self-estimated intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF) questionnaire, and medical history were checked in all patients. The patients were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after initiating therapy regarding the treatment status and the reasons for treatment discontinuation in the case of discontinuation. We compared the discontinuation rates with various parameters and the time interval. Results Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2.7%, respectively. Cumulatively, 79.1% of the patients discontinued the treatment within 6 months. After 12 months, however, the discontinuation rate dropped sharply. The reasons for discontinuation were cost (29.9%), disappointment that PE is not a curable disease and dapoxetine was needed whenever he had sex (25%), side effects (11.6%), low efficacy (9.8%), to seek other treatment options (5.5%), and unknown (18.3%). Patients with acquired PE (vs. life-long), IELT >2 min before treatment, older than 50 years, taking PDE-5 inhibitors, and IIEF-EF <26 tended to discontinue early and had high drop-out rates. Conclusions Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2

  11. Minimally Invasive Periodontal Treatment Using the Er,Cr: YSGG Laser. A 2-year Retrospective Preliminary Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Bret; Sung, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase, Irvine, CA) to treat moderate to advanced periodontal disease is presented as an alternative to conventional therapies. To date, there are few short- or long-term studies to demonstrate the effects of this laser in treating and maintaining periodontal health. Electronic clinical records from 16 patients – total of 126 teeth, with pocket depths ranging from 4 mm to 9 mm – were treated with the same protocol using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean baseline probing depths (PD) were 5 mm and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were 5 mm in the 4 - 6 mm pretreated laser group. The mean baseline probing depths were 7.5 and 7.6 mm for PD and CAL respectfully in the 7 – 9 mm pretreatment laser group. At the 2 year mark, the average PD was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 ± 1.2 mm. mean CAL was 3.1 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 ± 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group with an overall reduction of 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. At one and two years, both groups remained stable with PD comparable to the three-month gains. The CAL measurements at one and two years were also comparable to the three-month gains. PMID:22615717

  12. Impact of Nonvascular Thoracic MR Imaging on the Clinical Decision Making of Thoracic Surgeons: A 2-year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ackman, Jeanne B; Gaissert, Henning A; Lanuti, Michael; Digumarthy, Subba R; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Halpern, Elkan F; Wright, Cameron D

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of nonvascular thoracic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. Materials and Methods Seven thoracic surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary referral hospital, participated in this 2-year, prospective, institution review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant pre- and post-MR imaging survey study after completing a one-time demographic survey. Between July 16, 2013, and July 13, 2015, each time a thoracic surgeon ordered a nonvascular thoracic MR imaging study via radiology order entry, he or she was sent a link to the pre-test survey that ascertained the clinical rationale for MR imaging, the clinical management plan if MR imaging was not an option, and pre-test diagnostic certainty. Upon completion of the MR imaging report, the surgeon was sent a link to the post-test survey assessing if/how MR imaging changed clinical management, the surgeon's comfort with the clinical management plan, and post-test diagnostic certainty. Data were analyzed with Student t, Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests. Results A total of 99 pre- and post-test surveys were completed. Most MR imaging studies (64 of 99 [65%]) were requested because of indeterminate computed tomographic findings. The use of MR imaging significantly reduced the number of planned surgical interventions (P < .001), modified the surgical approach in 54% (14 of 26) of surgical cases, and increased surgeon comfort with the patient management plan in 95% (94 of 99) of cases. Increased diagnostic certainty as a result of MR imaging was highly significant (P < .0001). In 21% (21 of 99) of cases, definitive MR imaging results warranted no further follow-up or clinical care. Conclusion In appropriate cases, assessment with nonvascular thoracic MR imaging substantially affects the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available

  13. Retrospective cohort study between selective and standard C3-7 laminoplasty. Minimum 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Asazuma, Takashi; Masuoka, Kazunori; Yasuoka, Hiroki; Motosuneya, Takao; Sakai, Tsubasa; Nemoto, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    A total of 64 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were assessed in this study. Forty-two patients underwent selective expansive open-door laminoplasty (ELAP). Twenty-two patients who underwent conventional C3-7 ELAP served as controls. There were no significant differences in recovery rate of JOA scores, C2–C7 angle or cervical range of motion between two groups. Incidence of axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis in selective ELAP was significantly lower than those in the C3-7 ELAP. Size of anterior compression mass, postoperative spinal cord positions and decompression conditions were evaluated using preoperative or postoperative MRI in 50 of 64 patients. There was a positive correlation between number of expanded laminae and maximum anterior spaces of spinal cord. Incomplete decompression was developed in three of 37 patients in selective ELAP and in two of 13 patients in C3-7ELAP. Mean size of anterior compression mass at incomplete decompression levels was significantly greater than that at complete decompression levels. Since, there was less posterior movement of the spinal cord in selective ELAP than that in C3-7ELAP, minute concerns about size of anterior compression mass is necessary to decide the number of expanded laminae. Overall, selective ELAP was less invasive and useful in reducing axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis. This new surgical strategy was effective in improving the surgical outcomes of CSM, and short-term results were satisfactory. PMID:17726618

  14. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still ...

  15. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still have ...

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: 2-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Peters, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital therapeutics are evidence-based behavioral treatments delivered online that can increase accessibility and effectiveness of health care. However, few studies have examined long-term clinical outcomes of digital therapeutics. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a 2-year follow-up on participants in the Internet-based Prevent diabetes prevention program pilot study, specifically examining the effects on body weight and A1c, which are risk factors for diabetes development. Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used, including a single-arm pre- and post-intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 16-week weight loss intervention and an ongoing weight maintenance intervention. As part of the program, participants received a wireless scale, which was used to collect body weight data on an ongoing basis. Participants also received A1c test kits at baseline, 0.5 year, 1 year, and 2-year time points. Results Participants previously diagnosed with prediabetes (n=220) were originally enrolled in the pilot study. A subset of participants (n=187) met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for starting the program (starters), and a further subset (n=155) met CDC criteria for completing the program (completers) and were both included in analyses. Program starters lost an average of 4.7% (SD 0.4) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.2% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by mean 0.38% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.43% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. Program completers lost mean 4.9% (SD 0.5) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.3% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by 0.40% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.46% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. For both groups, neither 2-year weight loss nor A1c results were significantly different from 1-year results. Conclusions Users of the Prevent program experienced significant reductions in body weight and A1c that are maintained after 2 years. Contrary to the

  17. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  18. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  19. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  20. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as a Support Mechanism for Novel Word Learning: A Training Study with 2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Polišenská, Kamila; Süssová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    A training study examined novel word learning in 2-year-old children and assessed two nonverbal mechanisms, pictures and gestures, which are commonly used as communication support. The aim was to (1) compare these two support mechanisms and measure their effects on expressive word learning and (2) to investigate these effects on word production…

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N = 312…

  2. What are the outcomes of an industrial remediation on a metal-impacted hydrosystem? A 2-year field biomonitoring of the filter-feeding bivalve Corbicula fluminea.

    PubMed

    Arini, A; Daffe, G; Gonzalez, P; Feurtet-Mazel, A; Baudrimont, M

    2014-08-01

    The Riou-Mort watershed (southwest France) exhibits high metal contaminations (Cd and Zn) related to an important mining past. In this context, a remediation process has been implemented in 2007 to reduce the watershed contamination. The aim of this study was to assess the early effectiveness of the remediation process on the hydrosystem contamination state. A biomonitoring was realized over two years (2008-2010) with the filter-feeding bivalve Corbicula fluminea, exposed along a contamination gradient. Several biological parameters were monitored: (1) Cd and Zn bioaccumulation, (2) Metallothionein (MT) production as detoxification mechanism, (3) differential gene expression (cat, sod, gst, 12S, cox1, mt). The physicochemical data highlighted strong metal contamination persistence in the river water and failed to demonstrate a significant decrease of metal contamination during the 2-year monitoring. The bioaccumulation results confirmed the persistence of a water contamination despite remediation works, with maximum values measured downstream from the industrial site (Joany). The bioaccumulation increased in 2010, reaching 69.3±5.3 μg Cd g(-1) DW at Joany in July 2010, whereas it did not exceed 1.4±0.2 μg Cd g(-1) DW at the reference site throughout the biomonitoring. MT concentrations were closely related to the contamination gradient, especially at Joany, demonstrating their strong involvement in the detoxification processes. The mt gene induction was strongly correlated to the MT and metal concentrations. The gene inductions of cat, sod, gst and 12S were correlated to both the metal concentrations and the seasonal variations, especially temperatures. This suggests that environmental factors require serious consideration for the interpretation of bioaccumulation kinetics and thus for the assessment of the remediation effectiveness. Consequently, the whole results did not yet highlight strong beneficial effects of remediation work on the hydrosystem

  3. A retrospective study of radiographic abnormalities in the repositories of 2-year-old Thoroughbred in-training sales in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKOSHI, Daisuke; SENBA, Hiroyuki; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; MAEDA, Masaya; SHIBATA, Ryo; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age. PMID:27330400

  4. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  5. Diurnal Cortisol Secretion at Home and in Child Care: A Prospective Study of 2-Year-Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Meaney, Michael; Kramer, Michael; Cote, Sylvana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that children may experience disrupted cortisol secretion in child care. The extent to which this is a transient or long-term disruption is not known, as most studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, and age-heterogeneous small sample sizes. This study aims to (a) compare cortisol secretion measured at…

  6. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  7. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  8. Illness Uncertainty and Quality of Life of Patients with Small Renal Tumors Undergoing Watchful Waiting: A 2-year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A.; Alba, Frances; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana L.; Li, Yisheng; Karam, Jose A.; Tannir, Nizar; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) of patients with renal tumors. Illness uncertainty may influence QOL. Objective To prospectively examine the influence of uncertainty on general and cancer-specific QOL and distress in patients undergoing watchful waiting (WW) for a renal mass. Design, setting, and participants In 2006–2010, 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective WW registry. The decision for WW was based on patient, tumor, and renal function characteristics at the discretion of the urologist and medical oncologist in the context of the physician–patient interaction. Participants had suspected clinical stage T1–T2 disease, were aged ≥18 yr, and spoke and read English. The first 100 patients enrolled in the registry participated in this study. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Patients completed questionnaires on demographics, illness uncertainty (Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale), general QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey), cancer-specific QOL (Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System–Short Form), and distress (Impact of Events Scale) at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 mo. Age, gender, ethnicity, tumor size, estimated glomerular filtration rate, comorbidities, and assessment time point were controlled for in the models. Results and limitations Among the sample, 27 patients had biopsies, and 17 patients had proven renal cell carcinoma. Growth rate was an average of 0.02 cm/yr (standard deviation: 0.03). Mean age was 72.5 yr, 55% of the patients were male, and 84% of the patients were Caucasian. Greater illness uncertainty was associated with poorer general QOL scores in the physical domain (p = 0.008); worse cancer-related QOL in physical (p = 0.001), psychosocial (p < 0.001), and medical (p = 0.034) domains; and higher distress (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study is among the first to prospectively examine the QOL of patients with renal tumors undergoing WW and the

  9. Acoustic evidence for the development of gestural coordination in the speech of 2-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Goodell, E W; Studdert-Kennedy, M

    1993-08-01

    Studies of child phonology have often assumed that young children first master a repertoire of phonemes and then build their lexicon by forming combinations of these abstract, contrastive units. However, evidence from children's systematic errors suggests that children first build a repertoire of words as integral sequences of gestures and then gradually differentiate these sequences into their gestural and segmental components. Recently, experimental support for this position has been found in the acoustic records of the speech of 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children, suggesting that even in older children some phonemes have not yet fully segregated as units of gestural organization and control. The present longitudinal study extends this work to younger children (22- and 32-month-olds). Results demonstrate clear differences in the duration and coordination of gestures between children and adults, and a clear shift toward the patterns of adult speakers during roughly the third year of life. Details of the child-adult differences and developmental changes vary from one aspect of an utterance to another. PMID:8377484

  10. Cardiovascular Effects of Dietary Salt Intake in Aged Healthy Cats: A 2-Year Prospective Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  11. Duration of untreated psychosis predicts functional and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fraguas, David; Del Rey-Mejías, Angel; Moreno, Carmen; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Graell, Montserrat; Otero, Soraya; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in adult patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been associated with poor clinical and social outcomes. We aimed to estimate the influence of DUP on outcome at 2-year follow-up in subjects with an early-onset (less than 18 years of age) FEP of less than 6 months' duration. A total of 80 subjects (31.3% females, mean age 16.0±1.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The influence of DUP on outcome was estimated using multiple regression models (two linear models for influence of DUP on the C-GAF at 2 years and C-GAF change through the follow-up period, and a logistic model for influence of DUP on 41 PANSS remission at 2 years in schizophrenia patients (n=47)). Mean DUP was 65.3±54.7 days. Median DUP was 49.5 days. For the whole sample (n=80), DUP was the only variable significantly related to C-GAF score at 2-year follow-up (Beta=-0.13, p<0.01), while DUP and premorbid adjustment (Beta=-0.01, p<0.01; and Beta=-0.09, p=0.04, respectively) were the only variables significantly related to C-GAF change. In schizophrenia patients, DUP predicted both C-GAF score at 2 years and C-GAF change, while in patients with affective psychosis (n=22), DUP was unrelated to outcome. Lower baseline C-GAF score (OR=0.91, p<0.01) and shorter DUP (OR=0.98, p=<0.01) were the only variables that significantly predicted clinical remission in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, longer DUP was associated with lower C-GAF at 2 years, less increase in C-GAF, and lower rates of clinical remission in early-onset FEP. Our findings support the importance of early detection programs, which help shorten DUP. PMID:24332406

  12. Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Che, D; Campese, C; Santa-Olalla, P; Jacquier, G; Bitar, D; Bernillon, P; Desenclos, J-C

    2008-12-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an aetiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, with a high case-fatality ratio (CFR). We conducted a matched case-control study to identify risk factors for sporadic, community-acquired LD. Cases of sporadic, community-acquired and biologically confirmed LD, in metropolitan France from 1 September 2002 to 31 September 2004, were matched with a control subject according to age, sex, underlying illness and location of residence within 5 km. We performed a conditional logistic regression on various host-related factors and exposures. Analysis was done on 546 matched pairs. The CFR was 3.5%. Age ranged from 18-93 years (mean 57 years), with a 3.6 male:female sex ratio. Cases were more likely to have smoked with the documentation of a dose-effect relation, to have travelled with a stay in a hotel (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.6-14.2), or to have used a wash-hand basin for personal hygiene (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.7) than controls. Tobacco and travel have been previously described as risk factors for LD, but this is the first time that such a dose-effect for tobacco has been documented among sporadic cases. These findings will provide helpful knowledge about LD and help practitioners in identifying patients at high risk. PMID:18211725

  13. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a South China coastal city: comparison with East Asian cities

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Wai; P.A. Tanner; C.W.F. Tam

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from the collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO{sub 3}- and Ca{sup 2+}), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. 36 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a south China coastal city: comparison with east Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Wai, K M; Tanner, P A; Tam, C W F

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+ concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from our collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO42, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO3- and Ca2+), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. PMID:16190210

  15. Prognostic value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein in acute coronary syndrome: A 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lukin, Ajvor; Novak, Katarina; Polić, Stojan; Puljak, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study was to improve diagnostic and predictive value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), related to noninvasive clinical parameters, in order to improve and prolong patient life with low or no additional costs. Material/Methods A prospective, open clinical study was conducted at the University Hospital Split, Croatia with 112 patients with ACS and low or moderately elevated CRP (<3.0 mg/L). After diagnosing ACS, data on physical activity, alcohol consumption, and functional status were recorded. Anthropometric measurements were made. Blood and urine samples were taken for analyses. Electrocardiographic, ergometric, and echocardiographic testing was performed. A total of 72 parameters were monitored at the time of hospital admission in ACS patients to analyze which ones could predict disease outcome at the end of follow-up in patients with low or moderately elevated CRP. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results The variables that were predictive of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 2 years of ACS hospitalization were hemoglobin, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, cholesterol levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and microalbuminuria. ACS patients with CRP <3.0 mg/L had significantly higher risk of developing MACE within 2 years if ≥50% of the 8 key parameters were outside the reference values. Conclusions Major adverse cardiac events can be predicted in patients with acute coronary syndrome whose CRP values are low or moderately elevated. PMID:24051868

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative nonanginal pain after cardiac surgery: a 2-year prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, Manon; Watt-Watson, Judy; Victor, J. Charles; Baskett, Roger J.F.; Bussières, Jean S.; Carrier, Michel; Cogan, Jennifer; Costello, Judy; Feindel, Christopher; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Racine, Mélanie; Taillefer, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent postoperative pain continues to be an underrecognized complication. We examined the prevalence of and risk factors for this type of pain after cardiac surgery. Methods: We enrolled patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement, or both, from Feb. 8, 2005, to Sept. 1, 2009. Validated measures were used to assess (a) preoperative anxiety and depression, tendency to catastrophize in the face of pain, health-related quality of life and presence of persistent pain; (b) pain intensity and interference in the first postoperative week; and (c) presence and intensity of persistent postoperative pain at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the presence of persistent postoperative pain during 24 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 1247 patients completed the preoperative assessment. Follow-up retention rates at 3 and 24 months were 84% and 78%, respectively. The prevalence of persistent postoperative pain decreased significantly over time, from 40.1% at 3 months to 22.1% at 6 months, 16.5% at 12 months and 9.5% at 24 months; the pain was rated as moderate to severe in 3.6% at 24 months. Acute postoperative pain predicted both the presence and severity of persistent postoperative pain. The more intense the pain during the first week after surgery and the more it interfered with functioning, the more likely the patients were to report persistent postoperative pain. Pre-existing persistent pain and increased preoperative anxiety also predicted the presence of persistent postoperative pain. Interpretation: Persistent postoperative pain of nonanginal origin after cardiac surgery affected a substantial proportion of the study population. Future research is needed to determine whether interventions to modify certain risk factors, such as preoperative anxiety and the severity of pain before and immediately after surgery, may help to minimize or prevent persistent postoperative pain. PMID:24566643

  17. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-05-26

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in cattle of different ages. Fecal samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate cysts. Specimens were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR positive specimens were sequenced using the SSU-rRNA gene of Giardia. All 30 calves shed G. duodenalis cysts at some time during the study. Of 990 specimens, 312 were positive for G. duodenalis (31.5%). The highest prevalence of infection occurred at weeks 4 and 5 of age with 25 out of 30 calves shedding cysts at those sampling times. Overall, pre-weaned calves (<8 weeks of age) exhibited the highest prevalence (60.8%), followed by post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (32.1%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (11.4%). Sequence analysis of the 312 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of both Assemblages A and E, G. duodenalis, with cumulative prevalences of 70% and 100%, respectively. Assemblage A was not detected in pre-weaned calves, but was detected in 6.9% and 4.7% of post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. These data indicate not only that calves are infected with both Assemblages A and E simultaneously, but also that infections with zoonotic Assemblage A, G. duodenalis are more common than previously reported. Thus, calves appear to be a more significant reservoir of human infectious G. duodenalis than previous data have suggested. PMID:19264407

  18. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  19. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  20. Parental Estimation of Their Child's Increased Type 1 Diabetes Risk During the First 2 Years of Participation in an International Observational Study: Results From the TEDDY study.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Ulrica; Lynch, Kristian; Smith, Laura; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's risk of getting type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the first 2 years of their participation in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. TEDDY parents were informed of their child's increased genetic risk for T1D at study inception. Parent perception of the child's risk was assessed at 3, 6, 15, and 27 months of age. In families with no history of T1D, underestimation of the child's T1D risk was common in mothers (>38%) and more so in fathers (>50%). The analyses indicated that parental education, country of residence, family history of T1D, household crowding, ethnic minority status, and beliefs that the child's T1D risk can be reduced were factors associated with parental risk perception accuracy. Even when given extensive information about their child's T1D risk, parents often fail to accurately grasp the information provided. This is particularly true for fathers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and those with no family history of T1D. It is important to develop improved tools for risk communication tailored to individual family needs. PMID:27241873

  1. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  2. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  3. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  4. Impaired visual fixation at age 2 years in children born before the 28th week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multi-center ELGAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Anuradha; Msall, Michael E; Droste, Patrick; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns. Methods In the multi-center ELGAN Study sample of 1057 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline. Results In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio = 3.2; 99% confidence interval =1.4, 7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (OR: 5.2; 99% CI: 2.2, 12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold ROP (OR: 4.1; 99% CI: 1.8, 9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (OR: 7.5; 99% CI: 2.2, 26) and have a Mental Development Index more than 3 standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (OR:3.6; 99% CI: 1.4, 8.2). Conclusion Risk factors for brain and retinal damage, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index PMID:24938138

  5. Flare, Persistently Active Disease, and Serologically Active Clinically Quiescent Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Fabrizio; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Miranda, Francesca; Truglia, Simona; Massaro, Laura; Pacucci, Viviana Antonella; Conti, Virginia; Bartosiewicz, Izabella; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several indices have been proposed to assess disease activity in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have showed a prevalence of flare between 28–35.3%, persistently active disease (PAD) between 46%–52% and serologically active clinically quiescent (SACQ) disease ranging from 6 to 15%. Our goal was to evaluate the flare, PAD and SACQ rate incidence in a cohort of SLE patients over a 2-year follow-up. Methods We evaluated 394 SLE patients. Flare was defined as an increase in SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4 from the previous visit; PAD was defined as a SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4, on >2 consecutive visits; SACQ was defined as at least a 2-year period without clinical activity and with persistent serologic activity. Results Among the 95 patients eligible for the analysis in 2009, 7 (7.3%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 9 (9.4%) had PAD. Similarly, among the 118 patients selected for the analysis in 2010, 6 (5%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 16 (13.5%) had PAD. Only 1/45 patient (2.2%) showed SACQ during the follow-up. Conclusion We showed a low incidence of flare, PAD and SACQ in Italian SLE patients compared with previous studies which could be partly explained by ethnic differences. PMID:23029327

  6. CCL2, CCL18 and sIL-4R in renal, meningeal and pulmonary TB; a 2 year study of patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Armando; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Contreras, Salvador; Aguilar, Diana; Rook, Graham A W

    2011-03-01

    The role of Th2 cytokines and Th2-associated chemokines in tuberculosis (TB) remains controversial, though in Mexico a polymorphism causing increased production of CCL2 is a risk factor. We studied levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, circulating soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R), IL-4 and the inhibitory splice variant of IL-4 (IL-4δ2) in a cohort of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy contacts. These were followed for 2 years during which time 10 contacts developed pulmonary TB. Results were compared with measurements made in renal and meningeal TB, and in disease controls with bacterial pneumonias or Dengue fever that have large Th2 components. In these disease controls both chemokines were significantly raised. They were also very significantly raised in all forms of TB, irrespective of age or disease site. Levels of CCL18 were raised least in meningeal TB, and most in pulmonary patients with long histories, when levels were similar to those in disease controls. Levels of CCL2, although also raised in all three forms of TB, were negatively correlated with CCL18. We found that levels of sIL-4R were strikingly reduced in all forms of TB, particularly meningeal. Contacts who progressed could not be distinguished from contacts who remained healthy at 2 years in terms of IL-4, sIL-4R, CCL2 or CCL18. However contacts had raised expression of IL-4δ2 as previously found. These results indicate vigorous and previously unrecorded activity within the Th2 axis, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:21251883

  7. Changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in central information processing speed: a prospective 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ebus, S C M; IJff, D M; den Boer, J T; van Hall, M J H; Klinkenberg, S; van der Does, A; Boon, P J; Arends, J B A M; Aldenkamp, A P

    2015-02-01

    We prospectively examined whether changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in cognition. Twenty-six children with benign focal spikes (19 with Rolandic epilepsy) and learning difficulties were examined with repeated 24-hour EEG recordings, three cognitive tests on central information processing speed (CIPS), and questionnaires on cognition and behavior at baseline, 6months, and 2years. Antiepileptic drug changes were allowed when estimated necessary by the treating physician. At baseline, a lower CIPS was correlated with a higher frequency of diurnal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and with worse academic achievement. At follow-up, there was a significant correlation between changes in CIPS and EEG changes in wakefulness (in the same direction) when the EEG outcome was dichotomized in IED frequency "increased" or "not increased". Behavioral problems were more often observed in patients with higher frequency of IEDs in sleep at baseline and in those with ongoing IEDs compared with those with EEG remission (without or with sporadic IEDs in the recording) at the end of the study period. No changes were observed in the results of the questionnaires. A lower diurnal IED frequency at baseline, lack of serial IEDs, and occurrence of only unilateral IEDs were correlated with a higher chance of EEG remission at 2-year follow-up. Electroencephalography remission could not be predicted from other epilepsy variables except from seizure freedom in the last six months. Our results confirm the nonbenign character of 'benign' focal spikes. Whether an early and stable EEG remission can be achieved through antiepileptic treatment and whether this is of benefit for cognitive development should be examined in prospective placebo-controlled randomized trials. PMID:25546731

  8. Determinants of “return to work in good health” among workers with back pain who consult in primary care settings: a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Renée; Frémont, Pierre; Rossignol, Michel; Stock, Susan R.; Nouwen, Arie; Larocque, Isabelle; Demers, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have been linked to return to work after a back pain episode, but our understanding of this phenomenon is limited and cross-sectional dichotomous indices of return to work are not valid measures of this construct. To describe the course of “return to work in good health” (RWGH—a composite index of back pain outcome) among workers who consulted in primary care settings for back pain and identify its determinants, a 2-year prospective study was conducted. Subjects (n = 1,007, 68.4%) were workers who consulted in primary care settings of the Quebec City area for a nonspecific back pain. They completed five telephone interviews over 2 years (follow-up = 86%). Analyses linking baseline variables with 2-year outcome were conducted with polytomous logistic regression. The proportion of “success” in RWGH increased from 18% at 6 weeks to 57% at 2 years. In women, persistent pain, pain radiating to extremities, increasing job seniority, not having a unionized job, feeling that the physician did listen carefully and increasing fear-avoidance beliefs towards work and activity were determinants of “failure” in RWGH. In men, decreasing age, cigarette smoking, poor self-reported health status, pain in the thoracic area, previous back surgeries, a non-compensated injury, high pain levels, belief that job is below qualifications, likelihood of losing job, job status, satisfaction with health services and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work were all significant. RWGH among workers with back pain receives multiple influences, especially among men. In both genders, however, fear-avoidance beliefs about work are associated with failure and high self-efficacy is associated with success. PMID:16868783

  9. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  10. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  11. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  12. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuan; Tian, De-Hu; Han, Chang-Ling; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhan-Jian; Mu, Zhen-Yun; Liu, Kuan-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients. We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later. The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later. We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions. We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients. Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads. Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05). Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β = 0.364, P = 0.001) and maximum pressure (β = 0.366, P = 0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head. Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β = 0.179, P = 0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β = 0.236, P = 0.020). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β = 0.137, P = 0.048). Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes. In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β = 0.244, P = 0.014), and calluses over the course of the study. Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI

  13. Microbial Field Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report covers progress made during the first year of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology and characterization, facility and treatment design, core experiments, bacterial mobility, and mathematical modeling are addressed. To facilitate an understanding of the ecology of the target reservoir analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. A preliminary design of facilities for the operation of the field pilot test was prepared. In addition, procedures for facilities installation and for injection treatments are described. The Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU), the site of the proposed field pilot study, is described physically, historically, and geologically. The fields current status is presented and the ongoing reservoir simulation is discussed. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. Two possible mechanisms, relative permeability effects and changes in the capillary number, are discussed and related to four Berea core experiments' results. The experiments were conducted at reservoir temperature using SEVVSU oil, brine, and bacteria. The movement and activity of bacteria in porous media were investigated by monitoring the growth of bacteria in sandpack cores under no flow conditions. The rate of bacteria advancement through the cores was determined. A mathematical model of the MEOR process has been developed. The model is a three phase, seven species, one dimensional model. Finite difference methods are used for solution. Advection terms in balance equations are represented with a third- order upwind differencing scheme to reduce numerical dispersion and oscillations. The model is applied to a batch fermentation example. 52 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors. PMID:24903068

  15. Influence of Anti-TNF and Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Therapy on Pulmonary Forced Vital Capacity Associated to Ankylosing Spondylitis: A 2-Year Follow-Up Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Jiménez, José Clemente; De la Cerda-Trujillo, Liliana Faviola; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Díaz-Rizo, Valeria; Díaz-González, Viviana; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF agents plus synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus DMARDs alone for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with reduced pulmonary function vital capacity (FVC%). Methods. In an observational study, we included AS who had FVC% <80% at baseline. Twenty patients were taking DMARDs and 16 received anti-TNF + DMARDs. Outcome measures: changes in FVC%, BASDAI, BASFI, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Borg scale after 6MWT, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire at 24 months. Results. Both DMARDs and anti-TNF + DMARDs groups had similar baseline values in FVC%. Significant improvement was achieved with anti-TNF + DMARDs in FVC%, at 24 months, when compared to DMARDs alone (P = 0.04). Similarly, patients in anti-TNF + DMARDs group had greater improvement in BASDAI, BASFI, Borg scale, and 6MWT when compared to DMARDs alone. After 2 years of follow-up, 14/16 (87.5%) in the anti-TNF + DMARDs group achieved the primary outcome: FVC% ≥80%, compared with 11/20 (55%) in the DMARDs group (P = 0.04). Conclusions. Patients with anti-TNF + DMARDs had a greater improvement in FVC% and cardiopulmonary scales at 24 months compared with DMARDs. This preliminary study supports the fact that anti-TNF agents may offer additional benefits compared to DMARDs in patients with AS who have reduced FVC%. PMID:26078986

  16. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  17. Microbial field pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  18. Violent Reinjury and Mortality Among Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care for Assault-Related Injury A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Carter, Patrick M.; Ranney, Megan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Fred C.; Booth, Brenda M.; Goldstick, Jason; Walton, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among youth, with more than 700 000 emergency department (ED) visits annually for assault-related injuries. The risk for violent reinjury among high-risk, assault-injured youth is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To compare recidivism for violent injury and mortality outcomes among drug-using, assault-injured youth (AI group) and drug-using, non–assault-injured control participants (non-AI group) presenting to an urban ED for care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from December 2, 2009, through September 30, 2011, at an urban level I ED and followed up for 24 months. We administered validated measures of violence and substance use and mental health diagnostic interviews and reviewed medical records at baseline and at each point of follow-up (6, 12, 18, and 24 months). EXPOSURE Follow-up over 24 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of ED services for assault or mortality measured from medical record abstraction supplemented with self-report. RESULTS We followed 349 AI and 250 non-AI youth for 24 months. Youth in the AI group had almost twice the risk for a violent injury requiring ED care within 2 years compared with the non-AI group (36.7% vs 22.4%; relative risk [RR], 1.65 [95% CI, 1.25-2.14]; P < .001). Two-year mortality was 0.8%. Poisson regression modeling identified female sex (RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.02-1.65]), assault-related injury (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.19-2.04), diagnosis of a drug use disorder (RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.65]), and posttraumatic stress disorder (RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.09-1.97]) at the index visit as predictive of ED recidivism or death within 24 months. Parametric survival models demonstrated that assault-related injury (P < .001), diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (P = .008), and diagnosis of a drug use disorder (P = .03) significantly shortened the expected waiting time until the first ED return visit for violence

  19. Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection and oral olanzapine: a 2-year, randomized, open-label study in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Detke, Holland C; Weiden, Peter J; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Choukour, Moutaz; Watson, Susan B; Brunner, Elizabeth; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2014-08-01

    We compared long-term treatment effectiveness of monthly olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) with that of oral olanzapine. Outpatients with 2 or more episodes of psychotic worsening in the past 24 months with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of lower than 70 were randomized to 405 mg/4 weeks of olanzapine LAI (n = 264) or 10 mg/d of oral olanzapine (n = 260) for 2 years of open-label treatment. Dosing thereafter was flexible (150-405 mg/4 weeks of LAI vs 5-20 mg/d of oral). Primary outcome was time to all-cause discontinuation. At baseline, patients were clinically stable (mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of 57). Seventeen percent of patients had been psychiatrically hospitalized in the previous 6 months, and 4.6% were rated nonadherent in the month before study entry. The groups did not differ significantly in median time to all-cause discontinuation (645 days for LAI, 678 days for oral; P = 0.61), discontinuation rate (53.8% for LAI, 51.2% for oral; P = 0.60), or relapse rate (20.1% for LAI, 18.5% for oral; P = 0.66). Postbaseline psychiatric hospitalization rate was low for both groups (7.6% for LAI, 9.2% for oral), but mean hospitalization duration was significantly longer for oral patients (1.80 days [20 for those hospitalized] vs 0.43 days [6 for those hospitalized], P = 0.02). There were no clinically significant group differences in adverse events or safety measures. No post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome events occurred. In conclusion, olanzapine LAI and oral olanzapine were similarly effective and well tolerated for up to 2 years of treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Treatment discontinuation for olanzapine LAI was similar to that of oral olanzapine, despite the 3-hour post-injection observation period and other precautionary procedures related to risk of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome. PMID:24781441

  20. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24604922

  1. Violence and Abuse Against Women Who Have Attempted Suicide by Deliberate Self-Poisoning: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh

    2016-04-01

    Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran. PMID:25550168

  2. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. PMID:21421258

  3. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. PMID:22504283

  4. The incidence and risk factors for shipping fever in horses transported by air to Hong Kong: Results from a 2-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M J; Riggs, C M; Cogger, N; Rosanowski, S M

    2016-08-01

    A 2 year prospective study was performed between February 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and risk factors for shipping fever (SF) in horses transported by air to Hong Kong (HK). Using a questionnaire, data were collected from professional flying grooms regarding the journey to HK and horses in the shipment. Horses were monitored in quarantine for 2 weeks after arrival in HK, and clinical signs of SF recorded. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for SF at the horse and shipment levels. The study analysed data from 869 horses on 81 flights arriving from Australia (n = 24), New Zealand (NZ; n = 18), the United Kingdom (UK; n = 33) and the United States of America (USA; n = 6). The incidence risk of SF was 10.8 per 100 horses and the proportion of shipments with at least one horse that developed SF was 49/81 (60%). The study identified that the rate per shipment of SF in shipments of horses originating from NZ, the USA and the UK was 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.71), 2.43 (95% CI 0.66-8.89) and 3.08 (95% CI 1.60-5.93) times the rate of SF compared to Australia. Shipments arriving in HK during March and May were 5.61 (95% CI 1.55-20.31) and 4.51 (95% CI 1.43-14.26) times more likely to contain horses that developed SF compared to shipments arriving in January. The identification of these risk factors and the recognition of at-risk shipments will help focus attention on preventative strategies. PMID:27387724

  5. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  6. A Multicenter, Single-Blind Randomized, Controlled Study of a Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Midface Volume Deficit: Patient-Reported Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Few, Julius; Cox, Sue Ellen; Paradkar-Mitragotri, Deepali; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvéderm Voluma XC is a volumizing hyaluronic acid filler used for correction of age-related midface volume deficit (MVD). Objectives The effectiveness of Juvéderm Voluma XC was examined from the patient perspective. Methods Patients with moderate to severe age-related MVD (N = 235) received Juvéderm Voluma XC. At quarterly follow-up visits for 2 years, patients rated treatment outcomes on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), overall satisfaction with facial appearance, satisfaction with midfacial regions, achievement of treatment goal, Look and Feel of the Midface (LAFM), and Self-Perception of Age (SPA). Patients recorded treatment-site responses in 30-day diaries. Results At 6 months and 2 years after treatment, 92.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively, rated their cheek volume as improved/much improved on the GAIS. Improvement in satisfaction with facial appearance was noted by 89.8% of patients at 6 months and 75.8% at 2 years. Increased satisfaction with outer and lower cheek areas and cheek-bone projection and clinically significant improvements in LAFM were noted through month 24. Treatment goals were achieved by 67.8% of patients at 6 months and 49.0% at 2 years. Patients reported looking, on average, 5 years younger at 6 months and 3 years younger at 2 years. The most common treatment site responses were tenderness, swelling, firmness, and lumps/bumps; most were mild to moderate in severity and lasted ≤2 weeks. Conclusions Juvéderm Voluma XC for age-related MVD is effective and well-tolerated from the patient perspective, with results lasting up to 2 years. Level of Evidence 4 Therapeutic PMID:25964628

  7. Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Tantalum Augment in Patients with Paprosky III or IV Acetabular Bone Defects: A Minimum 2-year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the short-term outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using tantalum augments in patients with severe acetabular bone defects. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 15 revision THAs performed in 15 patients using tantalum augments between June 2010 and December 2013. Acetabular bone defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 7 hips, type IIIB in 7, and type IV in 1. The causes of revision surgery were aseptic loosening in 12 hips and deep infection in 3. Revisions were first in 1 hip, second in 3, and third in 11. Six patients were male and 9 female with a mean age of 59 years (range, 48-75 years). Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 24-48 months). Results Mean Harris hip score was improved from 34 points (range, 12-54 points) preoperatively to 84 points (range, 38-90 points) at final follow-up. On the final follow-up radiographs, there were 12 hips (80.0%) with stable fixation of the acetabular cup, 2 (13.3%) with secondary stability after mild acetabular protrusion, and 1 (6.7%) with radiolucency around the acetabular cup without mechanical symptoms. Complications included one patient with acute hematogenous infection managed by surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic therapy. There were no cases with nerve palsy or dislocation during the follow-up period. Conclusion The present study showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision THA using tantalum augments due to severe acetabular bone defects of Paprosky type III or IV at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. PMID:27536651

  8. Comparison of one-level microendoscopy laminoforaminotomy and cervical arthroplasty in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a minimum 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to compare the perioperative parameters and clinical results between microendoscopy laminoforaminotomy (MELF) and cervical arthroplasty (CA) in the treatment of one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a retrospective study. Methods From 2003 to 2007, a total of 97 patients with one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were treated. Forty-five patients underwent CA. Fifty-two patients underwent MELF. Patient demographics and operative data were collected with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Perioperative parameters were compared. Clinical assessment in terms of neck disability index (NDI), short form (SF)-36, and visual analogue scale (VAS) of arm pain and neck pain was performed prior to surgery and at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Results Fluoroscopy time (CA, 60.3 s; MELF, 12.1 s; P < 0.01) and surgical time (CA, 95.1 min; MELF, 24.0 min; P < 0.01) were significantly longer in the CA cases. Shorter hospitalized days (CA, 1.1 days; MELF, 0.13 days; P < 0.01) and less estimated blood loss (EBL; CA, 75.8 ml; MELF, 31.9 ml; P < 0.01) were observed in the MELF group. Both CA and MELF groups showed significant improvement in NDI, VAS of neck pain and arm pain, and SF-36 (P < 0.05 for each) at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, but there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). Conclusions As alternatives of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), both CA and MELF can produce satisfactory clinical outcomes. MELF has the additional benefits of less blood loss, less surgical time, less X-ray time, and shorter hospital stay. PMID:24341633

  9. Imaging of the dopamine transporter predicts pattern of disease progression and response to levodopa in patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism: a 2-year follow-up multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Matinella, Angela; Bovi, Tommaso; Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Luca, Antonina; Di Stefano, Angela; Morgante, Letterio; Pacchetti, Claudio; Minafra, Brigida; Sciarretta, Massimo; Dallocchio, Carlo; Rossi, Simone; Ulivelli, Monica; Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-02-01

    Similarly to subjects with degenerative parkinsonism, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT has been reported either normal or abnormal in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), challenging the notion that parkinsonism might be entirely due to post-synaptic D2-receptors blockade by antipsychotic drugs. In a previous multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, we identified 97 patients who developed parkinsonism with a similar bi-modal distribution of DAT-SPECT. In this longitudinal study, we reported clinical and imaging features associated with progression of motor disability over 2-year follow-up in 60 out of those 97 patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT at baseline evaluation (normal SPECT=33; abnormal SPECT=27). As second end-point, chronic response to levodopa over a 3-month period was tested in a subgroup of subjects. Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at follow-up significantly increased in patients with abnormal SPECT. Specifically, a 6-point worsening was demonstrated in 18.5% of the subjects with abnormal SPECT and in none of the subjects with normal SPECT. Levodopa treatment improved motor UPDRS only in the group with abnormal SPECT. After adjustment for possible confounders, linear regression analysis demonstrated that abnormal SPECT findings at baseline were the only predictor of motor disability progression and of better outcome of levodopa treatment. Our results support the notion that a degenerative disease might underlie parkinsonism in a minority of schizophrenic patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter can be helpful to select this patient sub-group that might benefit from levodopa therapy. PMID:24369987

  10. Increased Regulatory T-Cell Percentage Contributes to Poor CD4+ Lymphocytes Recovery: A 2-Year Prospective Study After Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saison, Julien; Maucort Boulch, Delphine; Chidiac, Christian; Demaret, Julie; Malcus, Christophe; Cotte, Laurent; Poitevin-Later, Francoise; Miailhes, Patrick; Venet, Fabienne; Trabaud, Mary Anne; Monneret, Guillaume; Ferry, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) percentage on immune recovery in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after antiretroviral therapy introduction. Methods. A 2-year prospective study was conducted in HIV-1 chronically infected naive patients with CD4 count <500 cells/mm3. Regulatory T cells were identified as CD4+CD25highCD127low cells among CD4+ lymphocytes. Effect of Treg percentage at inclusion on CD4 evolution overtime was analyzed using a mixed-effect Poisson regression for count data. Results. Fifty-eight patients were included (median CD4 = 293/mm3, median Treg percentage = 6.1%). Percentage of Treg at baseline and CD4 nadir were independently related to the evolution of CD4 absolute value according to time: (1) at any given nadir CD4 count, 1% increase of initial Treg was associated with a 1.9% lower CD4 absolute value at month 24; (2) at any given Treg percentage at baseline, 10 cell/mm3 increase of CD4 nadir was associated with a 2.4% increase of CD4 at month 24; and (3) both effects did not attenuate with time. The effect of Treg at baseline on CD4 evolution was as low as the CD4 nadir was high. Conclusions. Regulatory T-cell percentage at baseline is a strong independent prognostic factor of immune recovery, particularly among patients with low CD4 nadir. PMID:26110165

  11. Dasatinib in Imatinib-Resistant or Imatinib-Intolerant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase After 2 Years of Follow-Up in a Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Hochhaus, Andreas; Goh, Yeow Tee; Masszi, Tamas; Pasquini, Ricardo; Maloisel, Frederic; Erben, Philipp; Cortes, Jorge; Paquette, Ronald; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Zhu, Chao; Dombret, Herve

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a phase 3 study, the authors assessed the effects of dasatinib at doses of 140 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily in patients who had either chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in advanced phases or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and were resistant or intolerant to imatinib. In the current report, the results for patients with CML in blast phase after 2 years of follow-up are reported. METHODS Patients were stratified according to whether they had CML in myeloid blast phase (MBP-CML) or in lymphoid blast phase (LBP-CML) and were randomized (1:1) within each stratum to receive either oral dasatinib 140 mg once daily or 70 mg twice daily. RESULTS In patients with MBP-CML, the major hematologic response rate was 28% for both regimens; and, in patients with LBP-CML, the major hematologic response rate was 42% for once-daily dasatinib and 32% for twice-daily dasatinib. The major cytogenetic response rates were 25% for once-daily dasatinib and 28% for twice-daily dasatinib in patients with MBP-CML, and the respective rates in patients with LBP-CML were 50% and 40%. The overall survival rate at 24 months was 24% for once-daily dasatinib and 28% for twice-daily dasatinib in patients with MBP-CML, and the respective values in patients with LBP-CML were 21% and 16%. Adverse events indicated a trend toward improved tolerability for the once-daily regimen. CONCLUSIONS The current results suggested that dasatinib 140 mg once daily had similar efficacy and improved tolerability relative to the 70-mg twice-daily regimen in patients with imatinib-resistant, blast phase CML. PMID:20564086

  12. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  13. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  14. Factors Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction 2 Years After Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Chinese Older Cohort: A Prospective Study of 843 Cases at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lei; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to identify factors predicting patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in a Chinese older cohort. Preoperative and 2-year follow-up data for 843 patients were analyzed. After 2 years of discectomy, the patients rated their satisfaction by Patient Satisfaction Index (PSI), with response of 1 or 2 defining satisfaction and a PSI response of 3 or 4 defining dissatisfaction. Associations between perioperative variables and satisfaction with the results of surgery were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Six hundred fifty-seven patients had a PSI of 1 or 2 and were enrolled as satisfied group, 186 patients had a PSI of 3 or 4 and were enrolled as dissatisfied group. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, occupation, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg, and VAS-back. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group had a significantly higher BMI and a higher incidence of depression. Two years after discectomy, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in decrease of ODI, decrease of VAS-back, decrease of VAS-leg, surgery complications. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group experienced higher incidence of symptom recurrence and depression. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, pre- and postoperative depression, symptom recurrence were independently associated with patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy.I n conclusion, more than 70% patients expressed satisfaction with discectomy for LDH. Two factors could predict patient dissatisfaction and be assessed before surgery: obesity and preoperative depression. Symptom recurrence and postoperative depression are also associated with diminished patient satisfaction. PMID:26448005

  15. Two Year Community: Design and Components of a Two-Year College Interdisciplinary Field-Study Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Benjamin A.; Martin, Todd C.

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary field study courses at 2-year colleges can provide an opportunity to enhance student learning. The authors present here an 11-day interdisciplinary field-study course designed for nonscience majors at a 2-year college. Using a theoretical learning framework that emphasizes cognitive and metacognitive gains, the field study…

  16. New Walking and Cycling Routes and Increased Physical Activity: One- and 2-Year Findings From the UK iConnect Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of providing new high-quality, traffic-free routes for walking and cycling on overall levels of walking, cycling, and physical activity. Methods. 1796 adult residents in 3 UK municipalities completed postal questionnaires at baseline (2010) and 1-year follow-up (2011), after the construction of the new infrastructure. 1465 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up (2012). Transport network distance from home to infrastructure defined intervention exposure and provided a basis for controlled comparisons. Results. Living nearer the infrastructure did not predict changes in activity levels at 1-year follow-up but did predict increases in activity at 2 years relative to those living farther away (15.3 additional minutes/week walking and cycling per km nearer; 12.5 additional minutes/week of total physical activity). The effects were larger among participants with no car. Conclusions. These new local routes may mainly have displaced walking or cycling trips in the short term but generated new trips in the longer term, particularly among those unable to access more distant destinations by car. These findings support the potential for walking and cycling infrastructure to promote physical activity. PMID:25033133

  17. A 2-Year, Phase IV, Multicentre, Observational Study of Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Routine Clinical Practice: The EPICOHORT Study

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Stephen; Perez-Salvador Garcia, Eduardo; Reynders, Stefaan; Si Bouazza, Abdelkader; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety profile of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in routine clinical practice. Methods. This 2-year, multicentre, observational study was conducted to capture real-world early practice and outcomes across Europe, shortly after European licensing of ranibizumab for nAMD. Being observational in nature, the study did not impose diagnostic/therapeutic interventions/visit schedule. Patients were to be treated as per the EU summary of product characteristics (SmPC) in effect during the study. Key outcome measures were incidence of selected adverse events (AEs), treatment exposure, bilateral treatment, compliance to the EU SmPC, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over 2 years. Results. 755 of 770 patients received treatment. Ranibizumab was generally well tolerated with low incidence of selected AEs (0%–1.9%). Patients received 6.2 (mean) injections and 133 patients received bilateral treatment over 2 years. Protocol deviation to treatment compliance was reported in majority of patients. The observed decline in mean BCVA (Month 12, +1.5; Month 24, –1.3 letters) may be associated with undertreatment as suggested by BCVA subgroup analysis. Conclusion. The EPICOHORT study conducted in routine clinical practice reinforces the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab in nAMD. In early European practice it appeared that the nAMD patients were undertreated. PMID:24868458

  18. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand in children with early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 2-year prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of observations of serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not clear. To elucidate the potential role of OPG and RANKL in JIA we determined serum levels of OPG and RANKL in patients with early JIA compared to healthy children, and prospectively explored changes in relation to radiographic score, bone and lean mass, severity of the disease, and treatment. Methods Ninety children with early oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA (ages 6-18 years; mean disease duration 19.4 months) and 90 healthy children individually matched for age, sex, race, and county of residence, were examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up. OPG and RANKL were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses. Results Serum OPG was significantly lower in patients than controls at baseline, and there was a trend towards higher RANKL and a lower OPG/RANKL ratio. Patients with polyarthritis had significantly higher increments in RANKL from baseline to follow-up, compared to patients with oligoarthritis. RANKL was a significant negative predictor for increments in total body lean mass. Patients who were receiving corticosteroids (CS) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at follow-up had higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared with patients who did not receive this medication. Conclusions The data supports that levels of OPG are lower in patients with JIA compared to healthy children, and higher levels of RANKL is associated with more serious disease. RANKL was a significant negative predictor of lean mass in patients with JIA. The OPG/RANKL ratio was higher in patients on DMARDs or CS treatment. PMID:21134287

  19. The use of oxytocin in liquid semen doses to reduce seasonal fluctuations in the reproductive performance of sows and improve litter parameters--a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Duziński, Kamil; Knecht, Damian; Srodoń, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present research was to eliminate seasonal fluctuations in year-round reproductive performance of sows and to improve litter parameters by administration of oxytocin into liquid semen insemination doses. A 2-year experiment was performed on crossbreed sows, Polish Large White × Polish Landrace, which were partitioned into two groups: control, insemination without any modification with 100 mL semen doses and oxytocin, insemination with 100 mL semen doses to which 5 IU of oxytocin was added just before insemination. A total of 10,486 inseminations were made. The farrowing rate and obtained litter parameters, including the effect of season, were analyzed. For each litter, the following factors were defined: average litter size, percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets, average piglet birth weight, percentage of piglet mortality, fecundity index, average number of piglets weaned, weaned piglet weight, and daily gain. Sows presented a positive reaction to the experimental factor. A statistically higher farrowing rate for oxytocin group in summer and autumn seasons was confirmed (P ≤ 0.01). Regardless of the season, a higher average litter size was observed in the oxytocin group with the most evident differences for winter, spring (P ≤ 0.01), and summer (P ≤ 0.05). The effect of oxytocin on the percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets born was not confirmed statistically except for winter. Analyzing the fecundity index, higher values were obtained for the oxytocin group in all seasons (P ≤ 0.01), including the lowest difference between groups for winter (51.43) and the highest for summer (100.61). A higher average birth piglet weight and weaned piglet weight were recorded for the oxytocin group in all seasons. The highest differences in birth piglet weight between groups were noted for spring (0.22 kg; P ≤ 0.01) and winter (0.17 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and in weaned piglet weight for winter and spring (0.58 kg and 0.52 kg; for

  20. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  1. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  2. Prospective Analysis of a New Bone Graft in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a 2- Year Prospective Clinical and Radiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raskin, Yannic

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of bone graft material ABM/P-15 (iFACTOR) for use in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. ABM/P-15 has been used safely for more than a decade in dental applications. Methods Forty patients underwent PLIF surgery, with each patient as control. Assessments up to 24 months included radiographs, CT scan, VAS, and ODI. Primary success criteria were fusion and safety. Results Intra-cage bridging bone occurred earlier with ABM/P-15 than autograft (97.73% vs. 59.09% at 6 months). On average pain decreased 29 points and function improved 43 points. Radio dense material outside the disk space occurred more frequently with ABM/P-15 than autograft, without clinical consequence. Conclusions This study suggests that ABM/P-15 has equal or greater efficacy at 6 and 12 months. Pain improvements exceeded success criteria at all time points. Functional improvement exceeded success criteria at all time points. Clinical Relevance This study explores the safety and efficacy of an osteobiologic peptide enhanced bone graft material as a viable alternative to autograft and its attendant risks. PMID:25709887

  3. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657

  4. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (the PROSPECT study). PROscar Safety Plus Efficacy Canadian Two year Study.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J C; Fradet, Y; Boake, R C; Pommerville, P J; Perreault, J P; Afridi, S K; Elhilali, M M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 years' treatment of moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with finasteride. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, prospective randomized study. SETTING: Outpatient care in 28 centres across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 45 to 80, in good health, with moderate BPH and no evidence of prostate cancer. A total of 613 men were entered into the study; 472 completed the 2 years of treatment. INTERVENTION: After 1 month of receiving a placebo (run-in period), patients were given either finasteride (5 mg/d) or a placebo for 2 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy: changes from baseline in BPH symptom scores, maximum urinary flow rates and prostate volume. Safety: onset, course and resolution of all adverse events during the treatment period. RESULTS: In the efficacy analyses the mean BPH symptom scores decreased 2.1 points (from 15.8 to 13.7) in the finasteride group, as compared with a decrease of 0.7 points (from 16.6 to 15.9) in the placebo group (P < or = 0.01). The maximum urinary flow rate increased by a mean of 1.4 mL/s (from 11.1 to 12.5 mL/s) in the finasteride group, as compared with an increase of 0.3 mL/s (from 10.9 to 11.2 mL/s) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). The mean prostate volume decreased by 21% (from a mean volume of 44.1 cm3 at baseline) in the treatment group; it increased by 8.4% (from a mean volume of 45.8 cm3 at baseline) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). In the safety analysis, the proportion of patients who experienced any adverse event was similar in the two groups (81.0% in the treatment group and 81.2% in the placebo group). However, the incidence of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in the finasteride group than in the placebo group (ejaculation disorder 7.7% v. 1.7% and impotence 15.8% v. 6.3%; p < or = 0.01 for both parameters). CONCLUSION: Finasteride is a well-tolerated and effective alternative to watchful

  5. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association. PMID:25803769

  6. Serum antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in the first 2 years of life: results from an SE Asian longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Turner, P; Turner, C; Green, N; Ashton, L; Lwe, E; Jankhot, A; Day, N P; White, N J; Nosten, F; Goldblatt, D

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in early childhood may aid our understanding of protection and inform vaccine antigen selection. Serum samples were collected from mother-infant pairs during a longitudinal pneumococcal colonization study in Burmese refugees. Maternal and cord sera were collected at birth and infants were bled monthly (1–24 months of age). Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken monthly to detect colonization. Serum IgG titres to 27 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured in 2624 sera and IgG to dominant serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, 19A and 23F) were quantified in 864 infant sera. Antibodies to all protein antigens were detect ablein maternal sera. Titres to four proteins (LytB, PcpA, PhtD and PhtE) were significantly higher in mothers colonized by pneumococci at delivery. Maternally-derived antibodies to PiuA and Spr0096 were associated with delayed pneumococcal acquisition in infants in univariate,but not multivariate models. Controlling for infant age and previous homologous serotype exposure, nasopharyngeal acquisition of serotypes 19A, 23F, 14 or 19F was associated significantly with a ≥2-fold antibody response to the homologous capsule (OR 12.84, 7.52,6.52, 5.33; p <0.05). Acquisition of pneumococcal serotypes in the nasopharynx of infants was not significantly associated with a ≥2-fold rise in antibodies to any of the protein antigens studied. In conclusion, nasopharyngeal colonization in young children resulted in demonstrable serum IgG responses to pneumococcal capsules and surface/virulence proteins. However, the relationship between serum IgG and the prevention of, or response to, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization remains complex. Mechanisms other than serum IgG are likely to have a role but are currently poorly understood. PMID:24255996

  7. The Prospective Intraoperative and Perioperative Ophthalmic ImagiNg with Optical CoherEncE TomogRaphy (PIONEER) Study: 2-year Results

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Dupps, William J.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Goshe, Jeff; Singh, Rishi P.; Petkovsek, Dan; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and utility of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for use during ophthalmic surgery. Design Prospective, consecutive, case series Methods A prospective, single-center, consecutive, case series was initiated to assess intraoperative OCT in ophthalmic surgery. Intraoperative scanning was performed with a microscope mounted spectral domain OCT system. Disease specific or procedure-specific imaging protocols (e.g., scan type, pattern, size, orientation, density) were utilized for anterior and posterior segment applications. A surgeon feedback form was recorded as part of the study protocol to answer specific questions regarding intraoperative OCT utility immediately after the surgical procedure was completed. Results During the first 24 months of the PIONEER study, 531 eyes were enrolled (275 anterior segment cases and 256 posterior segment surgical cases). Intraoperative OCT imaging was obtained in 518 of 531 eyes (98%). Surgeon feedback indicated that intraoperative OCT informed surgical decision-making and altered surgeon understanding of underlying tissue configurations in 69/144 (48%) lamellar keratoplasty cases and 63/146 (43%) membrane peeling procedures. The most common anterior segment surgical procedure was descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 135). Vitrectomy with membrane peeling was the most common procedure for posterior segment surgery (n = 154). The median time that surgery was paused to perform intraoperative OCT was 4.9 minutes per scan session. No adverse events were specifically attributed to intraoperative OCT scanning during the procedure. Conclusions Intraoperative OCT is feasible for numerous anterior and posterior segment ophthalmic surgical procedures. A microscope mounted intraoperative OCT system provided efficient imaging during operative procedures. The information gained from intraoperative OCT may impact surgical decision-making in a high frequency

  8. The Role of Human Coronaviruses in Children Hospitalized for Acute Bronchiolitis, Acute Gastroenteritis, and Febrile Seizures: A 2-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jevšnik, Monika; Steyer, Andrej; Pokorn, Marko; Mrvič, Tatjana; Grosek, Štefan; Strle, Franc; Lusa, Lara; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a variety of clinical presentations in children, but their role in disease remains uncertain. The objective of our prospective study was to investigate HCoVs associations with various clinical presentations in hospitalized children up to 6 years of age. Children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis (AB), acute gastroenteritis (AGE), or febrile seizures (FS), and children admitted for elective surgical procedures (healthy controls) were included in the study. In patients with AB, AGE, and FS, a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and blood sample were obtained upon admission and the follow-up visit 14 days later, whereas in children with AGE a stool sample was also acquired upon admission; in healthy controls a NP swab and stool sample were taken upon admission. Amplification of polymerase 1b gene was used to detect HCoVs in the specimens. HCoVs-positive specimens were also examined for the presence of several other viruses. HCoVs were most often detected in children with FS (19/192, 9.9%, 95% CI: 6–15%), followed by children with AGE (19/218, 8.7%, 95% CI: 5.3–13.3%) and AB (20/308, 6.5%, 95% CI: 4.0–9.8%). The presence of other viruses was a common finding, most frequent in the group of children with AB (19/20, 95%, 95% CI: 75.1–99.8%), followed by FS (10/19, 52.6%, 95% CI: 28.9–75.6%) and AGE (7/19, 36.8%, 95% CI: 16.3–61.6%). In healthy control children HCoVs were detected in 3/156 (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.4–5.5%) NP swabs and 1/150 (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.02–3.3%) stool samples. It seems that an etiological role of HCoVs is most likely in children with FS, considering that they had a higher proportion of positive HCoVs results than patients with AB and those with AGE, and had the highest viral load; however, the co-detection of other viruses was 52.6%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987519 PMID:27171141

  9. Decreased use of glucocorticoids in biological-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis who initiated intravenous abatacept: results from the 2-year ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Rieke; Nüßlein, Hubert; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Bensen, William G; Burmester, Gerd R; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pavelka, Karel; Chartier, Mélanie; Poncet, Coralie; Rauch, Christiane; Elbez, Yedid; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged glucocorticoid use may increase the risk of adverse safety outcomes, including cardiovascular events. The European League Against Rheumatism and the Canadian Rheumatology Association advise tapering glucocorticoid dose as rapidly as clinically feasible. There is a paucity of published data on RA that adequately describe concomitant treatment patterns. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a non-interventional cohort study of patients from Europe and Canada that investigated the long-term retention of intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. We assessed concomitant glucocorticoids in patients with established RA who had participated in ACTION and received ≥1 biological agent prior to abatacept initiation. Results The analysis included 1009 patients. Glucocorticoids were prescribed at abatacept initiation in 734 (72.7%) patients at a median 7.5 mg/day dose (n=692). Of the patients who remained on abatacept at 24 months, 40.7% were able to decrease their dose of glucocorticoids, including 26.9% who decreased their dose from >5 mg/day to ≤5 mg/day. Conclusion Reduction and/or cessation of glucocorticoid therapy is possible with intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. PMID:26925253

  10. Personal and demographic factors and change of subjective indoor air quality reported by school children in relation to exposure at Swedish schools: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Smedje, Greta; Nordquist, Tobias; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies changes in subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) among school children and relates these data to repeated exposure measurements during a two-year follow-up period. Data on SIAQ and demographic information were gathered by a questionnaire sent to 1476 primary and secondary school pupils in 39 randomly selected schools at baseline and after two years (follow-up). Exposure measurements were applied after questionnaire data were collected at baseline and follow-up in approximately 100 classrooms. The arithmetic mean values for baseline and follow-up were: for indoor air temperature 23.6°C and 21.8°C and for outdoor air flow rate 5.4 L/s and 7.9L/s. Older children, those with atopy at baseline, and those in larger schools reported impaired SIAQ during follow-up. Installation of new ventilation systems, higher personal air flow rate and air exchange rate, and better illumination were associated with improved SIAQ. Higher CO2 levels were associated with impaired SIAQ. In conclusion, sufficient ventilation and illumination in classrooms are essential for the perception of good indoor air quality. PMID:25486639

  11. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vychytil, Andreas; Remón, César; Michel, Catherine; Williams, Paul; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Marrón, Belén; Vonesh, Ed; van der Heyden, Synke; Filho, Jose C. Divino

    2008-01-01

    Background. Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived by hydrolysis of cornstarch. The different biocompatibility profile of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may have a positive influence on peritoneal host defence. Furthermore, cases of sterile peritonitis potentially associated with icodextrin have been reported. Methods. The primary objective of this multicentre, longitudinal, observational, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, which included 722 PD patients, was to evaluate the incidence of overall peritonitis in patients treated with icodextrin-containing PD solutions (Extraneal™) used during one long-dwell exchange/day compared with those treated with non-icodextrin-containing PD solutions. The secondary objective was to determine if culture-negative peritonitis rates differed between patients treated with icodextrin from two independent manufacturers. All peritonitis episodes were assessed by a Steering Committee in a blind manner. Results. There was no significant difference between icodextrin-treated and control patients in the adjusted overall, culture-positive or culture-negative peritonitis rates. When stratified by the icodextrin supplier, there was no significant difference in the adjusted rate of culture-negative peritonitis episodes between groups. Conclusion. Subjects receiving icodextrin as part of their PD regimen experienced neither a higher rate of culture-negative peritonitis nor a lower rate of infectious peritonitis compared with non-icodextrin users. There was no significant influence of the icodextrin raw material supplier on peritonitis rates. PMID:18556747

  12. The MCT-ketogenic diet as a treatment option in refractory childhood epilepsy: A prospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Vles, Hans S H; de Louw, Anton J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Majoie, Marian J M

    2015-10-01

    The present study assessed the long-term (i.e., 24months) efficacy of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy, with focus on seizure frequency, seizure severity, and tolerability. Most patients were treated with the MCT-diet. At one and two years, 33% and 23%, respectively, of the 48 included patients were still on the KD. After three months, one year, and two years of treatment, 16.7% of the patients were responders. The highest responder rate (i.e., 22.9%) was seen at six and nine months of treatment. Of the fifteen patients with seizure clusters during baseline, 60% were responders after three months when looking at cluster reduction and most of them were not responders for the total seizure frequency. From three months of treatment onwards, most of the patients had a relevant decrease in seizure severity which was mainly related to the most severe seizure type. Gastrointestinal dysfunction was often reported, especially in the first six weeks of treatment. Growth deceleration was present in 30% of the patients, and weight reduction in 15%. Improved arousal was mentioned in 30% of patients. No patients developed ECG abnormalities or kidney stones. Increase in lipid profile was rare. The KD is an effective therapy for children with therapy-resistant epilepsy. Effectiveness is reflected in the reduction of seizure frequency as well as in the reduction of seizure severity. After 6months of treatment, it is obvious which patients are responders and tolerate the treatment well. Most of these patients will continue to benefit from the KD for a longer time. Long-term use of the diet was well tolerated. PMID:26301622

  13. Change in Care Dependency and Nursing Care Problems in Nursing Home Residents with and without Dementia: A 2-Year Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over time, chronic conditions like dementia can lead to care dependency and nursing care problems, often necessitating nursing home admission. This panel study (2012–2014) aims to explore changes in care dependency and nursing care problems (incontinence, malnutrition, decubitus, falls and restraints) in residents with and without dementia over time. In total, nine Austrian nursing homes participated, including 258 residents (178 with, 80 without dementia) who completed all five measurements. Data were collected with the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems questionnaire, the Care Dependency Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination-2. Repeated measures ANOVA and crosstabs were used to analyse changes. The results showed that care dependency in dementia residents increased significantly for all 15 items of the Care Dependency Scale, with the highest increase being residents’ day-/night pattern, contact with others, sense of rules/values and communication. In contrast, care dependency in residents without dementia increased for four of the 15 items, with the highest increase being for continence, followed by getting (un)dressed. With respect to the assessed nursing care problems, residents with dementia and those without only differed significantly in terms of an increase in urinary- (12.3% vs. 14.2%), fecal- (17.4% vs. 10%), and double incontinence (16.7% vs. 11.9%). The results indicated that residents with dementia experienced increased care dependency in different areas than residents without dementia. Furthermore, residents with dementia experienced a lower increase in urinary incontinence but a higher increase in fecal- and double incontinence. These results help professionals to identify areas for improvement in dementia care. PMID:26513358

  14. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy: 2-year prospective open-label study of 40 subjects with refractory epilepsy and low IQ who are living in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Huf, Roger L; Mamelak, Adam; Kneedy-Cayem, Kara

    2005-05-01

    Treating seizures among patients with mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is difficult owing in large part to the presence of additional comorbidities and the resulting need for polytherapy. Therefore, a nonpharmacological treatment option is needed for this population. This prospective, open-label study documented the long-term outcome of 40 low-IQ (<70) patients living in long-term care facilities who received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Subjects were seen every 1 to 3 months by their neurologist (R.H.). Seizure frequency, antiepileptic medication, and quality-of-life information were documented preimplantation and quarterly thereafter through 2 years. The surgery and therapy were well tolerated. Seizures were reduced by at least 50% for 11 subjects. Antiepileptic medications were reduced from 3.3 per subject at baseline to an average of 2.3 per subject after 2 years. According to caregiver reports, overall quality of life improved for the majority of subjects; also, using the Client Development Evaluation Report (CDER), statistically significant improvements were reported at both 1 and 2 years in attention span, word usage, clarity of speech, standing balance, washing dishes, and household chores. VNS is a viable treatment option for low-IQ patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who are living in long-term care facilities. PMID:15820352

  15. (Studies in quantum field theory)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    During the period 4/1/89--3/31/90 the theoretical physics group supported by Department of Energy Contract No. AC02-78ER04915.A015 and consisting of Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Senior Research Associate Visser has made progress in many areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Research Associate Visser are currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large order; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the 1/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including OCD; studies of the early universe and inflation, and quantum gravity.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Effect of 2-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Physical Performance, Strength, and Falling: Additional Findings from the B-PROOF Study.

    PubMed

    Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Sohl, Evelien; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Zillikens, M Carola; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Brug, Johannes; Uitterlinden, André G; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Lips, Paul; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with a decline in physical function in elderly persons. Homocysteine-lowering therapy may slow down this decline. This study aimed to examine the effect of a 2-year intervention of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, handgrip strength, and risk of falling in elderly subjects in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants aged ≥65 years with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations [12-50 µmol/L (n = 2919)] were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of 500 µg vitamin B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D3, or to placebo with 600 IU vitamin D3. Physical performance (range 0-12) and handgrip strength (kg) were measured at baseline and after 2 years. Falls were reported prospectively on a research calendar. Intention-to-treat (primary) and per-protocol (secondary) analyses were performed. Physical performance level and handgrip strength significantly decreased during the follow-up period, but this decline did not differ between groups. Moreover, time to first fall was not significantly different (HR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.2). Secondary analyses on a per-protocol base identified an interaction effect with age on physical performance. In addition, the treatment was associated with higher follow-up scores on the walking test (cumulative OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Two-year supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid was neither effective in reducing the age-related decline in physical performance and handgrip strength, nor in the prevention of falling in elderly persons. Despite the overall null-effect, the results provide indications for a positive effect of the intervention on gait, as well as on physical performance among compliant persons >80 years. These effects should be further tested in future studies. PMID:26412463

  17. Field-structured composite studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2004-04-01

    Field-structured composites (FSCs) were produced by hosting micron-sized gold-coated nickel particles in a pre-polymer and allowing the mixture to cure in a magnetic field environment. The feasibility of controlling a composite's electrical conductivity using feedback control applied to the field coils was investigated. It was discovered that conductivity in FSCs is primarily determined by stresses in the polymer host matrix due to cure shrinkage. Thus, in cases where the structuring field was uniform and unidirectional so as to produce chainlike structures in the composite, no electrical conductivity was measured until well after the structuring field was turned off at the gel point. In situations where complex, rotating fields were used to generate complex, three-dimensional structures in a composite, very small, but measurable, conductivity was observed prior to the gel point. Responsive, sensitive prototype chemical sensors were developed based on this technology with initial tests showing very promising results.

  18. Studies in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polmar, S. K.

    The theoretical physics group at Washington University has been devoted to the solution of problems in theoretical and mathematical physics. All of the personnel on this task have a similar approach to their research in that they apply sophisticated analytical and numerical techniques to problems primarily in quantum field theory. Specifically, this group has worked on quantum chromodynamics, classical Yang-Mills fields, chiral symmetry breaking condensates, lattice field theory, strong-coupling approximations, perturbation theory in large order, nonlinear waves, 1/N expansions, quantum solitons, phase transitions, nuclear potentials, and early universe calculations.

  19. Combining Dedicated Online Training and Apprenticeships in the Field to Assist in Professionalization of Humanitarian Aid Workers: a 2-year Pilot Project for Anesthesia and Intensive Care Residents Working in Resource Constrained and Low-income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Foletti, Marco; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Burkle, Frederick M.; Della Corte, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: As a result of the gaps in humanitarian response highlighted by several reports, the international community called for an increased professionalization of humanitarian aid workers. This paper describes a pilot project by an Italian university and a non-profit, non-governmental organization to implement a medical apprenticeship in low-income countries during Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine residencies. Methods: Before deployment, participants were required to complete a dedicated online training course about safety and security in the field, principles of anesthesia at the district hospital level, emergency and essential surgical care, essentials of medical treatment in resource-constrained environments and psychological support in emergencies. Results: At the end of the program, a qualitative self-evaluation questionnaire administered to participants highlighted how the project allowed the participants to advance their professional skills when working in a low-resource environment, while also mastering their adapting skills and the ability to interact and cooperate with local healthcare personnel. The project also proved to be a means for personal growth, making these experiences a recommendation for all residents as a necessary step for the professionalization of healthcare personnel involved in humanitarian aid. PMID:25642362

  20. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Daas, M; Assaf, A; Dada, K; Makzoumé, J

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  1. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Daas, M.; Assaf, A.; Dada, K.; Makzoumé, J.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  2. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  3. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  4. Mentoring Field Directors: A National Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Martha L.; Raskin, Miriam S.

    2014-01-01

    In social work field education, mentoring is underused and lacks research data. There is a paucity of research that examines the effect mentoring has on social work field directors who administer field programs at the undergraduate and/or graduate level. This exploratory study fills this void by examining the mentoring opportunities and…

  5. Recent biophysical studies in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maret, Georg

    1990-06-01

    A brief overview of biophysical effects of steady magnetic fields is given. The need of high field strength is illustrated by several recent diamagnetic orientation experiments. They include rod-like viruses, purple membranes and chromosomes. Results of various studies on bees, quails, rats and pigeons exposed to fields above 7 T are also resumed.

  6. Association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression, and the effect of depression on outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke in a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian-Tong; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Ying-Jun; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-Chao; Jiang, Chen; Wang, Cheng; Shao, Jun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association and the effect of PSD on the outcomes of ischemic stroke patients. A total of 355 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke participated in inflammatory cytokine detection by ELISA, in addition to depression, quality of life (QOL) and body performance testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate the associations between PSD risk, inflammatory cytokines and the outcomes of patients. Measurement data was evaluated using Student's t test, and counted data was measured by χ2 test. The incidence of PSD during the 2-year follow-up was 23.1%. The risk of PSD elevated with increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression levels [hazard ratio (HR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37–7.36] following the adjustment of confounders. However, no significant associations were identified between PSD and other inflammatory cytokines. QOL and body performance in the depressed group were significantly worse compared with those in the non-depressed group. The risk of stroke recurrence in patients with depression increased two-fold compared with patients without depression (HR=2.020; 95% CI, 1.123–3.635; Ptrend=0.019). No significant associations between PSD and the risk of mortality (HR=1.497; 95% CI, 0.547–4.098) were observed. In conclusion, depression is prevalent in patients following ischemic stroke. IL-6 is positively associated with the risk of PSD, and may predict its development in patients following ischemic stroke. PSD correlates with outcomes of patients, and the effective management of PSD may improve the prognosis of patients. PMID:27588080

  7. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean . E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Magne, Nicolas; Poissonnet, Gilles; Ramaioli, Alain; Lemanski, Claire; Bourdin, Sylvain; Tortochaux, Jacques; Peyrade, Frederic; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Vallicioni, Jacques; Seng Hang; Alzieu, Claude; Gery, Bernard; Chauvel, Pierre; Schneider, Maurice; Santini, Jose; Demard, Francois; Calais, Gilles

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  8. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion. PMID:27098659

  9. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  10. Microwave field pattern measurement for EMC study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Tasuku

    The author has developed a robotic system for automatic measurement of a microwave field. An antenna (sensor) scans a field space to be measured. The data of each point in the scanned space is stored in memories and processed to display or print out as a field pattern. All systems are controlled by a microcomputer. Scattering field by an object to be studied can be obtained without use of a special measuring site by obtaining a difference between the field intensity without the object and that with the object. Several measuring examples are presented, such as a field pattern in a living space, diffraction pattern around the living body, pattern measurement of an effect of aprons for protection from the microwave field, and so on.

  11. Interaction Between Flames and Electric Fields Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between flames and electric fields has long been an interesting research subject that has theoretical importance as well as practical significance. Many of the reactions in a flame follow an ionic pathway: that is, positive and negative ions are formed during the intermediate steps of the reaction. When an external electric field is applied, the ions move according to the electric force (the Coulomb force) exerted on them. The motion of the ions modifies the chemistry because the reacting species are altered, it changes the velocity field of the flame, and it alters the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame will change its shape and location to meet all thermal, chemical, and electrical constraints. In normal gravity, the strong buoyant effect often makes the flame multidimensional and, thus, hinders the detailed study of the problem.

  12. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Nduati, Eunice W; Nkumama, Irene N; Gambo, Faith K; Muema, Daniel M; Knight, Miguel G; Hassan, Amin S; Jahangir, Margaret N; Etyang, Timothy J; Berkley, James A; Urban, Britta C

    2016-07-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected. PMID:27170641

  13. The association of maternal vitamin D status with infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity in the first 2 years of life in a multi-ethnic Asian population: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Yi Lin; Quah, Phaik Ling; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Heppe, Denise; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Foong-Fong Chong, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50-75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes - small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) - growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population. PMID:27339329

  14. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Nkumama, Irene N.; Gambo, Faith K.; Muema, Daniel M.; Hassan, Amin S.; Jahangir, Margaret N.; Etyang, Timothy J.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2016-01-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected. PMID:27170641

  15. Field emission study of carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin

    Recently, carbon nanosheets (CNS), a novel nanostructure, were developed in our laboratory as a field emission source for high emission current. To characterize, understand and improve the field emission properties of CNS, a ultra-high vacuum surface analysis system was customized to conduct relevant experimental research in four distinct areas. The system includes Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), field emission energy spectroscopy (FEES), field emission I-V testing, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Firstly, commercial Mo single tips were studied to calibrate the customized system. AES and FEES experiments indicate that a pyramidal nanotip of Ca and O elements formed on the Mo tip surface by field induced surface diffusion. Secondly, field emission I-V testing on CNS indicates that the field emission properties of pristine nanosheets are impacted by adsorbates. For instance, in pristine samples, field emission sources can be built up instantaneously and be characterized by prominent noise levels and significant current variations. However, when CNS are processed via conditioning (run at high current), their emission properties are greatly improved and stabilized. Furthermore, only H2 desorbed from the conditioned CNS, which indicates that only H adsorbates affect emission. Thirdly, the TDS study on nanosheets revealed that the predominant locations of H residing in CNS are sp2 hybridized C on surface and bulk. Fourthly, a fabricating process was developed to coat low work function ZrC on nanosheets for field emission enhancement. The carbide triple-peak in the AES spectra indicated that Zr carbide formed, but oxygen was not completely removed. The Zr(CxOy) coating was dispersed as nanobeads on the CNS surface. Although the work function was reduced, the coated CNS emission properties were not improved due to an increased beta factor. Further analysis suggest that for low emission current (<1 uA), the H adsorbates affect emission by altering the work

  16. Outdoor Education, Junior Biology Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, John H.; And Others

    Field studies for grade nine and ten biology students are developed in this teacher and student guide for outdoor education. A small section is devoted to teacher pre-planning and final sections are concerned with equipment, audio-visual resources, and a large booklist. Twenty-three investigations related to earth science and biology topics are…

  17. "Idols" - A Game for Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connally, James T.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a game for field studies titled "Idols." Idols is a struggle of intellect and reason against instinct and superstition. The game involves two "tribes" which are protecting a superstitious legacy while trying to replace it with other forms of wealth and understanding. (Author/DS)

  18. Marine and Environmental Studies Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    This laboratory manual was developed for a field-oriented high school oceanology program. The organization of the units includes a selection of supplementary activities to allow students to explore ocean studies in more depth. Included are 19 units. The units include biological oceanography, physical oceanography, and some social science topics. A…

  19. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  20. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  1. AC Electrostatic Field Study : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lebby, Gary L.

    1990-08-28

    The phenomenon of fast transients propagating to the outer sheath of a gas insulated substation (GIS) during switching and disconnect operations as well as the distortion of the electric field gradient around an electric transmission line in the presence of field measuring equipment are examples of electrostatic and electromagnetic field problems that are very much on the minds of both power engineers and maintenance personnel alike. Maintenance personnel working on high voltage equipment want to know the areas that have the highest electric field strength gradients and they want to reduce the risk of being shocked when touching a conventionally 60 Hz grounded GIS enclosure due to fast transients initiated by faults and switching operations. In studying these phenomena during the performance period of this grant, tower configurations for the electric field strength gradient measurements were tested with the ESURF3D program acquired from BPA and gas insulated substation test pole (GISTP) models were tested using the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) version Electromagnets Transients Program (EMTP). The results of these two modeling paradigms are presented in this report not as the last word on these subjects, but as a couple of the many ways one can approach two classical electromagnetic waves problems. 19 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  3. Chief Student Affairs Officers in 2-Year Colleges: Their Demographics and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine demographics and educational backgrounds of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) in public 2-year colleges. Using systematic sampling techniques, 300 2-year colleges were selected from the AACC Membership Directory for inclusion in the study. Each college's website was visited to determine the name of…

  4. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. PMID:26865423

  5. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  6. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. F.; Sale, K.; Gold, R.; Roberts, J. H.; Preston, C. C.

    1991-06-01

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry.

  7. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  8. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  10. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  11. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Washington and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. Investigations discussed address principally mudflow phenomena and drainage development. At the Valley of 10,000 Smokes (Katmai, AK) and Mount St. Helens, WA, studies of the development of erosional landforms (in particular, drainage) on fresh, new surfaces permitted analysis of the result of competition between geomorphic processes. Of specific interest is the development of stream pattern as a function of the competition between perennial seepage overland flow (from glacial or groundwater sources), ephemeral overland flow (from pluvial or seasonal melt sources), and ephemeral/perennial groundwater sapping, as a function of time since initial resurfacing, material properties, and seasonal/annual environmental conditions.

  12. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-12-21

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  13. Field studies in geophysical diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Stevens, S.S.; King, W.C.; Ursic, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) is a quantitative, high- resolution technique for subsurface imaging. This method has been used in a number of shallow applications to image buried waste, trenches, soil strata, tunnels, synthetic magma chambers, and the buried skeletal remains of seismosaurus, the longest dinosaur ever discovered. The theory associated with the GDT inversion and implementing software have been developed for acoustic and scalar electromagnetic waves for bistatic and monostatic measurements in cross-borehole, offset vertical seismic profiling and reflection geometries. This paper presents an overview of some signal processing algorithms, a description of the instrumentation used in field studies, and selected imaging results.

  14. Field studies in geophysical diffraction tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, A.J.; Stevens, S.S. ); King, W.C. . Dept. of Geography and Environmental Engineering); Ursic, J.R. . Region V)

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT) is a quantitative, high- resolution technique for subsurface imaging. This method has been used in a number of shallow applications to image buried waste, trenches, soil strata, tunnels, synthetic magma chambers, and the buried skeletal remains of seismosaurus, the longest dinosaur ever discovered. The theory associated with the GDT inversion and implementing software have been developed for acoustic and scalar electromagnetic waves for bistatic and monostatic measurements in cross-borehole, offset vertical seismic profiling and reflection geometries. This paper presents an overview of some signal processing algorithms, a description of the instrumentation used in field studies, and selected imaging results.

  15. Rapid fast-mapping abilities in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Chad; Halberda, Justin

    2011-05-01

    Learning a new word consists of two primary tasks that have often been conflated into a single process: referent selection, in which a child must determine the correct referent of a novel label, and referent retention, which is the ability to store this newly formed label-object mapping in memory for later use. In addition, children must be capable of performing these tasks rapidly and repeatedly as they are frequently exposed to novel words during the course of natural conversation. Here we used a preferential pointing task to investigate 2-year-olds' (N=72) ability to infer the referent of a novel noun from a single ambiguous exposure and their ability to retain this mapping over time. Children were asked to identify the referent of a novel label on six critical trials distributed throughout the course of a 10-min study involving many familiar and novel objects. On these critical trials, images of a known object and a novel object (e.g., a ball and a nameless artifact constructed in the laboratory) appeared on two computer screens and a voice asked children to "point at the _____ [e.g., glark]." Following label onset, children were allowed only 3s during which to infer the correct referent, point at it, and potentially store this new word-object mapping. In a final posttest trial, all previously labeled novel objects appeared and children were asked to point to one of them (e.g., "Can you find the glark?"). To succeed, children needed to have initially mapped the novel labels correctly and retained these mappings over the course of the study. Despite the difficult demands of the current task, children successfully identified the target object on the retention trial. We conclude that 2-year-olds are able to fast map novel nouns during a brief single exposure under ambiguous labeling conditions. PMID:21145067

  16. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  17. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A Text Size ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  18. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  19. Studies of the Martian Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers two awards: the first NAGW-2573 was awarded to enable participation in the Mars 94 mission that slipped to become the Mars 96 mission. Upon the unfortunate failure of Mars 96 to achieve its intended trajectory, the second grant was awarded to closeout the Mars 96 activities. Our initial efforts concentrated on assisting our colleagues: W. Riedler, K. Schwingenschuh, K. Gringanz, M. Verigin and Ye. Yeroshenko with advice on the development of the magnetic field portion of the investigation and to help them with test activities. We also worked with them to properly analyze the Phobos magnetic field and plasma data in order to optimize the return from the Mars 94/96 mission. This activity resulted in 18 papers on Mars scientific topics, and two on the instrumentation. One of these latter two papers was the last of the papers written, and speaks to the value of the closeout award. These 20 papers are listed in the attached bibliography. Because we had previously studied Venus and Titan and since it was becoming evident that the magnetic field was very weak, we compared the various properties of the Martian interaction with those of the analogous interactions at Venus and Titan while other papers simply analyzed the properties of the interaction as Phobos 2 observed them. One very interesting observation was the identification of ions picked up in the solar wind, originating in Mars neutral atmosphere. These had been predicted by our earlier observation of cyclotron waves at the proton gyrofrequency in the region upstream from Mars in the solar wind. Of course, the key question we addressed was that of the intrinsic or induced nature of the Martian magnetic field. We found little evidence for the former and much for the latter point of view. We also discussed the instrumentation planned for the Mars balloon and the instrumentation on the orbiter. In all these studies were very rewarding despite the short span of the Phobos data. Although they did not

  20. Efficacy and safety of dutasteride, tamsulosin and their combination in a subpopulation of the CombAT study: 2-year results in Asian men with moderate-to-severe BPH.

    PubMed

    Chung, B-H; Roehrborn, C G; Siami, P; Major-Walker, K; Morrill, B B; Wilson, T H; Montorsi, F

    2009-01-01

    Although ethnicity-based differences in prostate size and physiology have been reported, results of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment trials in predominantly Caucasian patients are assumed to be applicable to non-Caucasian populations. This post hoc analysis investigated whether an Asian subpopulation of men with moderate-to-severe BPH in the CombAT study achieves treatment responses in line with those of the overall study population. In this double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial, 325 Asian men were assigned to treatment with 0.5 mg dutasteride once daily, 0.4 mg tamsulosin once daily or the combination. Decrease in international prostate symptom score (IPSS) at month 24 from baseline (the primary endpoint) was significantly greater with combination treatment compared with tamsulosin (P<0.05), and numerically, but not statistically significantly, greater compared with dutasteride. Mean IPSS was reduced from baseline by 7.5 (+/-0.84) in the combination group, by 6.3 (+/-0.86) in the dutasteride group and by 4.5 (+/-0.78) in the tamsulosin group, resulting in respective mean IPSS at months 24 of 11.4 (+/-0.60), 12.7 (+/-0.70) and 14.3 (+/-0.74). The adverse event profile was similar to that observed in the overall CombAT population, and drug-related adverse events were more common with combination therapy (26%) than with tamsulosin (15%) or dutasteride (9%). No unexpected adverse events emerged. In conclusion, in Asian men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms and an enlarged prostate, combination therapy achieved significantly greater improvements from baseline BPH symptoms, flow rate, quality of life, reduced prostate volume and improved treatment satisfaction compared with tamsulosin monotherapy. PMID:18813219

  1. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Followed by 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Aged ≥2 Years: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per; Juergens, Christine; Maertens, Johan; Selleslag, Dominik; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Giardina, Peter C.; Clarke, Keri; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections often occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); vaccination is important for prevention. Methods. In an open-label study, patients (n = 251) 3–6 months after allogeneic HSCT received 3 doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at 1-month intervals, a fourth dose 6 months later, and 1 dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 1 month later. Immunogenicity at prespecified time points and vaccine safety were assessed. Results. In the evaluable immunogenicity population (N = 216; mean age, 37.8 years), geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations from baseline to postdose 3 showed significant increases in antibody levels across all PCV13 serotypes (GMFR range, 2.99–23.85; 95% confidence interval lower limit, >1); there were significant declines over the next 6 months, significant increases from predose 4 to postdose 4 (GMFR range, 3.00–6.97), and little change after PPSV23 (GMFR range, 0.86–1.12). Local and systemic reactions were more frequent after dose 4. Six patients experienced serious adverse events possibly related to PCV13 (facial diplegia, injection-site erythema and pyrexia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and suspected lack of vaccine efficacy after dose 3 leading to pneumococcal infection), PCV13 and PPSV23 (Guillain-Barré syndrome), or PPSV23 (cellulitis). There were 14 deaths, none related to study vaccines. Conclusions. A 3-dose PCV13 regimen followed by a booster dose may be required to protect against pneumococcal disease in HSCT recipients. Dose 4 was associated with increased local and systemic reactions, but the overall safety profile of a 4-dose regimen was considered acceptable. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00980655. PMID:25870329

  2. Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes} (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona`s Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data.

  3. Coulomb Glass: a Mean Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandra, Salvatore; Palassini, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    We study the Coulomb glass model of disordered localized electrons with long-range Coulomb interaction, which describes systems such as disordered insulators, granular metals, amorphous semiconductors, or doped crystalline semiconductors. Long ago Efros and Shklovskii showed that the long-range repulsion induces a soft Coulomb gap in the single particle density of states at low temperatures. Recent works suggested that this gap is associated to a transition to a glass phase, similar to the Almeida-Thouless transition in spin glasses. In this work, we use a mean field approach to characterize several physical properties of the Coulomb glass. In particular, following a seminal work of Bray and Moore, we show that the Edward-Anderson parameter qEA and the spin glass susceptibility χSG are directly related to spectrum distribution of the Hessian matrix around free energy minima. Using this result, we show that no glass transition is associated to the gap formation.

  4. ERICA plans for winter storms field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadlock, Ron

    The Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic (ERICA) field study will be conducted between December 1, 1988, and February 28, 1989. The oceanic area that is approximately bounded by t he Gulf Stream and North America, from coastal Carolina to just east of Newfoundland, will be the region for special observations obtained by recently developed measurement systems, including high-resolution and safe Loran-C dropwindsondes, CLASS rawinsondes, an array of drifting data buoys, and multiple airborne Doppler radars. The special observations will be acquired within a framework of all conventional operational data available for the eastern United States and Canada, including that from the National Weather Service's land sites (plus supplemental rawinsonde observations), ocean platforms, U.S. Air Force WC-130 National Winter Storms Operations Plan reconnaissance flights, and civilian and military weather satellites. Satellite imagery and soundings willl be available in real time and archived through facilities of NOAA and the military.

  5. Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This study used a prospective longitudinal design to quantify fatigue and associated factors during the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one individuals were assessed at 3 time points: within the first 6, 12, and 18-24 months after TBI. Self-reported fatigue improved during the first year, as did pain, sleep quality, cognitive independence, and involvement in productive activity. Further changes up to 2 years after TBI were not observed. The subset of individuals who reported significant increases in fatigue over the first 2 years demonstrated poorer outcomes in cognition, motor symptoms, and general functioning than those with decreased or stable fatigue. PMID:18219232

  6. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development: Option 2 Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Option 2 Year from December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1997. The Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides products and deliverable in the form of models, data bases, methodologies, studies and analyses for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PPO3) the Program Plans and Requirements Officer (PP02), and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Progress reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section TV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work accomplishments, deliverables submitted, major meetings held, and other pertinent information. This Final Report will summarize these activities at higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 29,830 man-hours in tile performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work and reported oil in this yearly Final Report. This represents approximately 16 full-time EPs. Included are the basis Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Chicago, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  7. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  8. Field Ecology Studies in the Rocky Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Philip A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a six-week field plant ecology course in Montana which is offered by the Botany Department at Southern Illinois University. The goals of the course, how it is taught, and student evaluation are also presented. (HM)

  9. Plant Taxonomy as a Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests methods of teaching plant identification and taxonomic theory using keys, statistical analyses, and biometrics. Population variation, genotype- environment interaction and experimental taxonomy are used in laboratory and field. (AL)

  10. Millimeter wave near-field study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, Neill

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is evaluated of current technology measuring large aperture millimeter wave antennas. Included are a mathematical modeling of system errors, experimental data supporting error model, predictions of system accuracy at millimeter wavelengths, advantage of near-field measurements, and a cost estimate for a facility upgrade. The use is emphasized of software compensation and other inexpensive alternatives to develop a near optimum solution to near-field measurement problems at millimeter wavelengths.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of a Field and Non-Field Based Social Studies Preservice Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Vansickle, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of pre-service social studies teachers in field and non-field based methods courses indicated no significant differences with regard to teaching skills, attitudes, or behaviors teachers should exhibit in the classroom. (Author/DB)

  12. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKinlay, Christopher J.D.; Alsweiler, Jane M.; Ansell, Judith M.; Anstice, Nicola S.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D.; Harris, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Results Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, <47 mg per deciliter). Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P = 0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P = 0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. Conclusions In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  13. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L; Cautley, D.; Bohac, D.; Francisco, P.; Shen, L.; Gloss, S.

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  14. Toward a Field of Interfaith Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Eboo

    2013-01-01

    Scholars from a range of fields have long taken an interest in how people who orient around religion differently interact with one another. Indeed, this phenomenon has been the subject of important works in political science ("The Clash of Civilizations" by Samuel Huntington), sociology ("American Grace" by Robert Putnam and…

  15. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years. PMID:22007002

  16. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2010-30554, published on December 7, 2010, at 75 FR 76082, make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery...

  17. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  18. Detection of Flare Stars in TAOS 2-year Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.-I.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Wang, J.-H.; King, S.-K.; Wen, C. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Coehlo, N. K.; Mondal, S.; Axelrod, T.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S. Y.

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed 2 years of data from the Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS, Lehner et al. 2009), accumulated during 2005 and 2006, and found 3 flare stars. All of them are known x-ray sources. Among the detected flare stars, 1RXS J044712.8+203809 shows three recurrences of flare events within a month.

  19. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  20. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  1. Studies of solar magnetic fields during the solar maximum year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Observations and studies of solar magnetic fields that were carried out during the period of the solar maximum year (SMY) January 1980 to June 1981, are reviewed with the goal of providing a summary of what was learned about solar magnetic fields during the SMY. Such subjects as the relationship between solar magnetic fields and flares, the role of magnetic fields in the sunspot phenomenon, the magnetic-canopy structure overlying the supergranular network as well as the turbulent magnetic fields within the network, the fields within the polar crown prominences, and the solar magnetic cycle are addressed.

  2. NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2014-01-01

    In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.

  3. Comparative Study of Bacterial Growth in Magnet Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derek; Masood, Samina

    It has been shown that magnetic fields affect bacterial growth. A comparative study of growth rates for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with different types of magnetic fields is done. Special focus is placed upon growth within liquid media, and the effect of magnetic fields relative to the chosen growth medium is considered.

  4. 'Buildings in Use' Study. Field Tests Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee. School of Architecture and Urban Planning.

    This report is one product of the 'Buildings in Use' study. The overall study examines architectural attributes of existing buildings in order to determine how they have performed technically and functionally, and the relationship between the environment of the building and the behavior of its user population. Four elementary schools in Columbus,…

  5. Students with Disabilities at 2-Year Institutions in the United States: Factors Related to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Koch, Lynn C.

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the demographic and in-college characteristics of students with disabilities at 2-year institutions, identify the types of educational services available to them, and determine how students' disability conditions and their selected demographic and…

  6. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  7. Word Learning from Videos: More Evidence from 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebekah; Scofield, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Young children are frequently exposed to examples of screen media like videos. The current studies asked whether videos would support word learning and whether word learning from videos might resemble word learning from a live speaker. In Study 1, 2-year-olds saw a video of a target image being labelled with a novel word and were later asked to…

  8. THE FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK FOR THE OUTDOOR SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURGESS, ROBERT A.; GILFILLAN, WARREN C.

    THE "FIELD STUDY NOTEBOOK" HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR USE BY PAROCHIAL AND PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AT AN OUTDOOR SCHOOL. THE NOTEBOOK EMPHASIZES COMMUNITY DYNAMICS THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES THAT ILLUSTRATE ECOLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS. INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON THE ORGANIZATION OF A FIELD STUDY AND ON PERFORMING VARIOUS…

  9. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring.

  10. Simulated Laboratory/Field Study of Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowsky, Nathan; Hartman, Elliott M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately following a lecture discussion on early hominid characteristics and behavior, students participate in a laboratory study of bipedal locomotion based on an analysis of footprints. The development and use of this simulation are described. (JN)

  11. AGU awarded grant to establish program on engaging 2-year-college students in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti; Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2012-03-01

    Students at 2-year colleges are a critical part of the future Earth and space science workforce, and undergraduate research experiences provide a hook to retain and ultimately to graduate students in the field. AGU was awarded a planning grant by the U.S. National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences award 1201578) to help launch a new initiative concerning these issues; education and public outreach staff are the principal investigators. This new initiative, titled Unique Research Experiences for Two-Year College Faculty and Students (URECAS), will begin with a planning workshop this summer (11-13 July). The workshop will bring together faculty from 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, and representatives from professional societies and federal organizations to learn more about how to support 2-year-college faculty and students engaged in Earth and space science research and to discuss the development of a program to strengthen the role of 2-year-college Earth and space science students in the future workforce

  12. Impact of Living Environment on 2-Year Mortality in Elderly Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. Methods A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Results Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography. PMID:24058552

  13. Framing in the Field: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Strategic Frame Analysis can inform the daily practice of policy advocates by bringing an evidence-based communications approach to their work. This case study of FrameWorks' decade-long association with the national Kids Count Network shares stories from advocates who are transforming their communications strategies, resulting in more effective…

  14. FIELD STUDIES OF GEOMEMBRANE INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourteen construction sites where geomembranes were being installed were visited to observe subgrade preparation and liner installation techniques. These sites were visited during a study conducted for the U.S. EPA, Solid and Hazardous Waste Research Division. The sites included ...

  15. FIELD STUDIES OF IMPREGNATED CONCRETE PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The follow-on study (initiated in June 1980) continued to monitor performance of 1,400 ft of impregnated concrete pipe installed in several Texas cities. The performance of concrete pipe has been compared with that of sulfur-impregnated concrete pipe; hydrofluoric acid (HF)-treat...

  16. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that required 2 years for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Isoniazid (H) or rifampicin (R) mono-resistant disease can be treated easily and effectively with first-line drugs, while combined H and R resistance (ie, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB)) requires treatment with at least four agents, including a quinolone and an injectable agent. Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are reported to be extremely difficult to cultivate invitro. The authors report a case of MDRTB that required 2 years for diagnosis, and was detected only in sputum culture on solid medium. Physicians should consider MDRTB if TB is suspected but pathogens are not detected. PMID:22605803

  17. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  18. Adaptive radiations: From field to genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Scott A.; Derieg, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  19. Adaptive radiations: from field to genomic studies.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Scott A; Derieg, Nathan J

    2009-06-16

    Adaptive radiations were central to Darwin's formation of his theory of natural selection, and today they are still the centerpiece for many studies of adaptation and speciation. Here, we review the advantages of adaptive radiations, especially recent ones, for detecting evolutionary trends and the genetic dissection of adaptive traits. We focus on Aquilegia as a primary example of these advantages and highlight progress in understanding the genetic basis of flower color. Phylogenetic analysis of Aquilegia indicates that flower color transitions proceed by changes in the types of anthocyanin pigments produced or their complete loss. Biochemical, crossing, and gene expression studies have provided a wealth of information about the genetic basis of these transitions in Aquilegia. To obtain both enzymatic and regulatory candidate genes for the entire flavonoid pathway, which produces anthocyanins, we used a combination of sequence searches of the Aquilegia Gene Index, phylogenetic analyses, and the isolation of novel sequences by using degenerate PCR and RACE. In total we identified 34 genes that are likely involved in the flavonoid pathway. A number of these genes appear to be single copy in Aquilegia and thus variation in their expression may have been key for floral color evolution. Future studies will be able to use these sequences along with next-generation sequencing technologies to follow expression and sequence variation at the population level. The genetic dissection of other adaptive traits in Aquilegia should also be possible soon as genomic resources such as whole-genome sequencing become available. PMID:19528644

  20. Field Study Manual to Freshwater and Estuarine Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This field studies manual, developed by biology students in the 1971 Georgia Governor's Honors Program, was designed for collection of data pertinent to freshwater and estuarine habitats. In addition to the various methods of sampling the ecosystem and for quantification of the data, instructions for dividing the field study into three logical…

  1. Coastal Studies in a Comprehensive Summer Field Geology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Barry; Jones, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a college geology course that incorporates a coastal segment. Field studies are done on Plum Island and include examining beaches, dune fields, and an adjacent marsh and spit. Topics include sedimentation, coastal geomorphology, botanical effects, and coastal studies methodology. (MA)

  2. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Educational Attainment in Texas 2-Year Colleges: A Multi-Year Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas 2-year colleges from the 2000 through the 2011 academic years and to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students obtaining associate degrees from Texas 2-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic…

  3. Focused feasibility study final field sampling plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    At the direction of APG-DSHE, the project has been separated into three work phases to allow for data evaluation and risk determination before a full focused feasibility study is conducted. Phase I of the project consists of an aerial photography investigation, surface/marine geophysical surveys, a flowmeter logging program, sampling surface and subsurface soils, an ecological risk assessment of the Beach Point Test Site, and analysis of chemical groundwater data generated through the separate Canal Creek Groundwater Monitoring Program. Tasks described for Phase II of the FFS will be performed upon evaluation of data needs identified subsequent to completion of the Phase I tasks. Phase II investigations include installation fo additional groundwater monitoring wells, sampling of the new and previously existing monitoring wells, a flowmeter logging program, downhole geophysical logging of new monitoring wells (and one previously existing well), and possible soil gas surveys.

  4. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  5. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE PUBLIC 2-YEAR COLLEGE ON CERTAIN NONINTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PLANT, WALTER T.; TELFORD, CHARLES W.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE IF THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN SELECTED PERSONALITY TRAITS, IDEOLOGIES, AND VALUES OF STUDENTS WHO ATTEND A 2-YEAR PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE. A BATTERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS WAS ADMINISTERED TO ALL PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION AS COLLEGE FRESHMEN FOR THE FALL SEMESTER OF 1960 AT ONE OF SIX CALIFORNIA PUBLIC…

  6. Emotionally Focused Interventions for Couples with Chronically Ill Children: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Paula F.; Manion, Ian G.; Walker, Jan Gordon; Johnson, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Couples with chronically ill children are particularly at risk for experiencing marital distress. The study presented here is a 2-year follow-up of a randomized control trial that assessed the efficacy of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) in decreasing marital distress in a sample of couples with a chronically ill child. Thirteen couples with…

  7. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  8. Administration of high-dose interleukin-2 in a 2-year-old with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, M Brooke; Hicks, M John; Pappo, Alberto S

    2009-12-15

    Malignant melanoma is rare in pediatrics, and therapies for patients with disseminated disease have not been well studied. This report describes our experience with the use of high-dose interleukin 2 (aldesleukin, IL-2) in a 2-year-old child with metastatic melanoma and describes our approach for the administration of this agent to young patients. PMID:19731326

  9. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  10. How Joint Attention Relates to Cooperation in 1- and 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Pan, Jingtong; Su, Yanjie; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention has been suggested to contribute to children's development of cooperation; however, few empirical studies have directly tested this hypothesis. Children aged 1 and 2 years participated in two joint action activities to assess their cooperation with an adult partner, who stopped participating at a specific moment during the…

  11. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  12. Developmental Assessment of Preterm Infants at 2 Years: Validity of Parent Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Parental questionnaires are inexpensive alternatives to standardized testing for outcome measurement. The Parent Report of Children's Abilities has previously been revised (PARCA-R) and validated for use with very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. This study revalidated the PARCA-R for assessing cognition in a larger and more inclusive sample of…

  13. Studies of Interstellar and Circumstellar Magnetic Field with Aligned Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.; Yan, H.

    2004-12-01

    Population of levels of the hyperfine and fine split ground state of an atom is affected by radiative transitions induced by anisotropic radiation flux. Such aligned atoms precess in the external magnetic field and this affects properties of polarized radiation arising from both scattering and absorption by atoms. As the result the degree of light polarization depends on the direction of the magnetic field. This provides a new tool for studies of astrophysical magnetic fields using optical and UV polarimetry. We provide calculations for several atoms and ions that can be used to study magnetic fields in interplanetary medium, interstellar medius, circumstellar regions and quasars.

  14. Human fertility studies under field conditions. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G A

    1992-07-01

    Human fertility is part of biological anthropology embracing human population biology devoted to the analysis of the nature, caused, origin, and development of human variation at molecular, cellular, and whole body levels. The successful outcome of human fertility depends on the interactions of biochemical, physiological, and psychological processes whose disturbance results in slight variations in behavior and even total infertility. The Hutterites in the US have the highest average fertility with over 11 live births/women. Hunter-gatherer groups rarely have more than 4 children/woman. The case of a woman who gave birth to 67 children was recorded. Total infertility often occurs even in noncontracepting societies. The most important factor that determines the character of genetic variation within the human species seems to be comparative population growth, as this was the factor determining which populations spread and which became extinct. The study of the determinants of female fertility has attracted attention recently because pregnancy and motherhood affect daily life, and in turn, reproduction is also affected by daily life. Lactational amenorrhea plays a vital role in child spacing, but the mechanism of breast feeding is complex with factors of duration, frequency, milk production, and suckling frequency interwoven. Female reproduction comprises whole body function, nutrition, body composition (the recent debate on fat stores affecting the onset of fertility), physical work, and mental health all influencing the endocrinological state. Heavy physical labor and intensive training by sportswomen can result in amenorrhea. Beta-endorphins also play a role in lactational amenorrhea along with nutrition and body composition. Infectious and venereal diseases particularly affect fertility, yet genetics protect the placenta against falciparum malaria in sickle-cell trait women. PMID:1634557

  15. Study of Several Potentials as Scalar Field Dark Matter Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Vazquez-Gonzalez, Alberto; Magan a, Juan

    2008-12-04

    In this work we study several scalar field potentials as a plausible candidate to be the dark matter in the universe. The main idea is the following; if the scalar field is an ultralight boson particle, it condensates like a Bose-Einstein system at very early times and forms the basic structure of the Universe. Real scalar fields collapse in equilibrium configurations which oscillate in space-time (oscillatons). The cosmological behavior of the field equations are solved using the dynamical system formalism. We use the current cosmological parameters as constraints for the free parameters of the scalar field potentials. We are able to reproduce very well the cosmological predictions of the standard {lambda}CDM model with some scalar field potentials. Therefore, scalar field dark matter seems to be a good alternative to be the nature of the dark matter of the universe.

  16. Lattice Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterowd, Christopher; Detar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of graphene ranks as one of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years. As a strongly interacting system whose low-energy excitations are described by the Dirac equation, graphene has many similarities with other strongly interacting field theories, particularly quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Graphene, along with other relativistic field theories, have been predicted to exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) when an external magnetic field is present. Using nonperturbative methods developed to study QCD, we study the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) of graphene subject to an external magnetic field. We find strong evidence supporting the existence of SSB at zero-temperature and characterize the dependence of the chiral condensate on the external magnetic field. We also present results for the mass of the Nambu-Goldstone boson and the dynamically generated quasiparticle mass that result from the SSB.

  17. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  18. A phonological system at 2 years after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    CHIN, STEVEN B.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a description of a developing phonological system as manifested in the productions of a prelingually deafened child approximately 2 years after fitting with a Nucleus 22-Channel Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. A probe list consisting of 23 proper nouns familiar to the child was used to elicit samples of her speech; stimulus materials consisted of photographs of those persons (friends and family members) whose names were included in the probe list. Analysis of the child's productions addressed the composition of the phonetic inventory of consonants and vowels and the presence of syllable structure and other phonotactic constraints. Results indicated a rich inventory of speech sound segments (among both consonants and vowels) and a lack of stringent constraints on syllable structure and consonants permitted in specified word positions. A further comparative analysis of correspondences with the ambient language showed a number of patterns that are also common in the speech of children with normal hearing. PMID:22091697

  19. Microwave magnetoelectric fields: An analytical study of topological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, R.; Shavit, R.; Kamenetskii, E. O.

    2015-10-01

    The near fields originated from a small quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations are the fields with broken dual (electric-magnetic) symmetry. Numerical studies show that such fields - called the magnetoelectric (ME) fields - are distinguished by the power-flow vortices and helicity parameters (E.O. Kamenetskii, R. Joffe, R. Shavit, Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 023201). These numerical studies can well explain recent experimental results with MDM ferrite disks. In the present paper, we obtain analytically topological characteristics of the ME-field modes. For this purpose, we used a method of successive approximations. In the second approximation we take into account the influence of the edge regions of an open ferrite disk, which are excluded in the first-approximation solving of the magnetostatic (MS) spectral problem. Based on the analytical method, we obtain a "pure" structure of the electric and magnetic fields outside the MDM ferrite disk. The analytical studies can display some fundamental features that are non-observable in the numerical results. While in numerical investigations, one cannot separate the ME fields from the external electromagnetic (EM) radiation, the present theoretical analysis allows clearly distinguish the eigen topological structure of the ME fields. Importantly, this ME-field structure gives evidence for certain phenomena that can be related to the Tellegen and bianisotropic coupling effects. We discuss the question whether the MDM ferrite disk can exhibit properties of the cross magnetoelectric polarizabilities.

  20. Policy Forum: Studying Eyewitness Investigations in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Robyn; Jacoby, Larry L.; Kahneman, Daniel; Lempert, Richard; Roediger, Henry L.; Rosenthal, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers methodological issues arising from recent efforts to provide field tests of eyewitness identification procedures. We focus in particular on a field study (Mecklenburg 2006) that examined the “double blind, sequential” technique, and consider the implications of an acknowledged methodological confound in the study. We explain why the confound has severe consequences for assessing the real-world implications of this study. PMID:17610149

  1. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331

  2. Apprenticeships, Collaboration and Scientific Discovery in Academic Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Derek Scott; Grayson, Diane J.; Madden, Erinn H.; Milewski, Antoni V.; Snyder, Cathy Ann

    2012-01-01

    Teachers may use apprenticeships and collaboration as instructional strategies that help students to make authentic scientific discoveries as they work as amateur researchers in academic field studies. This concept was examined with 643 students, ages 14-72, who became proficient at field research through cognitive apprenticeships with the…

  3. A Guide to the Baja California Field Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercade, Jose A.

    Since 1974, Glendale Community College (GCC) has offered a variety of biology, social science, and language classes at a field station located on the Baja California peninsula, Republic of Mexico. This guide to GCC's Baja California Field Studies Program (BCFSP) provides manuals, forms, job descriptions, contracts with participating organizations,…

  4. Work, Learning and Satisfaction in Undergraduate Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Francis M., III

    Levels of student satisfaction with the Great Lakes Colleges Association - Philadelphia Urban Semester, a 16-week multidisciplinary urban field study program, were investigated. Several aspects of the program, including the four day per week field placement, weekly "city" seminar, elective seminar, and minimally structured living experience were…

  5. Planning for Graduate Studies in Physics and Related Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This brochure is written for students considering graduate work in physics or related fields such as astronomy, biophysics, and applied physics. It also provides some information for physics undergraduates who plan on pursuing postbaccalaureate studies in the fields of engineering, medicine, law, and other professions that attract significant…

  6. Field study of time-dependent selenium partitioning in soils using isotopically enriched stable selenite tracer.

    PubMed

    Di Tullo, Pamela; Pannier, Florence; Thiry, Yves; Le Hécho, Isabelle; Bueno, Maïté

    2016-08-15

    A better understanding of selenium fate in soils at both short and long time scales is mandatory to consolidate risk assessment models relevant for managing both contamination and soil fertilization issues. The purpose of this study was thus to investigate Se retention processes and their kinetics by monitoring time-dependent distribution/speciation changes of both ambient and freshly added Se, in the form of stable enriched selenite-77, over a 2-years field experiment. This study clearly illustrates the complex reactivity of selenium in soil considering three methodologically defined fractions (i.e. soluble, exchangeable, organic). Time-dependent redistribution of Se-77 within solid-phases having different reactivity could be described as a combination of chemical and diffusion controlled processes leading to its stronger retention. Experimental data and their kinetic modeling evidenced that transfer towards less labile bearing phases are controlled by slow processes limiting the overall sorption of Se in soils. These results were used to estimate time needed for (77)Se to reach the distribution of naturally present selenium which may extend up to several decades. Ambient Se speciation accounted for 60% to 100% of unidentified species as function of soil type whereas (77)Se(IV) remained the more abundant species after 2-years field experiment. Modeling Se in the long-term without taking account these slow sorption kinetics would thus result in underestimation of Se retention. When using models based on Kd distribution coefficient, they should be at least reliant on ambient Se which is supposed to be at equilibrium. PMID:27100008

  7. Experimental studies of sound field suppression at discrete frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiks, I. Sh.; Korotin, P. I.; Potapov, O. A.; Fiks, G. E.

    2016-03-01

    Practical implementation of an active sound control system ensuring sound suppression in outer space is described as applied to sound insulation problems for equipment whose total noise level is mainly due to low-frequency discrete spectral components. The operational principle of the proposed system is based on inverse field generation with respect to the field of the initial source of quasi-monochromatic signals. The inverse field is formed by a set of radiators, which are controlled by the signals of pressure receivers positioned in the near field of the source. Experimental studies carried out with the proposed sound control system demonstrate its efficiency and testify to the stability of its operation.

  8. Increased Food Insecurity Among Mothers of 2 Year Olds with Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Hoffmann, Laurel M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Peters, Dawn; Pennise, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and food insecurity when the child is 2 years old. We studied women who had a live birth in 2004-2005 and responded to Oregon's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey 3 months postpartum (Time 1) and the follow-up survey (PRAMS-2), when the child was 2 years old (Time 2). Women answering affirmatively to the PRAMS-2 question, "In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there was not enough money for food?" were considered food insecure. CSHCN status was identified by affirmative responses to questions about needs for ongoing services (Time 2). PRAMS and PRAMS-2 responses were weighted for study design and non-response. Results report weighted analyses, unless noted. Among 1812 mothers completing PRAMS-2, 13.6 % (unweighted) had a 2-year-old CSHCN and 11.9 % (unweighted) were food insecure at Time 2. The estimated prevalence of food insecurity at 2-year follow-up was 20.7 % among families of CSHCN and 9.7 % for others. After adjustment for Time 2 marital status, education, lifetime U.S. residence, income and health conditions, multivariable logistic regression revealed that odds of food insecurity were more than two times as great for CSHCN mothers 2 years post-partum compared to non-CSHCN mothers (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.3, 4.6). Families of CSHCN face increased risk for food insecurity. Improved understanding of causal determinants of food insecurity among households of CSHCN is needed. PMID:25682114

  9. Environmental NO2 Level is Associated with 2-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients. A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients’ living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis. A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013–1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116–1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0–0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778–114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143–12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality. PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher

  10. Environmental NO2 level is associated with 2-year mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients.A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis.A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013-1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116-1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0-0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778-114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143-12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality.PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher 2-year mortality rate

  11. Study of the effects of guide field on Hall reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Tharp, T. D.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Lawrence, E.; Dorfman, S.; Myers, C.; Yoo, J.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2013-05-15

    The results from guide field studies on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) are compared with results from Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) reconnection simulation with guide field. The quadrupole field, a signature of two-fluid reconnection at zero guide field, is modified by the presence of a finite guide field in a manner consistent with HMHD simulation. The modified Hall current profile contains reduced electron flows in the reconnection plane, which quantitatively explains the observed reduction of the reconnection rate. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that the local reconnection dynamics is dominated by Hall effects in the collisionless regime of the MRX plasmas. While very good agreement is seen between experiment and simulations, we note that an important global feature of the experiments, a compression of the guide field by the reconnecting plasma, is not represented in the simulations.

  12. Study of HTS Insert Coils for High Field Solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Vito; /Fermilab

    2009-09-01

    Fermilab is currently working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting materials (HTS) is being considered for these solenoids using Helium refrigeration. Several studies have been performed on insert coils made of BSCCO-2223 tapes and second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors, which are tested at various temperatures and at external fields of up to 14 T. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of YBCO short samples are presented as a function of bending stress, magnetic field and field orientation with respect to the sample surface. An analytical fit of critical current data as a function of field and field orientation is also presented. Results from several single-layer and double-layer pancake coils are also discussed.

  13. Using mean polarization profiles to study stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorlin, Stephen L. S.

    2004-12-01

    Approximately 10-20% of moderate mass main sequence stars show marked chemical peculiarities. Characteristic chemical over- and underabundance patterns are well correlated with several physical attributes; most notably the existence or non-existence of large-scale ordered magnetic fields. The details of the origins of both the fields and abundance patterns are topics of continuing study, as are detailed descriptions of field structures in magnetic stars and the possible existence of magnetic fields in the canonically "non-magnetic" stars. We expect that mean spectral line profiles, calculated from entire stellar spectra in polarized and unpolarized light, will be useful in studying these topics. Circular spectropolarimetric observations of 74 survey stars were obtained using the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter in an attempt to detect magnetic fields. The sample observed includes normal B, A and F stars, emission-line B and A stars, Am stars, HgMn stars, l Boo stars and magnetic Ap stars. Using the multi-line analysis technique known as "Least-Squares Deconvolution" (LSD) to extract mean unpolarized (Stokes I ) and circularly polarized (Stokes V ) signatures from each spectrum, we find absolutely no evidence for magnetic fields in the normal, Am and HgMn stars, with considerably smaller upper limits on longitudinal field measurements than previously obtained for these objects. We conclude that if any magnetic fields exist in the photospheres of these stars, these fields are not ordered as in the magnetic Ap stars, nor do they resemble the fields of active late-type stars. We also detect for the first time a field in the A2pSr star HD 108945 and make new precise measurements of longitudinal fields in five previously known magnetic Ap stars, but do not detect fields in five other stars classified as Ap SrCrEu. Also presented is the first ever exploratory investigation into both the applicability of the LSD technique in analyzing stellar spectra, as well as an examination

  14. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  15. Hooking the Geographer in Children with Field-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krall, Florence; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Suggests projects to help elementary students learn about man-land relationships through field experience, inquiry techniques, and a thematic, interdisciplinary approach. Children study a natural community, a human community, solid wastes, and energy conservation. (Author/AV)

  16. CANTON CAFO FIELD SITE STUDY - SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTAMINANT IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation of CAFO research concerning the Canton CAFO field site study, including its characterization and contaminant impacts, was given at a NRMRL program review discussion of the CAFO Research Program.

  17. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  18. Efficacy of Salvage Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Postradical Prostatectomy Patients With PSA Relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) as salvage treatment for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Seventy-five patients with PSA relapse after RP were treated with salvage RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. AS started within 1 month after completion of salvage RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate including freedom from PSA relapse was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. PSA relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Results: Median age of the cohort was 63 years at the time of salvage RT. Median follow-up from salvage RT was 6.4 years. All achieved initially complete PSA response (< 0.2) with the protocol treatment. Relapse-free rate including the freedom from PSA relapse was 91.5% at 5 years and 78.6% at 7 years. Overall survival rate was 93.2% at both 5 and 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, pT3 stage and PSA relapse less than 2 years after RP were significant prognostic factors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of salvage RT plus 2-year AS yielded an encouraging result for patients with PSA relapse after RP and needs a confirmatory study.

  19. A field study of wind over a simulated block building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Shahabi, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    A full-scale field study of the wind over a simulated two-dimensional building is reported. The study develops an experiment to investigate the structure and magnitude of the wind fields. A description of the experimental arrangement, the type and expected accuracy of the data, and the range of the data are given. The data are expected to provide a fundamental understanding of mean wind and turbulence structure of the wind field around the bluff body. Preliminary analysis of the data demonstrates the reliability and completeness of the data in this regard.

  20. A Comparison of Retention Rates among America's 2-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tampa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was first to calculate the full-time and part-time retention rates for each category of 2-year institution and to examine the differences, if they existed, between and among the three types of colleges. Secondly, the study explored the differences in the full-time and part-time retention rates of first-time students within…

  1. New geoscience teachers division for 2-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, Debra; Granshaw, Frank

    2011-11-01

    The role of 2-year colleges (2YCs) in geoscience education is growing as the number of students enrolled in Earth and space science courses increases and as these institutions—which include community colleges and junior colleges—provide more students majoring in geoscience at public universities. In recognition of the increasing role of 2YCs in geoscience education, the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) recently created a Geo2YC division for faculty, administrators, graduate students, and other geoscience professionals who share a professional interest in geoscience education at 2YCs. The mission of the new division, which is NAGT's first national division, is to serve as a forum for exchanging curricular ideas, concerns, and resources; establish a network of geoscience educators at 2YCs and other institutions with shared interests; sponsor NAGT 2YC activities and make recommendations to the NAGT Council in support of 2YC geoscience education; support and coordinate research on 2YC geoscience education; and advocate for 2YC geoscience education within NAGT and with other organizations.

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease in Children Younger Than 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Bush, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a highly heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of chILD remains limited, important advances have recently been made, the most important being probably the appreciation that disorders that present in early life are distinct from those occurring in older children and adults, albeit with some overlap. chILD manifests with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, making exclusion of common conditions presenting in a similar fashion an essential preliminary step. Subsequently, a systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history and physical examination, computed tomography of the chest, and some or all of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, genetic testing, and if diagnostic uncertainty persists, lung biopsy. This review focuses on chILD presenting in infants younger than 2 years of age and discusses recent advances in the classification, diagnostic approach, and management of chILD in this age range. We describe novel genetic entities, along with initiatives that aim at collecting clinical data and biologic samples from carefully characterized patients in a prospective and standardized fashion. Early referral to expert centers and timely diagnosis may have important implications for patient management and prognosis, but effective therapies are often lacking. Following massive efforts, international collaborations among the key stakeholders are finally starting to be in place. These have allowed the setting up and conducting of the first randomized controlled trial of therapeutic interventions in patients with chILD. PMID:27245831

  3. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  4. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  5. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren M.; Safran, Marc R.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Huddleston, James I.; Bellino, Michael J.; Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin–aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  6. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1992-06-01

    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  7. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  8. Influence of field study on learning and attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackney, David L.

    In an effort to improve attitudes toward science and academic achievement among college students who are non-science majors, an informal science educational experience in the form of a natural science field study course was created. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a field study experience on student science attitudes and achievement. Outcomes from the field study groups were compared to students who enrolled in a traditional lecture/lab course. Academic achievement was measured via pre and posttest measures of geologic knowledge. Attitudes toward science were measured with a Science Attitudes Survey that utilized Likert-scale type items in the instrument. To explore student impressions and reactions to participating in the field study experience, interviews were conducted with open-ended questions. Patterns of responses were identified to explore common themes. Field study participants were found to have significantly higher gains from pre to posttest scores compared with the gains made by students who participated in a formal Earth Science course. There was no significant difference found in overall attitudes toward science and technology as measured with this attitudes survey between students who participated in the two formats of courses over the last five years. However, comments shared by participants in the field study through interviews suggest that their attitudes toward science had in fact been affected in positive ways. Other patterns of responses indicate positive impacts made on students on a number of fronts including affective, cognitive, and social interactions. All students interviewed rated the field study experience as valuable educationally or extremely valuable educationally.

  9. Field studies on pesticides and birds: Unexpected and unique relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    We review the advantages and disadvantages of experimental and field studies for determining effects of pesticides on birds. Important problems or principles initially discovered in the field include effects of DDT (through its metabolite DDE) on eggshell thickness, reproductive success, and population stability; trophic-level bioaccumulation of the lipid-soluble organochlorine pesticides; indirect effects on productivity and survival through reductions in the food supply and cover by herbicides and insecticides; unexpected toxic effects and routes of exposure of organophosphorus compounds such as famphur and dimethoate; effects related to simultaneous application at full strength of several pesticides of different classes; and others. Also, potentially serious bird problems with dicofol, based on laboratory studies, later proved negligible in the field. In refining field tests of pesticides, the selection of a species or group of species to study is important, because exposure routes may vary greatly, and 10-fold interspecific differences in sensitivity to pesticides are relatively common. Although there are limitations with field investigations, particularly uncontrollable variables that must be addressed, the value of a well-designed field study far outweighs its shortcomings.

  10. Spectral Study of the Equatorial Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Rothman, R.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the spectral analysis of four years of daytime electric and magnetic field data obtained near the magnetic equator. The former were obtained using the JULIA radar system at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory using the so-called 150 km echo, which can be used reliably to determine the zonal electric field component during daytime. The magnetic field data were obtained using magnetometers located at Jicamarca and Piura in Peru. Due to the nighttime data gap, we can study variations with periods longer than two days and shorter than eight hours. Our goal for the longer periods is to study the variability of atmospheric drivers of the equatorial electrojet. This is straightforward for the electric field, but requires subtracting the ring current and other external effects from the magnetic field data. This is done by using the Gonzales/Anderson technique and employing the two magnetic field measurements. The electrojet strength decreased almost linearly over the four-year period as the solar cycle wound down. Spectral analysis reveals a clear semi-annual peak with maxima at the equinoxes and a secondary peak with a period of fourteen days. The latter seems to indicate that the lunar gravitational tide adds constructively to the semi-diurnal solar thermal tide. At higher frequencies the data must be parsed according to magnetic activity and solar wind conditions due to the importance of penetrating electric fields from the solar wind, and will be presented in this format.

  11. Design Studies for an Ultra High Field K80 Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Jeff; Blosser, Henry

    1996-05-01

    We are investigating the use of a wide-bore, 8 T magnet as a component of an ultra high field cyclotron. Such a machine would use the highest magnetic field of any cyclotron, to date. The K80 `Eight Tesla Cyclotron' would have roughly the same magnetic rigidity (Bρ) as the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron in a package of only one fourth the radius, with a corresponding reduction in cost. This cyclotron could accelerate particles with a charge state Q/A = 1/4 to a final energy of between 5 and 6 MeV/nucleon, the energy range currently being used to study superdeformed, high angular momentum nuclei that result from glancing collisions. Studies thus far have stressed achieving sufficient vertical focusing (ν_z) despite the high magnetic field level. The high field also reduces the space available for central region structures, which complicates early-turn focusing, orbit centering and the design of the spiral inflector.

  12. Study of high field superconducting solenoids for muon beam cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, Michael J.; Sadovskiy, Y.; Zlobin, Alexander V; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    The final beam cooling stages of a possible Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields of 40-50 T in an aperture of 40-50 mm. In this paper we study possible solutions towards creating DC fields of that order using available superconductors. Several magnetic and mechanical designs, optimized for the maximum performance are presented and compared in terms of cost and size.

  13. Electroresistance and field effect studies on manganite based heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, P. S.; Khachar, Uma; Vagadia, Megha; Ravalia, Ashish; Katba, Savan; Kuberkar, D. G.

    2015-04-14

    Electronic properties of manganites are significantly important for various spintronic applications such as microelectronics, magnetic data storage, communication technologies, and memory devices. Influence of applied electric field on the room temperature charge transport in ZnO/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrNb{sub 0.002}Ti{sub 0.998}O{sub 3} (SNTO) heterostructure has been investigated using field effect studies. Large negative and positive electroresistance has been observed in heterostructure under various possible circuit geometries. Field effect studies have been carried out using three different circuit geometries, namely: (i) ZnO as a control electrode (E{sub LZ}), (ii) SNTO as a control electrode (E{sub LS}), and (iii) shorted ZnO and SNTO as control electrodes (E{sub LZS}). For this, channel electric field (E{sub CH}) dependent variation in channel resistance (R{sub C}) (of manganite channel) and I-V (across manganite channel) under various control fields (E{sub C}) have been studied. Variation in barrier height (Φ{sub B}) with control field (E{sub C}) for different geometries has been discussed.

  14. SMOS after 2 YEARS and a half in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Richaume, P.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Waldteufel, P.; Mecklenburg, S.; Cabot, F.; Boutin, J.; Font, J.; Reul, N.

    2012-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3) and ocean salinity. These two geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches in particular in improving models forecasts. The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than two years in orbit as well as some outstanding results already obtained. A special attention will be devoted to level 2 products. Modeling multi-angular brightness temperatures is not straightforward. The radiative model transfer model L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission) is used over land while different models with different approaches as to the modeling of sea surface roughness are used over ocean surfaces. Over land the approach is based on semi-empirical relationships, adapted to different type of surface. The model computes a dielectric constant leading to surface emissivity. Surface features (roughness, vegetation) are also considered in the models. However, considering SMOS spatial resolution a wide area is seen by the instrument with strong heterogeneity. The L2 soil moisture retrieval scheme takes this into account. Brightness temperatures are computed for every classes composing a working area. A weighted function is applied for the incidence angle and the antenna beam. Once the brightness temperature is computed for the entire working area, the minimizing process starts. If no soil moisture is derived (not attempted or process failed) a dielectric constant is still derived from an simplified modeled (the cardioid model). SMOS data enabled very quickly to infer Sea surface salinity fields. As salinity retrieval is quite challenging, retrieving it enable to assess very

  15. Field quality study in Nb(3)Sn accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Schlabach, P.; Velev, G.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Four nearly identical Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole models of the same design were built and tested at Fermilab. It provided a unique opportunity of systematic study the field quality effects in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. The results of these studies are reported in the paper.

  16. Voyager studies of the distant heliospheric magnetic fields and plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, N. F.; Burlaga, L. F.; Richardson, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Launched in 1977, the twin Voyager spacecraft (V1, V2) are exiting the heliosphere and each one is now well beyond the orbits of the planets. Careful studies have been made of the observed heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) and solar wind plasma over a full solar solar cycle through 2001. At that time, V1 was at a radial distance of 87 AU and heliographic latitude +35^o and V2 was at 69 AU and -26^o. These data have demonstrated that Parker's model of solar wind plasma flow and spatial structure of the solar originating field well describes these observations when due account of the temporal variations of the source field are taken into account by use of near-Earth observations at 1 AU. There has been continued study of the sector structure of the HMF delineating outward (outward) and inward (negative) directed fields. The Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) has thus been mapped to these distances and latitudes and its configuration shows agreement with predictions of the extrapolated solar surface magnetic field structure. Correlative studies with simultaneous cosmic ray observations have been conducted. All these data have helped delineate the manner in which solar originating disturbances such as shocks and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) evolve at great heliospheric distances. The solar wind speed as observed by V2 has been showing a slow but steady decrease down to an average of ˜390 km/sec at 65 AU. Sufficient energy is transferred from the pickup ions to the solar wind protons to produce a temperature increase outside ˜30 AU. The structure of the magnetic field has been identified as becoming multi-fractal beginning at ˜40 AU. The field at V1 is primarily azimuthal and in 2000--2001 was averaging ˜0.05 nT at 87 AU. This paper summarizes the magnetic field and solar plasma observations in the outer heliosphere.

  17. The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Highly prevalent conditions with multiple and complex underlying etiologies are a challenge to public health. Undernutrition, for example, affects 20% of children in the developing world. The cause and consequence of poor nutrition are multifaceted. Undernutrition has been associated with half of all deaths worldwide in children aged <5 years; in addition, its pernicious long-term effects in early childhood have been associated with cognitive and physical growth deficits across multiple generations and have been thought to suppress immunity to further infections and to reduce the efficacy of childhood vaccines. The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study, led by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, has been established at sites in 8 countries with historically high incidence of diarrheal disease and undernutrition. Central to the study is the hypothesis that enteropathogen infection contributes to undernutrition by causing intestinal inflammation and/or by altering intestinal barrier and absorptive function. It is further postulated that this leads to growth faltering and deficits in cognitive development. The effects of repeated enteric infection and undernutrition on the immune response to childhood vaccines is also being examined in the study. MAL-ED uses a prospective longitudinal design that offers a unique opportunity to directly address a complex system of exposures and health outcomes in the community-rather than the relatively rarer circumstances that lead to hospitalization-during the critical period of development of the first 2 years of life. Among the factors being evaluated are enteric infections (with or without diarrhea) and other illness indicators, micronutrient levels, diet, socioeconomic status, gut function, and the environment. MAL-ED aims to describe these

  18. Inverse field-based approach for simultaneous B₁ mapping at high fields - a phantom based study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Zuo, Zhentao; Xue, Rong; Li, Mingyan; Li, Yu; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    Based on computational electromagnetics and multi-level optimization, an inverse approach of attaining accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity of radiofrequency coils is presented. This paper extends our previous study of inverse methods of receptivity mapping at low fields, to allow accurate mapping of RF magnetic fields (B(1)) for high-field applications. Accurate receive sensitivity mapping is essential to image domain parallel imaging methods, such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE), to reconstruct high quality images. Accurate transmit sensitivity mapping will facilitate RF-shimming and parallel transmission techniques that directly address the RF inhomogeneity issue, arguably the most challenging issue of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The inverse field-based approach proposed herein is based on computational electromagnetics and iterative optimization. It fits an experimental image to the numerically calculated signal intensity by iteratively optimizing the coil-subject geometry to better resemble the experiments. Accurate transmit and receive sensitivities are derived as intermediate results of the optimization process. The method is validated by imaging studies using homogeneous saline phantom at 7T. A simulation study at 300MHz demonstrates that the proposed method is able to obtain receptivity mapping with errors an order of magnitude less than that of the conventional method. The more accurate receptivity mapping and simultaneously obtained transmit sensitivity mapping could enable artefact-reduced and intensity-corrected image reconstructions. It is hoped that by providing an approach to the accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity, the proposed method will facilitate a range of applications in high-field MRI and parallel imaging. PMID:22391489

  19. Field Study and Numerical Simulation of Sub Slab Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Nematollahi, A.R.

    1992-05-01

    The effectiveness of the technique of subslab ventilation (SSV) for limiting radon entry into basements was investigated through complementary experimentation and numerical modeling. Subslab pressure fields resulting from SSV were measured in six well-characterized basements, each with a different combination of soil and aggregate permeability. The relationship between air velocity and pressure gradient was measured in the laboratory for the three types of aggregate installed beneath the basement slabs. A new numerical model of SSV was developed and verified with the field data. This model simulates non-Darcy flow in the aggregate. We demonstrate that non-Darcy effects significantly impact SSV performance. Field data and numerical simulations indicate that increasing the aggregate permeability within the investigated range of 2 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 2} to 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} substantially improves the extension of the subslab pressure field due to SSV operation. Sealing of cracks in the slab and excavation of a small pit where the SSV pipe penetrates the slab also dramatically improve this pressure field extension. Our findings are consistent with the results of prior field studies; however, the studies reported here have improved our understanding of factors affecting SSV performance. The dependence of SSV performance on the relevant parameters are currently under investigation with the model.

  20. Patient factors predict functional outcomes after cruciate retaining TKA: a 2-year follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Justin S; Buehler, Knute C; Shen, Jianhua; Naughton, Marybeth

    2013-09-01

    We analyzed preoperative patient characteristics and postoperative functional outcomes to identify the most predictive preoperative characteristics of postoperative functional outcome for Cruciate Retaining (CR) TKA. In a prospective, multicenter study, 307 knees with minimum 2-year follow-up were first divided into groups based on 2-year functional performance. Logistic regression then determined SF-36 General Health Score (GHS) to be the most predictive preoperative patient characteristic. Subsequently, a second analysis was performed using preoperative SF-36 GHS to stratify patients into groups. Statistical significance was achieved in both analyses by gender, BMI and hypertension. Statistical significance was achieved in a single analysis by age, preoperative narcotic use, preoperative metabolic medication usage, preoperative pulmonary disease and preoperative use of medication for anxiety or depression. PMID:23523205

  1. Tooth stain during 2 years' use of chlorhexidine- and fluoride-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Dolles, O K; Eriksen, H M; Gjermo, P

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride upon the stain-inducing capacity of chlorhexidine. Ninety-one children, 13 years of age, volunteered for the experiment. Three test dentifrices were used, containing 0.1% NaF, 0.1% NaF + 2% chlorhexidine, and 2% chlorhexidine respectively. The experiment was carried out as a double-blind test, and the degree of staining was recorded after 1 and 2 years. Four methods were used for stain scoring. The results after 1 year showed that chlorhexidine induced less stain when applied together with fluoride than when applied alone. After 2 years this difference disappeared, indicating that fluoride only retarded chlorhexidine-induced staining of teeth. PMID:295486

  2. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  3. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2010-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  4. Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell

    2014-09-23

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.

  5. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  6. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  7. Apprenticeships, Collaboration and Scientific Discovery in Academic Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Derek Scott; Grayson, Diane J.; Madden, Erinn H.; Milewski, Antoni V.; Snyder, Cathy Ann

    2012-11-01

    Teachers may use apprenticeships and collaboration as instructional strategies that help students to make authentic scientific discoveries as they work as amateur researchers in academic field studies. This concept was examined with 643 students, ages 14-72, who became proficient at field research through cognitive apprenticeships with the Smithsonian Institute, School for Field Studies and Earthwatch. Control student teams worked from single research goals and sets of methods, while experimental teams varied goals, methods, and collaborative activities in Kenya, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador. Results from studies indicate that students who conducted local pilot studies, collaborative symposia, and ongoing, long-term fieldwork generated significantly more data than did control groups. Research reports of the experimental groups were ranked highest by experts, and contributed the most data to international science journals. Data and anecdotal information in this report indicate that structured collaboration in local long-term studies using apprenticeships may increase the potential for students' academic field studies contribution of new information to science.

  8. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  9. Rapid rise time pulsed magnetic field circuit for pump-probe field effect studies.

    PubMed

    Salaoru, T A; Woodward, Jonathan R

    2007-03-01

    Here we describe an electronic circuit capable of producing rapidly switched dc magnetic fields of up to 20 mT with a rise time of 10 ns and a pulse length variable from 50 ns to more than 10 micros, suitable for use in the study of magnetic field effects on radical pair (RP) reactions. This corresponds to switching the field on a time scale short relative to the lifetime of typical RPs and maintaining it well beyond their lifetimes. Previous experiments have involved discharging a capacitor through a low inductance coil for a limited time using a switching circuit. These suffer from decaying field strength over the duration of the pulse given primarily by the ratio of the pulse width to the RC constant of the circuit. We describe here a simple yet elegant solution that completely eliminates this difficulty by employing a feedback loop. This allows a constant field to be maintained over the entire length of the pulse. PMID:17411229

  10. Program Plan: field radionuclide migration studies in Climax granite

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Coles, D.; Stone, R.

    1980-11-01

    This Program Plan describes the field radionuclide migration studies we plan to conduct in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. Laboratory support studies are included to help us understand the geochemical and hydrologic processes involved in the field. The Program Plan begins with background information (Section 1) on how this program fits into the National Waste Terminal Storage Program Plan and discusses the needs for field studies of this type. The objectives stated in Section 2 are in direct response to these needs, particularly the need to determine whether laboratory studies accurately reflect actual field conditions and the need for field testing to provide a data base for verification of hydrologic and mass transport models. The technical scope (Section 3) provides a work breakdown structure that integrates the various activities and establishes a base for the technical approach described in Section 4. Our approach combines an interactive system of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of hydrologic models for pre-test predictions and data interpretation. Section 5 on program interfaces identifies how information will be transferred to other related DOE projects. A schedule of activities and major milestones (Section 6) and the budget necessary to meet the project objectives (Section 7) are included in the Program Plan. Sections 8 and 9 contain brief descriptions of how the technical and program controls will be established and maintained and an outline of our quality assurance program. This program plan is an initial planning document and provides a general description of activities. An Engineering Test Plan containing detailed experimental test plans, an instrumentation plan and equipment design drawings will be published as a separate document.

  11. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy.

  12. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  13. Wake-field studies on photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derun; Kroll, N.; Smith, D. R.; Schultz, S.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the wake-field of several metal Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cavities which consist of either a square or a hexagonal array of metal cylinders, bounded on top and bottom by conducting or superconducting sheets, surrounded by placing microwave absorber at the periphery or by replacing outer rows of metal cylinders with lossy dielectric ones, or by metallic walls. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. While both monopole and dipole wake-fields have been studied, we confine our attention here mainly to the dipole case. The dipole wake-field is produced by modes in the propagation bands which tend to fill the entire cavity more or less uniformly and are thus easy to damp selectively. MAFIA time domain simulation of the transverse wake-field has been compared with that of a cylindrical pill-box comparison cavity. Even without damping the wake-field of the metal PBG cavity is substantially smaller than that of the pill-box cavity and may be further reduced by increasing the size of the lattice. By introducing lossy material at the periphery we have been able to produce Q factors for the dipole modes in the 40 to 120 range without significantly degrading the accelerating mode.

  14. DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN, PART II: FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small, pilot field study was conducted to determine the adequacy of protocols for dietary exposure measurements. Samples were collected to estimate the amount of pesticides transferred from contaminated surfaces or hands to foods of young children and to validate a dietary mod...

  15. Inquiry-Based Field Studies Involving Teacher-Scientist Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis

    2001-01-01

    Describes a collaborative professional development program, Inquiry-Based Field Studies Involving Teacher-Scientist Collaboration, that uses scientist-teacher teams to improve teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry. Reports that the project allowed teachers to develop a deeper understanding on the nature of science. (Author/YDS)

  16. Comparison of different force fields for the study of disaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen empirical force fields and the semi-empirical quantum method PM3CARB-1 were compared for studying ß-cellobiose, a-maltose, and a-galabiose [a-D-Galp-(1'4)-a-D-Galp]. For each disaccharide, the energies of 54 conformers with differing hydroxymethyl, hydroxyl and glycosidic linkage orientatio...

  17. Fundamental studies and applications of strong field ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lu

    In an intense laser field, atoms and molecules experience tunneling ionization directly to the continuum. We used this method to study several aspects and applications of strong field ionization (SFI) in atoms and molecules. One study used SFI to probe the photofragments produced by photodissociation using DC sliced imaging. The photodissociation mechanism of two polyatomic molecules (sulfur dioxide and nitromethane) were investigated. In a second study, we show the strong field ionization rate depends on the sign of the magnetic number distribution. We detect the signal of sequential double ionization of argon dications by a pump-probe method to investigate the ionization rate sensitivity to circularly polarized light. In a third study, we also found that the modest fragmentation that accompanies strong field ionization may be used to identify isomers and molecules in a complex mixture based on their mass spectral "finger print". The experiments were carried out in a DC sliced imaging apparatus. For the isomer selective detection experiment, the machine was used simply as a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectrum of each isomer was used as "basis function" to characterize the complex mixtures quantitatively.

  18. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  19. The Relevance of Anxiety and Assertiveness in Urban Field Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Francis M., III

    The effects of participation in field study programs on levels of anxiety and assertiveness among college students was investigated. Students enrolled in the Great Lakes Colleges Association - Philadelphia Urban Semester, 1976-1977, were systematically assessed for levels of anxiety and related personality dimensions using the Adjective Check List…

  20. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS: FIELD STUDIES, MODELING AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The user‘s guide entitled “Water Distribution System Analysis: Field Studies, Modeling and Management” is a reference guide for water utilities and an extensive summarization of information designed to provide drinking water utility personnel (and related consultants and research...

  1. Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yingyi; Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity.…

  2. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  3. Counselor Attractiveness, Similarity, and Session Impact: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerison, Rebecca M.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    Past research has suggested that interpersonal influence in counseling is enhanced as clients perceive their counselors to be interpersonally attractive and similar to themselves. This study examined the relationship of specific verbal and nonverbal cues to perceived counselor attractiveness in a field setting, and explored the relation between…

  4. The significance of field work in monographic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this paper is to document the clear and obvious advantages of field work for monographic studies. These advantages include: 1) ability to understand published distributions better and greatly expand these data, 2) access to taxonomic data obscured on herbarium sheets (as colors, odors, ...

  5. Assessing Student Learning in the Major Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessing student attainment in the major field of study is increasingly important to employers and accrediting bodies alike. Construction and manufacturing firms do not like engineers who design faulty bridges and airplanes. Marketing firms want to hire students who understand the difference between a niche market and a global market. School…

  6. Emotional Reactions of Students in Field Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvack, Andrea; Mishna, Faye; Bogo, Marion

    2010-01-01

    An exploratory study using qualitative methodology was undertaken with recent MSW graduates (N=12) from 2 graduate social work programs to identify and describe the students' emotional reactions to experiences in field education. Significant and interrelated themes emerged including the subjective and unique definitions of emotionally charged…

  7. Field Initiated Studies Program: Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Research.

    Projects funded in 1993 as part of the Field-Initiated Studies program of the U.S. Department of Education are described, including information on research objective, project design, principal investigators, amount of award, and report availability. Program titles and locations of principal investigator are: "Promoting Equity in Teacher Education…

  8. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  9. PACKAGE PLANTS FOR SMALL SYSTEMS: A FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint field study was conducted by AWWA and the Drinking Water Research Division of USEPA to evaluate existing small community systems that use package plant technology. Forty-eight package plant systems representing a geographic and technological cross section were evaluated t...

  10. Exenatide once weekly treatment maintained improvements in glycemic control and weight loss over 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    population. Nausea (predominantly mild in intensity) was the most common adverse event, although the frequency and intensity of nausea decreased over time. No severe hypoglycemia was observed. Conclusions Exenatide QW was well tolerated during the 2-year treatment period. This study demonstrated sustained glucose control and weight loss throughout 2 years of treatment with exenatide QW. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00308139 PMID:21529363

  11. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  12. Extremely low frequency fields and cancer: laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E.)

    1998-10-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. However, no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, although several are suggestive of potential health impacts. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Several approaches are outlined in the experimental approach to this question. With specific reference to the radiofrequencies (RF) associated with wireless technology, even less research has been carried out than with ELF. Particularly, in regard to research on carcinogenesis and RF exposure in animals, little is known This section addresses laboratory studies in animals exposed to extremely low-power-frequency EMF, the relevance of which, to RF, is unknown. However, the approaches used with ELF may be useful in guiding laboratory research on the issue of RF exposure and cancer. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss studies investigating the potential relationship between ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposure and the risk of cancer.

  13. Field-Theoretic Studies of Nanostructured Triblock Polyelectrolyte Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audus, Debra; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2012-02-01

    Recently, experimentalists have developed nanostructured, reversible gels formed from triblock polyelectrolytes (Hunt et al. 2011, Lemmers et al. 2010, 2011). These gels have fascinating and tunable properties that reflect a heterogeneous morphology with domains on the order of tens of nanometers. The complex coacervate domains, aggregated oppositely charged end-blocks, are embedded in a continuous aqueous matrix and are bridged by uncharged, hydrophilic polymer mid-blocks. We report on simulation studies that employ statistical field theory models of triblock polyelectrolytes, and we explore the equilibrium self-assembly of these remarkable systems. As the charge complexation responsible for the formation of coacervate domains is driven by electrostatic correlations, we have found it necessary to pursue full ``field-theoretic simulations'' of the models, as opposed to the familiar self-consistent field theory approach. Our investigations have focused on morphological trends with mid- and end-block lengths, polymer concentration, salt concentration and charge density.

  14. The study of piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Boris; Kuznetsova, Iren; Shikhabudinov, Alexander; Teplykh, Andrey; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric lateral-electric-field-excited resonator based on an X-cut lithium niobate plate has been investigated. Two rectangular electrodes were applied on one side of the plate so that the lateral electric field components were parallel to the crystallographic Y-axis and excited the longitudinal wave in the gap between the electrodes. The region around the electrodes was covered with a special absorbing varnish to suppress the spurious oscillations. The effect of the absorbing coating width on the resonant frequency and Q-factor of the lateral field-excited resonator was studied in detail with the series and parallel resonances for different width of the gap between the electrodes. As a result, we found experimentally the parameter regions of pure resonances and the boundaries of value variation for resonance frequency, Q-factor, and effective electromechanical coupling coefficient. PMID:24402903

  15. Geography Teacher Candidates' Experiences of Field Study in Western Anatolia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish expectations of 5th grade students from Marmara University's Department of Geography Teaching on geographical field study in Western Anatolia. For this reason, a field study trip was organized to Western Anatolia. A survey, which was consisted of open-ended questions, was prepared by experts and it was…

  16. Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-07-31

    The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

  17. Satellite Studies of Ionospheric Electric Fields and Neutral Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, Bela G.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied mid- and low-latitude electrodynamic and neutral thermospheric dynamic processes using measurements on board the AE-E, DE-2, and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) satellites, and global convection and general circulation models. These studies have determined the morphology of the equatorial zonal electric fields, the response of equatorial plasma irregularities to magnetospheric disturbances, and the time dependent response of the mid- and low latitude electric fields to magnetospheric disturbances. We have also used extensive F region zonal and meridional wind data obtained by Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) instrument on board the UARS to study the latitudinal dependence of daytime disturbance winds during magnetically disturbed periods and the general characteristics of the global thermospheric disturbance wind system during geomagnetically active periods. This project has supported the PhD thesis research of John Emmert.

  18. Electron Dynamics in Intense Laser Fields: A Bohmian Mechanics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    We study the electron quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen under intense near infrared laser fields by means of the De Broglie-Bohm's framework of Bohmian mechanics. This method is used to study the mechanism of the multiple plateau generation and the cut-off extension, as the main characteristic features of high order harmonic generation spectrum. Electron multiple recollision dynamics under intense mid-infrared laser fields is also investigated. In this case, the resulting patterns in the high-order harmonic generation and the above-threshold ionization spectra are analyzed by comprehensive picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. The time evolution of individual trajectories is closely studied to address some of the major structural features of the photoelectron angular distributions. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  19. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  20. Analytical and Numerical Studies of Coherent Field Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans-Reinhard

    Motivated by the goal of investigating the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe, a study of dynamical aspects of nonlinear field-theoretical systems is performed. Symmetric and asymmetric double-well potentials in the φ4 theory are used as a model for these systems. In the first part, it is shown that in this model, a class of localized, time-dependent, spherically-symmetric objects dubbed oscillons exists. The most distinctive feature of these objects is that they are extremely long-lived. The properties of oscillons are studied by numerical and analytical means. In the second part of the study, the matching between (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear field theories coupled to an external stochastic environment and their lattice simulations is investigated. In particular, a method is developed to obtain numerical results which are lattice-spacing independent, and to extract the correct effective potential which emerges from the simulations. As an application, the thermal production of kinks is studied, obtaining the lattice-spacing independent number density of kinks and the effective barrier for kink production, i.e., the effective kink mass. Within its range of validity, the approach can be used to match numerical simulations to continuum studies of the emergence of coherent field structures in cosmology and condensed matter physics.

  1. Retrobulbar Hemodynamics and Visual Field Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuerten, D.; Fuest, M.; Koch, E. C.; Koutsonas, A.; Plange, N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular risk factors are important factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to investigate retrobulbar hemodynamics and visual field progression in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Patients and Methods. 31 eyes of 16 patients with NTG were included in a retrospective long-term follow-up study. Colour Doppler imaging was performed at baseline to determine various CDI parameters in the different retrobulbar vessels. The rate of visual field progression was determined using the Visual Field Index (VFI) progression rate per year (in %). To be included in the analysis, patients had at least 4 visual field examinations with a follow-up of at least 2 years. Results. Mean follow-up was 7.6 ± 4.1 years with an average of 10 ± 5 visual field tests. The mean MD (mean defect) at baseline was −7.61 ± 7.49 dB. The overall VFI progression was −1.14 ± 1.40% per year. A statistical significant correlation between VFI progression and the RI of the NPCA and PSV of the CRA was found. Conclusion. Long-term visual field progression may be linked to impaired retrobulbar hemodynamics in patients with NTG only to a limited degree. Interpretation of the data for an individual patient seems to be limited due to the variability of parameters. PMID:26557652

  2. Monte Carlo study of MLC fields for cobalt therapy machine

    PubMed Central

    Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Rani, Roopa A.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    An automated Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) system has been developed as add-on for the cobalt-60 teletherapy machines available in India. The goal of the present computational study is to validate the MLC design using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. The study was based on the Kirloskar-supplied Phoenix model machines that closely match the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) theratron-80 machine. The MLC is a retrofit attachment to the collimator assembly, with 14 non-divergent leaf pairs of 40 mm thick, 7 mm wide, and 150 mm long tungsten alloy plates with rounded edges and 20 mm tongue and 2 mm groove in each leaf. In the present work, the source and collimator geometry has been investigated in detail to arrive at a model that best represents the measured dosimetric data. The authors have studied in detail the proto-I MLC built for cobalt-60. The MLC field sizes were MC simulated for 2 × 2 cm2 to 14 × 14 cm2 square fields as well as irregular fields, and the percent depth dose (PDD) and profile data were compared with ROPS† treatment planning system (TPS). In addition, measured profiles using the IMATRIXX system‡ were also compared with the MC simulations. The proto-I MLC can define radiation fields up to 14 × 14 cm2 within 3 mm accuracy. The maximum measured leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was 3.4% and interleaf leakage observed was 7.3%. Good agreement between MC results, ROPS and IMATRIXX results has been observed. The investigation also supports the hypothesis that optical and radiation field coincidence exists for the square fields studied with the MLC. Plots of the percent depth dose (PDD) data and profile data for clinically significant irregular fields have also been presented. The MC model was also investigated to speed up the calculations to allow calculations of clinically relevant conformal beams. †Radiation Oncology Planning System (ROPS) is supplied by Tirumala Jyothi Computer Systems described at https

  3. The Study of Runoff Loads from Lotus Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hisao; Kato, Tasuku; Nakasone, Hideo

    To solve the problem of diffuse pollution brought about of eutrophication in lakes, an investigation was conducted in lotus paddy fields, at which little research had been conducted. The study area consisted of low-land lotus paddy fields around the Lake Kasumigaura watershed in Ibaraki Prefecture. The area is well known as the largest production center of lotus roots in Japan. The results of the study show that the mass balance loads of total nitrogen(T-N), total phosphorus(T-P), chemical oxygen demand(COD), and suspended solids from the lotus paddy fields were -3.22 , 1.87, 75.36 and 552 kg·km-2·d-1, respectively. Comparing these values to the unit reported in "The Fifth Plan for Water Quality Conservation in the Lakes and Ponds related to Lake Kasumigaura", it was found that T-N was purified, T-P was 2.1 times higher and COD was 4.8 times higher. It was found that the major cause of the effluent loads was the outflow of suspended matters during puddling and lotus planting. The dissolved matter was influenced by the increase of discharge. The suspended matter discharge from the lotus paddy fields temporarily accumulated at the end of the drainage canals and flowed out when there was a rainfall.

  4. Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

  5. Integrated modeling and field study of potential mechanisms forinduced seismicity at The Geysers Goethermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Majer, Ernie; Oldenburg, Curt; Peterson, John; Vasco, Don

    2006-06-07

    In this paper, we present progress made in a study aimed atincreasing the understanding of the relative contributions of differentmechanisms that may be causing the seismicity occurring at The Geysersgeothermal field, California. The approach we take is to integrate: (1)coupled reservoir geomechanical numerical modeling, (2) data fromrecently upgraded and expanded NCPA/Calpine/LBNL seismic arrays, and (3)tens of years of archival InSAR data from monthly satellite passes. Wehave conducted a coupled reservoir geomechanical analysis to studypotential mechanisms induced by steam production. Our simulation resultscorroborate co-locations of hypocenter field observations of inducedseismicity and their correlation with steam production as reported in theliterature. Seismic and InSAR data are being collected and processed foruse in constraining the coupled reservoir geomechanicalmodel.

  6. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Wang

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  7. 2-Year-Olds' Speech Understanding in Multitalker Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are often spoken to in the presence of background sounds, including speech from other talkers. Prior work has suggested that infants 1 year of age and younger can only recognize speech when it is louder than any distracters in the environment. The present study tests 24-month-olds' ability to understand speech in a multitalker…

  8. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2- Year) Activity Under OMB Review... correspondence. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Title: Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year), VA Form 40-40....

  9. A Collaborative Problem-solving Process Through Environmental Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung; Teck Tan, Hoe

    2013-02-01

    This study explored and documented students' responses to opportunities for collective knowledge building and collaboration in a problem-solving process within complex environmental challenges and pressing issues with various dimensions of knowledge and skills. Middle-school students (n = 16; age 14) and high-school students (n = 16; age 17) from two Singapore public institutions participated in an environmental science field study to experience knowledge integration and a decision-making process. Students worked on six research topics to understand the characteristics of an organic farm and plan for building an ecological village. Students collected and analysed data from the field and shared their findings. Their field work and discussions were video-recorded, and their reflective notes and final reports were collected for data coding and interpretation. The results revealed that throughout the study, students experienced the needs and development of integrated knowledge, encountered the challenges of knowledge sharing and communication during their collaboration, and learned how to cope with the difficulties. Based on research findings, this study further discusses students' learning through a collaborative problem-solving process, including the interdependence of knowledge and the development of mutual relationships such as respect and care for others' knowledge and learning.

  10. OH Zeeman Studies of Magnetic Field Strengths in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Kristen L.; Troland, Thomas H.; Heiles, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although stars have long been known to form in the gravitational collapse of molecular clouds, the details of the formation process are not well understood. There are many questions surrounding the formation mechanism of the clouds and the timescales on which they collapse. Star formation within the Galaxy has been found to be extremely inefficient, with stars forming at only 1-3% of the expected rate. Multiple theories addressing this inefficiency have emerged, placing varying degrees of emphasis on the magnetic fields and turbulence within the interstellar medium. One major difference in leading theories is the strength of the magnetic fields permeating the clouds and the extent to which they can provide support against cloud collapse. One way to determine the effect of magnetic fields is to determine the ratio between the gravitational and magnetic energies, called the mass-to-flux ratio, within the clouds to determine whether they are magnetically subcritical or supercritical. Much work has been done to determine this ratio in the cores of molecular clouds, but little is currently known about the fields in the envelopes of the clouds where most of the mass resides. We present the results of an extensive observational survey aimed at characterizing the fields in molecular clouds as a whole. We use the Arecibo telescope to determine mass-to-flux ratios in clouds distributed throughout the sky via the Zeeman effect in 18 cm OH absorption lines. This statistical study provides magnetic field and mass-to-flux results for 41 clouds located along 22 lines-of-sight. We find the first evidence for subcritical molecular gas along individual lines-of-sight, and a statistical analysis suggests that the mass-to-flux ratio in the envelopes of molecular clouds is approximately critical overall.

  11. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  12. Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) concept evaluation study

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Babcock, S.M.; Watkin, D.C.; Oliver, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    The Field Artillery Ammunition Processing System (FAAPS) is an initiative to introduce a palletized load system (PLS) that is transportable with an automated ammunition processing and storage system for use on the battlefield. System proponents have targeted a 20% increase in the ammunition processing rate over the current operation while simultaneously reducing the total number of assigned field artillery battalion personnel by 30. The overall objective of the FAAPS Project is the development and demonstration of an improved process to accomplish these goals. The initial phase of the FAAPS Project and the subject of this study is the FAAPS concept evaluation. The concept evaluation consists of (1) identifying assumptions and requirements, (2) documenting the process flow, (3) identifying and evaluating technologies available to accomplish the necessary ammunition processing and storage operations, and (4) presenting alternative concepts with associated costs, processing rates, and manpower requirements for accomplishing the operation. This study provides insight into the achievability of the desired objectives.

  13. Study of the electric field inside microchannel plate multipliers

    SciTech Connect

    Gatti, E.; Oba, K.; Rehak, P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric field inside high gain microchannel plate multipliers was studied. The calculations were based directly on the solution of the Maxwell equations applied to the microchannel plate (MCP) rather than on the conventional lumped RC model. The results are important to explain the performance of MCP's, (1) under a pulsed bias tension and, (2) at high rate conditions. The results were tested experimentally and a new method of MCP operation free from the positive ion feedback was demonstrated.

  14. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    PubMed

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  15. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  16. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  17. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  18. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  19. [A case of total intestinal aganglionosis. 2 years of survival].

    PubMed

    López Gútiérrez, J C; de Agustín, J C; Murcia, J; Carrero, C; Muguerza, R; Soto, C; Utrilla, J G; Lassaletta, L

    1991-10-01

    A two-year-old male is presented. Small bowel aganglionosis was proved to extend to 3 cm below ligament of Treitz. Gastrostomy and ileostomy was done. He received his caloric intake by cyclic home parenteral nutrition trough implantable venous system. At eighteen months of age, intestinal transplantation was refused and reoperation was done. The child underwent Ziegler's miotomymiectomy on 60 cm of aganglionic jejunum. Now at twenty seven months of age he receives cyclic parenteral nutrition, and enteral feedings are being increased slowly. The weight/height was at 91 per 100 standard, intestinal motility appears much better on contrast study and he is developmentally a normal child. PMID:1760266

  20. 1992-93 Results of geomorphological and field studies Volcanic Studies Program, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.G.

    1993-10-01

    Field mapping and stratigraphic studies were completed of the Black Tank volcanic center, which represents the southwestern most eruptive center in the Cima volcanic field of California. The results of this mapping are presented. Contacts between volcanic units and geomorphic features were field checked, incorporating data from eight field trenches as well as several exposures along Black Tank Wash. Within each of the eight trenches, logs were measured and stratigraphic sections were described. These data indicate that three, temporally separate volcanic eruptions occurred at the Black Tank center. The field evidence for significant time breaks between each stratigraphic unit is the presence of soil and pavement-bounded unconformities.

  1. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C.

    1993-04-03

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement has been improved by reduction of magnetic field errors with correction coils in the primary circuit and reduction of impurities using boronization; high densities have been achieved with hydrogen pellet injection. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5--7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occuring during strong MHD relaxation. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. Initial profile control experiments have begun using insertable biased probes and plasma guns. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer, 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  2. Science and ecological literacy in undergraduate field studies education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapp, Kim J.

    There is an ever-increasing number of issues that face our world today; from climate change, water and food scarcity, to pollution and resource extraction. Science and ecology play fundamental roles in these problems, and yet the understanding of these fields is limited in our society (Miller, 2002; McBride, Brewer, Berkowitz, and Borrie, 2013). Across the nation students are finishing their undergraduate degrees and are expected to enter the workforce and society with the skills needed to succeed. The deficit of science and ecological literacy in these students has been recognized and a call for reform begun (D'Avanzo, 2003 and NRC, 2009). This mixed-methods study looked at how a field studies course could fill the gap of science and ecological literacy in undergraduates. Using grounded theory, five key themes were data-derived; definitions, systems thinking, human's role in the environment, impetus for change and transference. These themes where then triangulated for validity and reliability through qualitative and quantitative assessments. A sixth theme was also identified, the learning environment. Due to limited data to support this themes' development and reliability it is discussed in Chapter 5 to provide recommendations for further research. Key findings show that this field studies program influenced students' science and ecological literacy through educational theory and practice.

  3. CFD Simulations of Joint Urban Atmospheric Dispersion Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R; Humphreys III, T; Chan, S

    2004-06-17

    The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the understanding of urban wind flow and dispersion processes has gained increasing attention over recent years. While many of the simpler dispersion models are based on a set of prescribed meteorology to calculate dispersion, the CFD approach has the ability of coupling the wind field to dispersion processes. This has distinct advantages when very detailed results are required, such as for the case where the releases occur around buildings and within urban areas. CFD also has great flexibility as a testbed for turbulence models, which has important implications for atmospheric dispersion problems. In the spring of 2003, a series of dispersion field experiments (Joint Urban 2003) were conducted at Oklahoma City (Allwine, et. al, 2004). These experiments were complimentary to the URBAN 2000 field studies at Salt Lake City (Shinn, et. al, 2000) in that they will provide a second set of comprehensive field data for evaluation of CFD as well as for other dispersion models. In contrast to the URBAN 2000 experiments that were conducted entirely at night, these new field studies took place during both daytime and nighttime thus including the possibility of convective as well as stable atmospheric conditions. Initially several CFD modeling studies were performed to provide guidance for the experimental team in the selection of release sites and in the deployment of wind and concentration sensors. Also, while meteorological and concentration measurements were taken over the greater Oklahoma City urban area, our CFD calculations were focused on the near field of the release point. The proximity of the source to a large commercial building and to the neighboring buildings several of which have multistories, present a significant challenge even for CFD calculations involving grid resolutions as fine as 1 meter. A total of 10 Intensive Observations Periods (IOP's) were conducted within the 2003 field experiments. SF6

  4. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology. PMID:25937563

  5. Hemodialysis does not impair ventricular functions over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Duran, Mustafa; Unal, Aydin; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Kocyigit, Ismail; Oguz, Fatih; Ocak, Ayse; Ozdogru, İbrahim; Kasapkara, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ekrem; Oymak, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV and RV) functions in patients with end-stage renal disease. The study population consisted of 22 patients with newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Before an arteriovenous fistula was surgically created for HD, the patients were evaluated by echocardiography for systolic and diastolic functions. After the first HD session (mean 24.22 ± 2.14 months), the second echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Left ventricular and RV functions before and after long-term HD treatment were compared. The mean age was 55 ± 13 years and 10 (45%) of the patients were female. After long-term HD treatment, the isovolumic relaxation time was significantly decreased; however, the peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic mitral inflow velocities, E/A ratio, and deceleration time of E wave were not significantly different from the baseline measurements. Also, there was no significantly change in the early diastolic velocity (Ea) of the lateral mitral anulus and the E/Ea ratio. Pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity, peak atrial reversal velocity, and peak atrial reversal velocity duration remained almost unchanged even though the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity and the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity/pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity ratio were significantly lower after long-term HD treatment. In addition, LV systolic functions, LV diameters, LV mass index, left atrium size, and RV diastolic functions were not statistically different after long-term HD treatment. The myocardium is exposed to hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuro-humoral abnormalities during HD treatment; however, the long-term effects of HD on ventricular functions are not clearly known. The present study showed that the long-term effects of HD on LV and RV functions were insignificant in patients with end-stage renal disease. We have demonstrated that the LV and RV functions did not change

  6. Study of intermittent field hardware failure data in digital electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, E. J.; Halverson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The collection and analysis of data concerning intermittent dailures in digital devices was performed using data from a computer design for shipboard usage. The failure data consisted of actual field failures classified by failure mechanisms and their likelihood of having been intermittent, potentially intermittent, or hard. Each class was studies with respect to computer operation in the ranges of 0 to 2,000 hours, 0 to 5, hours, and 0 to 10,000 hours. The study was done at the computer level as well as the microcircuit level. Results indicate that as age increases, the quasi-intermittent failure rate increases and the mean time to failure descreases.

  7. Systematic study of bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Åberg, S.; Bajpeyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically studied potential bubble nuclei (20,22O, 34,36Si, and 46Ar), which are experimentally accessible and have attracted several studies in the recent past. Relativistic mean field is employed in conjunction with the NL-SH parameter set. Our results show that among the possible candidates, 22Oand 34Si may be the most prominent candidates, showing significant depletion of density at the center, which could be verified experimentally in the near future with some of the experiments underway.

  8. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  9. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L

    1997-10-01

    Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502

  10. Paleomagnetic Study of El Pinacate Volcanic Field, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Trejo, A.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Geophysics Institute, UNAM

    2011-12-01

    This Paleomagnetic study reports the results of 235 cores from 19 sites of different lava flows, reporting results of the magnetic properties such as Susceptibility vs.Temperature, hysteresis, FORC analysis, etc. Results of the desmagnetization process by alternating fields and temperature and the Paleointensity experiments. El Pinacate Volcanic Field (PVF) is located on the NNW region of Sonora, Mexico, and it consists on older lava flows, covered and surrounded by some cinder cones and younger lava flows, result of two different volcanic events, the older one, the event Pre Pinacate (Miocene) and the younger one Pinacate (Quaternary). Cinder cones are the most common volcanic structures on the area, there are more than 400 of them, and with all the lava flows, covering a 1,500 km2 area. There are 8 maars, volcanic structures result of phreatomagmatic activity (El Elegante) and a tuff cone (Cerro Colorado). El Pinacate is a monogenetic volcanic field that includes more than 400 volcanic structures and lava flows, dominated principally by basalts. The principal volcanic event Pinacate started its activity from the early Quaternary, untilt 1.1 Ma; and the last volcanic series started at 780 Ka to 32 Ka , the principal volcanic shield, including the principal volcanic structures as cinder cones, maars and lava flows. However, the principal objetive of this work is to calculate tha Paleosecular Variation and the Geomagnetic Paleointensity, based on previous geochronological studies.

  11. Surface coal mine emission factor field study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Muleski, G.E.; Garmen, G.; Cowherd, C.

    1994-01-01

    The report presents the results of an emissions sampling program to measure airborne particulate matter released from the activities conducted at open pit coal mines in the western United States. The principal objective of the study was to compare field measurements against available emission factors for surface coal mines and to revise the factors as necessary. The field measurements were conducted during the fall of 1992 at the Cordero surface coal mine in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. A total of 36 PM-10 emission tests, distributed over various sources and five test sites, was performed. The report presents the sampling methodology used, the emission measurement results, the ambient monitoring results, the results of the reexamination of current emission factors, and recommended emission factor models for haul truck travel, light-duty vehicle travel and scraper travel on upaved roads.

  12. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  13. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  14. Magnetic Field Configuration Models and Reconstruction Methods: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-haddad, Nada; Möstl, Christian; Roussev, Ilia; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Poedts, Stefaan; Hidalgo, Miguel Angel; Marubashi, Katsuhide; Savani, Neel

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to provide a reference to different magnetic field models and reconstruction methods. In order to understand the dissimilarities of those models and codes, we analyze 59 events from the CDAW list, using four different magnetic field models and reconstruction techniques; force- free reconstruction (Lepping et al.(1990); Lynch et al.(2003)), magnetostatic reconstruction, referred as Grad-Shafranov (Hu & Sonnerup(2001); Mostl et al.(2009)), cylinder reconstruction (Marubashi & Lepping(2007)), elliptical, non-force free (Hidalgo et al.(2002)). The resulted parameters of the reconstructions, for the 59 events are compared, statistically, as well as in more details for some cases. The differences between the reconstruction codes are discussed, and suggestions are provided as how to enhance them. Finally we look at 2 unique cases under the microscope, to provide a comprehensive idea of the different aspects of how the fitting codes work.

  15. Study on Expansion of Convolutional Compactors over Galois Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Masayuki; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Kazuhiko

    Convolutional compactors offer a promising technique of compacting test responses. In this study we expand the architecture of convolutional compactor onto a Galois field in order to improve compaction ratio as well as reduce X-masking probability, namely, the probability that an error is masked by unknown values. While each scan chain is independently connected by EOR gates in the conventional arrangement, the proposed scheme treats q signals as an element over GF(2q), and the connections are configured on the same field. We show the arrangement of the proposed compactors and the equivalent expression over GF(2). We then evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed expansion in terms of X-masking probability by simulations with uniform distribution of X-values, as well as reduction of hardware overheads. Furthermore, we evaluate a multi-weight arrangement of the proposed compactors for non-uniform X distributions.

  16. Temperature field study of hot water circulation pump shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Kong, F. Y.; Daun, X. H.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    In the process of engineering application under the condition of hot water circulation pump, problems of stress concentration caused by the temperature rise may happen. In order to study the temperature field in bearing and electric motor chamber of the hot water circulation pump and optimize the structure, in present paper, the model of the shaft system is created through CREO. The model is analyzed by ANSYS workbench, in which the thermal boundary conditions are applied to calculate, which include the calorific values from the bearings, the thermal loss from electric motor and the temperature from the transporting medium. From the result, the finite element model can reflect the distribution of thermal field in hot water circulation pump. Further, the results show that the maximum temperature locates in the bearing chamber.The theoretical guidance for the electric motor heat dissipation design of the hot water circulation pump can be achieved.

  17. Aluminum doping studies on high field ZnO varistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.M.; Doughty, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of Al doping on the physical and electronic properties of high field ZnO varistors. For this study, varistors containing 98.94 m/o ZnO, 0.25 m/o CoO, 0.25 m/o MnO, 0.56 m/o Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 0 to 200 ppM Al were prepared from powders obtained from solution precipitation techniques. Because of the amphoteric nature of aluminum oxides, precise control of pH and metal concentrations was necessary to assure complete incorporation of dopants. We observed inhibition of grain growth during sintering of varistor pellets at aluminum concentrations of 50 ppM and above. The measured electrical properties show increased switching fields and increased nonlinearity coefficients for Al doping levels of 50 to 200 ppM.

  18. Preterm infant gut colonization in the neonatal ICU and complete restoration 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Moles, L; Gómez, M; Jiménez, E; Fernández, L; Bustos, G; Chaves, F; Cantón, R; Rodríguez, J M; Del Campo, R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to multidrug-resistant bacteria previously adapted to the hospital environment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial antibiotic-resistant high-risk lineages colonizing preterm infants during their NICU stay and their persistence in faeces after 2 years. A total of 26 preterm neonates were recruited between October 2009 and June 2010 and provided 144 faecal samples. Milk samples (86 mother's milk, 35 human donor milk and 15 formula milk) were collected at the same time as faecal samples. An additional faecal sample was recovered in 16 infants at the age of 2 years. Samples were plated onto different selective media, and one colony per morphology was selected. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility (agar dilution), genetic diversity (RAPD, PFGE and MLST) and virulence factors (only in enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates) were determined by PCR. A high proportion of antibiotic-resistant high-risk clones was detected in both faecal and milk samples during the NICU admittance. Almost all infants were colonized by Enterococcus faecalis ST64 and Enterococcus faecium ST18 clones, while a wider genetic diversity was observed for the Gram-negative isolates. Multidrug-resistant high-risk clones were not recovered from the faecal samples of the 2-year-olds. In conclusion, the gut of preterm infants admitted to the NICU might be initially colonized by antibiotic-resistant and virulent high-risk lineages, which are later replaced by antibiotic-susceptible community ones. PMID:26086569

  19. Teaching and Learning in the Tropics: An Epistemic Exploration of "the Field" in a Development Studies Field Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Kamna

    2015-01-01

    Development studies employs theories, tools and methods often found in geography, including the international field trip to a "developing" country. In 2013 and 2014, I led a two-week trip to Ethiopia. To better comprehend the effects of "the field" on students' learning, I introduced an assessed reflexive field diary to…

  20. Nursing students’ satisfaction about their field of study

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, ASHRAFALSADAT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays students' opinion is considered as a necessary factor to evaluate quality in universities. This study was performed to evaluate the nursing students' satisfaction about their field of study. Methods: The research population in this study consists of all the students of nursing studying at the second to fourth year of university (72 students). The data were collected from all the studied population. Data collection instrument was a research questionnaire. In this cross-sectional research, nursing students' satisfaction (72 students) in 6 major topics (situation of educational environment, situation of clinical environment, trainers, social image, relation to colleagues and management) was studied. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using quantitative variables and descriptive statistics including frequency distribution tables and diagrams. Results: The findings indicated that 83.3% of the students had little satisfaction as to the situation of educational environment, 47.2% about situation of clinical environment, 41.7% concerning the theoretical educational method by professors, and 41.7% as to the method of clinical education by clinical trainers. Also 47.2% were not that satisfied with the method of evaluation by the school professors, 80.6% with the method of relationship with colleagues and also 62.5% with the nursing social image. Moreover, findings indicated that 33.3% of the participants in this research were dissatisfied with the method of evaluation by clinical trainers and 50% with the method of nursing management. Conclusion: In the present study, most students had little satisfaction concerning their field of study. So it is necessary to make an attempt for continuous development of quality services. PMID:25512925

  1. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. PMID:20653002

  2. FIELD STUDY IN INDUSTRY FOR THE PREPARATION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS. FINAL REPORT, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASTINGS, JAMES R.; AND OTHERS

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT WERE TO DEVELOP A COURSE MODEL AND THE ACCOMPANYING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR AN INDUCTIVE STUDY OF THE NATURE AND ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY IN AN UNDERGRADUATE INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM. A STRUCTURE FOR A MODEL CURRICULAR COMPONENT WAS CREATED AND TESTED ON FOUR STUDENT GROUPS DURING 2 YEARS. PHASE…

  3. High risk of peripheral arterial disease in the United Kingdom: 2-year results of a prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Stansby, Gerard; Mister, Rebecca; Fowkes, Gerry; Roughton, Michael; Nugara, Fiona; Brittenden, Julie; Bradbury, Andrew; Ashley, Simon; Shearman, Cliff; Hannon, Ray; Flather, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    We report a prospective 2-year, multicenter study of patients presenting with intermittent claudication (IC; ankle brachial blood pressure index, ABPI ≤ 0.9). Mean age of the 473 patients enrolled was 68 years, 20% were diabetics, 30% had prior symptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD), 7% had prior stroke, and 39% were current smokers. At baseline, 26.2% of patients had BP ≤ 140/85 mm Hg or lower and at 2 years this figure was 32.5% (P = .01). Current smokers had fallen to 27% (from 39%) at 2 years (P < .001). Use of antiplatelet agents, statins, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors increased significantly during the course of the study as did claudication distance. Death and the composite of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), occurred in 8.4% and 11.6% of patients, respectively. Prognosis was worse in patients with prior history of CHD, older age, those with diabetes and a lower ABPI. PMID:21220371

  4. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  5. Practical prediction model for the risk of 2-year mortality of individuals in the general population.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander; Gautam, Shiva; Brown, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to validate a prediction model and risk-stratification tool of 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population suitable for office practice use. A risk indicator (R) derived from data in the literature was based on only 6 variables: to calculate R for an individual, starting with 0, for each year of age above 60, add 0.14; for a male, add 0.9; for diabetes mellitus, add 0.7; for albuminuria >30 mg/g of creatinine, add 0.7; for stage ≥3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), add 0.9; for cardiovascular disease (CVD), add 1.4; or for both CKD and CVD, add 1.7. We developed a univariate logistic regression model predicting 2-year individual mortality rates. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set (1999-2004 with deaths through 2006) was used as the target for validation. These 12,515 subjects had a mean age of 48.9±18.1 years, 48% males, 9.5% diabetes, 11.7% albuminuria, 6.8% CVD, 5.4% CKD, and 2.8% both CKD and CVD. Using the risk indicator R alone to predict mortality demonstrated good performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.84. Dividing subjects into low-risk (R=0-1.0), low intermediate risk (R>1.0-3.0), high intermediate risk (R>3.0-5.0) or high-risk (R>5.0) categories predicted 2-year mortality rates of 0.52%, 1.44%, 5.19% and 15.24%, respectively, by the prediction model compared with actual mortality rates of 0.29%, 2.48%, 5.13% and 13.40%, respectively. We have validated a model of risk stratification using easily identified clinical characteristics to predict 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population. The model demonstrated performance adequate for its potential use for clinical practice and research decisions. PMID:26951378

  6. Experimental studies of plasma wake-field acceleration and focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Ho, C.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Mtingwa, S.; Norem, J.; Rosing, M.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1989-07-18

    More than four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These large amplitude plasma wake-fields are of interest in the laboratory, both for the wealth of basic nonlinear plasma wave phenomena which can be studied, as well as for the applications of acceleration of focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders. Plasma wake-field waves are also of importance in nature, due to their possible role in direct cosmic ray acceleration. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory, in which many interesting beam and plasma phenomena have been observed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the nonlinear aspects of the PWFA beam-plasma interaction. 29 refs., 13 figs.

  7. The Application of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis in Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Parizad, Eskandar Gholami; Valizadeh, Azar

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a method applied in separating large segments of deoxyribonucleotide using an alternating and cross field. In a uniform magnetic field, components larger than 50kb pass a route through the gel and since the movement of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules are in a Zigzag form, separation of DNAs as bands carried out better via gel. PFGE in microbiology is a standard method which is used for typing of bacteria. It is also a very useful tool in epidemiological studies and gene mapping in microbes and mammalian cell, also motivated development of large-insert cloning system such as bacterial and yeast artifical chromosomes. In this method, close and similar species in terms of genetic patterns show alike profiles regarding DNA separation, and those ones which don’t have similarity or are less similar, reveal different separation profiles. So this feature can be used to determine the common species as the prevalence agent of a disease. PFGE can be utilized for monitoring and evaluating different micro-organisms in clinical samples and existing ones in soil and water. This method can also be a reliable and standard method in vaccine preparation. In recent decades, PFGE is highly regarded as a powerful tool in control, prevention and monitoring diseases in different populations. PMID:26894068

  8. Biosorption of metal contaminants using immobilized biomass--Field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, T.H.; Bennett, P.G.; Corwin, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed porous beads containing immobilized biological materials such as sphagnum peat moss for extracting metal contaminants from waste waters. The beads, designated as BIO-FIX beads, have removed toxic metals from over 100 waters in laboratory tests. These waters include acid mine drainage (AMD) water from mining sites, metallurgical and chemical industry waste water, and contaminated ground water. Following the laboratory studies, cooperative field tests were conducted to evaluate the metal adsorption properties of the beads in column and low-maintenance circuits, determine bead stability in varied climatic situations, and demonstrate the beads' potential as a viable waste water treatment technique. Field results indicated that BIO-FIX beads readily adsorbed cadmium, lead, and other toxic metals from dilute waters; effluents frequently met drinking water standards and other discharge criteria. The beads exhibited excellent handling characteristics in both column and low-maintenance circuits, and continued to extract metal ions after repeated loading-elution cycles. Based on laboratory and field data, cost evaluations for using BIO-FIX technology to treat two AMD waters were prepared. Operating costs for BIO-FIX treatment, which ranged from $1.40 to $2.30 per 1,000 gal of water treated, were comparable with chemical precipitation costs.

  9. Puerto Rico - 2002 : field studies to resolve aerosol processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Ravelo, R.

    1999-10-05

    A number of questions remain concerning homogeneous aerosol formation by natural organics interacting with anthropogenic pollutants. For example, chlorine has been proposed as a potential oxidant in the troposphere because of its very high reactivity with a wide range of organics (Finlayson-Pitts, 1993). Indeed, sea salt aerosol in the presence of ozone has been shown to produce chlorine atoms in heterogeneous photochemical reactions under laboratory conditions. Whether chlorine can initiate oxidation of natural organics such as monoterpene hydrocarbons and can generate homogeneous nucleation or condensable material that contributes to aerosol loadings needs to be assessed. The nighttime reactions of ozone and nitrate radical can also result in monoterpene reactions that contribute to aerosol mass. We are currently planning field studies in Puerto Rico to assess these aerosol issues and other atmospheric chemistry questions. Puerto Rico has a number of key features that make it very attractive for a field study of this sort. The principal feature is the island's very regular meteorology and its position in the Caribbean Sea relative to the easterly trade winds. This meteorology and the island's rectangular shape (100 x 35 miles) make it highly suitable for simplification of boundary layer conditions. In addition, the long stretch between Puerto Rico and the nearest pollution sources in Africa and southern Europe make the incoming background air relatively clean and constant. Furthermore, Puerto Rico has approximately 3.5 million people with a very well defined source region and a central area of rain forest vegetation. These features make Puerto Rico an ideal locale for assessing aerosol processes. The following sections describe specific areas of atmospheric chemistry that can be explored during the proposed field study.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Free-Field Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Kirkpatrick, D. J.; Longbottom, A. W.; Milne, A. M.; Bourne, N. K.

    2004-07-01

    The development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms governing the attenuation of explosives effects by a surrounding mitigant material or system would benefit many civilian and military applications. Current approaches rely almost exclusively on empirical data, few if any truly predictive models exist. Dstl has recently pursued an experimental programme investigating the mitigation of effects from detonating explosives in support of general requirements to attenuate blast and fragmentation. The physical properties of a range of mitigant materials have been studied at a more fundamental level, both experimentally and numerically. A preliminary numerical parameter study has been undertaken by FGE using two-phase numerical simulations to complement the experimental studies. Initial work used idealised equations of state for generic mitigants but more recently material characterisation experiments have been undertaken at RMCS. Results confirm that porosity and particle density are dominant factors affecting the efficiency of the mitigant in reducing free-field blast.

  11. Reversed-field pinch studies in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.; Crocker, N.; Hartog, D.J.D.; Fiksel, G.; Henry, J.; Ji, H.; Prager, S.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C. )

    1993-09-01

    Studies of large-size (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.5 m), moderate current (I < 750 kA) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas are carried out in the Madison Symmetric Torus in order to evaluate and improve RFP confinement, study general toroidal plasma MHD issues, determine the mechanism of the RFP dynamo, and measure fluctuation-induced transport and anomalous ion heating. MST confinement scaling falls short of the RFP scaling trends observed in smaller RFPs, although the plasma resistance is classical. MHD tearing modes with poloidal mode numbers m = 1 and toroidal mode numbers n = 5-7 are prevalent and nonlinearly couple to produce sudden relaxations akin to tokamak sawteeth. Edge fluctuation-induced transport has been measured with a variety of insertable probes. Ions exhibit anomalous heating, with increases of ion temperature occurring during strong MHD relaxation. The anomalous heating fraction decreases with increasing density, such that ion temperatures approach the lower limit given by electron-ion friction. The RFP dynamo has been studied with attention to various possible mechanisms, including motion-EMF drive, the Hall effect, and superthermal electrons. The toroidal field capacity of MST will be upgraded during Summer 1993 to allow low-current tokamak operation as well as improved RFP operation.

  12. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  13. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP. PMID:25726022

  14. Attention to Multiple Events Helps 2 1/2-Year-Olds Extend New Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    An important question in verb learning is how children extend new verbs to new situational contexts. In Study 1, 2 1/2-year-old children were shown a complex event followed by new events that preserved only the action from the initial event, only the result, or no new events. Children seeing events that preserved either the action or the result produced appropriate verb extensions at test while children without this information did not. In a follow-up study, children hearing new verbs produced more extensions than did children hearing nonlabeling speech. These studies suggest that attention to related events is helpful to young verb learners, perhaps because they structurally align these events (e.g., Gentner, 1983; 1989) during verb learning. PMID:24324284

  15. Radiostereometric migration analysis of the Cerafit femoral stem: 28 patients followed for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Tschunko, Franz; Wagner, Benedikt; Hong, Yutong; Söder, Stephan; Wölfel, Rainer; Müller, Lutz A; Forst, Raimund; Sesselmann, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard evaluating micromovements after total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to investigate the migratory pattern of an uncemented femoral stem during the first 2 years after surgery. We followed 28 patients with a mean age of 57 (SD 13) years for the first two postoperative years. Radiostereometric analysis was used to measure the translation and rotation of the femoral component. The Harris hip score (HHS) was determined to evaluate the clinical outcome. No stem had to be revised. The mean HHS advanced from 35 (SD 11) preoperative to 89 (SD 10) 1 year after surgery. At the end of the observation period, mean subsidence of the stem was 0.26 mm (SD 0.82). Maximum total point motion (MTPM) was 1.23 mm (SD 1.22). The main distal migration took place up to 6 weeks after surgery with nearly no further subsidence up to 2 years postoperatively. All the measured migrations of the hip stem were very small. Results of the HHS demonstrate good clinical outcome. Long-term RSA is necessary to assess possible late migration of the Cerafit standard femoral stem. PMID:25996482

  16. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  17. Vitamin D Status in Botswana Children Under 2 Years Old With and Without Active Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ludmir, Jonathan; Mazhani, Loeto; Cary, Mark S; Chakalisa, Unoda A; Pettifor, John M; Molefi, Mooketsi; Redwood, Abiona; Stallings, Virginia A; Gross, Robert; Steenhoff, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case-control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 80 children under 2 years old with and without active TB, seen at hospitals and clinics in the greater Gaborone area between September 2010 and November 2012, were enrolled. Of these, 39 cases did not differ from the 41 controls in median 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.84). The 25(OH)D was < 20 ng/mL in 8/39 (21%) cases and 7/41 (17%) controls (P = 0.69, χ(2)). Univariate analyses of subject clinical characteristics (other than 25(OH)D levels) showed that any degree of weight loss was associated with a diagnosis of TB (P = 0.047). Other clinical characteristics, including age (P = 0.08) or weight below third percentile (P = 0.58), showed no association with TB. There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between children under 2 years old with and without active TB. Lower vitamin D status did not appear to be a risk factor for TB in this small Gaborone cohort. PMID:26976889

  18. Live Pups from Evaporatively Dried Mouse Sperm Stored at Ambient Temperature for up to 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Gloria Y.; Lawitts, Joel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C) for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm. PMID:24924588

  19. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child. PMID:8856517

  20. Translating theory into practice: results of a 2-year trial for the LEAD programme.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents data for 2 years of a continuing study aimed to reduce the risk of first-time involvement by minority youth with the juvenile justice system. A quasi-experimental design was used to test a 14-week expressive art curriculum (LEAD: leadership, education, achievement and development) implemented in two rural communities. A total of 70 African American youth participated in the programme over a 2-year period. Pre- and post-test differences were examined for protective factors, behavioural self-control, self-esteem and resilience measures. When compared with the after-school programme (control group), youth in the LEAD programme in both communities had more dramatic increases in post-test scores following the intervention. The combined data from year 1 and year 2 provide positive findings in support of LEAD as a prevention programme for young offenders. The placement of the programme within an African American church in year 2 improved the processes of the LEAD programme and seemed to provide a better fit with the original design of the programme, highlighting the importance of the context, in which the programme was provided. PMID:18387150

  1. An Optimization of Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, in our research we have focused on the use of normal human neuronal progenitor (NHNP) cells because of their importance in human nervous system regeneration, development and maintenance, but we have developed 2-D and 3-D bioreactors that can accommodate any cell line. In this Project, we will include the use of tissues important for physiological regeneration: Human osteoblasts or chondrocytes, and vascular cells. Our initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling using extremely low-level electromagnetic fields (5 microtesla at 10Hz; 6mA). The low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying electromagnetic fields exert a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) in a 3D bioreactor. We have replicated our preliminary results many, many times, have analyzed the gene expression using gene arrays (followed by Luminex analysis for protein production), and have monitored cell proliferation, orientation, morphology, and glucose metabolism, and we are confident that we have a stable and reliable model to study the control of high-level cellular processes by application of low-amplitude, time varying electromagnetic fields (TVEMF) (1, 2). In additional studies at the University of Michigan, we have been able to generate functional in vitro engineered mammalian skeletal muscle, and have employed nerve-muscle co-culture techniques to promote axonal sprouting. We believe that nearly all tissues, in particular, neural, are susceptible to the influences of low-level TVEMF.

  2. Field and computer modeling studies of Appalachian cyclic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.F.

    1988-02-01

    Cyclic carbonates in the Cambrian of the Appalachians have been studied using field data integrated with computer modeling studies. The models incorporate 1 to 3-m.y. and 20,000 to 100,000-year low-amplitude sea level fluctuations, water depth-dependent sedimentation rates, lag time, and subsidence. The 1 to 3-m.y. sea level fluctuations are defined by Fischer plots, which are readily compared to the model output. Cycles decrease in number toward regional highs, because (1) lower subsidence rates only allow 40 to 60% of the Milankovitch sea level fluctuations to affect the highs and (2) highs subside lower than third-order sea levels fall, which truncate 50% of cycles. Furthermore, 2 cycles/100,000 years are deposited on the outer shelf, compared to 1 to 1.4 cycles/100,000 years on inner shelf highs. Consequently cycles have longer average periods toward the highs. Furthermore, average thickness shows only a slight decrease landward, even though formation thicknesses may be halved. The field data and modeling constrain amplitudes of 1 to 3-m.y. sea level changes because significant unconformities are absent from the shelf sequence, indicating third-order sea levels fell slower than subsidence rates, thus were considerably less than 50 m.

  3. Practical use of video imagery in nearshore oceanographic field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, K.T.; Holman, R.A.; Lippmann, T.C.; Stanley, J.; Plant, N.

    1997-01-01

    An approach was developed for using video imagery to quantify, in terms of both spatial and temporal dimensions, a number of naturally occurring (nearshore) physical processes. The complete method is presented, including the derivation of the geometrical relationships relating image and ground coordinates, principles to be considered when working with video imagery and the two-step strategy for calibration of the camera model. The techniques are founded on the principles of photogrammetry, account for difficulties inherent in the use of video signals, and have been adapted to allow for flexibility of use in field studies. Examples from field experiments indicate that this approach is both accurate and applicable under the conditions typically experienced when sampling in coastal regions. Several applications of the camera model are discussed, including the measurement of nearshore fluid processes, sand bar length scales, foreshore topography, and drifter motions. Although we have applied this method to the measurement of nearshore processes and morphologic features, these same techniques are transferable to studies in other geophysical settings.

  4. Bioaerosol sampling: sampling mechanisms, bioefficiency and field studies.

    PubMed

    Haig, C W; Mackay, W G; Walker, J T; Williams, C

    2016-07-01

    Investigations into the suspected airborne transmission of pathogens in healthcare environments have posed a challenge to researchers for more than a century. With each pathogen demonstrating a unique response to environmental conditions and the mechanical stresses it experiences, the choice of sampling device is not obvious. Our aim was to review bioaerosol sampling, sampling equipment, and methodology. A comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic databases to retrieve English language papers on bioaerosol sampling. The review describes the mechanisms of popular bioaerosol sampling devices such as impingers, cyclones, impactors, and filters, explaining both their strengths and weaknesses, and the consequences for microbial bioefficiency. Numerous successful studies are described that point to best practice in bioaerosol sampling, from the use of small personal samplers to monitor workers' pathogen exposure through to large static samplers collecting airborne microbes in various healthcare settings. Of primary importance is the requirement that studies should commence by determining the bioefficiency of the chosen sampler and the pathogen under investigation within laboratory conditions. From such foundations, sampling for bioaerosol material in the complexity of the field holds greater certainty of successful capture of low-concentration airborne pathogens. From the laboratory to use in the field, this review enables the investigator to make informed decisions about the choice of bioaerosol sampler and its application. PMID:27112048

  5. Study of He II boiling flow field around a heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.; Takada, S.; Nozawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    We studied boiling phenomena in He II based on the flow velocity measurement data by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimeter). Noisy and silent film boiling modes together with non-boiling state were generated on/around a horizontal planar or a cylindrical heater. For PIV tracer particles, we used H2-D2 solid particles that were neutrally buoyant in He II. Video images showing the development and collapse of vapour bubble or film and the motions of tracer particles were PIV-analysed. We found the PIV velocity field was composed of AC and DC velocity components of the normal fluid. The AC component follows the dynamic behaviour of vapour, and the DC results primarily from the thermal counter flow and secondarily is induced by the asymmetric vapour bubble motion. We also investigated unsteady velocity component. The objective of this series of study is to compare the characteristic features of the flow field of He II film boiling states and peculiar He I boiling state in He II and to make clear the difference in the heat transfer performance of each boiling mode.

  6. Field-induced magnetostructural transition in Gd5ge4 studied by pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Z.W.; Nojiri, H.; Yoshii, S.; Rao, G.H.; Wang, Y.C.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Gschneidner Jr., K.A.

    2008-05-22

    The field-induced magnetostructural transformation in Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} was examined by magnetization measurements in pulsed magnetic fields. The low-temperature irreversibility of the transition can be destroyed by the magnetocaloric effect, and depending on the heat exchange between the sample and its surroundings, the irreversibility (or kinetic arrest) can also be retained. Measurements by using various magnetic-field sweep rates were conducted to examine the dynamic response of the system in the transition region. The critical fields for the magnetostructural transition below 20 K are field sweep rate dependent--the larger the field sweep rate, the higher the critical field. However, this rate dependence is readily suppressed with increasing temperature.

  7. Numerical study of the magnetic field diffusion in the toroidal field coils of the TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Preis, H.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion of the vertical magnetic field through the toroidal field coils is numerically analyzed in TFTR. Two different excitations of the vertical field are assumed whose behavior can be described by either a step function or a ramp function. Using the computer code FEDIFF, the distribution of the eddy currents in the windings and casing of the toroidal field coils, as well as their time behavior, is calculated for these functions. From integration of the eddy current functions over their pulse length, the energy dissipated by them is obtained. Finally, the magnetic field of the eddy currents within the torous is calculated. Based upon this field, which is represented as a function of time and space coordinates, the influence of this diffusion upon the field curvature index is described.

  8. Study of YBCO tape anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, v.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-06-01

    Superconducting magnets with magnetic fields above 20 T will be needed for a Muon Collider and possible LHC energy upgrade. This field level exceeds the possibilities of traditional Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al. Presently the use of high field high temperature superconductors (HTS) is the only option available for achieving such field levels. Commercially available YBCO comes in tapes and shows noticeable anisotropy with respect to field orientation, which needs to be accounted for during magnet design. In the present work, critical current test results are presented for YBCO tape manufactured by Bruker. Short sample measurements results are presented up to 14 T, assessing the level of anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature.

  9. Field and computer modeling studies of Appalachian cyclic carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclic carbonates in the Cambrian of the Appalachians have been studied using field data integrated with computer modeling studies. The models incorporate 1 to 3-m.y. and 20,000 to 100,000-year low-amplitude sea level fluctuations, water depth-dependent sedimentation rates, lag time, and subsidence. The 1 to 3-m.y. sea level fluctuations are defined by Fischer plots, which are readily compared to the model output. Cycles decrease in number toward regional highs, because lower subsidence rates only allow 40 to 60% of the Milankovitch sea level fluctuations to affect the highs and highs subside lower than third-order sea levels fall, which truncate 50% of cycles. Furthermore, 2 cycles/100,000 years are deposited on the outer shelf, compared to 1 to 1.4 cycles/100,000 years on inner shelf highs. Consequently, cycles have longer average periods toward the highs.

  10. Wide Field X-Ray Telescope Mission Concept Study Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Thomas, H. D.; Fabisinski, L. L.; Baysinger, M.; Hornsby, L. S.; Maples, C. D.; Purlee, T. E.; Capizzo, P. D.; Percy, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field X-Ray Telescope (WFXT) is an astrophysics mission concept for detecting and studying extra-galactic x-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies, in an effort to further understand cosmic evolution and structure. This Technical Memorandum details the results of a mission concept study completed by the Advanced Concepts Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in 2012. The design team analyzed the mission and instrument requirements, and designed a spacecraft that enables the WFXT mission while using high heritage components. Design work included selecting components and sizing subsystems for power, avionics, guidance, navigation and control, propulsion, structures, command and data handling, communications, and thermal control.

  11. Age differences in learning maintenance skills: a field study.

    PubMed

    Delgoulet, Catherine; Marquié, Jean Claude

    2002-01-01

    The effects of age and previous relevant experience on learning anxiety, strategies, and performance were studied in 43 workers aged 25 to 49 during a 1-week maintenance vocational training course. The results showed that increased age was associated with higher training-related anxiety as measured at the beginning of the course. However, no age difference could be found in the level of knowledge assessed after 3 days of training. This was confirmed by another problem-solving-type test that took place on the last day. Previous experience had no effect on anxiety, and it did enable us to predict higher scores for the first test but not for the second one. Analysis of behavior strategies revealed that older trainees consulted and annotated the course material more often than the younger ones during the learning process. The results are discussed in relation to those obtained in previous laboratory and field studies on the same subject. PMID:11928208

  12. Leaching of coal combustion products: Field and laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chin-Min

    This study combines field monitoring and laboratory experiments to investigate the environmental impacts associated with the re-use of coal combustion by-products (CCPs). The monitoring data obtained from two full-scale CCP applications (i.e., re-use of fixated flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond and portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs) allowed environmental impacts to be evaluated under real or simulated in-service conditions. A complimentary laboratory leaching study elucidated fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms that determine the leaching kinetics of inorganic contaminants from CCPs. In the first field study, water quality impacts associated with the re-use of FGD material as a low permeability liner for a swine manure pond were examined by monitoring the water quality of water samples collected from the pond surface water and a sump collection system beneath the liner over a period of 5 years. Water samples collected from the sump and pond surface water met all Ohio non-toxic criteria, and in fact, generally met all national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Furthermore it was found that hazardous (i.e., As, B, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and agricultural pollutants (i.e., phosphate and ammonia) were effectively retained by the FGD liner system. The retention might be due to both sorption and precipitation. In the second field study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing CCPs was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under controlled loading and environmental conditions. Three types of portland-cement-concrete driving surfaces were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50

  13. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  14. Comparison of wear and clinical performance between amalgam, composite and open sandwich restorations: 2-year results.

    PubMed

    Sachdeo, A; Gray, Gordon B; Sulieman, M A; Jagger, Daryll C

    2004-03-01

    There has been some disquiet over the use of mercury containing restorative materials. The most commonly used alternative is composite resin but this has the potential disadvantage associated with wear and marginal leakage, which in turn, has proven to result in secondary caries and sensitivity. To overcome the shortcomings of a directly placed composite restoration, the glass-ionomer/composite open sandwich technique was introduced followed by the subsequent introduction of compomer systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear and clinical performance of a control group of amalgam restorations compared with that of a group of posterior composite resin restorations fillings and a group of compomer/composite open sandwich restorations placed by a single general dental practitioner. The duration of the study was 2 years. One hundred and thirty three (71.4%) patients were successfully recalled and the wear and clinical performance of each restoration after 6, 12 and 24 months was measured, indirectly. There was no statistically significant difference recorded between the groups at 6 months or 1 year (p > 0.05). However, at the end of the 2-year study, there was a significantly lower rate of wear recorded for the control amalgam restorations compared with other two groups (p = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference in wear recorded between the two groups of tooth-coloured restorations (p > 0.05). With regards to clinical performance of the restorations, occlusal and proximal contacts in each group of restoration remained satisfactory throughout the study. PMID:15058177

  15. Early infant diet is not a predictor of body mass index and macronutrient intake at 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many retrospective studies have suggested that breast feeding during the first year of life may provide protection against overweight and obesity during childhood and later in life. We compared body mass index (BMI) and macronutrient composition in 2-year-old children who were fed breast milk (BF, ...

  16. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  17. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  18. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  19. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  20. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  1. Confinement and heating studies of field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrien, Robert E.

    1990-10-01

    Confinement studies of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) have been actively pursued during the past ten years with the larger and longer-lived FRCs produced in the FRX-C and FRX-C/LSM devices. Confinement measurements have included the global FRC quantities and, in some cases, profiles of electron temperature and density. The inferred confinement times and transport coefficients are used for comparison with transport models as well as to find the best operating conditions in the experiment. Global power flow modelling shows that energy confinement during the equilibrium phase is usually dominated by particle losses, with a substantial secondary contribution from electron thermal conduction. Particle losses in present kinetic FRCs are strongly influenced by open field line confinement, which complicates the study of transport mechanisms. The electron thermal conduction is observed to be anomalous, as in other plasma devices. The bulk electrical resistivity is also anomalous and shows no evidence of classical Spitzer scaling. Recently, the resistive anomaly has been shown to correlate with tilt-like magnetic perturbations observed with Mirnov coils. FRC confinement studies have also been extended to a higher temperature regime during magnetic compression heating. In these experiments, translated FRCs are compressed by increasing the external magnetic flux up to a factor of seven on a time scale between the radial Alfven time and the FRC lifetime. Electron and ion temperatures up to 0.4 keV and 1.6 keV, respectively have been obtained. Confinement times scale roughly as r(exp 2) during compression.

  2. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  3. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms, along with the current understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. Assimilation of laboratory coreflood and rock consumption data, and their use in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) limited area simulations and in three-dimensional (3D) models of the entire pilot project are given. This paper also reports simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2D area of a field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long-term consumption functions, and two relative-permeability adjustment mechanisms. The scale-up of 2D simulation results and their use in a 271-acre (1096.7-ha), seven-layered, 3D model of the pilot are also discussed and 3D simulator results are compared with initial field alkaline flood performance. Finally, recommended additional applications of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods are discussed.

  4. Field and data analysis studies related to the atmospheric environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, Stanley; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeff; Stewart, Michael; Slaton, Dave; Buechler, Dennis; Botts, Michael; Collins, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work on a broad array of projects including: (1) applications of meteorological and/or oceanographic satellites; (2) improvement of the current set of NASA/USAF lightning related launch commit criteria rules; (3) the design, building, testing and deployment of a set of cylindrical field mills for aircraft use; (4) the study of marginal electrification storm conditions in relationship to the current launch commit rules for the space shuttle and various other launch vehicles using an instrumented aircraft; (5) support of the DC-8 and ER-2 lightning instrument package as part of both the Tropical Ocean - Global Atmospheric/Coupled Ocean-Atmospheric Response Experiment and the Convection and Moisture Experiment; (6) design of electronic circuitry and microprocessor firmware for the NASA Advanced Ground Based Field Mill; (7) design and testing of electronic and computer instrumentation for atmospheric electricity measurements; (8) simulating observations from a lightning imaging sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring satellite; and (9) supporting scientific visualization and the development of computer software tools.

  5. Near-Field Microscopy Studies of Lung Surfactant Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aga, Rachel; Dunn, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the fourth leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, arises from an insufficiently developed lung surfactant (LS). Healthy LS, a mixture of lipids and proteins that coats the inner surface of the lungs, reduces the alveolar surface tension to a few millinewtons per meter and, thus, facilitates breathing by stabilizing the large surface area changes associated with respiration. In the absence of an effective LS, surfactant collapse pressure (i.e., monolayer compressibility) and the ability of the monolayer to re-spread during the breathing cycle are reduced, resulting in labored breathing, reduced oxygen transport, and often death in those afflicted. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of collapse and re-spreading of a monolayer formed by a replacement surfactant commonly used in treatment of RDS. Through confocal microscopy fluorescence images obtained at a series of pressures near collapse, we find evidence for multilayer formation in the films. A further understanding of the collapse mechanism is obtained by comparing high resolution fluorescence and topography information measured with near-field scanning optical microscopy. The combined data from both confocal and near-field measurements are used to develop a model of lung surfactant collapse and re-spreading.

  6. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    We review in this paper main results obtained from electric field (from VLF to HF) measurement campaigns realized by CEA in the framework of the Eurosprite program [Neubert et al., 2005, 2008] from 2003 to 2009 in France in different configurations. Two main topics have been studied: sprite or elve induced phenomena (radiation or perturbation) and wave propagation. Using a network of 4 stations, VLF radiations from sprite have been successfully located at 10 km from the sprite parent lightning, in agreement with possible sprite location, generally displaced from the parent lightning. The MF (300 kHz - 3 MHz) source bursts were identified simultaneously with the occurrence of sprites observed with cameras [Farges et al., 2004; Neubert et al., 2008]. These observations are compared to recent broadband measurements, assumed to be due to relativistic electron beam radiation related to sprites [Fullekrug et al., 2009]. Recently, in 2009, with a new instrumentation, an ELF tail has been clearly measured after the lightning waveform, while sprites were observed at about 500 km from our station. This ELF tail is usually observed at distances higher than thousand km and is associated to sprite generation. This opens the capacity to measure the charge moment of the parent-lightning, using such measurement close to the source. Farges et al. [2007] showed that just after a lightning return stroke, a strong transient attenuation is very frequently observed in the MF waves of radio transmissions. They showed that this perturbation is due to heating of the lower ionosphere by the lightning-induced EMP during few milliseconds. These perturbations are then the MF radio signature of the lightning EMP effects on the lower ionosphere, in the same way as elves correspond to their optical signature. The experiment also provided the electric field waveforms directly associated to elves, while lightning were not detected by Météorage. Many of them present a double peak feature. The

  7. Predicting school readiness from neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years after respiratory distress syndrome in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    PATRIANAKOS-HOOBLER, ATHENA I; MSALL, MICHAEL E; HUO, DEZHENG; MARKS, JEREMY D; PLESHA-TROYKE, SUSAN; SCHREIBER, MICHAEL D

    2010-01-01

    AIM To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. METHOD Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal outcomes at the age of 2 years were defined as neurosensory disability (cerebral palsy, blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no neurosensory disability but Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental or performance developmental index scores <70). School readiness (assessed at a mean age of 5y 6mo, SD 1y) was determined using neurodevelopmental assessments of motor, sensory, receptive vocabulary, perceptual, conceptual, and adaptive skills. RESULTS The mean birthweight of the cohort (57 males, 64 females) was 987g (SD 374), and the mean gestational age was 27.3 weeks (SD 2.6). At the age of 2 years, the neurodevelopmental classification was ‘disabled’ in 11% and ‘delayed’ in 23%. At the age of 5 years 6 months, intensive special education was required for 11% and some special education for 21%. Disability and delay at the age of 2 years were 92% and 50% predictive of lack of school readiness respectively, whereas only 15% of children who were normal at the age of 2 years were not school ready at the later assessment. Children with delay at 2 years were more likely to need special education if they were socially disadvantaged. INTERPRETATION Without preschool developmental supports, preterm survivors living in poverty will require more special education services. PMID:20002128

  8. Cybertrips in Social Studies. Online Field Trips for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Scott

    The Internet can take students on virtual field trips to anywhere earth, under the seas, out in space, or back in time. This book demonstrates how teachers can use the Internet to take students on field trips. Composed of two parts, part 1, "Preparing for the Trip," discusses the background of virtual field trips what they are, and why they are…

  9. Gyrokinetic studies of microinstabilities in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, D.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.

    2013-05-15

    An analytic equilibrium, the Toroidal Bessel Function Model, is used in conjunction with the gyrokinetic code GYRO to investigate the nature of microinstabilities in a reversed field pinch plasma. The effect of the normalized electron plasma pressure β on the characteristics of the microinstabilities is studied. At a β of 4.5%, a transition between an ion temperature gradient (ITG) and a microtearing mode is observed. Suppression of the ITG mode occurs as in the tokamak, through coupling to shear Alfvén waves, with a critical β for stability higher than its tokamak equivalent due to a shorter parallel connection length. A steep dependence of the microtearing growth rate on the temperature gradient suggests high profile stiffness. There is evidence for a collisionless microtearing mode. The properties of this mode are investigated, and it is found that electron curvature drift plays an important role in the instability.

  10. Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve

    1996-01-01

    The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.

  11. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    PubMed

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  12. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Diem, S. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; Hanson, G. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.

    2010-10-15

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  13. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer.

    PubMed

    Diem, S J; Wilgen, J B; Bigelow, T S; Hanson, G R; Harvey, R W; Smirnov, A P

    2010-10-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern. PMID:21033946

  14. Studies of the interplanetary magnetic field: IMP's to Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last two decades, spacecraft projects and individual experiments for which Frank McDonald was a leader have contributed very significantly to the current understanding of the structure of interplanetary space and the correlation between solar and interplanetary disturbances. Studies on the IMP, HELIOS, and Pioneer spin-stabilized spacecraft and the larger attitude-stabilized Voyager spacecraft have provided data sets from which the modern view of the heliosphere has evolved. That concept in which the inner solar system is shown to be dominated by individual streams associated with specific source regions on the Sun is illustrated. As these high-speed streams overtake the preexisting solar plasma, they coalesce and modify the characteristics so that at larger heliocentric distances, these disturbances appear as radially propagating concentric shells of compressed magnetic fields and enhanced fluctuations

  15. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Bigelow, Tim S; Diem, Stephanie J

    2010-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, ELM density transients, and as a L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side (LFS) reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  16. Multidisciplinary study of Hewett Field, Zechstein Kalk Formation

    SciTech Connect

    West, K.L. )

    1994-04-01

    New technology and a multidisciplinary team approach were effectively used by Phillips Petroleum for optimum reservoir development in the Hewett field, North Sea. Near-horizontal drilling technology and depositional environment and fracture studies were used by engineering and geology. Geophysics contributed structure and porosity trend maps and used new technology developed by Phillips called Incremental Pay Thickness modeling. IPT modeling enhances the integration of well-log data and seismic wiggle traces so porosity and pay thickness can be estimated directly from seismic data. Seismic amplitude values were mapped and processed into estimated porosity thickness using the IPT mathematical relationship. This interpretation aided in locating three successful development wells in areas of predicted high porosity, which increased production by 67 MMCF/D and optimized recovery.

  17. Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 5. Effects of High Electric Fields on Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaka, Katsuo

    The biological effects of extremely low frequency electric fields on animals are reviewed with emphasis on studies of the nervous system, behavior, endocrinology, and blood chemistry. First, this paper provides a histrical overview of studies on the electric field effects initiated in Russia and the United States mainly regarding electric utility workers in high voltage substations and transmission lines. Then, the possible mechanisms of electric field effects are explained using the functions of surface electric fields and induced currents in biological objects. The real mechanisms have not yet been identified. The thresholds of electric field perception levels for rats, baboons, and humans are introduced and compared. The experimental results concerning the depression of melatonin secretion in rats exposed to electric fields are described.

  18. A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recycled tire material, or "tire crumb," is used as a component in many recreational fields, including synthetic turf fields and playgrounds. The use of tire crumbs in these applications provides several benefits, including reduced sports injury. The public recently has raised co...

  19. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis METHODS : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique RESULTS : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients CONCLUSION : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27057144

  20. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  1. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple representational techniques. This study examined the spontaneous gestures of sixty-four 2-year-old Italian children and English-speaking Canadian children, primarily from middle-class Caucasian families. The Italian children produced twice as many gestures as Canadian children in a picture-naming task but produced a similar range of representational techniques. Two-year-olds were equally likely to produce gestures depicting function as form. These data suggest young children's communicative skills are supported by a symbolic capacity that reflects contextual communicative demands. PMID:27079825

  2. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors Among 2-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants The purpose of this paper is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) Study and completed baseline assessments. Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating eating and activity patterns, sleep, and stress and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Results Participants were primarily female (68%), white (73%), with a mean age of 22.8 years and 66.2% reporting an annual income <$12,000. Almost half (47%) were overweight or obese. Young males appeared to engage the most in risky health behaviors and had higher levels of overweight or obesity, compared to young females. Conclusions Findings confirm the need for innovative interventions targeting this understudied and underserved young adult population. PMID:25692380

  3. Designing a field trial of an equine grass sickness vaccine: A questionnaire-based feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L; McGorum, Bruce C; Proudman, Christopher J; Newton, J Richard

    2016-07-01

    Without an experimental model of equine grass sickness (EGS), a randomised controlled field trial (RCT) represents the only method of evaluating the efficacy of Clostridium botulinum type C vaccination in preventing naturally occurring disease. Clinical trial feasibility is an important aspect of preliminary work undertaken prior to initiating RCTs, estimating parameters that are important for study design. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a nationwide RCT of a candidate vaccine for EGS based on responses from a sample of British equine veterinary practices (n = 119/284). Seventy-three percent of practices had attended ≥1 EGS case within the preceding 2 years (median four cases), and 51.3% regularly attended recurrently affected premises. Veterinary surgeons had greater confidence diagnosing acute/subacute EGS based solely on history and clinical signs compared to chronic EGS. Ninety-one percent of respondents (n = 103/113) considered the proposed RCT to be important/very important to equine veterinary research. Ninety-one percent of respondents (n = 102/112) indicated preparedness to assist in owner recruitment and 92.9% (n = 104/112) indicated willingness to participate in a RCT. The most frequent reasons for practices declining to participate were low incidence of EGS (n = 4), did not believe clients would wish to participate (n = 3) and amount of paperwork/data collection involved (n = 2). There was considerable support amongst participating veterinary practices for a RCT evaluating the efficacy of Clostridium botulinum vaccination for the prevention of EGS in Britain. Substantial proportions of participating practices would be prepared to participate in the RCT and regularly attended EGS-affected premises that would meet trial inclusion criteria. PMID:27240918

  4. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines.

  5. CSEM-steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-05-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 kOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields.

  6. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Ackland, T; Maslen, B; Morton, A; Prince, R

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the stress/strain relationship between exercise and bone is critical to understanding the potential benefit of exercise in preventing postmenopausal bone loss. This study examined the effect of a 2-year exercise intervention and calcium supplementation (600 mg) on bone mineral density (BMD) in 126 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60 +/- 5 years). Assignment was by block randomization to one of three groups: strength (S), fitness (F), or nonexercise control (C). The two exercise groups completed three sets of the same nine exercises, three times a week. The S group increased the loading, while the F group had additional stationary bicycle riding with minimal increase in loading. Retention at 2 years was 71% (59% in the S group, 69% in the F group, and 83% in the C group), while the exercise compliance did not differ between the exercise groups (S group, 74 +/- 13%; F group, 77 +/- 14%). BMD was measured at the hip, lumbar spine, and forearm sites every 6 months using a Hologic 4500. Whole body BMD also was measured every 6 months on a Hologic 2000. There was no difference between the groups at the forearm, lumbar spine, or whole body sites. There was a significant effect of the strength program at the total (0.9 +/- 2.6%; p < 0.05) and intertrochanter hip site (1.1 +/- 3.0%; p < 0.01). There was a significant time and group interaction (p < 0.05) at the intertrochanter site by repeated measures. This study shows the effectiveness of a progressive strength program in increasing bone density at the clinically important hip site. We concluded that a strength program could be recommended as an adjunct lifestyle approach to osteoporosis treatment or used in combination with other therapies. PMID:11149482

  8. Black shale weathering: An integrated field and numerical modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, E. W.; Wildman, R. A., Jr.; Berner, R. A.; Eckert, J. O., Jr.; Petsch, S. T.; Mok, U.; Evans, B.

    2003-04-01

    We present an integrated study of black shale weathering in a near surface environment. Implications of this study contribute to our understanding of organic matter oxidation in uplifted sediments, along with erosion and reburial of ancient unoxidized organic matter, as major controls on atmospheric oxygen levels over geologic time. The field study used to launch the modeling effort is based on core samples from central-eastern Kentucky near Clay City (Late Devonian New Albany/Ohio Shale), where the strata are essentially horizontal. Samples from various depth intervals (up to 12 m depth) were analyzed for texture (SEM images), porosity fraction (0.02 to 0.1), and horizontal and vertical permeability (water and air permeabilities differ due to the fine-grained nature of the sediments, but are on the order of 0.01 to 1. millidarcies, respectively). Chemical analyses were also performed for per cent C, N, S, and basic mineralogy was determined (clays, quartz, pyrite, in addition to organic matter). The samples contained from 2 to 15 per cent ancient (non-modern soil) organic matter. These results were used in the creation of a numerical model for kinetically controlled oxidation of the organic matter within the shale (based on kinetics from Chang and Berner, 1999). The one-dimensional model includes erosion, oxygen diffusion in the partially saturated vadose zone as well as water percolation and solute transport. This study extends the studies of Petsch (2000) and the weathering component of Lasaga and Ohmoto (2002) to include more reactions (e.g., pyrite oxidation to sulfuric acid and weathering of silicates due to low pH) and to resolve the near-surface boundary layer. The model provides a convenient means of exploring the influence of variable rates of erosion, oxygen level, rainfall, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the shale on organic matter oxidation.

  9. The Role of 2-Year Colleges in the Improving Situation of Hispanic Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo; Hilmer, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades 2-year colleges have become an increasingly important part of the American higher education system, especially for Hispanics who are disproportionately likely to start their careers in 2-year colleges. Given that today's economy rewards college attendance more than every before [Bound & Johnson (1992). "The…

  10. Experimental study of the formation of field-reversed configurations employing high-order multipole fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, J. T.; Hoffman, A. L.

    1990-04-01

    A high-order multipole ``barrier'' field was applied at the vacuum tube wall in the TRX experiment [Phys. Fluids B 1, 840 (1989)] during both the preionization and field reversal phases of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation. Use of this field during field reversal resulted in a significant reduction of impurities as well as increased flux trapping. With a large enough Bθ at the wall, sheath detachment from the wall became apparent, and flux loss through the sheath became negligible (<10%). At larger wall Bθ (>1.5 kG), destructive rotational spin-up occurred, driven by Hall current forces. When the multipole barrier field was also applied during either axial discharge or ringing theta current preionization, a very symmetric and uniform breakdown of the fill gas was achieved. In particular, using ringing theta preionization, complete ionization of the fill gas was accomplished with purely inductive fields of remarkably low magnitude, where Ez≤3 V/cm, and Eθ≤20 V/cm. Due to the improved ionization symmetry, about 65% to 75% of the lift-off flux (flux remaining after field reversal) could be retained through the remaining formation processes into an equilibrium FRC. Using the multipole field during both preionization and formation, it was possible to form FRC's with good confinement with greater than 3 mWb of trapped flux at 15 mTorr D2 or H2 in a 10 cm radius device. Values of s in excess of 4 could be achieved in this manner.

  11. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  12. Contemporary relevance of Rokliden, Sweden's first forest hydrology field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades of the 19th century a great worry arose about forest landscape paludification in Northern Sweden. This was the original impetus for forest hydrological research in Sweden and the Swedish Institute of Experimental Forestry established the first field research site in 1905 at Rokliden, close to Piteå in North Sweden. It comprised 8.64 ha located 2 km down a 3 km long gently sloping (ca 4%), north facing Norway spruce covered till slope, interspersed with small mires. By 1931 it was concluded that paludification was not spreading across Northern Sweden at an appreciable rate. Within the Rokliden research site 22 groundwater wells were installed and levels measured weekly until 1926. A map with 0.5 m equidistance, 10 vegetation classes, and soil profiles was established. A limited forest harvest was done in 1908, but significant effects on groundwater levels were not found. Groundwater flow velocity was estimated by tracing added sodium chloride. Hydraulic conductivity was measured on undisturbed soil cores, while mechanical and chemical analyses were done on other samples. Groundwater was collected and analyzed for dissolved compounds including oxygen. Hydrology was found important for soil types and vegetation development. The necessary profile drainage for podzol soil development was identified as vein drainage at the bedrock surface. The low lateral hydraulic gradient in the gentle slopes and the low hydraulic conductivity in the deeper till soil made lateral flow much smaller than required. The vein drainage was a perfect solution to the problem and great effort was put into showing the existence and importance of veins. Modern measurements in the re-established groundwater observation network and re-analysis of old data confirmed the plausibility of these original conclusions. Partial catchment area could explain rates of both groundwater level rise and recession. Revisiting this field study reveals that many issues in contemporary

  13. Field studies of the leachability of aged brown coal ash.

    PubMed

    Mudd, G M; Kodikara, J

    2000-09-15

    The environmental management of ash produced from the brown coal power stations of the Latrobe Valley region of Australia has been studied. Current practice consists of slurrying fly and bottom ash, a short distance to an ash disposal pond. However, storage facilities are approaching capacity and alternative ash management strategies are required in the near future. Initially, the ash produced within the power stations is known to possess a large soluble mass, which can leach rapidly to generate a saline leachate with minor trace metal content. After slurrying and deposition within the ash pond, it has been demonstrated that the soluble mass is significantly lower and the ash can be considered as aged or "leached" ash - a more benign waste that meets the criteria for fill material. In order to assess the long-term behaviour of the leached ash and its suitability for co-disposal in engineered sites within overburden dumps, two field cells were constructed and monitored over a period of 1 year. Each cell was 5 x 5 m in area, 3-m deep and HDPE lined with a coarse drainage layer and leachate collection pipe. The first cell only collected natural rainfall and was known as the Dry Cell. The second cell had an external tank of 5000 l installed (200-mm rainfall equivalent) and water was spray-irrigated regularly to simulate higher rainfall and accelerate the leaching process. The cumulative inflow and outflow for each cell has been calculated using a linear relationship and the leachate quality was monitored over time. The results demonstrate that the ash behaves as an unsaturated porous material, with the effect of evaporation through the profile being dominant and controlling the production of leachate. The leachate quality was initially moderately saline in both cells, with the concentration dropping by nearly 95% in the Wet Cell by the end of the field study. The leachate chemistry has been analysed using the PHREEQC geochemical model. The log activity plots of various

  14. Feasibility Study for the Establishment of Experimental Field Study Centers (Beachhead Colleges). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, OH.

    The Union for Research and Experimentation in Higher Education, a consortium of 10 colleges, initiated an experimental study of a new model for off-campus education in selected problematic areas. The model places students and faculty members in Field Study Centers-- or Beachhead Colleges --to help solve local problems through interaction between…

  15. Application of mycelial compatibility grouping in studying intra-field spread of Sclerotinia trifoliorum in a chickpea field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia trifoliorum causes stem and crown rot of chickpea and other leguminous forage crops. In order to study population structure and patterns of in-field spread, isolates of S. trifoliorum were intensively sampled from a chickpea field near Five Point, California, in 2006. All diseased plants...

  16. Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, S. D.; Johnson, S.; Fu, P.; Settgast, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has become an increasingly important technique in stimulating reservoirs for gas, oil, and geothermal energy production. In use commercially since the 1950's, the technique has been widely lauded, when combined with other techniques, for enabling the development of shale gas resources in the United States, providing a valuable and extensive source of domestic energy. However, the technique has also drawn a degree of notoriety from high-profile incidents involving contamination of drinking water associated with gas extraction operations in the Marcellus shale region. This work highlights some of the insights on the behavior of subsurface hydraulic fracturing operations that have been derived from field and laboratory observations as well as from numerical simulations. The sensitivity of fracture extent and orientation to parameters such as matrix material heterogeneity, presence and distribution of discontinuities, and stress orientation is of particular interest, and we discuss this in the context of knowledge derived from both observation and simulation. The limitations of these studies will also be addressed in terms of resolution, uncertainty, and assumptions as well as the balance of fidelity to cost, both in computation time (for numerical studies) and equipment / operation cost (for observational studies). We also identify a number of current knowledge gaps and propose alternatives for addressing those gaps. We especially focus on the role of numerical studies for elucidating key concepts and system sensitivities. The problem is inherently multi-scale in both space and time as well as highly coupled hydromechanically, and, in several applications, thermally as well. We will summarize the developments to date in analyzing these systems and present an approach for advancing the capabilities of our models in the short- to long-term and how these advances can help provide solutions to reduce risk and improve efficiency of hydraulic fracturing

  17. New study finds association, but no proof on magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1994-03-31

    There is not enough evidence to link magnetic fields to cancer in electric utility workers, says a new report to be published next month in the American Journal of Epidemiology. After studying 223,000 electric utility worker records dating back to 1970, three scientists funded by Hydro Quebec, Ontario Hydro and Electricite de France determined that in nearly all cases, not enough evidence existed to link magnetic waves with the 4,151 cases of cancer that occurred among the workers. Of 32 types of cancers identified, three were found to be a possible connection with magnetic waves: Acute non-lymphoid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and astrocytoma (a type of brain cancer). The case for a connection between magnetic waves and astrocytoma is shaky because the study's findings for this cancer were based only on five cases. The evidence linking leukemia and magnetic waves is stronger. One of the researchers most interesting findings is that there was no statistical consistency among the three utilities. As a result, they cautioned, the present results are not necessarily evidence of an association between magnetic waves and cancer. More research needs to be done to explain why leukemia rates were higher at one utility than the others.

  18. A field study on downwind odor transport from swine facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, X

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents field data to illustrate the characteristics of downwind odor dispersion. A total of eight swine facilities were studied in this project and power functions were found to be an appropriate description of the pattern of downwind odor transport for both swine buildings and manure storage lagoons and tanks. The coefficients of correlation for the power regressions ranged from 0.75-0.87. It was found that swine buildings have the potential of generating more odor than manure storage facilities such as lagoons and tanks and thus could be the major odor sources causing downwind odor nuisance. Therefore, to maintain the building clean should be highly recommended as swine producers' best management practice. For earthen basins, the odor strength was reduced by 80% at about 250-meter distance from the source. While for the swine building, a 50% of reduction in odor strength was observed at the same distance. The study did not show any advantages of using lagoons over concrete (or steel) manure tanks in terms of reducing downwind odor concentrations. Land application of manure did not cause persistent downwind odor problems. PMID:10736772

  19. The study on computer aided peripheral visual field diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shuyi, Wang; Xingsan, Qian

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread adoption of automated perimetry, there is still a role for peripheral perimetry. So far there was no accurate quantitative analysis on the change of visual field, most analysis were qualitative and depend on doctor's experience. Method Computer aided diagnose system was designed to judge the accurate change in visual field. Tabu Seach technology was used to identify visual field from the result of Peripheral perimeter test, and accurate visual filed defect dimension can be concluded by compared with point to point. At the same time liable eye diseases were predicted by computer. Conclusion Computer aided peripheral visual field diagnose system can identify defect in visual field, and provide reliable clinical diagnosis. Key words peripheral visual field, Computer aided diagnose, tabu search. PMID:17282924

  20. Pencil lead tips: A field ion and field electron emission microscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Dharmadhikari, C. V.; Joag, Dilip S.

    1989-06-01

    Pencil lead tips composed of graphite flakes were subjected to field ion and field emission microscopic investigations. The ion micrographs showed elongated images of ledge atoms of the graphite flakes due to uneven magnification over the layers of the flake. The gross features of the field evaporated tip surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The field emission pattern showed emitting lobes which displayed intensity fluctuations consisting of a combination of emission spots turning on and off randomly and a localized flicker of individual spots. These effects gave rise to noise in the emission current involving isolated spikes of rapid rise time and trains of digital pulses of constant height. The variation of noise with residual gas pressure, emission current, and temperature has also been investigated. The results are discussed in view of the microtopography of the pencil lead tips and the nature of the emitting sites on the surface.

  1. Study of the Electric Field Screening Effect on Low Number of Carbon Fiber Field Emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wilkin; Shiffler, Don; Lacour, Matthew; Golby, Ken; Knowles, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Field emitter arrays have the potential to provide high current density, low voltage operation, and high pulse repetition for radar and communication. It is well known that packing density of the field emitter arrays significantly affects the emission current.1 Previously we conducted experiments using two- and four-cathode configurations. Here we extend our previous work and present experimental results for nine cathodes in a square and cylindrical configuration. The experiments used nine cathodes with variable spacing to investigate the effect of electric field screening on current emission. Emission characteristic is compared for the case of two, four and nine field emitters with different spacing. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to compare with the experiments. Work supported by an LRIR from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  2. A Study of Thermocurrent Induced Magnetic Fields in ILC Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Anthony C.; Cooley, Victoria

    2014-03-31

    The case of axisymmetric ILC type cavities with titanium helium vessels is investigated. A first order estimate for magnetic field within the SRF current layer is presented. The induced magnetic field is found to be not more than 1.4x10-8 Tesla = 0.14 milligauss for the case of axial symmetry. Magnetic fields due to symmetry breaking effects are discussed.

  3. In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

  4. Mobile geophysical study of peat deposits in Fuhrberger Field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, T.; Petersen, H.; Hagrey, S. A. al; Rabbel, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the water protection area of Fuhrberger Field, north of Hanover, geophysical techniques were applied to study the stakeholder problem of the source detection for nitrate accumulations in the ground water. We used our mobile multisensor platform to conduct measurements using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, 200 MHz antenna) and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI, EM31). This aims to study the subsurface occurrences of peat deposits (surplus of organic carbon) supposed to be a source of nitrate emissions due to the aeration and the drawdown of groundwater levels (e.g. by pumping, drainage etc.). Resulting EMI and GPR signals show high data quality. Measured apparent electrical conductivity shows very low values (<10 mS/m) due to the mainly sandy subsurface. For this medium, both methods are expected to penetrate down to 3-5 m depth. GPR radargrams, time slices of GPR reflection energy and EMI apparent electrical conductivities are plotted on aerial photographs and compared to each other's and with vegetation intensity. We could separate areas characterized by low reflection energy and high conductivity, and vice versa. Briefly, organic rich sediments such as peats are assumed to have a relative high conductivity and thus low GPR reflectivity. Some areas of local conductivity increase correspond to a deep reflection interface (as seen in the radargrams), which even vanishes due to the high attenuation caused by the high conductivity. This implies that the upper layer is more conductive than the lower layer. Several local areas with these characteristics are found at the study sites. We recommend shallow drillings at representative points to deliver the necessary confirmation with ground truth information. Acknowledgments: iSOIL (Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping) is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities

  5. An experimental field study of weight salience and food choice.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public. PMID:25698080

  6. Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.; Trask, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Hubbard, K.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; Zhai, K.; Tajima, T.

    2016-05-01

    A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (but with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.

  7. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Xingguang; Yang, Anmin; Shi, Jinshui; Zhang, Linwen; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Yue

    2011-10-01

    An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE) properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9-127.8A/cm2 are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06-0.49Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170-350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO2, N2(CO), and H2 gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  8. Trivial pursuits: studies in quantum field theory and squantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The author show that the nonrelativistic limit of the lambdaphi/sup 4/ theory is trivial in 1 + 3 dimensions; the renormalized coupling constant vanishes and the S matrix reduces to the unit matrix. Our result is consistent with, though not sufficient to establish, the triviality of the Lorentz-invariant theory. A necessary condition for the existence of a consistent non-trivial continuum quantum field theory in d = 4 is the existence of an ultraviolet-stable fixed point of the Gell-Mann-Low renormalization group. Since others have shown (non-perturbatively) that the existence of just such a fixed point is sufficient to guarantee the triviality of the continuum massless Wess-Zumino model, we conclude that this model cannot exist non-trivially in d = 4. The fact that most renormalization group blocking schemes include each site link in many block links can generate spurious interactions in the block system. A general method for avoiding this problem is formulated and applied to do a Monte Carlo renormalization group study of the SU(2)-Higgs model in four dimensions with a check 2 scale factor. Finally starting from the D'Eath equation, the Dirac square root of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, for N = 1 supergravity, we construct superminisuperspace models (and quasi-models) for supersymmetric quantum cosmology (squantum cosmology) compatibile with Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies.

  9. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  10. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede. PMID:17733916

  11. Study of the electric field formation in a multi-cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui Yu, Daren; Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yinjian; Ma, Chengyu; Wang, Di; Wei, Haoyu

    2014-09-15

    The multi-cusped field thruster is a kind of electric thruster adopting a cusped magnetic field to achieve a potentially longer lifetime. It is observed in some experiments that the main electric potential drop forms near the exhaust plane, but the formation mechanism of the electric field in this kind of thrusters is not fully clear yet. Based on the analysis of the electron movement, a 2D Particle-in-Cell plus Monte Carlo model is built to reveal the difference of the constraint to electrons between the central leak path and the lateral region of the thruster. Electron trajectories from cathode are analyzed furthermore. It is found that the central leak path inside the discharge channel may play a significant role in the formation of the main electric potential drop near the exhaust plane.

  12. Anisotropic contributions to the transferred hyperfine field studied using a field-induced spin-reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Laura K.; Ryan, D. H.; Venturini, G.

    We report here a comparison between a field-driven spin-flop (TbMn6 Sn5.46In0.54) and a temperature-driven spin reorientation (TbMn6Sn6-x Gax) in order to demonstrate that the anisotropic contribution to Bhf at the Sn sites can be obtained through the moment reorientation and is independent of the driving force. We show that a complete 90° spin reorientation can be achieved at 300 K in an applied field of 0.57(3) T and that the changes in hyperfine field due to the anisotropic contribution exceed 45% at one of the Sn sites. Quantitative values for the anisotropic constant at the three Sn sites are obtained.

  13. The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch fusion reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The TITAN Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) fusion reactor study is a multi-institutional research effort to determine the technical feasibility and key developmental issues of an RFP fusion reactor, especially at high power density, and to determine the potential economics, operations, safety, and environmental features of high-mass-power-density fusion systems. The TITAN conceptual designs are DT burning, 1000 MWe power reactors based on the RFP confinement concept. The designs are compact, have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m{sup 2} and a mass power density of 700 kWe/tonne. The inherent characteristics of the RFP confinement concept make fusion reactors with such a high mass power density possible. Two different detailed designs have emerged: the TITAN-I lithium-vanadium design, incorporating the integrated-blanket-coil concept; and the TITAN-II aqueous loop-in-pool design with ferritic steel structure. This report contains a collection of 16 papers on the results of the TITAN study which were presented at the International Symposium on Fusion Nuclear Technology. This collection describes the TITAN research effort, and specifically the TITAN-I and TITAN-II designs, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions and recommendations. Overall, the basic conclusions are that high-mass power-density fusion reactors appear to be technically feasible even with neutron wall loadings up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}; that single-piece maintenance of the FPC is possible and advantageous; that the economics of the reactor is enhanced by its compactness; and the safety and environmental features need not to be sacrificed in high-power-density designs. The fact that two design approaches have emerged, and others may also be possible, in some sense indicates the robustness of the general findings.

  14. A study of solidification with a rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roplekar, Jayant K.

    Due to the drive for weight reduction in the automobile industry, near net shape parts produced by semi-solid processing of aluminum alloys are increasingly replacing traditional steel parts. Magnetohydrodynamic direct chill casting (MHD-DC) process, developed in the mid-eighties, is the method of choice to produce rheocast metal alloys for semi-solid applications. In spite of commercial applicability of the MHD-DC process there is no integrated process model available for this process. In the present work we use an experimental setup that combines directional solidification with magnetic stirring to develop a numerical model for the MHD-DC process. We use the finite element method to solve the coupled equations of turbulent fluid flow, species transport and heat transfer with solidification on a fixed grid. Effects of the rotating magnetic field are incorporated through a body-force term which is determined a priori based on a detailed analytical study and experimental data. Due to the nature of temperature-solute coupling and the advection dominated evolution of the liquid fraction, special numerical procedures had to be implemented in the present work. The numerical procedure used in the present work is validated against two validation problems. In the first validation problem, we apply the two-phase methodology to solve the classical problem of diffusion-dominated solidification. The good agreement between the finite element solution and the analytical solution establishes soundness of the two-phase formulation developed in this work. In the second validation problem, a finite element prediction of the flow induced in a cylindrical cavity due to a rotating magnetic field is compared with an independent spectral solution. The close agreement between two radically different solution procedures establishes the accuracy in the formulation and implementation of the both procedures. We then simulate the experiments using the numerical model. The numerical model

  15. Study of multiple scattering in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Daniel M.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2013-02-01

    Muon cooling for a neutrino factory or muon collider can be achieved using low-Z absorbers in strong focusing fields. Proposed cooling lattices place absorbers in solenoidal fields ranging up to 30 to 40 T. The cooling performance of these lattices is determined by the interplay of ionization energy loss and Molière scattering, but Bethe's classic treatment of Moliere scattering ignores the helical motion of charged particles in solenoidal fields. When this motion is taken into account, the performance of these lattices can be better than predicted by simulations using the standard treatment.

  16. Numerical study of a scramjet engine flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. P.; Weidner, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the turbulent reacting flow field in a two-dimensional scramjet engine configuration. The program numerically solves the full two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and species equations in the engine inlet and combustor, allowing consideration of flow separation and possible inlet-combustor interactions. The current work represents an intermediate step towards development of a three-dimensional program to analyze actual scramjet engine flow fields. Results from the current program are presented that predict the flow field for two inlet-combustor configurations, and comparisons of the program with experiment are given to allow assessment of the modeling that is employed.

  17. Study of Nonclassical Fields in Phase-Sensitive Reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung Shik; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    1996-01-01

    We show that the reservoir influence can be modeled by an infinite array of beam splitters. The superposition of the input fields in the beam splitter is discussed with the convolution laws for their quasiprobabilities. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the cavity field coupled with a phase-sensitive reservoir using the convolution law. We also analyze the amplification in the phase-sensitive reservoir with use of the modified beam splitter model. We show the similarities and differences between the dissipation and amplification models. We show that a super-Poissonian input field cannot become sub-Poissonian by the phase-sensitive amplification.

  18. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04), and negligible (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) ship influence. Application of

  19. Shaping the Field: The Role of Academic Journal Editors in the Construction of Education as a Field of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Jerry; Nixon, Jon

    2005-01-01

    In a previous "British Journal of Sociology of Education" article (Nixon and Wellington, 2005) we examined current trends in book publishing and how these have influenced and will influence the construction of the field of educational studies. (The latter study was a followup to an earlier study reported in Nixon [1999].) The present article…

  20. Planned Variations Study. Volume IV: Field Implementation Plan for a Field Randomized Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiban, John R.

    System Development Corporation conducted an extensive project of conceptualization and planning of models for compensatory educational intervention for older disadvantaged youth, at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Two intervention strategies were developed, and this report details the development of a field implementation plan for a…

  1. 3-D seismic data for field development: Landslide field case study

    SciTech Connect

    Raeuchle, S.K.; Carr, T.R.; Tucker, R.D. )

    1990-05-01

    The Landslide field is located on the extreme southern flank of the San Joaquin basin, approximately 25 mi south of Bakersfield, California. The field, discovered in 1985, has produced in excess 9 million bbl of oil with an estimated ultimate recovery of more than 13 MMBO. The Miocene Stevens sands, which form the reservoir units at Landslide field, are interpreted as a series of constructional submarine fan deposits. Deposition of the fans was controlled by paleotopography with an abrupt updip pinch-out of the sands to the southwest. The three-dimensional seismic data over the field was used to locate the bottom hole of the landslide 22X-30 development well as close to this abrupt updip pinchout as possible in order to maximize oil recovery. A location was selected two traces (330 ft) from the updip pinch-out as mapped on the seismic data. The well was successfully drilled during 1989, encountering 150 ft of net sand with initial production in excess of 1,500 bbl of oil/day. A pressure buildup test indicates the presence of a boundary approximately 200 ft from the well bore. This boundary is interpreted as the updip pinchout of the Stevens sands against the paleohigh. Based on examination of changes in amplitude, the absence or presence of reservoir-quality sand can be mapped across the paleohighs. Application of three-dimensional seismic data, integration with well data, and in particular reconstruction cuts tied closely to existing wells can be used to map the ultimate extent of the field and contribute to efficient development.

  2. Field Emission Studies From Nb Surfaces Relevant to SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Wang; Charles Reece; Ronald Sundelin

    2003-05-01

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting rf (SRF) niobium (Nb) cavities for particle accelerators. A scanning field emission microscope was built at Jefferson Lab with the main objective of systematically investigating the sources of EFE from Nb surfaces. Various surface preparation techniques and procedures, including chemical etching, electropolishing, ultrasonic water rinse, high pressure water rinse, air-dry after methanol rinse, air-dry after water rinse in Class 10 cleanroom, were investigated. The capability and process variables for broad-area Nb surfaces to consistently reach field emission free or near field emission free performance at {approx}140 MV/m have been experimentally demonstrated using the above techniques/procedures.

  3. New Laboratory and Field Studies on Shatter Cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaag, P. T.; Hasch, M.; Reimold, W. U.; Raschke, U.; Hipsley, C. A.; Hess, K.-U.; Dobson, K. J.

    2015-09-01

    Investigations of orientation, distribution, and shock micro-deformation of shatter cones were undertaken with micro-Computed Tomography and polarizing microscopy in the laboratory, and in the field at the Keurusselkä impact structure (Finland).

  4. Introducing Data Logging Equipment into Programmes of Study in Field Studies Centre: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Data loggers use sensors to collect environmental data that can be graphed instantly via computer software. A study used four groups of British elementary students to determine the educational benefits of data logging in field situations. Results indicate that data loggers excited the pupils and saved them time recording temperature readings. That…

  5. A Study of Magnetic Fields on Bright-Rimmed Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusune, Takayoshi; Sugitani, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), which are located at periphery of HII regions, are considered to be potential sites for induced star formation by UV radiation from nearby massive stars. Many theorists have developed 2D/3D hydrodynamical models to understand dynamical evolution of such molecular clouds. Most simulations, however, did not always include the magnetic field effect, which is of importance in the astrophysics. This is because that there are few observation results examining the magnetic field configuration of BRCs in detail. In order to obtain information on magnetic field in and around BRCs, we have made near-infrared (JHKs) imaging polarimetry toward 24 BRCs showing strong interaction with HII region (Urquhart et al. 2009). We used the imaging polarimeter SIRPOL/SIRIUS (FOV ~7.7’ x 7.7’) mounted on IRSF 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory.We found that polarization vectors, i.e., magnetic fields inside the clouds, follow the curved bright rim just behind the bright rim for almost all of the observed BRCs. Our investigation into the relation between the ambient magnetic field direction and the UV radiation direction suggests a following tendency. In the case that the ambient magnetic field is perpendicular to the direction of incident UV radiation, the clouds are likely to have bright rims with small curvatures. On the other hand, in the case that the ambient field is parallel to the UV radiation, they would have those with larger curvatures. In this presentation, we will present the physical quantities for these BRCs (i.e., magnetic field strength, the post shock pressure by the ionization front, etc.) as well as these morphological results.

  6. Effects of cognitive rehabilitation training on schizophrenia: 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianqing; Zeng, Qiang; Liang, Jia; Zhou, Aihua; Yin, Xuebing; Xu, Ai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder and characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. The current study was to explore the long-term effects of cognitive rehabilitation training on schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty six cases of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into study group and control group. The relapse and employment (attending school) rates were used as indicators to assess the treatment effect. All patients were followed up by 2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted with relapse and employment (attending school) rates. Results: The rates of relapse in the study group and the control group were 18% and 41%, and relapse free survival time was 22.22 months and 18.55 months; the rates of employment (attending school) were 64% and 43%, and not employment (attending school) time were 10.68 months and 15.74 months, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: We found that the cognitive rehabilitation training could significantly reduce schizophrenic relapse rate, prolong the time of patients without relapse, improve the employment (attending school) rate, and shorten the discharged time, which is a powerful treatment method to improve social competence in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26629117

  7. Construction work practices and conditions improved after 2-years' participation in the HomeSafe pilot program.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, David P; Hautaluoma, Jacob E; Ahmed, Taslim P; Keefe, Thomas J; Herron, Robert E; Bigelow, Philip L

    2003-01-01

    This study reevaluated changes in job-site safety audit scores for a cohort of residential construction workers that had protracted exposure to the HomeSafe pilot program for 2(1/2) years. The investigation was a repeated measure of a cohort study underway in the six-county metro area of Denver, Colo. The larger study was a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with a cohort of residential construction workers within the HomeSafe strategic partnership between Occupational Safety and Health Administration Region VIII and the Home Builders Association of Metropolitan Denver (HBA). Audits were conducted on residential construction sites. Study subjects were construction workers employed by partner or control companies within the study. Repeated measures of 41 companies showed significant improvement (p=.01) in audit scores, increasing from 71.8 to 76.8 after 2(1/2) years in the program. HomeSafe companies out-performed controls (p=.01) for both the retest group and previously unaudited HomeSafe companies. Prolonged exposure in the HomeSafe pilot program resulted in improved audit scores for companies within the program for at least 2 years. PMID:12809540

  8. Field Study of Napropamide Movement Through Unsaturated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, William A.; Elabd, Hesham; Resketo, Margaret

    1986-05-01

    A pulse of chloride and napropamide, a moderately absorbed herbicide, was applied to a 1.44-ha loamy sand field and was leached for 2 weeks with 23 cm net applied water. Thirty-six soil cores were taken on a 6 × 6 grid with a 12-m spacing to a depth of 3 m and were analyzed in 0.1-m increments for chloride concentration. Nineteen of the cores were also analyzed for napropamide concentration. Prior to the field leaching experiment, 36 undisturbed soil columns taken on a 6 × 6 grid l m adjacent to the field samples were removed and taken to the laboratory for controlled leaching experiments. Subsamples of soil at each site were used to determine adsorption distribution coefficients by the batch equilibrium method. Distribution coefficients were also calculated from the column leaching experiments by fitting the chloride and napropamide breakthrough curves to the solution of the convection dispersion equation. Although these two methods produced similar field average absorption coefficient values and variances, they were uncorrelated. Both the field cores and the laboratory leaching experiments showed evidence of some napropamide movement without apparent adsorption. This was particularly evident in the field experiments, where 73% of the chemical was found above 10 cm but trace concentrations reached depths down to 180 cm.

  9. Near-field scanning study for radio frequency interference estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jingnan

    This dissertation discusses the novel techniques using near-fields scanning to do radio frequency interference (RFI) estimation. As the electronic products are becoming more and more complicated, the radio frequency (RF) receiver in the system is very likely interfered by multiple noise sources simultaneously. A method is proposed to identify the interference from different noise sources separately, even when they are radiating at the same time. This method is very helpful for engineers to identify the contribution of the coupling from different sources and further solve the electromagnetic interference issues efficiently. On the other hand, the equivalent dipole-moment models and a decomposition method based on reciprocity theory can also be used together to estimate the coupling from the noise source to the victim antennas. This proposed method provides convenience to estimate RFI issues in the early design stage and saves the time of RFI simulation and measurements. The finite element method and image theory can also predict the far fields of the radiation source, locating above a ground plane. This method applies the finite element method (FEM) to get the equivalent current sources from the tangential magnetic near fields. With the equivalent current sources, the far-field radiation can be calculated based on Huygens's Principle and image theory. By using only the magnetic near fields on the simplified Huygens's surface, the proposed method significantly saves measurement time and cost while also retaining good far-field prediction.

  10. Double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty for proboscoid umbilical hernia in a 2 years old child with satisfactory results 2 years later

    PubMed Central

    Ashu, Eseme Ebai; Leroy, Guifo Marc; Aristide, Bang Guy; Joss, Bitang Mafok Louis; Bonaventure, Jemea; Patrick, Savom Eric; Myriam, Fotso Guegne

    2015-01-01

    Surgical repair of large umbilical hernias may present a challenging surgical problem; standard surgical techniques have proven to be inadequate for both closing the fascial defect of the umbilicus and providing a satisfactory cosmetic result. We describe here a case of double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty that was performed in a 2 years old boy. The case of a 2 years old child with proboscoid umbilical hernia. The protruding umbilical skin was excised sharply by two V-shaped cuts leaving two half cones, a short cephalic (0.5cm) and a long caudal (1cm). A classic herniotomy was carried out, with repair of the facial defect. The caudal half cone was sutured from its apex till half it's length upon itself with interrupted sutures and it was anchored deeply to the fascia. Then we inverted the cephalic half cone which was sutured to the caudal cone to form the new umbilicus. The early result was excellent with no complications and the result after 2years revealed a cosmetically satisfactory shape of the umbilicus. this technique provides a good solution for reconstruction of the protruding umbilical skin and it is easy to learn, easy to be taught and perform in surgical environments and may be applicable for any kind of umbilical reconstruction. PMID:26664545

  11. Environmental Controls on Hopanoid Distributions: Field and Culture Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H. L.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hopanoid biomarkers play an important role in reconstructions of the earth's past biogeochemistry and evolution. Despite their excellent preservation potential and utility for microbial paleontology, relatively little of the earth's modern microbial biosphere has been explored with respect to hopanoid production. Due to the fact that hopanoids are used by bacteria to tune the physical properties of their cell membranes, geochemical gradients in nature may be associated with systematic changes in hopanoid diversity and abundances. Bacteriohopanpolyols (BHPs) are produced by both sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing bacteria. We hypothesize that BHPs are important for microbial adaptation to pH and sulfide concentrations in sulfur-oxidizing microbial communities. We investigated this hypothesis using both pure laboratory cultures and with samples of natural biofilms collected across oxygen and sulfide concentration gradients in the field. Samples were collected from the sulfidic Frasassi cave system, Italy, where the geomicrobiology of abundant sulfur cycling biofilms has previously been studied in detail (Macalady et al. 2007, Macalady et al. 2008). Culturing experiments were performed with two sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, an Acidithiobacillus sp. isolated from extremely acidic (pH 0-1) snotittes, and Beggiatoa alba, a neutrophilic sulfur oxidizer with close relatives in the Frasassi biofilms. Cultures were grown at range of pH and sulfide concentrations, harvested, freeze-dried and analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (APCI- LC/MS). We observed six different BHPs for the Acidithiobacillus sp. including one novel structure. Acidithiobacillus BHPs change in response to changes in the pH of the growth medium, becoming more polar and more abundant at lower pH. These observations are consistent with the production of less fluid, more polar membranes to counteract proton leakage into cells as pH decreases. Macalady, J

  12. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  13. Human habitation field study of the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Archer, Ronald D.; Szabo, Richard; Twyford, Evan S.; Conlee, Carl S.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Landing and supporting a permanent outpost on a planetary surface represents humankind's capability to expand its own horizons and challenge current technology. With this in mind, habitability of these structures becomes more essential given the longer durations of the missions. The purpose of this evaluation was to obtain preliminary human-in-the-loop performance data on the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) configuration during a 14-day simulated lunar exploration field trial and to apply this knowledge to further enhance the habitat's capabilities for forward designs. Human factors engineers at the NASA/Johnson Space Center's Habitability and Human Factors Branch recorded approximately 96 h of crew task performance with four work stations. Human factors measures used during this study included the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) and customized post questionnaires. Overall the volume for the PEM was considered acceptable by the crew; however; the habitat's individual work station volume was constrained when setting up the vehicle for operation, medical operations, and suit maintenance while general maintenance, logistical resupply, and geo science was considered acceptable. Crew workload for each station indicated resupply as being the lowest rated, with medical operations, general maintenance, and geo science tasks as being light, while suit maintenance was considered moderate and general vehicle setup being rated the highest. Stowage was an issue around the habitat with the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV) resupply stowage located in the center of the habitat as interfering with some work station volumes and activities. Ergonomics of the geo science station was considered a major issue, especially with the overhead touch screens.

  14. Reactions Following Completion of 1 and 2 Year Multidrug Therapy (MDT)

    PubMed Central

    Balagon, Ma. Victoria F.; Gelber, Robert H.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Cellona, Roland V.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence, severity, and duration of reactional states in 139 multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients in the first 2 years after the completion of the 1 year regimen of multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and compared those findings with 295 MB leprosy patients treated with the same regimen previously recommended for 2 years. During the first year after the completion of 1 year MDT, patients experienced 1 or more reactional states 27% of the time, the vast majority being lepra type 1 reactions (reversal reactions, RR), whereas patients who received 2 year MDT experienced a reactional state during that time period only 8% of the time (P < 0.001). Furthermore, during the first year after the completion of therapy, and during the first 2 years, both the number of reactional states and reversal reactions were significantly (P ≤ 0.004) more frequent, severe, of longer duration, and more commonly associated with neuritis. PMID:20810832

  15. 75 FR 60172 - Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the...

  16. 78 FR 68909 - Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the...

  17. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  18. A field study of "lambda distribution" for breaking wave crests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulov, V.; Mironov, A.

    2009-04-01

    "Lambda distribution" concept introduced by Phillips (1985) provides a way to link wind wave spectra and numerous important measures of the air-sea interface processes related to wave breaking. Production of sea drops in the near water atmospheric layer (Kudryavtsev, 2006), radar backscattering due to wave breaking (Phillips, 1988, Kudryavtsev et al., 2003), turbulent mixing in the uppermost sea layer (Kudryavtsev et al., 2008) and other phenomena were recently studied on the basis of this approach. In this connection experimental investigations of the key theoretical quantity, Λ(c)dc, the average length of breaking crests per unit area propagating with speeds in the range (c, c + dc), and its dependence on wave spectra are of obvious importance. An experimental study of Λ(c) was performed during three field campaigns (2003, 2005 and 2008) on the Black Sea research platform of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). Simultaneous recordings of wave breaking measures (with video camera) and wave 2D-spectra (with an array of resistance wave staffs) were obtained under variety of wave conditions at wind speed 4-20m/s. A special method was developed to evaluate geometrical and kinematical whitecap parameters including their vectors of advance velocity. Individual whitecaps corresponding to active phase of wave breaking (phase A) were extracted from video recordings of the sea surface practically without human influence on the process of data processing because the method is based on physical considerations of sea surface brightness and empirical information on whitecap dynamics. Estimations of Λ(c) were derived from data obtained. Spectral energy dissipation rates were evaluated from the wave spectra and from the Λ(c) in accordance with Phillips approach (1985). Their comparison for every experimental run exhibits poor agreement, but a good agreement was found for integral dissipation rates for all data. Value of Phillips theory

  19. Numerical study on distribution law of magnetic field and temperature field around the crack induced by eddy currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Min; Zheng, Wenpei; Zhang, Laibin; Zhou, Fan

    2016-02-01

    Alternative current field measurement (ACFM) and eddy current thermography are both induced by eddy currents, and it is a commonality between them. The commonality has laid a good foundation for the combination of the two testing techniques. In this paper, a numerical study on distribution law of magnetic field and temperature field around the crack using eddy current excitation is carried out. The feasibility of the combination of ACFM and eddy current thermography is discussed as well. A specimen made of ferromagnetic material is tested by a U-shaped inducer, and a semielliptical crack is built on the specimen. The distribution law of magnetic field and temperature field is both studied using the same eddy current excitation. The relationship between the crack size and distribution of magnetic field and temperature field is identified by altering the length and depth of the crack. Through comparisons, the magnetic distribution law around the crack in this paper is consistent with that of ACFM, and the maximum temperature difference around the crack meets the inspection requirement of a thermal imager. These findings might make it possible to eventually combine ACFM and eddy current thermography.

  20. Fundamental study of flow field generated by rotorcraft blades using wide-field shadowgraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The vortex trajectory and vortex wake generated by helicopter rotors are visualized using a wide-field shadowgraph technique. Use of a retro-reflective Scotchlite screen makes it possible to investigate the flow field generated by full-scale rotors. Tip vortex trajectories are visible in shadowgraphs for a range of tip Mach number of 0.38 to 0.60. The effect of the angle of attack is substantial. At an angle of attack greater than 8 degrees, the visibility of the vortex core is significant even at relatively low tip Mach numbers. The theoretical analysis of the sensitivity is carried out for a rotating blade. This analysis demonstrates that the sensitivity decreases with increasing dimensionless core radius and increases with increasing tip Mach number. The threshold value of the sensitivity is found to be 0.0015, below which the vortex core is not visible and above which it is visible. The effect of the optical path length is also discussed. Based on this investigation, it is concluded that the application of this wide-field shadowgraph technique to a large wind tunnel test should be feasible. In addition, two simultaneous shadowgraph views would allow three-dimensional reconstruction of vortex trajectories.

  1. The School for Field Studies Centre for Coastal Studies: A Case Study of Sustainable Development Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, T. A.; Ollervides, F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the School for Field Studies-Centre for Coastal Studies (SFS-CCS) study abroad Mexico program, and consider its relative success as a sustainable development education program. Design/methodology/approach: The SFS-CCS academic model and results of its implementation are presented. Program success is discussed by applying…

  2. Isochronous field study of the Rare-RI Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Wakasugi, M.; Uesaka, T.; Ozawa, A.; Suzaki, F.; Nagae, D.; Miura, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yano, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Construction of the Rare-RI Ring to measure masses of short-lived rare-RI with a relative precision of 10-6 is in progress at RIKEN. The Rare-RI Ring consists of six sectors where each sector consists of four dipole magnets. Since the mass measurement is done by the isochronous mass spectrometry in the Rare-RI Ring, creating isochronous magnetic field is one of the important issues in mass measurements with the Rare-RI Ring. In order to make an isochronous field, we installed ten trim coils in the two outer dipoles among the four dipoles in each sector magnet. The isochronism of the magnetic field have been confirmed by measuring time-of-flight (TOF) of alpha particles from an alpha-source (241Am). We measured TOF of alpha particles while changing the radial gradient of the magnetic field by trim coils and evaluated the isochronism from standard deviation of the TOF spectrum. The TOF width is minimum for a radial gradient of magnetic field (\\partial {B}z/\\partial r)/B0 = 0.205 m-1, which is in good agreement with the simulated value.

  3. Extending membrane pore lifetime with AC fields: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, Allen L.; Bogdan Neculaes, V.

    2012-07-01

    AC (sinusoidal) fields with frequencies from kilohertz to gigahertz have been used for gene delivery. To understand the impact of AC fields on electroporation dynamics, we couple a nondimensionalized Smoluchowski equation to an exact representation of the cell membrane voltage obtained solving the Laplace equation. The slope of the pore energy function, dφ/dr, with respect to pore radius is critical in predicting pore dynamics in AC fields because it can vary from positive, inducing pore shrinkage, to negative, driving pore growth. Specifically, the net sign of the integral of dφ/dr over time determines whether the average pore size grows (negative), shrinks (positive), or oscillates (zero) indefinitely about a steady-state radius, rss. A simple analytic relationship predicting the amplitude of the membrane voltage necessary for this behavior agrees well with simulation for frequencies from 500 kHz to 5 MHz for rss < 10 nm. For larger pore size (rss > 10 nm), dφ/dr oscillates about a negative value, suggesting that a net creation of pores may be necessary to maintain a constant pore size. In both scenarios, the magnitude of rss depends only upon the amplitude of the membrane voltage and not directly upon the applied field frequency other than the relationship between the amplitudes of the applied field and membrane voltage.

  4. FORGE Canada Consortium: outcomes of a 2-year national rare-disease gene-discovery project.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Samuels, Mark E; Fernandez, Bridget A; Bernier, Francois P; Brudno, Michael; Knoppers, Bartha; Marcadier, Janet; Dyment, David; Adam, Shelin; Bulman, Dennis E; Jones, Steve J M; Avard, Denise; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Rousseau, Francois; Marshall, Christian; Wintle, Richard F; Shen, Yaoqing; Scherer, Stephen W; Friedman, Jan M; Michaud, Jacques L; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-06-01

    Inherited monogenic disease has an enormous impact on the well-being of children and their families. Over half of the children living with one of these conditions are without a molecular diagnosis because of the rarity of the disease, the marked clinical heterogeneity, and the reality that there are thousands of rare diseases for which causative mutations have yet to be identified. It is in this context that in 2010 a Canadian consortium was formed to rapidly identify mutations causing a wide spectrum of pediatric-onset rare diseases by using whole-exome sequencing. The FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium brought together clinicians and scientists from 21 genetics centers and three science and technology innovation centers from across Canada. From nation-wide requests for proposals, 264 disorders were selected for study from the 371 submitted; disease-causing variants (including in 67 genes not previously associated with human disease; 41 of these have been genetically or functionally validated, and 26 are currently under study) were identified for 146 disorders over a 2-year period. Here, we present our experience with four strategies employed for gene discovery and discuss FORGE's impact in a number of realms, from clinical diagnostics to the broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of many diseases to the biological insight gained into both disease states and normal human development. Lastly, on the basis of this experience, we discuss the way forward for rare-disease genetic discovery both in Canada and internationally. PMID:24906018

  5. Studies of Westward Electrojets and Field-Aligned Currents in the Magnetotail during Substorms: Implications for Magnetic Field Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Our studies elucidated the relationship between the auroral arcs and magnetotail phenomena. One paper examined particle energization in the source region of the field-aligned currents that intensify at substorm onset when the arc brightens to form the westward electrojet. A second paper examined the relationship between the precipitating particles in the arcs, the location of the westward electrojet, and magnetospheric source regions. Two earlier papers also investigated the roles that field aligned currents and particle acceleration have during substorms.

  6. Field Studies for Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Transboundary Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irei, S.; Takami, A.; Sadanaga, Y.; Nozoe, S.; Hayashi, M.; Hara, K.; Arakaki, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Bandow, H.

    2014-12-01

    To study formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the air outflowed from the Chinese continent and its fraction in an urban city located in downwind, we have conducted field studies at two background sites and one urban site in the western Japan: the Cape Hedo Aerosol and Atmospheric Monitoring Station (26.9˚N, 128.3˚E), the Fukue Atmospheric Monitoring Station (32.8˚N, 128.7˚E), and Fukuoka University (33.6˚N, 130.4˚E), respectively. During the studies, stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of low-volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) was measured in 24 h collected filter samples of total suspended particulate matter. Concentration of fine organic aerosol and the proportion of the signal at m/z 44 (ions from the carboxyl group) in the organic mass spectra (f44) were also measured by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers. Limited to the Fukue site only, mixing ratios of trace gas species, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, NOx, and NOy, were also measured using GC-FID and NOx and NOyanalyzers for estimation of photochemical age (t[OH]). A case study in December 2010 showed that plots of δ13C versus f44 showed systematic variations at Hedo and Fukue. However, their trends were opposite. At Fukue the trend was consistent in the plot of δ13C of LV-WSOC versus t[OH] estimated by the NOx/NOy or the hydrocarbon ratios, indicating influence of SOA. The systematic trends aforementioned qualitatively agreed with a binary mixture model of SOA with background LV-WSOC having the f44 of ~0.06 and the δ13C of -17‰ or higher, implication of some influence of primary emission associated with C4plants. Given that the LV-WSOC at the urban Fukuoka site was a binary mixture, a mass balance for δ13C was constructed below. In the equation, δ13CMix, δ13CLocal, δ13CTrans, and FLocal are δ13C of binary LV-WSOC mixture, δ13C of LV-WSOC from local emission origin, δ13C of LV-WSOC from transboundary pollution origin, and a fraction of LV-WSOC from local emission

  7. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Study of HTS Wires at High Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Turrioni, D.; Barzi, E.; Lamm, M.J.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Kikuchi, A.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of high field magnet systems for ionization cooling of muon beams. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is being considered for these magnets using Helium refrigeration. Critical current (I{sub c}) measurements of HTS conductors were performed at FNAL and at NIMS up to 28 T under magnetic fields at zero to 90 degree with respect to the sample face. A description of the test setups and results on a BSCCO-2223 tape and second generation (2G) coated conductors are presented.

  9. Controlled field study for validation of vadose zone transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.; Yeh, T.C.; Hills, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    Prediction of radionuclide migration through soil and groundwater requires models which have been tested under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, many of the existing models have not been tested in the field, partly because such testing requires accurate and representative data. This report provides the design of a large scale field experiment representative, in terms of,surface area and depth of vadose zone, of an actual disposal area. Experiments are proposed which will yield documented data, of sufficient scale, to allow testing of a variety of models including effective media stochastic models and deterministic models. Details of the methodology and procedures to be used in the experiment are presented.

  10. Gravitational field models for study of Earth mantle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The tectonic forces or stresses due to the small scale mantle flow under the South American plate are detected and determined by utilizing the harmonics of the geopotential field model. The high degree harmonics are assumed to describe the small scale mantle convection patterns. The input data used in the derivation of this model is made up of 840,000 optical, electronic, and laser observations and 1,656 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air anomalies. Although there remain some statistically questionable aspects of the high degree harmonics, it seems appropriate now to explore their implications for the tectonic forces or stress field under the crust.

  11. Reservoir studies of the Seltjarnarnes geothermal field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Tulinius, H.; Spencer, A.L.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kristmannsdottir, H.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A.E.

    1986-10-01

    The Seltjarnarnes geothermal field in Iceland has been exploited for space heating for the last 16 years. A model of the field has been developed that integrates all available data. The model has been calibrated against the flow rate and pressure decline histories of the wells and the temperature and chemical changes of the produced fluids. This has allowed for the estimation of the permeability and porosity distribution of the system, and the volume of the hot reservoir. Predictions of future reservoir behavior using the model suggest small pressure and temperature changes, but a continuous increase in the salinity of the fluids produced.

  12. Magnetic field studies at Jupiter by Voyager 2: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, N. F.; Acuna, M. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 magnetic field experiment is described and compared to the Voyager 1 experiment and data. The magnetosphere, the bow shock, the magnetopause, and the extended magnetic tail of Jupiter are discussed. Two crossings of the near equatorial current sheet were observed in the magnetosphere and its tail every 10 hour rotation period of the planet. A definitive mapping of the geometry and character of these enhanced plasma and depressed magnetic field regions is discussed. The interaction of the satellite Ganymede with the Jovian magnetosphere, which leads to disturbances as the Jovian magnetosphere corotates with the planet past the satellite is analyzed.

  13. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  14. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 < f42 < 0.15; 0.01 < f99 < 0.04), and negligible (f42 < 0.05; f99 < 0.01) ship influence. Application of

  15. Videomagnetograph studies of solar magnetic fields. II - Field changes in an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoolman, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Using the Caltech videomagnetograph, we obtained a 6.5-hr movie of the magnetic fields in a young active region. The major contribution to the short term magnetic evolution of the region was provided by many discrete magnetic points which move in apparently random directions with typical velocities of 0.4 - 1.0 km/sec. The majority of these features appear to be footpoints of new EFR's, which emerge at an observed rate of one to two per hour. The pattern of the motions suggests that the magnetic evolution of a growing region cannot be principally due to photospheric convective cells.

  16. Peginterferon beta-1a in multiple sclerosis: 2-year results from ADVANCE

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey A; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron; Sheikh, Sarah I; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a over 2 years in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis in the ADVANCE study. Methods: Patients were randomized to placebo or 125 µg peginterferon beta-1a every 2 or 4 weeks. For Year 2 (Y2), patients originally randomized to placebo were re-randomized to peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. Patients randomized to peginterferon beta-1a in Year 1 (Y1) remained on the same dosing regimen in Y2. Results: Compared with Y1, annualized relapse rate (ARR) was further reduced in Y2 with every 2 week dosing (Y1: 0.230 [95% CI 0.183–0.291], Y2: 0.178 [0.136–0.233]) and maintained with every 4 week dosing (Y1: 0.286 [0.231–0.355], Y2: 0.291 [0.231–0.368]). Patients starting peginterferon beta-1a from Y1 displayed improved efficacy versus patients initially assigned placebo, with reductions in ARR (every 2 weeks: 37%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 17%, p=0.0906), risk of relapse (every 2 weeks: 39%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 19%, p=0.0465), 12-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 33%, p=0.0257; every 4 weeks: 25%, p=0.0960), and 24-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 41%, p=0.0137; every 4 weeks: 9%, p=0.6243). Over 2 years, greater reductions were observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing for all endpoints and peginterferon beta-1a was well tolerated. Conclusions: Peginterferon beta-1a efficacy is maintained beyond 1 year, with greater effects observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing, and a similar safety profile to Y1. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT00906399. PMID:25432952

  17. Laboratory and field studies of guayule modified to overexpress HMGR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the genetic modification of guayule to overexpress the isoprenoid pathway enzyme HMGR. The rubber content of two-month old in vitro transformed plantlets showed a 65% increase in rubber over the control for one line (HMGR6), and lower resin for another (HMGR2). In field evaluations HMGR6...

  18. Field Studies: Hands-on, Real-Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunniff, Patricia A.; McMillen, Janet L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an intensive three-week experience for 10th and 11th graders in a National Science Foundation Young Scholars Program. Two weeks of biology instruction precede one week of field research. The curriculum includes life histories of birds in the Chesapeake Bay area, reproductive ecology, aquatic ecology, entomology, and statistics. (DDR)

  19. Preliminary field trash studies using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a cash crop that is important in the world market. Development of instrumental techniques to measure cotton quality parameters which are accurate, precise, and fast would be beneficial. Cotton trash (leaf, etc.) and field trash (plastic bags, etc.) comingled with lint adversely affects th...

  20. Population studies of Streptomyces in dedicated common scab fields.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability in symptoms of potato common scab between locations and years necessitates testing potato cultivars for common scab resistance in multiple field locations with different disease pressures. Several species or strains of plant pathogenic Streptomyces that cause the disease are found in th...