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Sample records for 2-year os rate

  1. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  2. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

  3. Association of the recurrence and canceration rate of vocal leukoplakia with interleukin-10 promoter variants over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Duo; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Yue; Liu, Fei; Tao, Lei; Lu, Li-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion This study indicates that IL-10 promoter polymorphism variants, smoking, and alcohol consumption increase the risk of recurrence and canceration in vocal leukoplakia. Objective This prospective, clinical trial was performed to evaluate the association of interleukin (IL)-10 promoter polymorphism variants and canceration and recurrence rates in vocal leukoplakia (a pre-cancerous laryngeal carcinoma lesion) over a 2-year period. Participants and method Sixty-one post-operative patients with vocal leukoplakia were enrolled in this prospective, observational study and genotyped for the IL-10 promoter gene (IL-10-1082 A/G, -819 T/C and -592 A/C) using pyrosequencing, and responded to a 2-year follow-up survey. Recurrence and canceration rates were used to evaluate the association between the genotype variants and the clinical outcome. Results There was an increased canceration rate in the variant genotype group compared to that in the normal genotype group in the 2-year follow-up period (18.4% vs 0%, p-value = 0.038). Compared with the non-smoker group, the smoker group had a higher recurrence rate of vocal leukoplakia (29.3% vs 5%, p-value =0.044). Likewise, the recurrence rate in the alcohol consumption group was also higher (30.6% vs 8%, p-value =0.034). The percentage of cancerization in the alcohol consumption group was significantly higher than that in the non-alcohol consumption group (19.4% vs 0%, p-value =0.035).

  4. Prospective multicenter assessment of perioperative and minimum 2-year postoperative complication rates associated with adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin S; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Renaud; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory M; Errico, Thomas J; Kim, Han Jo; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Scheer, Justin K; Soroceanu, Alex; Kelly, Michael P; Line, Breton; Gupta, Munish; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Although multiple reports have documented significant benefit from surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD), these procedures can have high complication rates. Previously reported complications rates associated with ASD surgery are limited by retrospective design, single-surgeon or single-center cohorts, lack of rigorous data on complications, and/or limited follow-up. Accurate definition of complications associated with ASD surgery is important and may serve as a resource for patient counseling and efforts to improve the safety of patient care. The authors conducted a study to prospectively assess the rates of complications associated with ASD surgery with a minimum 2-year follow-up based on a multicenter study design that incorporated standardized data-collection forms, on-site study coordinators, and regular auditing of data to help ensure complete and accurate reporting of complications. In addition, they report age stratification of complication rates and provide a general assessment of factors that may be associated with the occurrence of complications. METHODS As part of a prospective, multicenter ASD database, standardized forms were used to collect data on surgery-related complications. On-site coordinators and central auditing helped ensure complete capture of complication data. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, ASD, and plan for operative treatment. Complications were classified as perioperative (within 6 weeks of surgery) or delayed (between 6 weeks after surgery and time of last follow-up), and as minor or major. The primary focus for analyses was on patients who reached a minimum follow-up of 2 years. RESULTS Of 346 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 291 (84%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 2.1 years); their mean age was 56.2 years. The vast majority (99%) had treatment including a posterior procedure, 25% had an anterior procedure, and 19% had a 3-column osteotomy. At least 1 revision was required in 82

  5. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  6. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2) = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2) = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2) = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age.

  7. Your Child's Development: 2 Years (24 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 2 Years (24 Months) Print A A A en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 años (24 meses) Tired of changing diapers? When ...

  8. Complication rates associated with 3-column osteotomy in 82 adult spinal deformity patients: retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter consecutive series with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Renaud; Kim, Han Jo; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory M; Gupta, Munish; Liabaud, Barthelemy; Scheer, Justin K; Diebo, Bassel G; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Kelly, Michael P; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert; Burton, Doug; Bess, Shay; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-02-17

    OBJECTIVE Although 3-column osteotomy (3CO) can provide powerful alignment correction in adult spinal deformity (ASD), these procedures are complex and associated with high complication rates. The authors' objective was to assess complications associated with ASD surgery that included 3CO based on a prospectively collected multicenter database. METHODS This study is a retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter consecutive case registry. ASD patients treated with 3CO and eligible for 2-year follow-up were identified from a prospectively collected multicenter ASD database. Early (≤ 6 weeks after surgery) and delayed (> 6 weeks after surgery) complications were collected using standardized forms and on-site coordinators. RESULTS Of 106 ASD patients treated with 3CO, 82 (77%; 68 treated with pedicle subtraction osteotomy [PSO] and 14 treated with vertebral column resection [VCR]) had 2-year follow-up (76% women, mean age 60.7 years, previous spine fusion in 80%). The mean number of posterior fusion levels was 12.9, and 17% also had an anterior fusion. A total of 76 early (44 minor, 32 major) and 66 delayed (13 minor, 53 major) complications were reported, with 41 patients (50.0%) and 45 patients (54.9%) affected, respectively. Overall, 64 patients (78.0%) had at least 1 complication, and 50 (61.0%) had at least 1 major complication. The most common complications were rod breakage (31.7%), dural tear (20.7%), radiculopathy (9.8%), motor deficit (9.8%), proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK, 9.8%), pleural effusion (8.5%), and deep wound infection (7.3%). Compared with patients who did not experience early or delayed complications, those who had these complications did not differ significantly with regard to age, sex, body mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, smoking status, history of previous spine surgery or spine fusion, or whether the 3CO performed was a PSO or VCR (p ≥ 0.06). Twenty-seven (33

  9. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still ...

  10. Infant diet sets the tone for parasympathetic regulation of resting heart rate: Development of vagal tone from 3 months to 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasympathetic nervous system (PS) influences are critical in the autonomic control of the heart. To examine how early postnatal diet affects PS development, we used a measure of tonic PS control of cardiac activity, vagal tone, derived from resting heart rate recordings in 158 breastfed (BF), ...

  11. Survival Rates and Risk Factors for Cephalad and L5-S1 Adjacent Segment Degeneration after L5 Floating Lumbar Fusion : A Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the L5-S1 has distinct structural features in comparison with other lumbar spine segments, not much is known about adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) at the L5-S1 segment. The aim of study was to compare the incidence and character of ASD of the cephalad and L5-S1 segments after L5 floating lumbar fusion. Methods From 2005 to 2010, 115 patients who underwent L5 floating lumber fusion were investigated. The mean follow-up period was 46.1 months. The incidence of radiological and clinical ASD of the cephalad and the L5-S1 segments was compared using survival analysis. Risk factors affecting ASD were analyzed using a log rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Radiological ASD of the L5-S1 segment had a statistically significant higher survival rate than that of the cephalad segment (p=0.001). However, clinical ASD of the L5-S1 segment was significantly lower survival rates than that of the cephalad segment (p=0.038). Risk factor analysis showed that disc degeneration of the cephalad segment and preoperative spinal stenosis of the L5-S1 segment were risk factors. Conclusion In L5 floating fusion, radiological ASD was more common in the cephalad segment and clinical ASD was more common in the L5-S1 segment. At the L5-S1 segment, the degree of spinal stenosis appears to be the most influential risk factor in ASD incidences, unlike the cephalad segment. PMID:25733991

  12. High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Using Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Clinical Report With 2-Year Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daniel H.; Wang-Chesebro, Alice; Weinberg, Vivian; Pouliot, Jean; Chen, Lee-May; Speight, Joycelyn; Littell, Ramey; Hsu, I.-Chow

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: We present clinical outcomes of image-guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) planned high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 through December 2006, 51 patients were treated at the University of California, San Francisco with HDR brachytherapy boost as part of definitive radiation for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB1 to Stage IVA cervical cancer. Of the patients, 46 received concurrent chemotherapy, 43 with cisplatin alone and 3 with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. All patients had IPSA-planned HDR brachytherapy boost after whole-pelvis external radiation to a total tumor dose of 85 Gy or greater (for alpha/beta = 10). Toxicities are reported according to National Cancer Institute CTCAE v3.0 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) guidelines. Results: At a median follow-up of 24.3 months, there were no toxicities of Grade 4 or greater and the frequencies of Grade 3 acute and late toxicities were 4% and 2%, respectively. The proportion of patients having Grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal and genitourinary acute toxicities was 48% and 52%, respectively. Low-grade late toxicities included Grade 1 or 2 vaginal, gastrointestinal, and hormonal toxicities in 31%, 18%, and 4% of patients, respectively. During the follow-up period, local recurrence developed in 2 patients, regional recurrence developed in 2, and new distant metastases developed in 15. The rates of locoregional control of disease and overall survival at 24 months were 91% and 86%, respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDR brachytherapy boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease.

  13. Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A What's in ... español Alimentar a su hijo de 1 a 2 años de edad Toddlers this age are moving ...

  14. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  15. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  16. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  17. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  18. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  19. Anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of balanced anesthesia using constant rate infusion of midazolam-ketamine-medetomidine with inhalation of oxygen-sevoflurane (MKM-OS anesthesia) in horses.

    PubMed

    Kushiro, Tokiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Umar, Mohammed Ahmed; Maehara, Seiya; Wakaiki, Shinsuke; Abe, Reona; Seno, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Keiko; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Muir, William W

    2005-04-01

    The anesthetic sparring and cardiovascular effects produced by midazolam 0.8 mg/ml-ketamine 40 mg/ml-medetomidine 0.05 mg/ml (0.025 ml/kg/hr) drug infusion during sevoflurane in oxygen (MKM-OS) anesthesia was determined in healthy horses. The anesthetic sparring effects of MKM-OS were assessed in 6 healthy thoroughbred horses in which the right carotid artery was surgically relocated to a subcutaneous position. All horses were intubated and ventilated with oxygen using intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (ET(SEV)) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was approximately 1.7%. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure averaged 23-41 beats/min and 70-112 mmHg, respectively. All horses stood between 23-44 min after the cessation of all anesthetic drugs. The cardiovascular effects of MKM-OS anesthesia were evaluated in 5 healthy thoroughbred horses ventilated using IPPV. Anesthesia was maintained for 4 hr at an ET(SEV) of 1.7%. Each horse was studied during left lateral (LR) and dorsal recumbency (DR) with a minimum interval between evaluations of 1 month. Cardiac output and cardiac index were maintained between 70-80% of baseline values during LR and 65-70% of baseline values during DR. Stroke volume was maintained between 75-85% of baseline values during LR and 60-70% of baseline values during DR. Systemic vascular resistance was not different from baseline values regardless of position. MKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular depression in both of lateral and dorsal recumbency.

  20. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  1. Social competence at 2 years following child traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vicki; Beauchamp, Miriam Helen; Yeates, Keith Owen; Crossley, Louise; Ryan, Nicholas Peter; Hearps, Stephen J C; Catroppa, Cathy

    2017-02-08

    Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of social impairment, but research is yet to document the trajectory of these skills post-injury and factors that may predict social problems. The study addressed these gaps in knowledge, reporting on findings from a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study which investigated social outcomes post injury and explored factors contributing to these outcomes at 2 years post-injury. The sample included 113 children, 74 with TBI and 39 typically developing (TD) controls. TBI participants were recruited on presentation to hospital. Parents rated pre-injury function at that time and all children underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Participants were followed up at 2 years post-injury. Outcomes were social adjustment, social participation, social relationships, and social cognition. Predictors of social outcomes examined included brain lesion characteristics, child cognition (6 months post-TBI) and behavior and environmental factors (pre-injury and 2 years). Reduced social adjustment (p=.011) and social participation (p<.001) were evident in children with TBI compared to TD controls. Poor social adjustment was predicted by externalizing behaviour problems and younger age at injury. Reduced social participation was linked to internalizing behavior problems. Greater lesion volume, lower socioeconomic status and family burden contributed to poorer social relationships, while age at injury predicted social cognition. Within the TBI group, 23% of children exhibited social impairment: younger age at injury, greater pre-injury and current behavior problems and family dysfunction, poorer IQ, processing speed, and empathy were linked to impairment. Further follow-up is required to track social recovery and the influences of cognition, brain, and environment over time.

  2. Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A You're ... down. Your toddler may gain about 5 pounds (2.27 kg) and grow about 4 or 5 ...

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  4. Neonates with extra-renal pelvis: the first 2 years.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Ze'ev; Witzling, Michaela; Nikolov, Gallina; Gvirtz, Gabriela; Arbel, Eliana; Kohelet, David; Boaz, Mona; Smetana, Shmuel; Lorberboym, Mordechai

    2005-06-01

    deterioration was observed. Seven patients (13.2%) each had one episode of UTI during the 2-year follow-up period; none of them had VU reflux. Neonatal ERpel is more frequent in male infants. It is associated with greater rates of minor congenital malformations, VU reflux and UTI than in the general population of the same ages. The increased UTI incidence is not attributed to VU reflux.

  5. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old A A A The toddler months ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  6. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs...

  7. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  8. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  9. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  10. Exploring Faculty Retirement Issues in Public 2-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Valerie Martin

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research on faculty retirement focuses exclusively on 4-year institutions. This study fills a gap by describing the age distribution of faculty in public 2-year institutions, the retirement plans of these faculty, and factors related to the retirement decision-making process using data from the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary…

  11. Repetitive Behaviours in Typically Developing 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan; Tandos, Jonathan; McConachie, Helen; Meins, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Kathryn; Wright, Charlotte; Turner, Michelle; Arnott, Bronia; Vittorini, Lucia; Le Couteur, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds. Methods: A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2)…

  12. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  13. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  14. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  15. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  16. Ballpoint pen ingestion in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Anaïs; Anand, Sumeet M; Nguyen, Lily H

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old girl ingested a ballpoint pen, which was found on chest x-ray to have lodged in the lower esophagus and stomach. The pen, which measured nearly 15 cm in length, was removed via rigid esophagoscopy without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the longest nonflexible foreign body ingested by a young child ever reported in the English-language literature. We describe the presentation of this case and the current guidelines for safety as enumerated in the Small Parts Regulations established by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.

  17. Saliva in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkkila, Laura; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate salivary flow and biochemical constituents of menopausal-age women with the hypothesis that women using hormone therapy (HT) might present better saliva values than non-users. Two hundred HT users and 200 non-users were selected at random from a cohort study of 3,173 peri- and postmenopausal women and invited to a 2-year clinical follow-up study. Clinical examination with saliva sampling was made at baseline and 2 years later. Salivary total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were analyzed. Final material included 106 consistent HT users and 55 non-users. Backward logistic regression analysis was made to determine the risk factors for higher or lower than medium salivary protein values. No difference was seen in salivary flow rate, total protein, and IgA values between baseline and follow-up measurements or between the groups. Albumin, IgG, and IgM concentrations were significantly lower in the 2-year samples of the HT group when compared with baseline. IgA and IgM values were higher in the non-HT 2-year samples when compared with the corresponding HT samples. The only significant explanatory factor for higher than median salivary albumin concentration was the number of teeth both at baseline and 2 years later. HT possibly improved epithelial integrity since the concentrations of serum components albumin, IgG, and IgM decreased during the follow-up. HT as such does not seem to affect saliva, although it may modify it. The clinical relevance of these results needs to be assessed in future studies.

  18. A phonological system at 2 years after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    CHIN, STEVEN B.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a description of a developing phonological system as manifested in the productions of a prelingually deafened child approximately 2 years after fitting with a Nucleus 22-Channel Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. A probe list consisting of 23 proper nouns familiar to the child was used to elicit samples of her speech; stimulus materials consisted of photographs of those persons (friends and family members) whose names were included in the probe list. Analysis of the child's productions addressed the composition of the phonetic inventory of consonants and vowels and the presence of syllable structure and other phonotactic constraints. Results indicated a rich inventory of speech sound segments (among both consonants and vowels) and a lack of stringent constraints on syllable structure and consonants permitted in specified word positions. A further comparative analysis of correspondences with the ambient language showed a number of patterns that are also common in the speech of children with normal hearing. PMID:22091697

  19. Latent rheumatic heart disease: outcomes 2 years after echocardiographic detection.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Andrea; Okello, Emmy; Aliku, Twalib; Lubega, Sulaiman; Lwabi, Peter; Mondo, Charles; McCarter, Robert; Sable, Craig

    2014-10-01

    Screening with portable echocardiography has uncovered a large burden of latent rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among asymptomatic children in endemic regions, the significance of which remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the 2-year outcomes for children with latent RHD diagnosed by echocardiographic screening. Children identified with latent RHD enrolled in a biannual follow-up program. Risk factors for disease persistence and progression were examined. Of 62 children, 51 (82 %) with latent RHD had a median follow-up period of 25 months. Of these 51 children, 17 (33.3 %) reported an interval sore throat or symptoms consistent with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Of 43 children initially classified as having borderline RHD, 21 (49 %) remained stable, 18 (42 %) improved (to no RHD) and 4 (10 %) worsened to definite RHD. Of the 8 children initially classified as having definite RHD, 6 (75 %) remained stable, and 2 (25 %) improved to borderline RHD. Two children had confirmed episodes of recurrent ARF, one of which represented the sole case of clinical worsening. The risk factors for disease persistence or progression included younger age (p = 0.05), higher antistreptolysin O titers at diagnosis (p = 0.05), and more morphologic valve abnormalities (p = 0.01). After 2 years, most of the children had a benign course, with 91 % remaining stable or showing improvement. Education may improve recognition of streptococcal sore throat. Longer-term follow-up evaluation, however, is warranted to confirm disease progression and risk factor profile. This could help tailor screening protocols for those at highest risk.

  20. [Application of an obesity treatment protocol for 2 years].

    PubMed

    Carnero Gregorio, Miguel; Álvarez Freire, Paula; Molares Vila, Alberto; Álvarez González, Myrian; Carnero Gregorio, Oscar; Arias Álvarez, José Ramón; Blach Italiani, Miguel Ángel; Villaverde Taboada, Carlos; Pérez Méndez, Luisa Fernanda

    2014-02-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de un protocolo clínico para pacientes obesos utilizado en la consulta de obesidad del Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo (CHUVI). Pacientes y métodos: En el estudio participaron 47 pacientes procedentes de la consulta de obesidad del CHUVI. Todos ellos fueron evaluados en consulta y siguieron el protocolo de obesidad durante un periodo de 2 años. Se evaluaron variables como el peso, el IMC y los grados de obesidad en el momento inicial y final. Resultados y discusión: En pacientes obesos entre 26 y 65 años se observa una tendencia a disminuir su grado de obesidad, con diferencias significativas en el 2012 respecto al 2010. Hay diferencias de comportamiento entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto al cambio de graduación en la obesidad. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio hemos comprobado diferencias de comportamiento entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto al cambio de graduación en la obesidad; en las mujeres hay una mayor tendencia a reducirlo.

  1. New geoscience teachers division for 2-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, Debra; Granshaw, Frank

    2011-11-01

    The role of 2-year colleges (2YCs) in geoscience education is growing as the number of students enrolled in Earth and space science courses increases and as these institutions—which include community colleges and junior colleges—provide more students majoring in geoscience at public universities. In recognition of the increasing role of 2YCs in geoscience education, the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) recently created a Geo2YC division for faculty, administrators, graduate students, and other geoscience professionals who share a professional interest in geoscience education at 2YCs. The mission of the new division, which is NAGT's first national division, is to serve as a forum for exchanging curricular ideas, concerns, and resources; establish a network of geoscience educators at 2YCs and other institutions with shared interests; sponsor NAGT 2YC activities and make recommendations to the NAGT Council in support of 2YC geoscience education; support and coordinate research on 2YC geoscience education; and advocate for 2YC geoscience education within NAGT and with other organizations.

  2. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  3. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development: Option 2 Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Option 2 Year from December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1997. The Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides products and deliverable in the form of models, data bases, methodologies, studies and analyses for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PPO3) the Program Plans and Requirements Officer (PP02), and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Progress reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section TV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work accomplishments, deliverables submitted, major meetings held, and other pertinent information. This Final Report will summarize these activities at higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 29,830 man-hours in tile performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work and reported oil in this yearly Final Report. This represents approximately 16 full-time EPs. Included are the basis Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Chicago, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  4. Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a slower but steady rate. From their second birthday to their third, most kids grow only about 2-3 inches. But you will see your child growing in other ways, especially in the area of language. Continue to provide a safe and healthy environment ...

  5. Tantalum trabecular metal implants in anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion: 2-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    King, V; Swart, A; Winder, M J

    2016-10-01

    Anterior cervical decompression for two or more cervical spondylotic levels can be performed using either multiple anterior cervical discectomies and fusion or anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF). A variety of options for ACCF implants exist but to our knowledge, there is no clinical data for the use of tantalum trabecular metal implants (TTMI) for ACCF. A retrospective review was performed of prospectively collected data for ten patients undergoing ACCF with TTMI between 2011 and 2012. Radiological outcome was assessed by measuring the change in cervical (C) lordosis (fusion Cobb and C2-C7 Cobb), graft subsidence (anterior/posterior, determined by the subsidence of anterior/posterior body height of fused segments; cranial/caudal, determined by the cranial/caudal plate-to-disc distances) and rate of fusion using lateral cervical X-rays of patients at 0, 6, 12 and 24months post-operatively. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) assessed clinical outcome pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and 24months post-operatively. Cervical lordosis (Cobb angle of fused segment) was 5.2° (± 4.2°) at 0months and 6.0° (± 5.7°) at 24months post-operatively. Graft subsidence was observed to occur at 6months post-operatively and continued throughout follow-up. Anterior, posterior and caudal subsidence occurred more in the first 12months post-operatively than in the following 12months (p<0.05). Average pre-operative NDI was 45%. Average NDIs were 18%, 13% and 10% at 6, 12 and 24months post-operatively, respectively. ACCF patients treated with TTMI demonstrated stable cervical lordosis over 2years of follow-up and 100% fusion rates after 2years. Measures of subsidence appeared to decrease with time. Patients experienced improved clinical outcomes over the 2-year period.

  6. Clinically Significant Behavior Problems among Young Children 2 Years after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. Method Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82). Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake), thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members) were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage), and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. Results Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10–5.07). Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. Conclusions One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These data will be

  7. New York University School of Medicine Drug Development Educational Program: 2-Year Benchmark.

    PubMed

    Plaksin, J; Cymerman, R M; Caso Caso, R; Galeano, C; Ramasamy, R; Gold-von Simson, G

    2016-10-01

    Drug development (DD) is a multidisciplinary process that spans the translational continuum, yet remains an understudied entity in medical schools and biomedical science institutes. In response to a growing interest and unmet need, we implemented a DD course series that details identification of viable molecular targets, clinical trial design, intellectual property, and marketing. Enrollment is open to faculty, postdoctoral trainees, and MD, PhD, and MS students. After 2 years, 37 students and 23 students completed the fall and spring courses, respectively. Pre/post-surveys demonstrated gained knowledge across course topics, with mean survey scores increased by 66% (p < 0.001) after each course. Lectures for each course were consistently rated highly, with a mean course rating of 4.1/5. Through this program, trainees will have a more innovative approach toward identification of therapeutic targets and modalities. Furthermore, they will learn to integrate technology and biomedical informatics to find creative solutions in the DD process.

  8. Autologous serum and plasma skin test to predict 2-year outcome in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Sangasapaviliya, Atik

    2016-01-01

    Background Autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) are simple methods to diagnose autoimmune chronic urticaria. However, the association data of ASST or APST with disease severity and long-term outcome are still unclear. Objective The results of ASST and APST might be used to predict urticaria symptom severity and long-term outcomes among chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients. Methods We evaluated the prevalence of reactive ASST and APST in 128 CSU patients. The patients were characterized by 4 groups: negative, ASST positive, APST positive, and both ASST and APST positive. We observed remission rate among the CSU patients during 2 years. Results Forty-four of 128 CSU patients (34%) had negative autologous skin test. The CSU patients with positive ASST, positive APST, and both positive ASST and APST were 47 (37%), 6 (5%), and 31 (24%), respectively. No significant difference was found between the groups according to urticaria severity score (USS) and dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Mean wheal diameter of ASST showed positive correlation with DLQI. Also, mean wheal diameter of APST showed positive correlation with USS and DLQI. Both the positive ASST and APST groups had a high proportion of 4-fold dose of H1-antihistamine than the positive ASST (p = 0.03) and negative groups (p = 0.0009). The rate of remission over 2 years in the negative, positive ASST, positive APST, and both positive ASST and APST groups were 81.1%, 62.3%, 60%, and 46.1%, respectively. The urticaria remission rate in patients in the negative group was significantly higher compared with both positive ASST and APST groups (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.61–15.44; p = 0.006). Conclusion ASST and APST results could predict remission rates among patients with CSU. Our results suggested investigating ASST and APST among CSU patients before starting treatment. PMID:27803883

  9. Comparison of wear and clinical performance between amalgam, composite and open sandwich restorations: 2-year results.

    PubMed

    Sachdeo, A; Gray, Gordon B; Sulieman, M A; Jagger, Daryll C

    2004-03-01

    There has been some disquiet over the use of mercury containing restorative materials. The most commonly used alternative is composite resin but this has the potential disadvantage associated with wear and marginal leakage, which in turn, has proven to result in secondary caries and sensitivity. To overcome the shortcomings of a directly placed composite restoration, the glass-ionomer/composite open sandwich technique was introduced followed by the subsequent introduction of compomer systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear and clinical performance of a control group of amalgam restorations compared with that of a group of posterior composite resin restorations fillings and a group of compomer/composite open sandwich restorations placed by a single general dental practitioner. The duration of the study was 2 years. One hundred and thirty three (71.4%) patients were successfully recalled and the wear and clinical performance of each restoration after 6, 12 and 24 months was measured, indirectly. There was no statistically significant difference recorded between the groups at 6 months or 1 year (p > 0.05). However, at the end of the 2-year study, there was a significantly lower rate of wear recorded for the control amalgam restorations compared with other two groups (p = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference in wear recorded between the two groups of tooth-coloured restorations (p > 0.05). With regards to clinical performance of the restorations, occlusal and proximal contacts in each group of restoration remained satisfactory throughout the study.

  10. Food production and nutrition for the crew during the first 2-year closure of Biosphere 2.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, S E

    1997-01-01

    Biosphere 2's finite natural resources: atmosphere, plants, water, and soil, and its unique increased rate of nutrient cycling, mandated a design for the agriculture that emphasized sustainability and high productivity. The results of the initial 2-year test of the agriculture system showed that it could provide a diet that was both nutritionally adequate and pleasing to the palate of the eight-member crew from September 1991 to September 1993. The agriculture design was developed from 1985 to 1991 at the Space Biospheres research greenhouses with consulting from the Institute of Ecotechnics (London) from its experiments in New Mexico, Australia, and France and the Environmental Research Laboratory (University of Arizona). During the 2-year mission this research was continued with the close collaboration of outside scientific consultants, particularly in the area of soil management and integrated pest management. The 2000-m2 cropping area provided approximately 81% of the overall nutritional needs of the crew. Initial results showed light to be the main limiting factor and the additional electric light was added after the first 2-year mission to increase the productivity for future experiments. The diet was primarily vegetarian supplemented with daily amounts of milk, and weekly meals of meat and eggs from the system's domestic goats, pigs, and chickens. Nontoxic methods of pest and disease control were used. The main pest problems were broad mite and root knot nematode. Inedible plant material, domestic animal wastes, and human waste water were successfully processed for nutrient return to the soil. Eighty-six varieties of crops were grown in Biosphere 2. Major staple crops included rice, sweet potato, beets, banana, and papaya. The African pygmy goats were the most productive of the domestic animals producing on average 1.14 kg of milk per day. The diet averaged 2200 calories, 73 g of protein, and 32 g of fat per person per day over the 2 years. The crew had a 10

  11. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... and cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that ...

  12. Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

  13. Comparison of 2-year clinical outcomes between diabetic versus nondiabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction after 1-month stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Seung-Ho; Won, Ki-Bum; Kim, In-Cheol; Bae, Jang-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Ahn, Young-Keun; Park, Jong-Seon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Rak-Kyeong; Choi, Donghoon; Kim, Joon-Hong; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Hun-Sik; Choi, So-Yeon; Yoon, Jung-Han; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Rha, Seung-Woon; Jang, Wooyeong; Bae, Jang-Whan; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Lim, Do-Sun; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Kee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed the 2-year clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a cohort of the DIAMOND (DIabetic Acute Myocardial infarctiON Disease) registry. Clinical outcomes were compared between 1088 diabetic AMI patients in the DIAMOND registry after stabilization of MI and 1088 nondiabetic AMI patients from the KORMI (Korean AMI) registry after 1 : 1 propensity score matching using traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Stabilized patients were defined as patients who did not have any clinical events within 1 month after AMI. Primary outcomes were the 2-year rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), a composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI (re-MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Matched comparisons revealed that diabetic patients exhibited significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and estimated glomerular filtration rate and smaller stent size. Diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher 2-year rates of MACE (8.0% vs 3.7%), all-cause death (3.9% vs 1.4%), re-MI (2.8% vs 1.2%), and TVR (3.5% vs 1.3%) than nondiabetic patients (all P < 0.01), and higher cumulative rates in Kaplan–Meier analyses of MACE, all-cause death, and TVR (all P < 0.05). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that chronic kidney disease, LVEF < 35%, and long stent were independent predictors of MACE, and large stent diameter and the use of drug-eluting stents were protective factors against MACE. The 2-year MACE rate beyond 1 month after AMI was significantly higher in DM patients than non-DM patients, and this rate was associated with higher comorbidities, coronary lesions, and procedural characteristics in DM. PMID:27336875

  14. Spatial Patterns, Longitudinal Development, and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cortical Thickness in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-06-17

    Cortical thickness (CT) is related to normal development and neurodevelopmental disorders. It remains largely unclear how the characteristic patterns of CT evolve in the first 2 years. In this paper, we systematically characterized for the first time the detailed vertex-wise patterns of spatial distribution, longitudinal development, and hemispheric asymmetries of CT at 0, 1, and 2 years of age, via surface-based analysis of 219 longitudinal magnetic resonance images from 73 infants. Despite the dynamic increase of CT in the first year and the little change of CT in the second year, we found that the overall spatial distribution of thin and thick cortices was largely present at birth, and evolved only modestly during the first 2 years. Specifically, the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, occipital cortex, and superior parietal region had thin cortices, whereas the prefrontal, lateral temporal, insula, and inferior parietal regions had thick cortices. We revealed that in the first year thin cortices exhibited low growth rates of CT, whereas thick cortices exhibited high growth rates. We also found that gyri were thicker than sulci, and that the anterior bank of the central sulcus was thicker than the posterior bank. Moreover, we showed rightward hemispheric asymmetries of CT in the lateral temporal and posterior insula regions at birth, which shrank gradually in the first 2 years, and also leftward asymmetries in the medial prefrontal, paracentral, and anterior cingulate cortices, which expanded substantially during this period. This study provides the first comprehensive picture of early patterns and evolution of CT during infancy.

  15. Clinical performance of a nanofilled resin composite with and without an intermediary layer of flowable composite: a 2-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Sebastian; van Dijken, Jan W V

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical follow-up was to evaluate the 2-year clinical performance of a nanofilled resin composite in class II restorations. The restorations were made with and without intermediary layer of a nanofilled flowable resin composite studied in an intraindividual comparison. Each participant received at least two, as similar as possible, class II restorations of the nanofilled resin composite. One restoration of each pair (54) was chosen at random to be restored with an intermediary layer with flowable nanofilled resin composite. The other was restored without. The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified US Public Health Services criteria at baseline, 1, and 2 years. Ninety-two restorations, 46 pairs, were evaluated at 2 years. A prediction of the caries risk showed that 22 of the evaluated 48 patients were considered as high-risk patients. Two failures were observed, one in each group, resulting in a 2.2% failure rate. No statistical difference was seen between the restorations restored with and without layer of flowable resin composite. The nanofilled resin composite showed very good surface characteristics and color match, which did not change significantly during the follow-up period. The nanofilled resin composite showed a good clinical performance with a 2.2% failure rate after 2 years. No differences were observed between the restorations with and without the nanofilled flowable resin intermediary layer.

  16. Os trigonum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nault, Marie-Lyne; Kocher, Mininder S; Micheli, Lyle J

    2014-09-01

    Os trigonum syndrome is the result of an overuse injury of the posterior ankle caused by repetitive plantar flexion stress. It is predominantly seen in ballet dancers and soccer players and is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exacerbated posterior ankle pain while dancing on pointe or demi-pointe or while doing push-off maneuvers. Symptoms may improve with rest or activity modification. Imaging studies, including a lateral radiographic view of the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, will typically reveal the os trigonum between the posterior tibial lip and calcaneus. If an os trigonum is absent on radiography, an MRI may reveal scar tissue behind the posterior talus, a condition associated with similar symptoms. Os trigonum syndrome is often associated with pathology of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Treatment begins with nonsurgical measures. In addition to physical therapy, symptomatic athletes may need surgical excision of os trigonum secondary to unavoidable plantar flexion associated with their sport. This surgery can be performed using open or arthroscopic approaches.

  17. Can patients with eating disorders learn to eat intuitively? A 2-year pilot study.

    PubMed

    Richards, P Scott; Crowton, Sabree; Berrett, Michael E; Smith, Melissa H; Passmore, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    The present article reports on a 2-year pilot study that evaluated the effectiveness of an intuitive eating program for patients in an eating disorder treatment center. Standardized measures of intuitive eating and eating disorder and psychological symptoms were administered. Psychotherapists and dietitians rated patients on the healthiness of their eating attitudes and behaviors. Preliminary findings indicated that patients can develop the skills of intuitive eating, and that the ability to eat intuitively is associated with positive treatment outcomes for each diagnostic category (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified). We conclude by offering recommendations about how to implement intuitive eating training safely and effectively in inpatient and residential treatment programs.

  18. Windsurfing vs kitesurfing: Injuries at the North Sea over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Christiaan J A; Commandeur, Joris P; Weber, Rik I K; Haverkamp, Daniel; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze all windsurfing and kitesurfing (kiteboarding) injuries presented at our coastal hospital over a 2-year period. METHODS Twenty-five windsurfers (21 male; aged 31 ± 8 years) and 32 kitesurfers (23 male; aged 29 ± 11 years) presented at our hospital during the 2-year study period. Various injury data were recorded, including transport to hospital and treatment. After a median follow-up of 16 mo (range, 7-33 mo), 18 windsurfers (72%) and 26 kitesurfers (81%) completed questionnaires on the trauma mechanisms, the use of protective gear, time spent on windsurfing or kitesurfing, time to return to sports, additional injuries, and chronic disability. RESULTS Most patients sustained minor injuries but severe injuries also occurred, including vertebral and tibial plateau fractures. The lower extremities were affected the most, followed by the head and cervical spine, the upper extremities, and the trunk. The injury rates were 5.2 per 1000 h of windsurfing and 7.0 per 1000 h of kitesurfing (P = 0.005). The injury severity was the same between groups (P = 1.0). Less than 30% of the study population used protective gear. Kitesurfers had a higher number of injuries, and required transport by ambulance, inpatient hospital stay and operative treatment more often than windsurfers, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The median time to return to windsurfing and kitesurfing was 5 and 4 wk, respectively (P = 0.79). Approximately one-third of the patients in each group experienced chronic symptoms. CONCLUSION Kitesurfing results in a significantly higher injury rate than windsurfing in the same environmental conditions but the severity of the injuries does not differ. PMID:28032034

  19. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  20. Delta Reverse Polarity Shoulder Replacement: Single Surgeon Experience with a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Magid; Javaid, Mohammad Muddassir Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background The delta reverse shoulder replacement system was developed for the treatment of rotator cuff arthropathy so that the deltoid can substitute for the deficient rotator cuff. To evaluate the results of delta reverse shoulder replacement for functional improvement and complications in a consecutive series by a single surgeon over a period of six years with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods The data were collected retrospectively from electronic theatre records. Over a period of 6 years (2006-2012), 46 cases that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were identified. There were 34 females and 12 males. The average age of patients was 76.2 years (range, 58 to 87 years). A single surgeon performed all procedures using the anterosuperior approach. The mean follow-up time was 49 months (range, 24 to 91 months). All cases had preoperative and postoperative Constant scores. We collected the data on indications, hospital stay, and change in the Constant score, complications, and reoperation rates. Results The main indication for surgery was rotator cuff arthropathy (52.2%), followed by massive rotator cuff tear (28.3%), osteoarthritis (8.7%), fractures (6.5%), and rheumatoid arthritis (4.3%). Also, 65.2% of the cases were referred by general practitioners, 26% of the cases were referred by other consultants, and 8.8% of the cases were already under the care of a shoulder surgeon. The average preoperative Constant score was 23.5 (range, 8 to 59). The average Constant score at the final follow-up was 56 (range, 22 to 83). On average, there was an improvement of 33 points in the Constant score. The improvement in the Constant score was significant (p < 0.001). We observed complications in four patients (8.6%). Three of four patients (6.5%) needed reoperation. The first complication was pulmonary embolism in the early postoperative period. The other complications included dissociation of the glenosphere from the metaglene, deltoid detachment, and stitch abscess

  1. Consultation training of nurses for cardiovascular prevention - a randomized study of 2 years duration.

    PubMed

    Drevenhorn, Eva; Bengtson, Ann; Nilsson, Peter M; Nyberg, Per; Kjellgren, Karin I

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to increase patients' adherence to the treatment of hypertension through the consultation training of nurses. Thirty-three nurses were included in the study. In the intervention group (IG), 19 nurses took part in a 3-day residential training course on the Stages of Change model, Motivational Interviewing and guidelines for cardiovascular prevention, and recruited 153 patients. Sixteen nurses in the control group (CG) recruited 59 patients. A decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and total cholesterol was noticed in both groups over the 2 years. Heart rate (p = 0.027), body mass index (p = 0.019), weight (p = 0.0001), waist (p = 0.041), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = 0.0001), the waist-hip ratio (p = 0.024), and perceived stress (p = 0.001) decreased to any great extent only in the IG. After 2 years, 52.6% of the patients in the IG (p = 0.13) reached the target of ≤ 140/90 mmHg in blood pressure compared with 39.2% in the CG. For self-reported physical activity, there was a significant (p = 0.021) difference between the groups. The beneficial effects of the consultation training on patients' weight parameters, physical activity, perceived stress and the proportion of patients who achieved blood pressure control emphasize consultation training and the use of behavioural models in motivating patients to adhere to treatment.

  2. Treatment Progress and Behavior Following 2 Years of Inpatient Sex Offender Treatment.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jill D; Becker, Judith V; McVay, Lee Ann

    2017-02-01

    Emerging research highlights the role of self-regulation in the treatment of sexual offenders. Safe Offender Strategies (SOS) is a manualized sex offender treatment program that emphasizes the role of self-regulation and self-regulatory skills development in sex offender treatment, particularly for offenders with serious mental illness and intellectual/developmental disabilities. The current study involves 156 adult male sexual offenders in an inpatient psychiatric setting who received SOS treatment for a period ranging from 6 months to 1 year. Participants' baseline and treatment data were obtained from archival medical records describing 1 year pre-treatment and up to 2 years of treatment participation. Dependent variables included monthly count rates of verbal and physical aggression and contact and noncontact sexual offending, as well as sexual deviancy attitudes, self-regulatory ability, and cooperation with treatment and supervision, as measured by the Sex Offender Treatment Intervention and Progress Scale (SOTIPS). Data were examined via paired-samples t tests, regression, and multilevel modeling, examining the impact of overall percentage of SOS groups attended over time, comparing participants' baseline measures to data from 2 years of treatment. The impact of predicted risk was also evaluated. Significant treatment dose effects were identified for improvements in aggression, sexual offending, and indicators of treatment compliance and change. These findings suggest that the skills-based, self-regulation approach utilized in SOS may be effective in improving clients' aggressive and sexual behaviors, attitudes toward their offenses and treatment, and self-regulatory ability over time. Implications for further research and treatment generalizability are discussed.

  3. Symptomatic Os Infranaviculare

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kwon Jae

    2013-01-01

    The author observed a new accessory bone of the foot in the distal portion of navicular, which articulated with the medial cuneiform and the intermediate cuneiform, and named it os infranaviculare. A degenerative change was observed between the accessory bone and the navicular; this caused midfoot pain to the patient during weight-bearing. Thus, the patient was treated by excision of the accessory bone. The symptom was relieved at one-year postoperative. PMID:23730481

  4. High-Dose-Rate Intraoperative Radiation Therapy for Recurrent Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, David J.; Chan, Kelvin; Wolden, Suzanne; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Chiu, Johnny; Cohen, Gilad; Zaider, Marco; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin; Lee, Nancy

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To report the use of high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) for recurrent head-and-neck cancer (HNC) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: Between July 1998 and February 2007, 34 patients with recurrent HNC received 38 HDR-IORT treatments using a Harrison-Anderson-Mick applicator with Iridium-192. A single fraction (median, 15 Gy; range, 10-20 Gy) was delivered intraoperatively after surgical resection to the region considered at risk for close or positive margins. In all patients, the target region was previously treated with external beam radiation therapy (median dose, 63 Gy; range, 24-74 Gy). The 1- and 2-year estimates for in-field local progression-free survival (LPFS), locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Results: With a median follow-up for surviving patients of 23 months (range, 6-54 months), 8 patients (24%) are alive and without evidence of disease. The 1- and 2-year LPFS rates are 66% and 56%, respectively, with 13 (34%) in-field recurrences. The 1- and 2-year DMFS rates are 81% and 62%, respectively, with 10 patients (29%) developing distant failure. The 1- and 2-year OS rates are 73% and 55%, respectively, with a median time to OS of 24 months. Severe complications included cellulitis (5 patients), fistula or wound complications (3 patients), osteoradionecrosis (1 patient), and radiation-induced trigeminal neuralgia (1 patient). Conclusions: HDR-IORT has shown encouraging local control outcomes in patients with recurrent HNC with acceptable rates of treatment-related morbidity. Longer follow-up with a larger cohort of patients is needed to fully assess the benefit of this procedure.

  5. Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome from 2-year extensions of phase 2 studies.

    PubMed

    Licht, Christoph; Greenbaum, Larry A; Muus, Petra; Babu, Sunil; Bedrosian, Camille L; Cohen, David J; Delmas, Yahsou; Douglas, Kenneth; Furman, Richard R; Gaber, Osama A; Goodship, Timothy; Herthelius, Maria; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Legendre, Christophe M; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sheerin, Neil; Trivelli, Antonella; Loirat, Chantal

    2015-05-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, possibly life-threatening disease characterized by platelet activation, hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leading to renal and other end-organ damage. We originally conducted two phase 2 studies (26 weeks and 1 year) evaluating eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with progressing TMA (trial 1) and those with long duration of aHUS and chronic kidney disease (trial 2). The current analysis assessed outcomes after 2 years (median eculizumab exposure 100 and 114 weeks, respectively). At all scheduled time points, eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved from baseline, and hematologic normalization was achieved in 13 patients at week 26, and in 15 patients at both 1 and 2 years. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly improved compared with baseline and year 1. In trial 2 with 20 patients, TMA event-free status was achieved by 16 patients at week 26, 17 patients at year 1, and 19 patients at year 2. Criteria for hematologic normalization were met by 18 patients at each time point. Improvement of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or more in eGFR was achieved by 1 patient at week 26, 3 patients at 1 year, and 8 patients at 2 years. The mean change in eGFR was not significant compared with baseline, week 26, or year 1. Eculizumab was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns or meningococcal infections. Thus, a 2-year analysis found that the earlier clinical benefits achieved by eculizumab treatment of aHUS were maintained at 2 years of follow-up.

  6. Prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders among a community sample of adolescents: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Arribas, Pilar; Plumed, Javier; Gimeno, Natalia; García-Blanco, Ana; Vaz-Leal, Francisco; Luisa Vila, María; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2015-05-30

    The previous literature about comorbidity between eating disorders (ED) and other DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in adolescence has employed cross-sectional studies with clinical samples, where the comorbid disorders were diagnosed retrospectively. The present study aims to overcome these limitations by the analysis of comorbidity in a community population during 2-year follow-up. A semi-structured interview was applied to a teenager sample. Firstly, a cross-sectional and non-randomized study on psychiatric morbidity was conducted with 993 teenagers between the ages of 12 and 16 from five schools. Secondly, 326 students between 14 and 17 years old of one school were reassessed 2 years later in order to detect ED new cases and find associations with previous psychiatric disorders. The ED prevalence was 3.6%. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that 62.9% of individuals with an ED had comorbid disorders: anxiety disorders (51.4%), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (31.4%), oppositional defiant disorder (11.4%), and obsessive compulsive disorder (8.6%). Prospective longitudinal analysis showed an ED incidence rate of 2.76% over the course of 2 years. 22.2% of new cases had received previous psychiatric diagnoses, of which all were anxiety disorders. Thus, ED exhibited a high comorbidity rate among adolescent populations and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis.

  7. Chief Student Affairs Officers in 2-Year Colleges: Their Demographics and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine demographics and educational backgrounds of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) in public 2-year colleges. Using systematic sampling techniques, 300 2-year colleges were selected from the AACC Membership Directory for inclusion in the study. Each college's website was visited to determine the name of…

  8. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  9. The Role of 2-Year Colleges in the Improving Situation of Hispanic Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo; Hilmer, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades 2-year colleges have become an increasingly important part of the American higher education system, especially for Hispanics who are disproportionately likely to start their careers in 2-year colleges. Given that today's economy rewards college attendance more than every before [Bound & Johnson (1992). "The…

  10. Longitudinal development of cortical and subcortical gray matter from birth to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John H; Shi, Feng; Woolson, Sandra L; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Short, Sarah J; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu; Hamer, Robert M; Styner, Martin; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-11-01

    Very little is known about cortical development in the first years of life, a time of rapid cognitive development and risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. We studied regional cortical and subcortical gray matter volume growth in a group of 72 children who underwent magnetic resonance scanning after birth and at ages 1 and 2 years using a novel longitudinal registration/parcellation approach. Overall, cortical gray matter volumes increased substantially (106%) in the first year of life and less so in the second year (18%). We found marked regional differences in developmental rates, with primary motor and sensory cortices growing slower in the first year of life with association cortices growing more rapidly. In the second year of life, primary sensory regions continued to grow more slowly, while frontal and parietal regions developed relatively more quickly. The hippocampus grew less than other subcortical structures such as the amygdala and thalamus in the first year of life. It is likely that these patterns of regional gray matter growth reflect maturation and development of underlying function, as they are consistent with cognitive and functional development in the first years of life.

  11. A 2-year young adult obesity prevention trial in the US: Process evaluation results.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Sevcik, Sarah M; Moe, Stacey G; Petrich, Christine A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Linde, Jennifer A; Lytle, Leslie A

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to conduct a process evaluation of the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, a large, randomized, controlled trial designed to prevent unhealthy weight gain in young adults (aged 18-35) attending 2-year community colleges in the USA. The 24-month intervention consisted of participation in an academic course and a social networking and support website. Among intervention participants, completion rates for most course activities were >80%, reflecting a high level of dose received. Course retention and participant satisfaction were also high. Engagement results, however, were mixed with less than half of participants in the online and hybrid sections of the course reporting that they interacted with course materials ≥3 h/week, but 50-75% reporting that they completed required lessons 'all/very thoroughly'. Engagement in the website activities was also mixed with more than half of intervention participants logging onto the website during the first month, but then declining to 25-40% during the following 23 months of the intervention. Intervention engagement is a challenge of online interventions and a challenge of working with the young adult age group in general. Additional research is needed to explore strategies to support engagement among this population, particularly for relatively long intervention durations.

  12. Tracking the Hirnantian glaciation using Os isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Alexander J.; Selby, David; Gröcke, Darren R.

    2010-05-01

    Here we present initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) values integrated with δ13Corg for the first Paleozoic section - the Ordovician/Silurian boundary GSSP at Dob's Linn, Scotland. Our 187Os/188Os data tracks major changes in climate that occurred during the Late Ordovician (Hirnantian glaciation), which coincides with the second largest known mass extinction. During the complanatus and early anceps Biozones Osi values increase from 0.28-1.08. This provides evidence for a period of increased silicate weathering of radiogenic continental crust, likely from the Caledonian Orogen. This increase in weathering was likely the driving mechanism for the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 and global cooling that resulted in the onset of the Hirnantian Glaciation. A decrease to less radiogenic Osi occurs at the base Hirnantian extraordinarius Biozone and coincides with the trend to more positive δ13Corg values that mark the onset of the Hirnantian Glaciation. The trend in Osi during this interval is ascribed to Hirnantian ice cover and reduced chemical weathering rates cutting the supply of radiogenic material to the Iapetus Ocean. The reduction in silicate weathering enabled atmospheric CO2 to return back to greenhouse levels, causing rapid deglaciation during the mid persculptus Biozone. This period is marked by an abrupt increase in Osi values from 0.6 to 1.08 over 19 cm of stratigraphy and coincides with the deglacial limb of the δ13Corg profile. We interpret the Osi data to reflect the leaching of exposed radiogenic 187Os/188Os bearing glacial deposits and increased weathering of radiogenic 187Os/188Os silicate terrane during the deglaciation. Previous workers have identified the Hirnantian glaciation primarily through δ13C stratigraphy. However, our Os isotope data indicate that an initial mechanism (i.e. increased silicate weathering) was the driving mechanism behind the Hirnantian Glaciation and subsequent mass extinction. Thus, by coupling Osi and δ13Corg proxies we provide the

  13. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  14. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  15. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in

  16. Global calibration/validation of 2 years of SARAL/AltiKa data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Lillibridge, John; Leuliette, Eric; Bonekamp, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The AltiKa altimeter flying onboard the French/Indian SARAL satellite provides the first opportunity to examine Ka-band measurements of sea surface height, significant wave height and ocean surface wind speed. In this presentation we provide the results from our global calibration/validation analysis of the AltiKa measurements, with an emphasis on near real-time applications of interest to both EUMETSAT and NOAA. Traditional along-track SSHA, and single as well as dual-satellite crossover assessments of the AltiKa performance are be provided. Unique aspects of the AltiKa mission such as improved along-track resolution, reduced ionospheric path delay corrections, mission-specific wind speed and sea state bias corrections, and sensitivity to liquid moisture and rain are also explored. In February 2014, a major update to the ground processing was introduced. "Patch-2" improved the way wind speed was derived from altimeter backscatter, as suggested by Lillibridge et al. (1). The backscatter attenuation is now derived from the radiometer measurements via neural network algorithms, which also determine the wet tropospheric correction. We emphasize these improvements in our analysis. After 2 years in flight, SARAL/AltiKa is already providing a significant contribution to the constellation of operational radar altimetry missions, demonstrating the large benefits of high-rate Ka-band altimetry. (1) Lillibridge, John, Remko Scharroo, Saleh Abdalla, Doug Vandemark, 2014: One- and Two-Dimensional Wind Speed Models for Ka-Band Altimetry. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 630-638. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00167.1

  17. Comparison between visual clinical examination and the replica method for assessments of sealant retention over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Lu; Fan, Ming-Wen; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-01-01

    To compare the levels of agreement and the survival rates of sealant retention for different sealing materials over a 2-year period assessed using the visual clinical examination and replica methods, sealant retention data were obtained by visual clinical examination and from replicas of the same sealed tooth at baseline and at 0.5-, 1- and 2-year evaluation points in 407 children and were compared for agreement using kappa coefficients. Survival curves of retained sealants on occlusal surfaces were created using modified categorisation (fully retained sealants and those having all pits and fissures partly covered with the sealant material versus completely lost sealants that included pit and fissure systems that had ≥1 pit re-exposed) according to the Kaplan–Meier method. The kappa coefficient for the agreement between both assessment methods over the three evaluation time points combined was 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35–0.41). More sealant retention was observed from replicas than through visual clinical examination. Cumulative survival curves at the three evaluation times were not statistically significantly higher when assessed from replicas (P=0.47). Using the replica method, more retained sealant material was observed than through visual clinical examination during the 2-year period. This finding did not result in a difference in the survival rates of sealants assessed by the two assessment methods. When replicas cast in die stone are used for assessing sealant retention, the level of reliability of the data is higher than that of data obtained through the commonly used visual clinical examination, particularly if such assessments are conducted over time. PMID:24625469

  18. Precise ReOs determinations and systematics of iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, J. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1996-08-01

    The ReOs system for samples of FeNi, sulphide, and phosphide from iron meteorites was investigated. Techniques were developed which yield reproducible analyses for Re/Os at the 2%‰ level and which permit complete isotopic exchange between sample and tracer, as is necessary for concentration measurements of Re and Os by isotope dilution. High precision osmium and rhenium isotope data have been obtained using negative ion thermal ionization, with ionization efficiencies of up to 10% for Os and 20% for Re, both for normals and for Re and Os extracted from the samples. Replicate analyses of Re/Os are in good agreement, within ±2.5%o. The results show a well defined correlation line on a 187Re- 187Os evolution diagram for iron meteorites from groups IAB, IIAB, IIIAB, IVA, and IVB, all taken together. This correlation line yields a slope of 0.07863 ± 0.00031 (2σ) and initial 187Os/ 188Os = 0.09560 ± 0.00018 (2σ). If the individual groups of iron meteorites for which there is sufficient dispersion in Re/Os are considered, data on the IIAB and on the IVA irons appear to indicate a difference in age of 60 ± 45 Ma, with the IVA group being older. This age difference is qualitatively the same as obtained for PdAg data but is larger. Sulphides from two IAB iron meteorites show extremely low concentrations of Re and Os and indicate that Re and Os are not partitioned into this phase during planetary differentiation. There is evidence for recent element remobilization or contamination, corresponding to relative enrichment of Re or loss of Os in the sulphides. Schreibersites contain small but significant amounts of Re and Os, with high Re/Os relative to the metal phases and with 187Os/ 188Os much more radiogenic than in the metal. Model ages for the Schreibersites are relatively young (4.3-3.5 AE) and indicate that the Schreibersites were open-systems for ReOs at least 0.5-1 AE after the original formation of the iron meteorites. It now appears possible to use

  19. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  20. Health and Access to Care during the First 2 Years of the ACA Medicaid Expansions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah; Wherry, Laura R

    2017-03-09

    Background By September 2015, a total of 29 states and Washington, D.C., were participating in Medicaid expansions under the Affordable Care Act. We examined whether Medicaid expansions were associated with changes in insurance coverage, health care use, and health among low-income adults. Methods We compared changes in outcomes during the 2 years after implementation of the Medicaid expansion (2014 and 2015) relative to the 4 years before expansion (2010 through 2013) in states with and without expansions, using data from the National Health Interview Survey. The sample consisted of 60,766 U.S. citizens who were 19 to 64 years of age and had incomes below 138% of the federal poverty level. Outcomes included insurance coverage, access to and use of medical care in the past 12 months, and health status as reported by the respondents. Results A total of 29 states and Washington, D.C., expanded Medicaid by September 1, 2015. In year 2 after implementation, uninsurance rates were reduced in expansion states relative to nonexpansion states (difference-in-differences estimate, -8.2 percentage points; P<0.001) and rates of Medicaid coverage were increased (difference-in-differences estimate, 15.6 percentage points; P<0.001). Expansions were not associated with significant changes in the likelihood of a doctor visit or overnight hospital stay or health status as reported by the respondent. However, as compared with nonexpansion states, expansion states had a decrease in reports of inability to afford needed follow-up care (difference-in-differences estimate, -3.4 percentage points; P=0.002) and in reports of worry about paying medical bills (difference-in-differences estimate, -7.9 percentage points; P=0.002) and an increase in reports of medical care being delayed because of wait times for appointments (difference-in-differences estimate, 2.6 percentage points; P=0.02). Conclusions Medicaid expansion was associated with increased insurance coverage and access to care

  1. Adverse Events during 2 Years of Daily Wear of Silicone Hydrogels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Chen, Xiang; Naduvilath, Thomas; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Lin, Zhi; Li, Li; Smith, Earl L.; Ge, Jian; Holden, Brien A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Type and incidence of adverse events and rate of discontinuations for 2 years of daily wear with silicone hydrogel contact lenses in Chinese children with myopia. Methods Two hundred forty children aged 7 to 14 years were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial from November 2008 to April 2009. Children with myopia of up to −3.50 diopters (D) spherical equivalent with astigmatism less than or equal to −0.75 D were randomized to one commercial and three experimental lens designs of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel lenses (four groups) used bilaterally on a daily wear, monthly replacement schedule. The main outcome measures were incidence per 100 patient-years (incidence, in percentage) of adverse events and rate of discontinuations. Results There were no events of microbial keratitis. Fifty-five adverse events (incidence, 14.2%) were seen. There were also 12 recurrent events. The type and incidence percentage were contact lens papillary conjunctivitis (16 events, 4.1%), superior epithelial arcuate lesions (SEALs, six events, 1.5%), corneal erosions (eight events, 2.1%), infiltrative keratitis (five events, 1.3%), asymptomatic infiltrative keratitis (seven events, 1.8%), and asymptomatic infiltrates (13 events, 3.42%). There were differences in the incidence of SEALs between groups (p = 0.023), with the incidence of SEALs being greater with one of the experimental designs. No event resulted in any vision loss. Seventy participants (29.2%) discontinued, with one-third (26 participants, 10.8%) occurring in the first month of lens wear. Discomfort and non–lens-related reasons such as safety concern and disinterest were frequently cited reasons for discontinuations. Conclusions Adverse events with daily wear of silicone hydrogels in children were mainly mechanical in nature, and significant infiltrative events were few. The large number of dropouts in the early days of lens wear and their reasons for discontinuation suggest that adaptation and

  2. Impact of the 2004 Tsunami on Self-Reported Physical Health in Thailand for the Subsequent 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Coyte, Peter C.; McKenzie, Kwame

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined self-reported physical health during the first 2 years following the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. Methods. We assessed physical health with the revised Short Form Health Survey. We evaluated 6 types of tsunami exposure: personal injury, personal loss of home, personal loss of business, loss of family member, family member’s injury, and family’s loss of business. We examined the relationship between tsunami exposure and physical health with multivariate linear regression. Results. One year post-tsunami, we interviewed 1931 participants (97.2% response rate), and followed up with 1855 participants 2 years after the tsunami (96.1% follow-up rate). Participants with personal injury or loss of business reported poorer physical health than those unaffected (P < .001), and greater health impacts were found for women and older individuals. Conclusions. Exposure to the tsunami disaster adversely affected physical health, and its impact may last for longer than 1 year, which is the typical time when most public and private relief programs withdraw. PMID:24028261

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  4. Clinical Results of Lateral Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Song; Kim, Jin Woo; Kang, Min Su

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical results and early complications after lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) using the Zimmer unicompartmental high-flex knee (ZUK) prosthesis with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty-seven patients (30 cases) who underwent lateral UKA with the ZUK prosthesis between January 2011 and February 2014 were selected for this study. The mean age of the patients was 63.3 years at the time of surgery, and the mean followup was 3 years and 2 months (range, 24 to 48 months). A retrospective investigation method was used to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results with use of the Knee Society (KS) clinical rating system and plain radiography. Results The mean KS pain score was improved from 17.9 points (range, 10 to 30 points) preoperatively to 40.5 points (range, 30 to 45 points) at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean KS knee score and function score significantly increased from 63.2 points (range, 48 to 70 points) and 68.6 points (range, 35 to 80 points), respectively, preoperatively to 86.0 points (range, 74 to 95 points) and 92.4 points (range, 60 to 100 points), respectively, at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean range of motion of the knee was recovered from 127.1° (range, 110° to 135°) preoperatively to 131.6° (range, 120° to 135°) at the final follow-up. The mean tibiofemoral angle changed from 6.2° of valgus (range, 0.1° to 11.4° of valgus) preoperatively to 3.4°of valgus (range, 0.2° to 9.5° of valgus) at the final follow-up. The overall results classified based on the KS knee score were "excellent" in 21 cases and "good" in 8 cases. Revision total knee arthroplasty was required in one case because of consistent pain on the medial side of the knee after surgery. Conclusions The early clinical results of lateral UKA using the ZUK prosthesis were satisfactory for improvement of pain, knee score, function score, and recovery of knee motion. Therefore, the lateral UKA could be a

  5. Herpes zoster in a 2-year-old vaccinated against varicella.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Catherine A; Trevino, Julian J; Gandhi, Rishi K

    2014-01-15

    Herpes zoster is uncommon in the pediatric population. We report a case of herpes zoster in a 2-year-old boy who received the live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccination at his 12-month pediatric visit. The child was treated with acyclovir and recovered without complications.

  6. AGU awarded grant to establish program on engaging 2-year-college students in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti; Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2012-03-01

    Students at 2-year colleges are a critical part of the future Earth and space science workforce, and undergraduate research experiences provide a hook to retain and ultimately to graduate students in the field. AGU was awarded a planning grant by the U.S. National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences award 1201578) to help launch a new initiative concerning these issues; education and public outreach staff are the principal investigators. This new initiative, titled Unique Research Experiences for Two-Year College Faculty and Students (URECAS), will begin with a planning workshop this summer (11-13 July). The workshop will bring together faculty from 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, and representatives from professional societies and federal organizations to learn more about how to support 2-year-college faculty and students engaged in Earth and space science research and to discuss the development of a program to strengthen the role of 2-year-college Earth and space science students in the future workforce

  7. Changing Network Support for Drinking: Network Support Project 2-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Kabela-Cormier, Elise; Petry, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    The Network Support Project was designed to determine whether a treatment could lead patients to change their social network from one that supports drinking to one that supports sobriety. This study reports 2-year posttreatment outcomes. Alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 210) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 outpatient treatment conditions:…

  8. INSTRUMENTATION TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM. TECHNICAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM SERIES, NUMBER 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    A 2-YEAR POST-SECONDARY CURRICULUM FOR TECHNICIANS IS PRESENTED. IT IS DESIGNED TO AID SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PLAN AND DEVELOP NEW PROGRAMS OR EVALUATE EXISTING PROGRAMS. IT WAS PREPARED PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION CONTRACT BY THE INSTRUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA AFTER A NATIONAL SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION…

  9. Japanese Female Students' Perceptions of 2-Year Colleges as a Choice for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges have played an important role in providing postsecondary education for women in postwar Japan. More recently, a dwindling college-bound population in Japan has resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of and enrollment in 2-year colleges. This study explored the motivations and aspirations of 12 Japanese female students to…

  10. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors among 2-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: The purpose of this article is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods: During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and…

  11. Robotically Assisted Gynecologic Surgery: 2-Year Experience in the French Foch Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Goetgheluck, Julie; Carbonnel, Marie; Ayoubi, Jean Marc

    2014-01-01

    Robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery has seen rapid expansion over the past few years and it constantly evolves with a progressive enlargement of its range of indications. In the present paper we would like to share our 2-year experience regarding the use of robotics in various laparoscopic procedures, including hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and sacrocolpopexy. PMID:25593933

  12. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commitments have been obtained; (iii) Technical assistance resources and other forms of support pledged by... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community shall prepare and submit annually, work plans for the subsequent...

  13. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commitments have been obtained; (iii) Technical assistance resources and other forms of support pledged by... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community shall prepare and submit annually, work plans for the subsequent...

  14. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  15. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  16. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  17. Persistence by 2-Year College Graduates to 4-Year Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of the relationship between the characteristics of 3,762 Connecticut 2-year college students 25 or older and their persistence to 4-year colleges. Reports that students with higher perceptions of social and institutional support and those over 35 were more likely to persist to 4-year institutions. (10 citations) (AJL)

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  19. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331

  20. Depressive and anxiety disorders: Associated with losing or gaining weight over 2 years?

    PubMed

    de Wit, Leonore M; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2015-06-30

    This longitudinal study examines to what extent different depressive and anxiety disorders and clinical characteristics are associated with subsequent weight change, while controlling for baseline weight, sociodemographics, health status, psychotropic medication use and (un)healthy lifestyle factors. Data are from a sample of 2447 respondents aged 18-65 years of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline depressive disorders and anxiety disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weight at baseline and after 2 years was measured and analyzed as continuous change score (mean change in weight 1kg) and in categories of significant weight loss (<1S.D. weight change equaling <4kg), weight maintenance and weight gain (>1S.D., >6kg). After full adjustment for covariates baseline comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder and baseline Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were associated with significant 2-year weight gain. Both current and remitted MDD at baseline and a baseline dysthymia, but none of the anxiety disorders, were associated with significant weight loss. This longitudinal study confirms a U-curved link between depression and weight change over 2 years. Furthermore, a dose-response effect of depression severity on 2-year weight gain was found.

  1. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  2. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old chihuahua mixed breed dog.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old, female, Chihuahua mixed breed was presented on multiple occasions with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnostic tests, including blood analyses and ultrasonography, established pancreatitis as the cause of gastrointestinal irritation. Hospitalization and supportive care, followed by maintenance of a prescription gastrointestinal diet, allowed management of the disease.

  3. Emotionally Focused Interventions for Couples with Chronically Ill Children: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Paula F.; Manion, Ian G.; Walker, Jan Gordon; Johnson, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Couples with chronically ill children are particularly at risk for experiencing marital distress. The study presented here is a 2-year follow-up of a randomized control trial that assessed the efficacy of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) in decreasing marital distress in a sample of couples with a chronically ill child. Thirteen couples with…

  4. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  5. Communication Apprehension: Levels of First-Generation College Students at 2-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Trevor A.; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the oral communication apprehension (CA) levels of first-generation college students at a 2-year case study community institution. Overall and general-context CA were measured using the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The survey was sent by e-mail to 2,040 institutionally-identified first-generation…

  6. How Joint Attention Relates to Cooperation in 1- and 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Pan, Jingtong; Su, Yanjie; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention has been suggested to contribute to children's development of cooperation; however, few empirical studies have directly tested this hypothesis. Children aged 1 and 2 years participated in two joint action activities to assess their cooperation with an adult partner, who stopped participating at a specific moment during the tasks.…

  7. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  8. Common Aetiology for Diverse Language Skills in 4 1/2-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dale, Philip S.

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate genetic analysis was used to examine the genetic and environmental aetiology of the interrelationships of diverse linguistic skills. This study used data from a large sample of 4 1/2-year-old twins who were tested on measures assessing articulation, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and verbal memory. Phenotypic analysis suggested two…

  9. Upper limb movements and outcome in intrauterine-growth-retarded infants at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Luba; Harel, Shaul; Leitner, Yael; Jaffa, Ariel; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to examine the usefulness of spontaneous upper limb movements (ULM) as an early marker for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with intrauterine-growth retardation (IUGR). The assessment of general movements (GMs) during the first 20 weeks is an accepted method for early detection of brain dysfunction. During this period, spontaneous upper limb movements were examined in 32 infants with IUGR and 32 appropriate-for-gestational-age-matched controls. ULM (arms, forearms and hands) were scored as optimal or suboptimal by sequential videotape recordings in the writhing (term-2 weeks: score 0-5); early fidgety (9-11 weeks: score 0-6); and late fidgety (14-16 weeks: score 0-6) periods, and correlated with neurodevelopmental score at 2 years of age. The mean ULM score was lower in the IUGR infants than the controls (p<0.05) and in the IUGR group was lower in the infants with abnormal outcome (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between ULM and 2-year neurodevelopmental scores in the IUGR group. The ULM during late-fidgety period was most predictive for 2-year neurodevelopmental score. No difference was found in the mean ULM score between the pre-term and term IUGR infants. We conclude that ULM score can serve as an early predictor for neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in infants with IUGR.

  10. Generacion 1.5: A Cultural Historical Agenda for Research at the 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Portes, Pedro R.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we employ a cultural historical theoretical framework to extend understandings of how widespread 2-year college placement policies concerning English remediation potentially locate and retain U.S.-educated Latino adolescents at the margins of higher education through well-intentioned yet deficit-driven postsecondary cultural…

  11. Coordination of Lip Muscle Activity by 2-Year-Old Children During Speech and Nonspeech Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ruark, Jacki L.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was designed to quantify the coordinative organization of lip muscle activity of 2-year-old children during speech and nonspeech behaviors. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of right upper and lower lip activity of seven 2-year-old children were obtained during productions of chewing, syllable repetition, lip protrusion, and speech (repeated two-word utterances) tasks. Task comparisons revealed that the coordinative organization of upper and lower lip activity is task specific; different coordinative strategies are employed for different tasks. Lip protrusion and syllable repetition tasks yielded strong coupling of upper and lower lip activity. Lip rounding (sentences containing the lip-rounding vowel /u/) and “nonlabial” speech tasks (sentences free of bilabials and lip-rounding vowels) resulted in low coupling of upper and lower lip activity. Moderate levels of coupling of upper and lower lip activity were evident for chewing and bilabial speech tasks (sentences loaded with bilabial plosion). This finding, that the coordinative elements of the perioral system of 2-year-olds are task specific, extends the results of previous studies of adults and children, where task-specific coordinative strategies were employed by the mandibular and perioral systems (Moore, 1993; Moore & Ruark, 1996; Moore, Smith, & Ringel, 1988; Wohlert & Goffman, 1994). The task-dependent coordination of the perioral system of 2-year-olds supports the notion that developing speech and earlier developing oromotor behaviors (i.e., sucking, chewing) are mediated by different control mechanisms. PMID:9430757

  12. Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-19

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood.

  13. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren M.; Safran, Marc R.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Huddleston, James I.; Bellino, Michael J.; Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin–aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  14. Severe bronchiolitis in infants born very preterm and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Marion; Nguyen, Sylvie; Savagner, Christophe; Troussier, Francoise; Gascouin, Géraldine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril

    2013-05-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which is associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. These infants are also more likely to develop severe bronchiolitis, which can contribute to neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to determine whether severe bronchiolitis in very preterm infants (born before 33 weeks of gestation) was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of age. We analyzed a population-based cohort of infants (the Loire Infant Follow-up Team cohort) born between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2009. Severe bronchiolitis was defined as hospitalization due to bronchiolitis during the first year of life. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 2 years of corrected age. A total of 2,405 infants were included in this analysis and categorized based on neonatal respiratory status: 1,308 (54.4 %) received no respiratory assistance, 864(35.9 %) received oxygen for <28 days, and 167 (6.9 %) had mild and 66 (2.7) moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 2 years, 502 children displayed non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome (20.9 %). Moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was significantly associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years (adjusted odds ratios (OR) = 2.3 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.3-3.9], p = 0.003). In the first year, 318 infants acquired severe bronchiolitis (13.2 %), which was not associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome (adjusted OR = 1.0 [95 % CI: 0.8-1.4]; p = 0.88). In conclusion, respiratory status in the neonatal period was significantly associated with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years, while severe bronchiolitis was not.

  15. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease during the first 2 years after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Laurés, A S; Gómez, E; Baltar, J; Alvarez-Grande, J

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the role of cardiovascular risk factors in the occurrence of cardiovascular events among 100 consecutive renal transplant recipients during the first 2 years after transplantation. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) demographic data (gender, age, dialysis duration, preexistent diabetes, and pretransplantation events) as well as (2) basal 1-year, and 2-year posttransplantation data for events, body mass index, arterial hypertension, number of drugs for hypertension control, use of ACE or ARA II inhibitors, treatment with lipid- lowering drugs, de novo diabetes, anemia, immunosuppression with cyclosporine versus tacrolimus, and homocysteine, folic acid, serum creatinine, uric acid, PTH-i, and cholesterol total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. At the end of the second posttransplantation year, 14 patients versus 86 who did not experience a new cardiovascular event. Patients in the event group had more events pretransplantation and during the first posttransplantation year than those in the non event group (57.1% vs 17.4%; P = .003 and 78.6% vs 2.3%; P = .000, respectively). Furthermore, the former cohort of patients were older, had greater ventricular hypertrophy and had higher triglyceride and serum creatinine concentrations during the 2 years after transplantation. A multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the relationship between events within 1 year of transplantation and serum creatinine level at the end of 2 years as well as the development of cardiovascular disease within 2 years. In conclusion, our data suggest the need for aggressive intervention during the first year to prevent the development of new cardiovascular events. Renoprotective strategies may also contribute to reduce the cardiovascular risk of renal transplant recipients.

  16. The Auckland Cataract Study: 2 year postoperative assessment of aspects of clinical, visual, corneal topographic and satisfaction outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A M; Sachdev, N; Wong, T; Riley, A F; Grupcheva, C N; McGhee, C N

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical, visual, computerised corneal topographic, and subjective satisfaction with visual acuity, in a cohort of subjects 2 years after phacoemulsification surgery in a public hospital in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective study of a representative sample of 97 subjects (20%) randomly selected from 480 subjects in the original Auckland Cataract Study (ACS) cohort. The clinical assessment protocol was identical to the ACS and included an extensive questionnaire to enable direct comparisons to be made between the two groups. Results: The study population was predominantly female (66%) with a mean age of 76.3 (SD 9.9) years. New systemic and ocular disease affected 18.4% and 10.3% of subjects respectively, and 10.3% required referral to either a general practitioner (2.1%) or ophthalmologist (8.2%). Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.2 (0.2) logMAR units (6/9 Snellen equivalent), with mean spherical equivalent −0.37 (1.01) dioptres (D) and astigmatism −1.07 (0.70) D 2 years postoperatively, compared to mean BSCVA 0.1 (0.2) logMAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), spherical equivalent −0.59 (1.07) D, and astigmatism −1.14 (0.77) D 4 weeks after surgery. 94.9% of subjects retained a BSCVA of 6/12 or better, irrespective of pre-existing ocular disease. The overall posterior capsule opacification (PCO) rate was 20.4% and this was visually insignificant in all but 3.1% of eyes that had already undergone Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Orbscan II elevation technology demonstrated corneal stability 2 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Although corneal astigmatism was eliminated in approximately half of the subjects 1 month postoperatively, astigmatism showed a tendency to regress towards the preoperative level with local corneal thickening at the site of incision 2 years after cataract surgery. Of fellow eyes, 61.2% had undergone cataract surgery. Overall, 75.3% of subjects were moderately to very satisfied with their

  17. Five Years' Experience Treating Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Results From a Single Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Kate; Gallop-Evans, Eve; Hanna, Louise Adams, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes after concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix and perform a multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: The outcomes were analyzed for all women treated between 1999 and 2004 with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy and RT followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and distant control (DC). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to perform multivariate analysis of the prognostic variables. Results: The standard regimen comprised whole pelvic external RT 45 Gy in 25 fractions with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, followed by four high-dose-rate brachytherapy insertions of 6 Gy. Patients with radiologically enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes underwent extended-field RT. Of 92 patients, the OS rate was 72% at 2 years and 55% at 5 years. The LC rate was 76% at 2 years and 67% at 5 years. The DC rate was 68% at 2 years and 48% at 5 years. The most important prognostic factor for OS, LC, and DC was the pretreatment hemoglobin. For OS, the tumor size and the presence of enlarged lymph nodes were also important. For LC, the number of brachytherapy insertions was important; and for DC, the number of chemotherapy treatments was important. Of the patients, 4% experienced late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the regimen is effective, with acceptable long-term side effects. In this cohort, the most important prognostic factor was the pretreatment hemoglobin level, a disease-related factor. However, more effective systemic treatments are needed.

  18. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  19. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  20. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  1. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  2. RSV frequency in children below 2 years hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hacımustafaoğlu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Ozgür, Taner; Ozcan, Ismail; Güray, Atilla; Cakır, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent agent of acute lower respiratory diseases and creates a significant burden of disease in children under 5 years all over the world. RSV causes severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) that require hospitalization, especially in children ≤2 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RSV in children ≤2 years of age hospitalized for LRTI. Children ≤2 years of age hospitalized for one year for LRTI in the three largest hospitals of Bursa City Center, Turkey were evaluated. These three hospitals comprise 67.5% of all child beds in central Bursa, so this study allows us to evaluate the total disease burden and hospitalization incidence in central Bursa. Nasal swabs of the children were evaluated with RSV Respi- Strip (Coris Bioconcept Organization). A total of 671 children were hospitalized for LRTI, and 254 (37.9%) had at least one hospitalization that was positive for RSV. Of all patients with LRTI, 54.8% (368/671) were hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis, while 45.2% (303/671) were hospitalized for pneumonia. Of patients with acute bronchiolitis or pneumonia, 41% (151/368) and 34% (103/303) were RSV+, respectively. Of RSV+ hospitalized children, 59.5% (151/254) were diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis and 40.5% (103/254) as pneumonia. The annual incidences of hospitalization due to LRTI, acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia were 20.5/1000, 11.2/1000 and 9.3/1000, respectively, in children ≤2 years of age. The annual incidences of hospitalization due to RSV+ LRTI, acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia were found as 7.8/1000, 4.6/1000 and 3.2/1000, respectively, in children ≤2 years of age. More than one-third of all children hospitalized with LRTI (38.3%, n=257) were in the 0-3 months age group. Compared to other age groups, RSV positivity was highest in that age group for acute bronchiolitis (57%), pneumonia (39.5%) and also total children with LRTI (47.9%). RSV is a very important

  3. Executive functioning correctly classified diagnoses in patients with first-episode psychosis: evidence from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Peña, Javier; Ojeda, Natalia; Segarra, Rafael; Eguiluz, Jose Ignacio; García, Jon; Gutiérrez, Miguel

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have analysed factors that predict the ultimate clinical diagnosis in first-episode psychosis (FEP), and none has included cognitive factors. Eighty-six FEP patients and 34 healthy controls were recruited and followed up for two years. Positive and negative symptoms, depression, mania, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), premorbid functioning, functional outcome and neurocognition were assessed over 2 years. Logistic regression models revealed that Wisconsin Card Sorting Test correctly distinguished the patients ultimately diagnosed with schizophrenia (87%) from those with bipolar disorder (80%) and those with other psychoses (85%), for an overall correct-diagnosis rate of 84.4%. The prediction was stable despite the inclusion of clinical and affective symptoms, DUP, clinical impression, and functional outcome scores. Results highlight the importance of reconsidering neurocognition as a diagnostic criterion for psychosis and schizophrenia.

  4. Retrospective analysis of the overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease in the treatment of modified Shenzhuo formula for 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Zhao, Xuemin; He, Xinhui; He, Zhongchen; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of modified Shenzhuo formula in the treatment of overt proteinuria diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Patients diagnosed with type 2 DKD in the clinical research database of Prof Xiaolin Tong (>20,000 data points) with >1-year follow-up were screened for this study. Patients’ demographic data, chief complaint, present illness, past history, allergic history, personal history, family history, test results, tongue images, pulse information, and prescription information at 1, 1.5, and 2 years of follow-up were analyzed. EpiData3.1 was used to establish the electronic database of this research and SPSS v20.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) was used for performing statistical analyses. The patients’ common main symptoms of overt proteinuria DKD were weak breath and fatigue, numbness of limbs, insomnia, blurred vision, nocturia, edema, low backache, constipation, itchy skin ulcer, and chills. The average 24-hour urinary protein of patients treated with modified Shenzhuo formula was statistically significantly lower than baseline values at 1, 1.5, and 2 years (0.66 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.95, −0.41]; 1.00 g, 95% CI [−1.67, 0.38]; 1.11 g, 95% CI [−1.79, −0.57]). There are no statistically significant differences between the glomerular filtration rate at the baseline and that after modified Shenzhuo formula intervention. Statistically significant reductions in serum triglyceride and glycosylated hemoglobin values and systolic blood pressure also were recorded. Other indexes, including serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoproteins, did not differ between baseline and post-treatment time points. Modified Shenzhuo formula could reduce 24-hour urinary protein excretion in patients with DKD. The formula maybe had the potential advantages on glomerular filtration rate, creatinine reciprocal

  5. Complete Response to Bicalutamide Withdrawal Prolonged for Almost 2 Years in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Hiroshi; Kosaka, Takeo; Oya, Mototsugu

    2014-09-01

    This is the first case report describing a complete response to bicalutamide withdrawal that lasted for almost 2 years in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer. An 80-year-old man who had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level elevation (168.1 ng/mL) visited our hospital in February 2010. Bone scintigraphy showed pelvic metastases. We started hormonal therapy with leuprorelin and bicalutamide. The PSA concentration decreased to <0.1 ng/mL but started increasing again and reached 1.64 ng/mL in October 2012, at which time bicalutamide administration was discontinued. The PSA concentration decreased again and has remained below the limit of sensitivity for almost 2 years.

  6. Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-07-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language.

  7. Giant epicardial cyst presenting as acute cardiac tamponade in a 2-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Ayumu; Sakurai, Hayato; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshiba, Shigeki; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2015-09-01

    Cystic structures within the pericardial cavity are rare. They are divided into epicardial and pericardial variants. Pericardial and epicardial cysts rarely cause symptoms. This report describes a case of epicardial cyst with acute cardiac tamponade in a 2-year-old boy with no previous cardiac history who was transferred to our hospital because of hemodynamic instability. Emergency drainage of the pericardial effusion and complete excision of the cyst were performed through a median full sternotomy.

  8. Applied behaviour analysis and standard treatment in intellectual disability: 2-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hassiotis, Angela; Canagasabey, Anton; Robotham, Daniel; Marston, Louise; Romeo, Renee; King, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Applied behaviour analysis by a specialist team plus standard treatment for adults with intellectual disability displaying challenging behaviour was reported to be clinically and cost-effective after 6 months. In a 2-year follow-up of the same trial cohort, participants receiving the specialist intervention had significantly lower total and subdomain Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores than those receiving usual care alone. After adjustment for baseline covariates there was no significant difference in costs between the trial arms.

  9. Uric acid in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Costabile, Teresa; Russo, Cinzia; Carotenuto, Antonio; Sasso, Gabriella; Postiglione, Emanuela; De Luca Picione, Carla; Vastola, Michele; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Palladino, Raffaele; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS), and possibly relates to MS outcomes, with lower UA levels in subjects experiencing a relapse or presenting higher disability scores. The present retrospective longitudinal study evaluated UA variations in MS, in relation to clinical relapses, disability progression, and cognitive functions. We included 141 subjects with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and performed expanded disability status scale (EDSS), symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) and UA evaluation at baseline visit and after 2-year follow-up. Paired t test showed significantly lower UA levels after 2-year follow-up than at baseline (3.987 ± 1.135 and 4.167 ± 1.207 mg/dL, respectively) (p = 0.001). The difference in UA levels between 2-year follow-up and baseline related to EDSS sustained progression (p < 0.001; OR = 0.099), and presented a trend for clinical relapses at logistic regression (p = 0.211; OR = 0.711) and for the time to relapse at Cox regression (p = 0.236; HR = 0.792). Analysis of variance showed reduced baseline UA levels in subjects with impaired SDMT at baseline (p = 0.045; adjusted R(2) = 0.473) and after 2-year follow-up (p = 0.034; adjusted R(2) = 0.470). This is the first study showing a progressive reduction of UA levels during the course of RRMS, suggesting a progressive decrease of antioxidant reserves, in relation to relapse risk, disability progression and cognitive function.

  10. Filariasis presenting as a scrotal nodule in a 2 year old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yagain, Kiran; Mathew, Mary

    2011-02-01

    A two year old boy from southwestern village of India presented with a 2 cm × 1 cm size swelling in scrotum for 8 months. It was excised surgically and the histopathological examination revealed a gravid filarial worm. The occurrence of adult filarial worm in 2 year old boy signifies the endemicity and high larval load of insect vectors in western coast of south India.

  11. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  12. Antenatal renal pelvis dilatation: 2-year follow-up with DMSA scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lidefelt, Karl-Johan; Herthelius, Maria; Soeria-Atmadja, Sandra

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a postnatal ultrasound (US) can detect infants with antenatal renal pelvis dilatation (ARPD) who run a minimal risk of renal damage 2 years after birth. The study cohort consisted of 14,000 pregnant women who consecutively underwent routine US examinations during the second trimester. Subsequent examinations were performed on the basis of obstetrical indications. In total, 106 foetuses were diagnosed with ARPD > or =5 mm. Two postnatal US were performed on the newborns: on postpartum days 5-7 and during the third week of life. The findings were considered to be normal when the renal pelvis diameter (RPD) was < or = 7 mm and when there was no calyceal or ureteric dilatation or signs of renal dysplasia or other anomalies. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was done at 6-8 weeks after birth. When the children reached 2 years of age, renal status was evaluated with DMSA scintigraphy or, if not possible, US. In 53 of the 103 children available for evaluation, the postnatal US findings were normal; 49 of the 53 children were also given a DMSA, and the results were normal in all cases. An US scan (all normal) only was performed in three children because the families refused a DMSA. One family refused any form of examination at the 2-year follow-up. Based on our results, we conclude that postnatal US can detect infants who do not require follow-up assessments of renal development.

  13. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks’ Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Deborah K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Wallace, David K.; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks’ gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks’ gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  14. Beneficial effects of chrysin and benzoflavone on virility in 2-year-old male rats.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the potential usefulness of bioflavonoids for countering the deleterious effects of aging on male sexuality in 2-year-old rats. A flavone chrysin from Passiflora caerulea Linn. and a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) recently isolated from Passiflora incarnata Linn. were administered to 2-year-old male rats for a period of 30 days. After cessation of these treatments, there was a significant improvement in overall sexual functions in the rats given bioflavonoids, compared with control rats. The rats receiving chrysin (1 mg/kg) and BZF (10 mg/kg) exhibited increased libido when they were allowed to interact with nonestrous female rats. Additionally, both treated groups had increased sperm count, greater fertilization potential, and greater litter size when they were allowed to interact with proven proestrous female rats of a similar strain. BZF was more potent than chrysin as an antiaromatase agent and exhibited better effects on the sexual system of the 2-year-old male rats. Plant flavonoids have great potential for clinical and therapeutic applications against the physiological and biochemical effects of aging.

  15. Alfacalcidol in men with osteoporosis: a prospective, observational, 2-year trial on 214 patients.

    PubMed

    Ringe, J D; Farahmand, P; Schacht, E

    2013-03-01

    were no serious adverse events (SAE), and the numbers of mild-to-moderate adverse events (AE) were not different between groups. Despite the higher initial fracture risk in the alfacalcidol group, 2-year treatment with this active D-hormone prodrug showed a higher therapeutic efficacy in terms of BMD, falls and fractures. One important advantage of alfacalcidol may be that it is effective even in patients with mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency.

  16. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) does not slow the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in SLE over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Adnan N; Magder, Laurence S; Petri, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality in SLE. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been shown to suppress growth factor-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in animal models. We hypothesized that MMF might modify the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis in SLE. We examined the effect of MMF on atherosclerosis as measured by changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) or coronary artery calcium (CAC) over 2 years. CAC and carotid IMT were measured at baseline and 2 years later in a cohort of 187 patients with SLE. The cohort was 91% women, 59% Caucasian, and 35% African-American, with a mean age of 45 ± 11 years. Of these, 12.5% (n = 25) received MMF during follow-up. The daily dose ranged from 500 to 3,000 mg/day, and duration ranged from 84 days to the entire 2 years. We divided MMF users into three groups: low exposure (<1,500 mg average daily dose), high exposure (≥1,500 average daily dose), and any exposure of MMF (<1,500 or ≥1,500 average daily dose) for 2 years. The mean CAC increased in all four groups: no MMF: 1.17-1.28, low MMF: 1.02-1.13, high MMF: 1.44-1.61, and any MMF: 1.21-1.34 log-Agatston units. Compared to no MMF, there was no statistically different change between the three groups (p = 0.99, 0.87, and 0.91). Similarly, mean carotid IMT increased in all four groups: no MMF: 0.58-0.66, low MMF: 0.55-0.60, high MMF: 0.56-0.71, and any MMF: 0.56-0.66. We then adjusted for statin use, lupus nephritis, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and age during the 2-year follow-up. The association between MMF exposure and change in CAC or carotid IMT was not statistically significant (p = 0.63 for CAC, and p = 0.085 for carotid IMT). There was no evidence that MMF slowed or decreased the progression of atherosclerosis as measured by carotid IMT or CAC. Because the number of patients taking MMF was only twenty-five, larger studies for longer time periods are needed to explore any

  17. Kineflex (Centurion) Lumbar Disc Prosthesis: Insertion Technique and 2-Year Clinical Results in 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Ian R.; Sliwa, Karen; Sweet, Barry MBE; de Villiers, Malan

    2007-01-01

    Background The Kineflex lumbar disc is a mechanical, unconstrained, re-centering disc prosthesis developed in South Africa. The first implantation took place in October 2002. We present a single-center, prospective, longitudinal study of the first 100 patients treated with the Kineflex lumbar disc. Our objective was to evaluate the insertion technique, clinical outcomes, and patient satisfaction at 2 years postimplantation in 100 consecutive patients with 132 (68 single- and 32 2-level) Kineflex lumbar disc replacements. Methods We determined the exact central placement of all disc implants in the coronal and midsagittal planes. We measured clinical outcome with the Oswestry disability index (ODI), our own questionnaire, and the time needed to return to work. All patients received radiological and clinical follow-up assessments for 2 years after the index procedure. Results Forty-three patients were female. The mean age of the patients at operation was 44.9 years (range, 23–63 years). Postoperative hospitalization averaged 2.8 days (range, 2 to 8 days). All patients who were employed before surgery returned to work 31 ± 16.8 days after the operation. Fifty-six percent of operated disc levels had intervertebral disc heights of less than 5 mm. A 2-year clinical outcome was available for 98 of the 100 patients (58 excellent, 30 good, 7 fair, 3 poor). The ODI score improved from 47.8 ± 16.0 preoperatively to 14.2 ± 14.0 (P < .01) at 2 years. At 2 years, 95% of disc implants were radiologically in the ideal position. The insertion technique, with a released prosthetic mechanism for final placement, allowed ideal placement in the sagittal plane in 98% of discs. The radiographic placement accuracy achieved was equal in patients with preoperative intervertebral disc height below and above 5 mm. Conclusions Good short-term clinical results were achieved with the Kineflex disc in a heterogeneous patient group with a high number of patients with advanced disc

  18. Intermediate clinical and radiological results of cervical TDR (Mobi-C®) with up to 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Beaurain, J.; Bernard, P.; Dufour, T.; Fuentes, J. M.; Hovorka, I.; Huppert, J.; Steib, J. P.; Vital, J. M.; Aubourg, L.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in cervical total disc replacement (TDR) as an alternative to the so-far gold standard in the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD), e.g anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), is growing very rapidly. Many authors have established the fact that ACDF may result in progressive degeneration in adjacent segments. On the contrary, but still theoretically, preservation of motion with TDR at the surgically treated level may potentially reduce the occurrence of adjacent-level degeneration (ALD). The authors report the intermediate results of an undergoing multicentre prospective study of TDR with Mobi-C® prosthesis. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the device in the treatment of DDD and secondary to evaluate the radiological status of adjacent levels and the occurrence of ossifications, at 2-year follow-up (FU). 76 patients have performed their 2-year FU visit and have been analyzed clinically and radiologically. Clinical outcomes (NDI, VAS, SF-36) and ROM measurements were analyzed pre-operatively and at the different post-operative time-points. Complications and re-operations were also assessed. Occurrences of heterotopic ossifications (HOs) and of adjacent disc degeneration radiographic changes have been analyzed from 2-year FU X-rays. The mean NDI and VAS scores for arm and neck are reduced significantly at each post-operative time-point compared to pre-operative condition. Motion is preserved over the time at index levels (mean ROM = 9° at 2 years) and 85.5% of the segments are mobile at 2 years. HOs are responsible for the fusion of 6/76 levels at 2 years. However, presence of HO does not alter the clinical outcomes. The occurrence rate of radiological signs of ALD is very low at 2 years (9.1%). There has been no subsidence, no expulsion and no sub-luxation of the implant. Finally, after 2 years, 91% of the patients assume that they would undergo the procedure again. These intermediate

  19. 187Os/186Os in Lunar and Meteoritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birck, J. L.; Allegre, C. J.

    1993-07-01

    The unique potentiallity of the ^187Re-^1870s radiochronometer stems from the chemical properties of the 2 elements. Their siderophilic nature has made the dating of the metal phase of iron meteorites and chondrites possible [1,2]. In silicate crystallization or melting, Os behaves as a strongly compatible element [3]. For Re the results hereunder show that its behavior is highly variable, depending on context. The development of the highly sensitive negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry [4,5] made possible the extensive analysis of silicate materials. We developed a chemical separation method allowing the analysis of 0,5 g of silicate with an Os blank of 0.3 pg (1pg=10^-12 g). The isotopic measurement of Os has a typical precision of a few permil for 1 pg of Os. A variety of samples has been investigated. Iron Meteorites: The main purpose of this study was to shed some light on the history of Kodaikanal. The silicate inclusions of this meteorite were reset at 3.7 Ga for both the Rb-Sr and the U-Pb chronometers [6,7]. The data from Coahuila, Canyon Diablo, Tlacotepec, and North Chile plot within 1% on the same isochron along with 3 samples from 2 locations inside the meteorite of Kodaikanal. As a consequence the Kodaikanal parent body did not form at 3.7 Ga but at about the same time as the parent bodies of the the majority of the other iron meteorites (~4.5 Ga). The only difference is that Kodaikanal suffered a strong secondary event at 3.7 Ga, which reset Rb/Sr and U-Pb chronometers but did not fractionate the Re/Os ratio. This result has already been suggested by our earlier work [8]. The St Severin Chondrite: A bulk sample and several batches of the metal separated from this chondrite were analysed. They plot on the iron meteorite isochron. However this metal is heterogeneous in Re/Os by a factor of at least 2 and indicates an uncomplete homogeinization of Re/Os between metal grains during parent body metamorphism. Basaltic Materials: Basaltic

  20. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology.

  1. Preterm infant gut colonization in the neonatal ICU and complete restoration 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Moles, L; Gómez, M; Jiménez, E; Fernández, L; Bustos, G; Chaves, F; Cantón, R; Rodríguez, J M; Del Campo, R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to multidrug-resistant bacteria previously adapted to the hospital environment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial antibiotic-resistant high-risk lineages colonizing preterm infants during their NICU stay and their persistence in faeces after 2 years. A total of 26 preterm neonates were recruited between October 2009 and June 2010 and provided 144 faecal samples. Milk samples (86 mother's milk, 35 human donor milk and 15 formula milk) were collected at the same time as faecal samples. An additional faecal sample was recovered in 16 infants at the age of 2 years. Samples were plated onto different selective media, and one colony per morphology was selected. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility (agar dilution), genetic diversity (RAPD, PFGE and MLST) and virulence factors (only in enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates) were determined by PCR. A high proportion of antibiotic-resistant high-risk clones was detected in both faecal and milk samples during the NICU admittance. Almost all infants were colonized by Enterococcus faecalis ST64 and Enterococcus faecium ST18 clones, while a wider genetic diversity was observed for the Gram-negative isolates. Multidrug-resistant high-risk clones were not recovered from the faecal samples of the 2-year-olds. In conclusion, the gut of preterm infants admitted to the NICU might be initially colonized by antibiotic-resistant and virulent high-risk lineages, which are later replaced by antibiotic-susceptible community ones.

  2. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  3. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  4. Xanthomatous posterior pyramid meningioma in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Germanò, A; Galatioto, S; La Rosa, G; Caffo, M; Cardia, E

    1997-07-01

    Meningiomas are common lesions in adults but unusual in infancy and meningiomas located in the posterior cranial fossa are even more rare. Metaplastic changes of meningothelial meningiomas can lead to the rarely observed xanthomatous form. We describe the case of a posterior pyramid xanthomatous meningioma in a 2-year-old girl. After detailed neuroradiological evaluation, the histological diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of immunohistochemical evaluation. A critical case evaluation in the light of the more recent literature, the surgical strategy and technique, and an immunohistological hypothesis are reported.

  5. Predictors of progression in atherosclerosis over 2 years in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Adnan N.; Post, Wendy S.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiovascular disease remains the major cause of death in SLE. We assessed the degree to which cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and disease activity were associated with 2-year changes in measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. One hundred and eighty-seven SLE patients participating in a placebo-controlled trial of atorvastatin underwent multi-detector CT [for coronary artery calcium (CAC)] and carotid duplex [for carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) and carotid plaque] twice, 2 years apart. During the 2 years, patients were assessed every 3 months for CVRF. Both groups were combined for analysis, as atorvastatin did not differ from placebo in preventing progression of coronary calcium. We examined the correlation between these clinical measures and progression of CAC, IMT and plaque during the follow-up period. Results. In an analysis adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity, CAC progression was positively associated with total serum cholesterol measured over the 2-year period (P = 0.04) and smoking (P = 0.003). Carotid IMT progression was associated with systolic BP (P = 0.003), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) (P = 0.013) and white blood cell (WBC) count (P = 0.029). Carotid plaque progression, defined as patients without carotid plaque at baseline with subsequent development of plaque at follow-up, was associated with systolic BP (P = 0.003), WBC count (P = 0.02), physician's global assessment (P = 0.05), blood lymphocyte count (P = 0.048), urine protein (P = 0.017) and duration of SLE (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Our data did not provide evidence of an association between measures of SLE disease activity (SLEDAI, anti-dsDNA, anti-phospholipid and treatment) and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Age and hypertension were associated with the progression of carotid IMT and plaque. Age, smoking and cholesterol were associated with progression of CAC. PMID:21875880

  6. Reirradiation of recurrent head and neck cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Rudzianskas, V; Inciura, A; Juozaityte, E; Rudzianskiene, M; Kubilius, R; Vaitkus, S; Kaseta, M; Adliene, D

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of hypofractionated accelerated CT-guided interstitial HDR-BRT using 2.5 Gy per fraction. From December 2008 to March 2010, 30 patients were treated for recurrence of previously-irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirteen patients underwent surgical resection followed by HDR-BRT to the tumour bed. Seventeen patients were treated with HDR-BRT only. All patients received 2.5 Gy twice per day for a total dosage of 30 Gy. The overall survival rate (OS) for the entire group at 1 and 2-years was 63% and 47%, while local control (LC) was 73% and 67%, and disease-free survival (DFS) was 60% and 53%, respectively. Patients treated with surgical resection and HDR-BRT showed an improvement in both 2-year LC (77% vs. 47%, p = 0.013) and 2-year OS (62% vs. 35%, p = 0.035) compared to patients treated with HDR-BRT only. Median OS for pre-treatment tumour volumes ≤ 36 cm3 was 22 months and 9.2 months for those > 36 cm3 (p = 0.038). Grade III and IV late complications occurred in 3% of patients. There were no grade V complications. The interstitial HDR brachytherapy regimen using 2.5 Gy twice daily fractions at a total dose of 30 Gy offers an effective treatment option for patients with recurrent previously-irradiated head and neck cancer with a low rate of late high grade toxicity. Surgical resection had a positive effect on survival and local control in management of patients with recurrent head and neck cancer.

  7. DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN A DIRECT-ACCESS SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CLINIC: A 2-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE PRACTICE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Dedekam, Erik A.; Johnson, Michael R.; Dembowski, Scott C.; Westrick, Richard B.; Goss, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Background While advanced diagnostic imaging is a large contributor to the growth in health care costs, direct-access to physical therapy is associated with decreased rates of diagnostic imaging. No study has systematically evaluated with evidence-based criteria the appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when ordered by physical therapists. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the appropriateness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) exams ordered by physical therapists in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic. Study Design Retrospective observational study of practice. Hypothesis Greater than 80% of advanced diagnostic imaging orders would have an American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria rating of greater than 6, indicating an imaging order that is usually appropriate. Methods A 2-year retrospective analysis identified 108 MRI/MRA examination orders from four physical therapists. A board-certified radiologist determined the appropriateness of each order based on ACR appropriateness criteria. The principal investigator and co-investigator radiologist assessed agreement between the clinical diagnosis and MRI/surgical findings. Results Knee (31%) and shoulder (25%) injuries were the most common. Overall, 55% of injuries were acute. The mean ACR rating was 7.7; scores from six to nine have been considered appropriate orders and higher ratings are better. The percentage of orders complying with ACR appropriateness criteria was 83.2%. Physical therapist's clinical diagnosis was confirmed by MRI/MRA findings in 64.8% of cases and was confirmed by surgical findings in 90% of cases. Conclusions Physical therapists providing musculoskeletal primary care in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic appropriately ordered advanced diagnostic imaging in over 80% of cases. Future research should prospectively compare physical therapist

  8. Successful ABO-incompatible living-related intestinal transplantation: a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, D M; Zhao, Q C; Wang, W Z; Shi, H; Wang, M; Chen, D L; Zheng, J Y; Li, M B; Wu, G S

    2015-05-01

    ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation has rarely been performed due to poor patient outcomes. Herein we present a case of successful ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation with a 2-year follow-up. A 16-year-old female with a history of extensive bowel resection received an ABO-incompatible living donor bowel graft from her father (blood type AB graft into a type A recipient). Posttransplant immunosuppression consisted of an initial anti-CD20, plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin before transplantation, followed by an anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and splenectomy, and maintenance with tacrolimus and prednisone. Her postoperative course was remarkable for a single episode of rejection on day 14 which responded promptly to treatment with methyprednisolone and ATG. Three months after transplantation, the patient developed an abdominal abscess requiring open surgical drainage. No viral infections were encountered. Posttransplant anti-B antibody titers and anti-B7 donor-specific antibody levels remained low. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient showed a progressive weight gain of 5.0 kg. This case illustrates that ABO-incompatible living-related bowel transplantation is immunologically feasible and is associated with good outcomes for the recipient. The management of blood type antibodies and the use of adequate immunosuppression in the early period of the procedure may be the keys to the success of future cases.

  9. Contrastive voicing acquisition in 2-year-old children: Preliminary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Koenig, Laura L.

    2004-05-01

    Earlier studies using voice-onset time (VOT) as the acoustic marker of contrastive voicing acquisition in English have differed widely in method and statistical procedures. Research in this area has shown three primary patterns of voicing acquisition for English stop consonants. One report indicates children demonstrate discrete voicing categories with adult-like VOT values as early as 2 years old. Other reports suggest a subperceptual distinction of the voicing contrast, followed by an exaggerated voicing contrast with evidence of more adult-like discrete categories by 3 years old. Still other reports suggest no distinction between the voicing categories until approximately 3 years. This work investigates voicing acquisition in three typically developing, English-speaking 2-year-old children. The subjects were recorded every 2 weeks for 4-6 months. Approximately 15-20 tokens were elicited for four target utterances containing initial /b p t d/. Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, and skewness will be calculated for every recording session of each child. Discussion will focus on the development of contrastive VOT categories and their stability over time. These data will contribute to our understanding of laryngeal timing for English stop consonants in young children.

  10. The OAO heat pipes - 8 1/2 years of flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwell, W.; Mcintosh, R.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pipe performance data taken during the 8 1/2 years of flight of the OAO-C (Copernicus) spacecraft are presented. Three fixed conductance heat pipes (FCHP), each with different wicking concepts (axial groove, pedestal artery, and self-priming spiral artery), and one variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) are onboard. Aluminum tubes (1/2 in. diameter) rolled into a 48 in. loop containing ultra high purity ammonia as the heat transfer fluid comprise all FCHP, whose purpose is to circumferentially isothermalize the central tube housing the telescope. The VCHP is a hot, non-wicked reservoir concept including a composite artery and methanol heat transfer fluid, and is used to maintain the temperature of the onboard processor. Flight thermal data analysis reveals that no degradation in performance occurred since launch and agrees well with pre-flight data; the onboard processor still shows an offset in control range of 4 F, and the pipes perform the same after 8 1/2 years in orbit.

  11. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  12. Evaluation of laparoscopic skills: a 2-year follow-up during residency training

    PubMed Central

    Derossis, Anna M.; Antoniuk, Maureen; Fried, Gerald M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate laparoscopic technical skill in surgical residents over a 2-year period. Design The laparoscopic technical skills of general surgical residents were evaluated using the MISTELS program. This provides an objective evaluation of laparoscopic skill, taking into account precision and speed. Setting Inanimate laparoscopic skills centre. Participants Ten general surgical residents (5 PGY1, 3 PGY2 and 2 PGY3 residents) who were required to complete 3 structured laparoscopic tasks. Outcome measures A composite score incorporating precision and timing was assigned to each task. The paired t-test was used to compare performance of each resident at the 2 levels of their residency training for each task. Linear regression analysis was used to correlate level of training and total score (sum of all tasks). Results Linear regression analysis demonstrated a highly significant correlation between level of training and total score (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). There was a significant increase in scores in the cutting and suturing task over the 2-year period (p < 0.01). Transferring skills did not improve significantly (p = 0.11). Conclusions Performance in the simulator improved over residency training and was correlated highly with postgraduate year. This simulator model is a valuable teaching tool for training and evaluation of basic laparoscopic tasks in laparoscopic surgery. PMID:10459330

  13. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children up to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts of energy and micronutrients required from complementary foods have been estimated as the difference between the total physiological requirements of these food components and the amounts transferred to the child in breast milk. Recommendations for the energy density of complementary foods and their frequency of feeding have also been proposed. Intakes of several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, calcium, selected B vitamins and (in some settings) vitamin A, remain problematic because commonly available, low-cost foods contain inadequate amounts of these nutrients to provide the shortfall in breast milk. Alternative strategies to provide these nutrients include adding animal source foods to the diet, providing fortified, processed complementary foods, administering micronutrient supplements, or offering some combination of these approaches. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible risks of these different strategies are discussed.

  14. The NAC family transcription factor OsNAP confers abiotic stress response through the ABA pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Wang, Yaofeng; Lv, Bo; Li, Jie; Luo, Liqiong; Lu, Songchong; Zhang, Xuan; Ma, Hong; Ming, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Plants respond to environmental stresses by altering gene expression, and several genes have been found to mediate stress-induced expression, but many additional factors are yet to be identified. OsNAP is a member of the NAC transcription factor family; it is localized in the nucleus, and shows transcriptional activator activity in yeast. Analysis of the OsNAP transcript levels in rice showed that this gene was significantly induced by ABA and abiotic stresses, including high salinity, drought and low temperature. Rice plants overexpressing OsNAP did not show growth retardation, but showed a significantly reduced rate of water loss, enhanced tolerance to high salinity, drought and low temperature at the vegetative stage, and improved yield under drought stress at the flowering stage. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants overexpressing OsNAP revealed that many stress-related genes were up-regulated, including OsPP2C06/OsABI2, OsPP2C09, OsPP2C68 and OsSalT, and some genes coding for stress-related transcription factors (OsDREB1A, OsMYB2, OsAP37 and OsAP59). Our data suggest that OsNAP functions as a transcriptional activator that plays a role in mediating abiotic stress responses in rice.

  15. Ophthalmologic Baseline Characteristics and 2-Year Ophthalmologic Safety Profile of Pramipexole IR Compared with Ropinirole IR in Patients with Early Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Seiple, William; Jennings, Danna; Rosen, Richard B; Borchert, Leona; Canale, Lee; Fagan, Nora; Gordon, Mark Forrest

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study, NCT00144300, evaluated ophthalmologic safety profiles of immediate-release (IR) pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with early idiopathic PD with ≤6 months' prior dopamine agonist exposure and without preexisting major eye disorders. Methods. Patients received labeled IR regimens of pramipexole (n = 121) or ropinirole (n = 125) for 2 years. Comprehensive ophthalmologic assessments (COA) included corrected acuity, Roth 28-color test, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, computerized visual field test, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Results. At baseline, we observed retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) hypopigmentation not previously reported in PD patients. The estimated relative risk of 2-year COA worsening with pramipexole versus ropinirole was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.71-1.60). Mean changes from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System parts II+III total scores (pramipexole: 1 year, -4.1 ± 8.9, and 2 years, -0.7 ± 10.1, and ropinirole: 1 year, -3.7 ± 8.2, and 2 years, -1.7 ± 10.5) and Hoehn-Yahr stage distribution showed therapeutic effects on PD symptoms. Safety profiles were consistent with labeling. Conclusions. The risk of retinal deterioration did not differ in early idiopathic PD patients receiving pramipexole versus ropinirole. RPE hypopigmentation at baseline was not previously reported in this population. This trial is registered with NCT00144300.

  16. Ophthalmologic Baseline Characteristics and 2-Year Ophthalmologic Safety Profile of Pramipexole IR Compared with Ropinirole IR in Patients with Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Danna; Borchert, Leona; Canale, Lee; Fagan, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) progressively affects dopaminergic neurotransmission and may affect retinal dopaminergic functions and structures. Objective. This 2-year randomized, open-label, parallel-group, flexible-dose study, NCT00144300, evaluated ophthalmologic safety profiles of immediate-release (IR) pramipexole and ropinirole in patients with early idiopathic PD with ≤6 months' prior dopamine agonist exposure and without preexisting major eye disorders. Methods. Patients received labeled IR regimens of pramipexole (n = 121) or ropinirole (n = 125) for 2 years. Comprehensive ophthalmologic assessments (COA) included corrected acuity, Roth 28-color test, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure, computerized visual field test, fundus photography, and electroretinography. Results. At baseline, we observed retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) hypopigmentation not previously reported in PD patients. The estimated relative risk of 2-year COA worsening with pramipexole versus ropinirole was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.71–1.60). Mean changes from baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating System parts II+III total scores (pramipexole: 1 year, −4.1 ± 8.9, and 2 years, −0.7 ± 10.1, and ropinirole: 1 year, −3.7 ± 8.2, and 2 years, −1.7 ± 10.5) and Hoehn–Yahr stage distribution showed therapeutic effects on PD symptoms. Safety profiles were consistent with labeling. Conclusions. The risk of retinal deterioration did not differ in early idiopathic PD patients receiving pramipexole versus ropinirole. RPE hypopigmentation at baseline was not previously reported in this population. This trial is registered with NCT00144300. PMID:28078162

  17. Evaluation of 2-year-old intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation into host organs like the spleen may possibly provide a temporary relief after extensive liver resection or severe liver disease or may enable treatment of an enzyme deficiency. With time, however, dedifferentiation or malignant transformation of the ectopically transplanted cells may be possible. Thus, in the present study syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleen of adult male rats and evaluated 2 years thereafter in comparison to orthotopic livers for histopathological changes and (as markers for preneoplastic transformation) for cytochrome P450 (P450) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoform expression. Because inducibility of P450 and GST isoforms may be changed in preneoplastic foci, prior to sacrifice animals were additionally treated either with beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, or the respective solvent. In the 2-year-old grafts more than 70% of the spleen mass was occupied by the transplant. The transplanted hepatocytes were arranged in cord-like structures. Also few bile ducts were present. Morphologically, no signs of malignancy were visible. With all rats, transplant recipients as well as controls, however, discrete nodular structures were seen in the livers. Due to age, both livers and transplants displayed only a low P450 2B1 and 3A2 and GST class alpha and mu isoform expression. No immunostaining for P450 1A1 was visible. At both sites, beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone treatment enhanced P450 1A1, P450 2B1 and 3A2, or P450 3A2 expression, respectively. No immunostaining for GST class pi isoforms was seen in the transplants. The livers of both transplant recipients and control rats, however, displayed GST pi-positive foci, corresponding to the nodular structures seen histomorphologically. Compared to the surrounding tissue, these foci also exhibited a more pronounced staining for GST class alpha and mu isoforms and a stronger inducibility of the P450 1A

  18. Higher Tetanus Toxoid Immunity 2 Years After PsA-TT Introduction in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole E.; Borrow, Ray; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Dembélé, Awa Traoré Eps; Almond, Rachael; Frankland, Sarah; Patel, Sima; Wood, Daniel; Nascimento, Maria; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L.; Greenwood, Brian; Sow, Samba O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2010, mass vaccination with a then-new meningococcal A polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, or MenAfriVac) was undertaken in 1- to 29-year-olds in Bamako, Mali. Whether vaccination with PsA-TT effectively boosts tetanus immunity in a population with heterogeneous baseline tetanus immunity is not known. We assessed the impact of PsA-TT on tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity by quantifying age- and sex-specific immunity prior to and 2 years after introduction. Methods. Using a household-based, age-stratified design, we randomly selected participants for a prevaccination serological survey in 2010 and a postvaccination survey in 2012. TT immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were quantified and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) pre- and postvaccination among all age groups targeted for vaccination were compared. The probability of TT IgG levels ≥0.1 IU/mL (indicating short-term protection) and ≥1.0 IU/mL (indicating long-term protection) by age and sex was determined using logistic regression models. Results. Analysis of 793 prevaccination and 800 postvaccination sera indicated that while GMCs were low pre–PsA-TT, significantly higher GMCs in all age–sex strata were observed 2 years after PsA-TT introduction. The percentage with short-term immunity increased from 57.1% to 88.4% (31.3-point increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.6–36.0;, P < .0001) and with long-term immunity increased from 20.0% to 58.5% (38.5-point increase; 95% CI, 33.7–43.3; P < .0001) pre- and postvaccination. Conclusions. Significantly higher TT immunity was observed among vaccine-targeted age groups up to 2 years after Mali's PsA-TT mass vaccination campaign. Our results, combined with evidence from clinical trials, strongly suggest that conjugate vaccines containing TT such as PsA-TT should be considered bivalent vaccines because of their ability to boost tetanus immunity. PMID:26553691

  19. Racial Disparities in Allergic Outcomes in African Americans Emerge as Early as Age 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine LM; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Woodcroft, Kimberley; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Racial disparities in allergic disease outcomes have been reported with African Americans suffering disproportionately compared to White individuals. OBJECTIVE Examine whether racial disparities are present as early as age 2 years in a racially diverse birth cohort in the Detroit metropolitan area. METHODS All children who were participants in a birth cohort study in the Detroit metropolitan area were invited for a standardized physician exam with skin prick testing and parental interview at age 2 years. Physicians made inquiries regarding wheezing and allergy symptoms and inspected for and graded any atopic dermatitis (AD). Skin testing was performed for Alternaria, cat, cockroach, dog, Dermatophagoides farinae (Der F), Short Ragweed, Timothy grass, egg, milk and peanut. Specific IgE was measured for these same allergens and total IgE was determined. RESULTS African American children (n=466) were more likely than White children (n=223) to have experienced any of the outcomes examined: at least 1 positive skin prick test from the panel of 10 allergens (21.7% versus 11.0%, p=0.001); at least one specific IgE ≥0.35 IU/mL (out of a panel of 10 allergens) (54.0% versus 42.9%, p=0.02); had AD (27.0% versus 13.5%, Chi-square p<0.001); and to ever have wheezed (44.9% versus 36.0%, p=0.03). African American children also tended to have higher total IgE (geometric means 23.4 IU/mL (95%CI 20.8, 27.6) versus 16.7 IU/mL (95%CI 13.6, 20.6 IU/mL), Wilcoxon Rank Sum p=0.004). With the exception of wheezing, the associations did not vary after adjusting for common social economic status variables (e.g.; household income), environmental variables (endotoxin; dog, cat and cockroach allergen in house dust) or variables that differed between the racial groups (e.g.; breastfeeding). After adjustment, the wheeze difference was ameliorated. CONCLUSIONS With disparities emerging as early as age 2 years, investigations into sources of the disparities should include the

  20. Collagenase injections for Dupuytren's disease: prospective cohort study assessing 2-year treatment effect durability

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzson, Anna; Atroshi, Isam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess 2-year durability of joint contracture correction following collagenase injections for Dupuytren's disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Orthopaedic Department in Sweden. Participants Patients with palpable Dupuytren's cord and active extension deficit (AED) ≥30° in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and/or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. A surgeon injected 0.80 mg collagenase into multiple cord parts and performed finger manipulation under local anaesthesia after 24–48 hours. A hand therapist measured joint contracture before and 5 weeks after injection in all treated patients. Of 57 consecutive patients (59 hands), 48 patients (50 hands) were examined by a hand therapist 24–35 months (mean 26) after injection. Five of the patients had received a second injection in the same finger within 6 months of the first injection. Outcome measures Primary outcome was proportion of treated joints with ≥20° worsening in AED from 5 weeks to 2 years. Results Between the 5-week and the 2-year measurements, AED had worsened by ≥20° in seven MCP and seven PIP joints (28% of the treated hands; all had received a single injection). Mean AED for the MCP joints was 54° before injection, 6° at 5 weeks and 9° at 2 years and for the PIP joints 30°, 13° and 16°, respectively. For joints with ≥10° contracture at baseline, mean (95 % CI) baseline to 2 years AED improvement was for MCP 49° (41–54) and for PIP 25° (17–32). No treatment-related adverse events were observed at the 2-year follow-up evaluation. Conclusions Two years after collagenase injections for Dupuytren's disease, improvement was maintained in 72% of the treated hands. Complete contracture correction was seen in more than 80% of the MCP but in less than half of the PIP joints. PMID:28298365

  1. Meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 Levels of Physical Activity: Agreement of 2 Measures across 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rod K.; Rooks, Cherie R.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measuring the way people vary across time in meeting recommended levels of physical activity should be a fundamental component of public health surveillance. However, we were unaware of prospective cohort studies that had examined this in a population base using convergent measures. Purpose We examined agreement between two validated measures used to estimate periodic change in the rate of meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 guidelines for participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Methods A cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of adults living in Hawaii was assessed every 6-months for 2 years starting spring 2004. Latent transition analysis classified people as meeting or not meeting the guidelines. Intra-class kappa statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate agreement. Results Agreement for classifying stable classes of people who met or did not meet the guideline each time was substantial for vigorous activity (kappa ∼ .65 - .70) but fair-to-moderate for moderate activity (kappa ∼ .38 - .48). Agreement was poorer for classifying people who transitioned between meeting and not meeting the vigorous guideline (kappa ∼ .45) or the moderate guideline (kappa ∼ .21 - .29). Conclusion Rates of meeting the guidelines varied across time and were estimated differently by the two measures, especially for moderate activity. This illustrates an understudied problem for public health promotion. Accurate classification of change within people is necessary for determining exposure in outcome studies, personal determinants of sufficient activity, and for evaluating whether interventions are successful in sustaining increases in rates of meeting physical activity guidelines. PMID:20538194

  2. Intracardiac bronchogenic cyst in a 2-year-old Nigerian boy

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Oluwatoyin Oluwafunmilayo; Animashaun, Deola

    2012-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are rare in the paediatric age group. Bronchogenic cysts, although relatively rare, represent the most common cystic lesion of the mediastinum. Intracardiac bronchogenic cysts however, are extremely rare. The authors are unaware of any case previously reported in a Nigerian child and hence report the case of a 2-year-old boy for its rarity and interest. The boy was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Clinical, radiological and electrographic findings were suggestive of mild pulmonary stenosis or an atrial septal defect (ASD). 2-dimensional echocardiography however, revealed in addition to a small ASD, an intracardiac mass attached to the tricuspid valve. The mass was surgically removed and found on histology to be a bronchogenic cyst. Our experience highlights the importance of echocardiography in the evaluation of asymptomatic patients with cardiac murmurs, in whom a rare lesion might have otherwise been missed. PMID:22605814

  3. Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as aseptic ascites in a 2-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J F; Ozolek, John A; Lin, P Ling; Green, Todd D; Cassidy, Elaine A; Venkat, Veena L; Buchert, Andrew R

    2013-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency syndrome that results from abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase function. This defect leads to recurrent catalase-positive bacterial and fungal infections as well as associated granuloma formation. We review the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with ascites and fever of an unknown origin as manifestations of CGD. Cultures were negative for infection throughout his course, and CGD was suspected after identification of granulomas on peritoneal biopsy. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the CYBB gene underlying his condition. This paper highlights the importance of considering CGD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and ascites in children.

  4. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors Among 2-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants The purpose of this paper is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) Study and completed baseline assessments. Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating eating and activity patterns, sleep, and stress and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Results Participants were primarily female (68%), white (73%), with a mean age of 22.8 years and 66.2% reporting an annual income <$12,000. Almost half (47%) were overweight or obese. Young males appeared to engage the most in risky health behaviors and had higher levels of overweight or obesity, compared to young females. Conclusions Findings confirm the need for innovative interventions targeting this understudied and underserved young adult population. PMID:25692380

  5. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple representational techniques. This study examined the spontaneous gestures of sixty-four 2-year-old Italian children and English-speaking Canadian children, primarily from middle-class Caucasian families. The Italian children produced twice as many gestures as Canadian children in a picture-naming task but produced a similar range of representational techniques. Two-year-olds were equally likely to produce gestures depicting function as form. These data suggest young children's communicative skills are supported by a symbolic capacity that reflects contextual communicative demands.

  6. Expression of Calcineurin Activity after Lung Transplantation: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sanquer, Sylvia; Amrein, Catherine; Grenet, Dominique; Guillemain, Romain; Philippe, Bruno; Boussaud, Veronique; Herry, Laurence; Lena, Celine; Diouf, Alphonsine; Paunet, Michelle; Billaud, Eliane M.; Loriaux, Françoise; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Stern, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pharmacodynamic study was to longitudinally assess the activity of calcineurin during the first 2 years after lung transplantation. From March 2004 to October 2008, 107 patients were prospectively enrolled and their follow-up was performed until 2009. Calcineurin activity was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We report that calcineurin activity was linked to both acute and chronic rejection. An optimal activity for calcineurin with two thresholds was defined, and we found that the risk of rejection was higher when the enzyme activity was above the upper threshold of 102 pmol/mg/min or below the lower threshold of 12 pmol/mg/min. In addition, we report that the occurrence of malignancies and viral infections was significantly higher in patients displaying very low levels of calcineurin activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that the measurement of calcineurin activity may provide useful information for the management of the prevention therapy of patients receiving lung transplantation. PMID:23536885

  7. Management of hereditary gingival fibromatosis: A 2 years follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Dete, Gopal; Saimbi, Charanjeet Singh; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare hereditary condition characterized by slow, progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of gingiva due to increase in sub-mucosal connective tissue component. This paper presents a case report of an 18-year-old female suffering from HGF with positive family history. Her 42-year-old mother also have enlargement of the gums. After through clinical examination of both the patients, routine blood investigation was advised. All the investigations were within normal physiological limits of both the patients. Surgical excision of enlarged gingival tissue was planned after meticulous scaling and root planing. Patients were recalled 1 week after surgery. Postoperative healing were good and desired crown lengthening was achieved with significant improvement in speech and masticatory problems in both the patients. There was no recurrence of the disease even after 2 years follow-up. PMID:26229281

  8. Management of hereditary gingival fibromatosis: A 2 years follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Dete, Gopal; Saimbi, Charanjeet Singh; Kumar, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare hereditary condition characterized by slow, progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of gingiva due to increase in sub-mucosal connective tissue component. This paper presents a case report of an 18-year-old female suffering from HGF with positive family history. Her 42-year-old mother also have enlargement of the gums. After through clinical examination of both the patients, routine blood investigation was advised. All the investigations were within normal physiological limits of both the patients. Surgical excision of enlarged gingival tissue was planned after meticulous scaling and root planing. Patients were recalled 1 week after surgery. Postoperative healing were good and desired crown lengthening was achieved with significant improvement in speech and masticatory problems in both the patients. There was no recurrence of the disease even after 2 years follow-up.

  9. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis METHODS : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique RESULTS : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients CONCLUSION : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27057144

  10. Three-Point Correlations in the COBE DMR 2 Year Anisotropy Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Kogut, A.

    1995-01-01

    We compute the three-point temperature correlation function of the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) 2 year sky maps to search for evidence of non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations. We detect three-point correlations in our sky with a substantially higher signal-to-noise ratio than from the first-year data. However, the magnitude of the signal is consistent with the level of cosmic variance expected from Gaussian fluctuations, even when the low-order multipole moments, up to l = 9, are filtered from the data. These results do not strongly constrain most existing models of structure formation, but the absence of intrinsic three-point correlations on large angular scales is an important consistency test for such models.

  11. The 2-year test-retest reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised in methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, M; Cacciola, J S; Alterman, A I; McKay, J R; Cook, T G

    1999-09-01

    The 2-year test-retest reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was examined in 200 men and 25 women methadone patients. Stability of the PCL-R was generally good whether it was evaluated as a dichotomous or dimensional measure. Utilizing a diagnostic cutoff score of 25 or more the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were.48 for men and.67 for women. For the Total PCL-R score ICCs were.60 and.65 for men and women, respectively. Factor 1 was more reliably measured in women compared to men (.63 vs.43). For men, Factor 1 was significantly less reliable than Factor 2 or the Total score. For women, Factor 2 was significantly less reliable than the Total PCL-R score or Factor 1.

  12. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU.

  13. [Prospective assessment of children with pervasive developmental disorder after 2 years of day-hospital treatment].

    PubMed

    Poinso, F; Dubois, B; Chatel, C; Viellard, M; Bastard-Rosset, D; Girardot, A-M; Grandgeorge, P; De Martino, S; Sokolowsky, M; Salle-Collemiche, X; Da Fonseca, D

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) has not been systematically assessed in French day-care units. In this prospective study, 11 children with a diagnosis of PDD were followed up for 2years in a day-care unit in the Marseille university hospital. The treatment they received is based on an initial assessment by the "Centre Ressources Autisme" (CRA PACA) and further included a continued observation of the child and an assessment of the child's abilities and needs. This treatment used various therapeutic approaches 10h weekly and also included parental counseling and coordinated work with schools. Treatment in our day-care unit can be categorized as eclectic, non-intensive therapy. It is based on methods such as TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), Floor Time Play, speech and language therapy, developmental therapy, and psychotherapy. International studies on intensive behavioral therapies suggest that this treatment is superior to non-behavioral and/or non-intensive treatment. They suggest its efficiency is due both to the nature of the treatment (behavioral) and to its intensity (more than 25h a week). In this study, the CRA diagnosed children using the ADI and ADOS. The 11 children (mean age, 3years 5months) were tested twice, with the Vineland and CARS scales. The first assessment was on admission to the day hospital and the second was 2years later. The results showed developmental progress with a mean increase of 13.5 months at the Vineland Scale, and a decrease of the autism severity score on the CARS. The treatment presented here proves to be efficient; if compared to similar results in international studies, we obtained better results than their eclectic intensive or non-intensive treatment comparison group.

  14. Incidence of Primary Mitochondrial Disease in Children Younger Than 2 Years Presenting With Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    McKiernan, Patrick; Ball, Sarah; Santra, Saikat; Foster, Katherine; Fratter, Carl; Poulton, Joanna; Craig, Kate; McFarland, Robert; Rahman, Shamima; Hargreaves, Iain; Gupte, Girish; Sharif, Khalid; Taylor, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Mitochondrial liver disease (MLD), and in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome (MDS) is an important cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in infancy. Early and accurate diagnosis is important because liver transplantation (LT) is often contraindicated. It is unclear which methods are the best to diagnose MLD in the setting of ALF. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of MLD in children younger than 2 years with ALF and the utility of routine investigations to detect MLD. Methods: Thirty-nine consecutive infants with ALF were admitted to a single unit from 2009 to 2011. All were extensively investigated using an established protocol. Genes implicated in mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome were sequenced in all cases and tissue mtDNA copy number measured where available. Results: Five infants (17%) had genetically proven MLD: DGUOK (n = 2), POLG (n = 2), and MPV17 (1). Four of these died, whereas 1 recovered. Two had normal muscle mtDNA copy number and 3 had normal muscle respiratory chain enzymes. An additional 8 children had low hepatic mtDNA copy number but pathogenic mutations were not detected. One of these developed fatal multisystemic disease after LT, whereas 5 who survived remain well without evidence of multisystemic disease up to 6 years later. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy did not distinguish between those with and without MLD. Conclusions: Low liver mtDNA copy number may be a secondary phenomenon in ALF. Screening for mtDNA maintenance gene mutations may be the most efficient way to confirm MLD in ALF in the first 2 years of life. PMID:27482763

  15. Barriers to Postpartum Contraception in Texas and Pregnancy Within 2 Years of Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Joseph E.; Hubert, Celia; Stevenson, Amanda Jean; Hopkins, Kristine; Aiken, Abigail R. A.; White, Kari; Grossman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess pregnancies that could have been averted through improved access to contraceptive methods in the 2 years after delivery. Methods In this cohort study, we interviewed 403 postpartum women in a hospital in Austin, Texas who wanted to delay childbearing for at least 2 years. Follow-up interviews were completed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery; retention at 24 months was 83%. At each interview, participants reported their pregnancy status and contraceptive method. At the 3- and 6-month interviews participants were also asked about their preferred contraceptive method 3 months in the future. We identified types of barriers among women unable to access their preferred method, and used Cox models to analyze the risk of pregnancy from 6 to 24 months after delivery. Results Among women interviewed 6 months postpartum (n=377), two thirds experienced a barrier to accessing their preferred method of contraception. By 24 months postpartum, 89 women had reported a pregnancy; 71 were unintended. Between 6 months postpartum and 24 months after delivery, 77 of 377 became pregnant (20.4%) with 56 (14.9%) lost to follow-up. Women who encountered a barrier obtaining their preferred method were more likely to become pregnant <24 months after delivery. They had a cumulative risk of pregnancy of 34% (95% CI: 0.25, 0.43) as compared to 12% (95% CI: 0.05, 0.18) for women with no barrier. All but three of the women reporting an unintended pregnancy had earlier expressed interest in using LARC or a permanent method. Conclusion In this study, most unintended pregnancies <24 months after delivery could have been prevented or postponed had women been able to access their desired long-acting and permanent methods. PMID:26942356

  16. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  17. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  18. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  19. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and caudal epidural injections in managing post lumbar surgery syndrome: 2-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature is replete with evaluations of failed surgery, illustrating a 9.5%–25% reoperation rate. Speculated causes of post lumbar surgery syndrome include epidural fibrosis, acquired stenosis, recurrent disc herniation, sacroiliac joint pain, and facet joint pain among other causes. Methods Patients (n = 120) were randomly assigned to two groups with a 2-year follow-up. Group I (control group, n = 60) received caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic (lidocaine 2%, 5 mL), nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg, 1 mL), and 6 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Group II (intervention group, n = 60) received percutaneous adhesiolysis of the targeted area, with targeted delivery of lidocaine 2% (5 mL), 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution (6 mL), and nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg). The multiple outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale, the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0, employment status, and opioid intake with assessments at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months posttreatment. Primary outcome was defined as 50% improvement in pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores. Results Significant improvement with at least 50% relief with pain and improvement in functional status was illustrated in 82% of patients at the 2-year follow-up in the intervention group compared to 5% in the control group receiving caudal epidural injections. The average number of procedures over a period of 2 years in Group II was 6.4 ± 2.35 with overall total relief of approximately 78 weeks out of 104 weeks. Conclusion The results of this study show significant improvement in 82% of patients over a period of 2 years with an average of six to seven procedures of 1-day percutaneous adhesiolysis in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. PMID:23293536

  1. A 2-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes, BMI, perfectionism, asceticism and family climate in adolescent girls and their parents.

    PubMed

    Westerberg, J; Edlund, B; Ghaderi, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study of 383 Swedish adolescent girls (11 and 13 years old at year 1) and their parents was to examine changes in eating attitudes over a two-year period, and to investigate the predictive value of eating attitudes, perfectionism, asceticism, family climate and body mass index (BMI) for the development of disturbed eating attitudes. The following self-report questionnaires were used: Children's Eating Attitudes test, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Inventory for Children, Eating Disorder Inventory 2, I Think I Am and The Family Climate. The frequency of disturbed eating attitudes increased with increased age in the girls. Children's eating attitudes, higher BMI than peers, the girls rating of a less healthy relation to family and their fathers' eating attitudes at year 1 contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes for the girls 2 years later. The results suggest that early signs of disturbed eating attitudes and higher BMI than peers may be important predictors for the development of more serious eating disturbances among adolescent girls.

  2. Symptomatic and functional outcomes of substance use disorder persistence 2 years after admission to a first-episode psychosis program.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Amal; Ouellet-Plamondon, Clairélaine; Salvat, Émilie; Grar, Kawthar; Potvin, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) in first-episode psychosis (FEP) are highly prevalent and linked with poor outcomes. However, most longitudinal studies investigating their impacts in FEP have not reported proportions of patients who ceased SUD. Our aim was to examine the influence of SUD course on functional and symptomatic outcomes as well as service use in FEP. We performed a 2-year longitudinal study of 212 FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to 2 early psychosis services in Montréal, Québec, Canada. We observed that cannabis was the first substance abused (42.9% at baseline), followed by alcohol (19.3%). The SUD rate decreased by approximately 30% during the first year. Patients with persistent SUD had worse functional outcomes (Quality of Life Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, employment), more symptoms (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale) and heavier service use (emergency and hospitalization). SUD persistence was associated with illness severity, homelessness and cluster-B personality. Those living with their parents and financially supported by them were more likely to cease SUD. Our results indicate that SUD course was more significant than having SUD at admission; persistent SUD was associated with worse outcomes. SUD decreased during a general early psychosis intervention program (with no specialized SUD treatment). An integrated, specialized approach targeting FEP patients with predictive factors of SUD persistence during the first years of treatment might increase SUD cessation and possibly improve outcomes.

  3. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.

  4. The emergence of spanking among a representative sample of children under 2 years of age in north Carolina.

    PubMed

    Zolotor, Adam J; Robinson, T Walker; Runyan, Desmond K; Barr, Ronald G; Murphy, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Spanking is common in the United States but less common in many European countries in which it has been outlawed. Being spanked has been associated with child abuse victimization, poor self-esteem, impaired parent-child relationships, and child and adult mental health, substance abuse, and behavioral consequences. Being spanked as a child has also been shown to increase the likelihood of abusing one's own children or spouse as an adult. Spanking of very young children less than two is almost never recommended even among experts that consider spanking as reasonable in some circumstances. Using a cross-sectional anonymous telephone survey, we describe spanking rates among a representative sample of North Carolina mothers of children less than 2 years old and the association of spanking with demographic characteristics. A substantial proportion of mothers admit to spanking their very young children. The rate of spanking in the last year among all maternal respondents was 30%. Over 5% of the mothers of 3-month olds reported spanking. Over 70% of the mothers of 23-month olds reported spanking. Increased spanking was associated with higher age of the child and lower maternal age. With every month of age, a child had 27% increased odds of being spanked. Early spanking has been shown to be associated with poor cognitive development in early childhood. Further, early trauma has been shown to have significant effects on the early developing brain. It is therefore critical that health and human services professionals address the risk of corporal punishment as a method of discipline early in the life of the child. The spanking of very young children may be an appropriate locus for policy and legislative debates regarding corporal punishment.

  5. Hispanic Transfer in 2-Year Hispanic-Serving Institutions. A White Paper for HACU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges offer Hispanic students a critical gateway to bachelor's degrees, but these institutions also have low transfer rates to four-year institutions. Some research suggests that Hispanic-Serving community colleges have higher Hispanic transfer rates. This paper examines transfer patterns of a national sample of Hispanic community…

  6. Sexual activity and function in women more than 2 years after midurethral sling placement

    PubMed Central

    Zyczynski, Halina M.; Rickey, Leslie; Dyer, Keisha Y.; Wilson, Tracey; Stoddard, Anne M.; Gormley, E. Ann; Hsu, Yvonne; Kusek, John W.; Brubaker, Linda

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess prospectively the effects of midurethral sling surgery on sexual function and activity. STUDY DESIGN Sexual activity and function was assessed in 597 women with stress urinary incontinence who were enrolled in a randomized equivalence trial of retropubic compared with transobturator midurethral slings. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess changes in Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores over a 2-year period. RESULTS Significant, similar improvements in sexual function were seen in both midurethral sling groups. Mean Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores increased from 32.8 at baseline to 37.6 at 6 months and 37.3 at 24 months (P < .0001). Dyspareunia, incontinence during sex, and fear of incontinence during sex each significantly improved after surgery. Preoperative urge incontinence was associated with abstinence after surgery (P = .02); postoperative urge incontinence negatively impacted sexual function (P = .047). CONCLUSION Midurethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence significantly improves sexual function, although coexistent urge incontinence has a negative impact. PMID:22840975

  7. Spectral resolution of cardio-circulatory variations in men measured by autorhythmometry over 2 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meyer, F.; Vogelaere, P.

    1990-06-01

    An analogue of the periodogram method for unequally spaced data is presented with a view to resolving the frequency structure of the observations. The algorithm is explicitly based on the sequential least squares procedure. In particular, the key concept is that the with-in-plot spectral analysis can be augmented by the between-plot information to make inferences about common characteristics. It is also shown how the between-plot random variations can be incorporated into the multiple harmonic regression model. A detailed spectral analysis investigates the periodic fluctuations in four cardio-circulatory variables, measured by autorhythmometric observation by eight men at rest and extending over a time span of 2 years. The spectral curves show the existence of circadian and circaseptan rhythmicities. The amplitude modulation of the dian rhythm by circaseptan variation is assimilated with the rhythmicity of work during the week. The blood-pressure variables situate their maximum annual peak in the winter period. These quasi-periodic fluctuations appear to be related to the amount of physical activity performed in time by the subjects.

  8. Impact of involuntary out-patient commitment on reducing hospital services: 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Castells-Aulet, Laura; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Jiménez-Martos, Jesús; Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method To evaluate whether involuntary out-patient commitment (OPC) in patients with severe mental disorder reduces their use of hospital services. This is a retrospective case-control study comparing a group of patients on OPC (n = 75) and a control group (n = 75) which was composed of patients whose sociodemographic variables and clinical characteristics were similar to those of the OPC group. Each control case is paired with an OPC case, so the control case must have an involuntary admission in the month that the index OPC case admission occurred. Emergency room visits, admissions and average length of hospital stay over a 2-year follow-up after the initiation of OPC were compared. Results No statistically significant evidence was found in the use of mental healthcare services between the two groups. Different reasons for admission found between the groups limit similarity when comparing the two. Clinical implications The findings cast doubt over the effectiveness of this legal measure to reduce emergency visits, the number of admissions and the length of stay in the hospital.

  9. Correlates of low-level lead exposure in urban children at 2 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A.; Rabinowitz, M.; Needleman, H.; Waternaux, C.

    1986-06-01

    The blood lead levels of a large number of US preschool children approach the value regarded as the upper limit of normal. To reduce the number of children whose levels increase into the range thought to be toxic, the antecedents and correlates of levels in the 0- to 25-micrograms/dL range must be identified. In a large longitudinal study of middle and upper-middle class children living in metropolitan Boston, we evaluated how well five sets of variables predicted children's blood lead levels at 2 years of age: environmental lead sources, mouthing activity, home environment/care giving, prior developmental status, and sociodemographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that only environmental lead sources and, to a lesser extent, mouthing activity accounted for significant portions of the variance in blood lead levels. Environmental lead sources were not significantly related to the home environment/care-giving variables or to sociodemographic characteristics. The most promising approach for achieving community-wide reductions in children's blood lead levels is reduction in the amount of lead in the proximate environment.

  10. Prevalence and genotypes of Giardia duodenalis in 1-2 year old dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Greiner, Ellis C; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-09-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia genotypes in 12-24 month old dairy heifers, fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centrifugation, were subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Prevalence of Giardia infection, ranged from 11% to 75% on 14 farms with an average prevalence of 36% (204 positive cattle out of 571 examined). DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 91% of the 204 Giardia isolates were Assemblage E, and 9% were Assemblage A. The prevalence of these genotypes varied greatly from farm to farm, with four farms having exclusively Assemblage E Giardia. Overall, Assemblage E was present in 33% of all animals tested and Assemblage A was present in 3% of the animals. Thus, while many of the heifers were infected with a genotype that is not known to be infectious for humans, 1-2 year old heifers on 10 of 14 farms did harbor zoonotic Assemblage A Giardia. Therefore, heifers cannot be overlooked as a potential source of human infectious cysts in the environment, with some farms representing a much higher risk than others.

  11. Ligneous conjunctivitis in a plasminogen-deficient dog: clinical management and 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Torres, María-Dolores; Leiva, Marta; Tabar, María-Dolores; Naranjo, Carolina; Pastor, Josep; Peña, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    A 1-year-old-female Yorkshire Terrier was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona (VTH-UAB) (Spain) with a 6-month history of unilateral chronic proliferative conjunctivitis and intermittent vomiting and cough. Several medical and surgical treatment efforts to manage conjunctival lesions had resulted in no improvement of the clinical signs. Complete general and ophthalmic examinations revealed several proliferative 'wood-like' masses in the conjunctiva, oral cavity and an interscapular subcutaneous nodule. Conjunctival and buccal biopsies were performed as diagnostic procedures. A diagnosis of ligneous conjunctivitis was made on the basis of histopathology findings and clinical presentation. The only biochemical abnormalities found were severe proteinuria and low plasminogen activity in plasma. No other analytical abnormalities were observed. Topical treatment with heparin and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs have controlled the ophthalmological clinical signs. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dog with plasminogen deficiency and ligneous conjunctivitis with a long survival period and 2-year follow-up.

  12. Equipping public health professionals for youth engagement: lessons learned from a 2-year pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Tina Binita; Rempel, Benjamin; Lodge, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence of the positive role that youth engagement programs and policies play in creating resiliency and producing positive outcomes among youth populations, such as delaying or avoiding the onset of risk-taking behaviors. Research also suggests that achieving positive outcomes ideally includes influence from the individual, the family, the school, the community, and the field of public health (available in A Research Report and Recommendations for Ontario Public Health Association). The authors conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a 2-year pilot project designed to increase the application of engagement and resiliency theory, knowledge, and skills among public health professionals engaging students from Grades 6, 7, and 8 (11- to 14-year-olds). Qualitative methods assessed public health satisfaction with training, resources, and networking activities, whereas quantitative methods assessed changes in capacity with respect to youth engagement knowledge, awareness, confidence, and skills. The findings have helped shed light on public health professional needs concerning capacity and confidence to undertake youth engagement work. Key lessons learned about making youth engagement possible and effective for public health professionals are presented.

  13. Posaconazole pharmacokinetics in a 2-year-old boy with rhino-cerebral-orbital zygomycosis.

    PubMed

    Egelund, Eric F; Egelund, Tosha A; Ng, John S; Wassil, Sarah K; Peloquin, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal agent used as adjuvant or salvage therapy for the treatment of zygomycosis, an invasive fungal infection associated with high mortality. Oral posaconazole absorption is highly variable. We describe the pharmacokinetics of oral posaconazole in a 2-year-old boy with rhino-cerebral-orbital zygomycosis. Seven days after induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, he was brought to the emergency department because of left eyelid swelling and was admitted to the hospital. Zygomycosis was diagnosed 12 days later. After we conducted a literature search and consulted with antifungal drug experts, a triple-antifungal regimen consisting of liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin, and posaconazole was started. Given the severity of the disease, we aimed for posaconazole plasma trough concentrations greater than 1.25 µg/ml; the dosage necessary to achieve this goal was posaconazole 200 mg 4 times/day. After a difficult 105-day stay in the hospital and stabilization of the fungal infection, the patient was discharged. Caspofungin was discontinued at time of discharge, but the patient continued to receive amphotericin B lipid complex 7.5 mg/kg/day intravenously and posaconazole 200 mg orally 4 times/day. This is one of the few case reports describing posaconazole pharmacokinetics in a child younger than 8 years. In patients with extensive zygomycosis, a triple-antifungal regimen, combined with therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole, may be helpful.

  14. Constraints on the Topology of the Universe from the 2 Year COBEData

    SciTech Connect

    de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Smoot, George F.

    1994-11-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a unique probe of cosmological parameters and conditions. There is a connection between anisotropy in the CMB and the topology of the Universe. Adopting a universe with the topology of a 3-Torus, or a universe where only harmonics of the fundamental mode are allowed, and using 2-years of COBE/DMR data, we obtain constraints on the topology of the Universe. Previous work constrained the topology using the quadrupole component and the correlation function of the CMB. In this letter, we obtain more accurate results by using all multipole moments, avoiding approximations by computing their full covariance matrix. We obtain the best fit for a cubic toroidal universe of scale 7200h{sup -1} Mpc for n = 1. The data set a lower limit on the cell size of 4800h{sup -1} Mpc at 95% confidence and 6000h{sup -1} Mpc at 65% confidence. These results show that the most probable cell size would be around 1.2 times larger than the horizon scale, implying that the 3-Torus topology is no longer an interesting cosmological model.

  15. Partner notification for control of HIV: results after 2 years of a statewide program in Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, A T; Benyo, M; Niler, L; Risk, I

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We sought to evaluate the utility of partner notification for control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to identify subgroups in which it may be most effective. METHODS. All persons reported to be HIV-positive during a 2-year period were interviewed. Outcome measures included proportion of index patients cooperating; number of partners named, located, counseled, and tested; number of persons newly testing positive; and costs. RESULTS. Of 308 index patients, 244 (79%) cooperated. They named 890 partners; 499 (70%) of in-state partners were located. Of these, 154 (34%) had previously tested HIV-positive. Of 279 partners tested for the first time, 39 (14%) were HIV-positive. Injecting drug users were significantly more likely to cooperate than persons in other risk groups (93% vs 76%) and named more partners (median 4 vs 1). Women and persons choosing confidential testing were more likely to cooperate and named more partners. The estimated cost of the program was $62,500 per year. CONCLUSIONS. Partner notification identified a group with a high seroprevalence of HIV. It was not successful among populations that may be difficult to reach with other interventions. PMID:8214231

  16. Negative symptom improvement during cognitive rehabilitation: results from a 2-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Greenwald, Deborah P; Hogarty, Susan S; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-08-30

    Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n=58) were randomized to 2 years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d=0.61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed.

  17. Successful voluntary grasp and release using the cookie crusher myoelectric hand in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meredith, J M; Uellendahl, J E; Keagy, R D

    1993-09-01

    We examined the ability of two 2-year-old children with limb deficiency to demonstrate grasp and release while using the cable-operated voluntary opening hook-hand and the externally powered single-site myoelectric Cookie Crusher system. The Cookie Crusher circuit is an electronic package that causes the prosthetic hand to open in response to muscle contraction and closes (as if crushing a cookie) when the muscle is relaxed. Both children were consistently good prosthetic wearers, beginning with their initial passive devices and progressing through their cable-operated hooks and hands. However, before they began to use the Cookie Crusher (Subject 1 at 25 months, Subject 2 at 30 months), neither had developed voluntary grasp or release in spite of 3 to 12 months' use of cable-operated voluntary opening prehensors. Both children developed a voluntary grasp and release for the first time within minutes of starting to use the Cookie Crusher. The more adept of the two children, a girl with a traumatic above-elbow amputation, showed prehensile function with the Cookie Crusher during play. The spontaneous use of the Cookie Crusher may be related to the predominance of associated reactions in young children. As children play bimanually, associated movements of the nondominant extremity often occur and, in the case of children with limb deficiencies fitted with Cookie Crusher prehensors, these associated reactions result in successful grasp and release. We will continue to follow the choice of effective control schemes in these children as they mature.

  18. Hop tests correlate with IKDC and KOOS at minimum of 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Reinke, Emily K.; Lorring, Dawn; Jones, Morgan H.; Schmitz, Leah; Flanigan, David C.; An, Angel Qi; Quiram, Amanda R.; Preston, Emily; Martin, Michael; Schroeder, Bettina; Parker, Richard D.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Borzi, Lynn; Pedroza, Angela; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Dunn, Warren R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The hypothesis of this study was that single-legged horizontal hop test ratios would correlate with IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity level scores in patients 2 years after primary ACL reconstruction. Methods Individual patient-reported outcome tools and hop test ratios on 69 ACL reconstructed patients were compared using correlations and multivariable modeling. Correlations between specific questions on the IKDC and KOOS concerning the ability to jump and hop ratios were also performed. Results The triple-hop ratio was moderately but significantly correlated with the IKDC, KOOS Sports and Recreation subscale, and the KOOS Knee Related Quality of Life subscale, as well as with the specific questions related to jumping. Similar but weaker relationship patterns were found for the single-hop ratio and timed hop. No significant correlations were found for the Marx activity level or crossover-hop ratio. Multivariable modeling showed almost no significant additional contribution to predictability of the IKDC or KOOS subscores by gender, BMI, or the number of faults on either leg. Conclusions The triple-hop test is most significantly correlated with patient-reported outcome scores. Multivariable modeling indicates that less than a quarter of the variability in outcome scores can be explained by hop test results. This indicates that neither test can serve as a direct proxy for the other; however, assessment of patient physical function by either direct report using validated outcome tools or by the hop test will provide relatively comparable data. Level of evidence II. PMID:21445595

  19. Lipid-based nutrient supplements and linear growth in children under 2 years: a review.

    PubMed

    Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Kruger, Herculina S; Smuts, Cornelius M; Faber, Mieke

    2017-03-13

    The prevalence of stunting remains high in low- and middle-income countries despite adoption of comprehensive nutrition interventions, particularly in low-income countries. In the present paper, we review current evidence on the acceptability and efficacy of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on preventing stunting in children under 2 years, discuss the factors that affect their efficacy, highlight the implications of the current findings at pragmatic level and identify research priorities. Although the present paper is not a generic systematic review, we used a systematic approach to select relevant literature. The review showed that there is growing interest in the potential benefits of using SQ-LNS to prevent growth faltering. Acceptability studies showed that SQ-LNS are generally well accepted. However, results on the efficacy of SQ-LNS on improving linear growth or preventing growth faltering in infants and young children are still inconclusive. Factors that may affect efficacy include the duration of the trial, composition and dosage of SQ-LNS given, and baseline demographics and nutritional status of research participants. Future research should focus on controlled and long-term follow-up trials to obtain more conclusive results. In the long term, there will be need for studies to investigate how provision of SQ-LNS can be integrated with existing strategies to prevent stunting in low- and middle-income settings.

  20. [Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in a 2 year old boy with prenatally diagnosed retroperitoneal tumour].

    PubMed

    Jamroz, Ewa; Głuszkiewicz, Ewa; Madziara, Wojciech; Kiełtyka, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, also named Myoclonic Encephalopathy of Infants, Opsoclonus- Myoclonus Ataxia, Dancing Eyes - Dancing Feet Syndrome, Dancing Eyes Syndrome, Kinsbourne syndrome, is a rare, paraneoplastic or possibly post-viral chronic neurological disorder. The age of presentation ranges from 6 months to 3 years. In 50% of affected children the syndrome is associated with an underlying occult or clinically apparent neuroblastoma. In most patients the tumour is localized, small and well differentiated, with no NMYC gene copy number amplification. The syndrome may also occur after tumour resection or at relapse. The opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome can occur in children without neuroblastoma, in such idiopathiccases, the onset of neurological symptoms is related to infection. It is assumed, that in idiopathic cases the syndrome could have developed in the course of neuroblastoma which had undergone a complete spontaneous regression. The most characteristic clinical features of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome are: opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia, irritability, mutism and sleep disturbances. The disease course is usually long-term with episodes of remission and relapses. Approximately 80% of children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome suffer from mild to severe neurological handicaps, mainly cognitive impairment. The authors present a 2-year old boy with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome preceded by involution of prenatally documented retroperitoneal area tumour.

  1. Remediation by 2-PHASE {trademark} extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E.; Baxter, J.; Huber, S.

    1996-12-31

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE{trademark} Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE{trademark} causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE{trademark} improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE{trademark} to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE{trademark} system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE{trademark} remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  2. Remediation by 2-PHASE [trademark] extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E. ); Baxter, J. ); Huber, S. )

    1996-01-01

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE[trademark] Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE[trademark] causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE[trademark] improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE[trademark] to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE[trademark] system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE[trademark] remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  3. Hepatotumorigenicity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether with 2-year inhalation exposure in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Saito, Arata; Sasaki, Toshiaki; Kasai, Tatuya; Katagiri, Taku; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Noguchi, Tadashi; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-05-01

    Carcinogenicity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) was examined with inhalation exposure using F344/DuCrlCrlj rats. Groups of 50 male and 50 female rats, 6 week old at commencement, were exposed to ETBE at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm (v/v) in whole-body inhalation chambers for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. A significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was indicated in males exposed at 5,000 ppm, but not in females at any concentration. In addition, significantly increased incidences of eosinophilic and basophilic cell foci were observed in male rats at 5,000 ppm. Regarding non-neoplastic lesions, rat-specific changes were observed in kidney, with an increase in the severity of chronic progressive nephropathy in both sexes at 5,000 ppm. Increased incidences of urothelial hyperplasia of the pelvis were observed at 1,500 ppm and above, and mineral deposition was apparent in the renal papilla at 5,000 ppm in males. There were no treatment-related histopathological changes observed in any other organs or tissues in either sex. The present 2-year inhalation study demonstrated hepatotumorigenicity of ETBE in male, but not in female rats.

  4. A survey of referral patterns to a paediatric dentistry unit over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R

    1994-12-01

    Following the changes in October 1990 in the payment system for children's dental treatment within the General Dental Service in the UK there has been widespread concern that repercussions would be felt in other branches of dentistry. The aim of this survey was to investigate the referral of children for specialist care to the Department of Child Dental Health in Newcastle upon Tyne after the changes in 1990, so that consultant clinics and the provision of advice and treatment could be targeted more effectively. Information was obtained from the patients' referral letters and from their hospital records between March 1991 and March 1993. There were 513 referrals (excluding those for orthodontic treatment, extractions under general anaesthesia and acute emergencies), the number more than doubling during the 2-year survey period. 83% of these patients lived within 15 miles of the hospital. 84% of these referrals were from general dental practitioners, and the greater proportion were from those who graduated within the previous 4 years. The most common reason for referral involved behaviour problems. Changes in the payment system that occurred in 1990 may have been a contributory factor in explaining these findings.

  5. High-Latitude Galactic Emission in the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer 2 Year Sky Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, A.; Banday, A. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Hinshaw, G.; Reach, W. T.

    1996-03-01

    We cross-correlate the COBE6 DMR 2 year sky maps with spatial templates from long-wavelength radio surveys and the far-infrared COBE DIRBE maps. We place an upper limit on the spectral index of synchrotron radiation βsynch < -2.9 between 408 MHz and 31.5 GHz. We obtain a statistically significant cross-correlation with the DIRBE maps, whose dependence on the DMR frequencies indicates a superposition of dust and free-free emission. The high-latitude dust emission (|b| > 30°) is well fitted by a single dust component with temperature T = 18+3-7 K and emissivity ν ∝ (υ/ν0)β with β = 1.9+3.0-0.5. The free-free emission is spatially correlated with the dust on angular scales larger than the 70 DMR beam, with rms variations 5.3±1.8 μK at 53 GHz and angular power spectrum p ∝ l-3. If this correlation persists to smaller angular scales, free-free emission should not be a significant contaminant to measurements of the cosmic microwave anisotropy at degree angular scales for frequencies above 20 GHz.

  6. Wear of posterior metal-free polymer crowns after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, B; Trame, J-P; Dreyhaupt, J; Gabbert, O; Koob, A; Rammelsberg, P

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical wear behaviour of posterior, metal-free polymer crowns and to compare it with that of metal-ceramic crowns. After randomization, a total of 120 single crowns were set in posterior teeth. These 120 crowns were divided into three groups: 40 polymer crowns with a glass-fibre framework (group 1), 40 polymer crowns without framework stabilization (group 2) and 40 metal-ceramic crowns (control group). Wear was measured by use of gypsum replicas and a 3D laser scanner at baseline and after 2 years. Statistical analysis was performed by use of a mixed-effects regression model. The mean total wear of posterior single crowns was -19.0 mum (+/- 18.5 microm) in group 1, -24.3 microm (+/- 31.5 microm) in group 2 and -7.0 microm (+/- 8.8 microm) in the control group. Statistical analysis revealed the mean total wear of the polymer crowns in groups 1 (P < or = 0.01) and 2 (P < or = 0.01) was significantly greater than in the control group. No significant difference was detected between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.58). Age, gender and opposing teeth had no significant effect on wear behaviour.

  7. Injury risk factors in junior tennis players: a prospective 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, N; Werner, S; Renstrom, P

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate injury risk factors in junior tennis players. Fifty-five players, 35 boys and 20 girls, answered a questionnaire about training habits, time of exposure, previous injuries and equipment factors. A battery of clinical tests and functional performance tests were also carried out. All tennis-related injuries that occurred during a 2-year period were identified and recorded. An injury was defined as an injury if it was impossible to participate in regular tennis training or playing matches during at least one occasion, a time loss injury. Potential injury risk factors were tested in a forward stepwise logistic regression model for injury. Thirty-nine players sustained totally 100 new and recurrent injuries. Injuries to the lower extremity were the most common ones (51%) followed by the upper extremity (24%) and the trunk (24%). Injured players performed more singles per week (P<0.0001) and played more tennis hours per year (P=0.016) than the uninjured players. Playing tennis more than 6 h/week was found to be a risk factor for back pain. A previous injury regardless of location was identified as an injury risk factor, and a previous injury to the back was a risk factor for back pain.

  8. Prognostic Value of the Clinical SYNTAX Score on 2-Year Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    He, Chen; Song, Ying; Wang, Chuang-Shi; Yao, Yi; Tang, Xiao-Fang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Gao, Run-Lin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Jin-Qing

    2017-03-01

    This prospective, single-center, observational study evaluated prognostic value of clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) on 2-year outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The SYNTAX score (SS) is a scoring system based on the complexity and severity of coronary lesions and is thought to be a prognostic tool to predict long-term outcomes. However, SS was a sole angiographic grading tool only with no consideration for clinical factors. There are few studies investigating the prognostic value of CSS in patients with ACS who underwent PCI. From January 2013 to December 2013, 6,099 consecutive patients with ACS admitted to FuWai hospital and underwent PCI were enrolled in this study. Based on CSS, patients were divided into low CSS group (CSS ≤ 6.5; 2,012 patients), mid-CSS group (6.5 < CSS < 13.8; 2,056 patients), and high CSS group (CSS ≥ 13.8; 2,031 patients). At 2-year follow-up, rates of cardiac death and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly higher in the high CSS group. Compared with baseline SS, CSS demonstrated significantly improved performance for 2-year cardiac death (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.74 vs 0.62, p <0.001) but not for MACE (receiver-operating characteristic curve C-statistic: 0.60 vs 0.59, p = 0.29). By multivariable analysis, the CSS combined with PCI history and hypertension were strong predictors for cardiac death and CSS, intra-aortic balloon pump support, diabetes, and successful PCI were independent predictors for MACE. In conclusion, compared with the anatomic SS, CSS was suitable in risk stratifying and predicting 2-year clinical outcome among ACS population.

  9. Persistent pain is common 1–2 years after shoulder replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnholdt, Karen T; Brandsborg, Birgitte; Søballe, Kjeld; Nikolajsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after various types of surgery such as amputation and thoracotomy. The prevalence of persistent pain, and the extent to which it involves neuropathic pain, is highly dependent on the type of surgery. We investigated the prevalence of, characteristics of, and risk factors for persistent pain 1–2 years after shoulder replacement. Patients and methods A questionnaire was sent to patients who underwent primary shoulder replacement between April 2011 and April 2012, and whose data were recorded in the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Register. Patients who had undergone reoperation or bilateral replacements were excluded. Persistent pain was defined as constant or daily pain within the last month, which interfered much or very much with daily activities. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess risk factors. Results 538 patients were available for analysis. The prevalence of persistent pain was 22% (CI: 18–25), and the prevalence of presumed neuropathic pain was 13% (CI: 10–16). Persistent pain was more frequent in fracture patients (29%) than in osteoarthritis patients (16%), while the prevalence of neuropathic pain was similar. Severe pain during the first postoperative week increased the risk of persistent pain. Risk also increased with hemiprosthesis (as compared to total prosthesis) in osteoarthritis patients, and with previous osteosynthesis and pain elsewhere in fracture patients. Interpretation Persistent pain after shoulder replacement is a daily burden for many patients. Further studies should address patient and prosthesis selection, postoperative pain management, and follow-up of these patients. PMID:25409254

  10. A 2-Year Psychological Autopsy Study of Completed Suicides in the Athens Greater Area, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area using the psychological autopsy method for the first time in Greece. Methods We studied all recorded cases of completed suicide for the 2-year time period November 2007-October 2009 collecting data from the victims' forensic records as well as from the completion of a psychological autopsy questionnaire. Results 335 persons were recorded as suicide victims. We contacted relatives of 256 victims interviewing those of 248 of them (96.9%). The differences regarding sex, marital and employment status between our sample and the general population were statistically significant (p<0.001). The male/female ratio was 3:1. Comparatively more victims were divorced, separated or single and a greater proportion were pensioners or unemployed. 26.0% of the victims had history of prior attempts (64.4% once, 20.3% twice and 15.3% more times). 42.6% were taking psychiatric medication-significantly more women than men according to blood tests; 14.2% had been hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic the year prior to their death. 84.8% have deceased at the place of suicide and 15.2% died in the hospital; 80.3% died indoors and 19.7% outdoors. Men died primarily by hanging or shooting by a firearm while women preferred jumping from height instead (p<0.001). As many as 48.8% had expressed their intention to die to their relatives; 26.6% left a suicide note. Conclusion Our study has shown that the psychological autopsy method is applicable and widely accepted yielding results comparable to the international literature. Specific parameters associated with suicide have been studied for the first time in Greece. PMID:25866522

  11. Lung response to ultrafine Kevlar aramid synthetic fibrils following 2-year inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, K P; Kelly, D P; O'Neal, F O; Stadler, J C; Kennedy, G L

    1988-07-01

    Four groups of 100 male and 100 female rats were exposed to ultrafine Kevlar fibrils at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 25, and 100 fibrils/cc for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. One group was exposed to 400 fibrils/cc for 1 year and allowed to recover for 1 year. At 2.5 fibrils/cc, the lungs had normal alveolar architecture with a few dust-laden macrophages (dust cell response) in the alveolar airspaces. At 25 fibrils/cc, the lungs showed a dust cell response, slight Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar bronchiolarization, and a negligible amount of collagenized fibrosis in the alveolar duct region. At 100 fibrils/cc, the same pulmonary responses were seen as at 25 fibrils/cc. In addition, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (CKSCC) was found in 4 female rats, but not in male rats. Female rats had more prominent foamy alveolar macrophages, cholesterol granulomas, and alveolar bronchiolarization. These pulmonary lesions were related to the development of CKSCC. The lung tumors were derived from metaplastic squamous cells in areas of alveolar bronchiolarization. At 400 fibrils/cc following 1 year of recovery, the lung dust content, average fiber length, and the pulmonary lesions were markedly reduced, but slight centriacinar emphysema and minimal collagenized fibrosis were found in the alveolar duct region. One male and 6 female rats developed CKSCC. The lung tumors were a unique type of experimentally induced tumors in the rats and have not been seen as spontaneous tumors in man or animals. Therefore, the relevance of this type of lung tumor to the human situation is minimal.

  12. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: 2-Year Follow-Up from a Prospective Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bitan, Fabien; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel; Hillen, Travis

    2016-01-01

    quality of life at 2 years. Imaging showed that bone apposition to implants was common but radiographic evidence of intraarticular fusion within the joint may take more than 1 year in many patients. This prospective multicenter clinical trial was approved by local or regional IRBs at each center prior to first patient enrollment. Informed consent with IRB-approved study-specific consent forms was obtained from all patients prior to participation. PMID:27162715

  13. Efficacy of telbivudine with conditional tenofovir intensification in patients with chronic hepatitis B: results from the 2-year roadmap strategy

    PubMed Central

    Piratvisuth, Teerha; Komolmit, Piyawat; Chan, Henry LY; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Pessoa, Mário G; Fassio, Eduardo; Ono, Suzane K; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge; Zeuzem, Stefan; Manns, Michael; Uddin, Alkaz; Dong, Yuhong; Trylesinski, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 2-year roadmap study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir intensification at Week 24 in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving telbivudine. Scope: A prospective multicenter study was conducted in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. All patients received telbivudine (600 mg/day) until Week 24. Thereafter, patients with detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (≥300 copies/mL) were administered tenofovir (300 mg/day) plus telbivudine, and patients with undetectable HBV DNA continued telbivudine monotherapy until Week 104. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) at Weeks 52 and 104. Findings: A total of 105 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 100 were eligible for efficacy analysis. Undetectable HBV DNA levels were observed at Week 24 in 55 patients who continued on with telbivudine monotherapy. The remaining 45 patients with detectable HBV DNA received tenofovir add-on therapy. With monotherapy, 100% (55/55) and 94.5% (52/55) of patients achieved HBV DNA <300 copies/mL at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively; the corresponding values for patients with add-on therapy were 84.4% (38/45) and 93.3% (42/45). Overall, undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) was found in 93% (93/100) and 94% (94/100) of patients at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively. HBeAg seroconversion rate was 44.4% (44/99) at Week 104 for the overall patient population. One patient in the monotherapy group and six in the intensification group demonstrated HBsAg clearance at Week 104. HBsAg seroconversion was observed in four patients at Week 104, all belonged to the tenofovir intensification group. Eight patients sustained HBsAg loss during a posttreatment follow-up period of 16 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization was constant in the telbivudine monotherapy group, whereas a progressive improvement was observed in the tenofovir intensification group

  14. Rehabilitation after the replantation on a 2-year-old girl with both amputated legs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Heon; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Yong Ha; Seul, Jung Hyun; Shon, Oog Jin

    2005-04-01

    We had an opportunity to perform replantation of both legs on a 2-year-old girl, and our decision to perform replantation rather than amputation surgery was carefully made taking her age, degree of crushing injury, ischaemic time and level of the amputation into consideration. Painstakingly designed rehabilitation treatments were continuously performed on this girl from the early stage after the operation, and the treatments were comprised of four parts; that is, flexion and extension exercise for the ankle in order to prevent it from stiffness or contracture, functional electrical stimulation (FES) in order to prevent muscular atrophy on the lower extremities, muscle strengthening exercise for the lower extremities, and electrical stimulation to regenerate the damaged nerves and to prevent muscular atrophy from occurring. For an objective assessment of the postoperative conditions, total active motion angles of the ankle joint were measured, and also EMG and NCV were conducted at the end of the first month as well as at the end of the 6th month. Total active motion angles of the ankle joint were increased progressively as time went on, from 15 to 60 degrees on the right and from 10 to 45 degrees on the left. NCV did not show any sensation or response from motor nerves, or amplitude decreased considerably 1 month after the operation; however, at the end of the 6th month conditions improved a great deal with both amplitude and latency. And most muscles that did not show any signals on EMG or showed less than normal at the end of the first month after the operation eventually recovered at the end of the 6th month. The patient had no particular difficulties in walking after 6 months or rather she started running in small steps showing her legs functioning superbly. An infant with both of lower extremities amputated is quite a rare case. We believe that the replantation surgery was successful due to the fact that carefully selected preoperative factors were taken into

  15. Clinical outcomes and mortality after hip fracture: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, C; Fardellone, P; Bean, K; Ostertag-Ezembe, A; Hervy, F

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of hip fractures, which occurred in the French region of Picardie, in 1992, among 1103 women and 356 men, whether the fractures occurred at home or in a community (i.e., patients who depended on a collective service). The data are part of the PICAROS study, which was designed to assess prospectively the outcome of patients as judged by clinical, economical, and quality of life factors. Patients and/or proxies were questioned during the 2nd or 3rd week following the fracture, and again at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the fracture. The survey was conducted by home interview. Recruitment criteria were: 1) all patients with a hip fracture as defined by the International Classification of Disease (ICD); 2) 20 years of age and over; 3) admitted to one of the 34 surgical units from the region, public and private, and had an operation or not. Patients with metastatic or myelomatous fractures or fractures on prothesis device were not included. For the present analysis, patients under 50 years of age were excluded. Among people aged 50 years and over, 3% of the general population lived in a community; 32% of hip fractures were from a community. Patients in a community, aged 60-69, had 15 times more risk of having a hip fracture than subjects of the same age at home. The excess risk decreased with age and stabilized over 85 years of age at two to threefold. During the 24 month follow-up, 394 women and 173 men died. Among those surviving, 87% were interviewed at 2 years. We analysed seven classes of complications, according to the ICD: (1) pressure sores and blisters; (2) pulmonary infections; (3) urinary infections; (4) surgical complications; (5) orthopedic complications; (6) thrombosis and embolisms; and (7) secondary hip fractures. Patients coming from a community had a higher risk of mortality, pressure sores, surgical complications, and pulmonary and urinary infections. From an economical perspective, the

  16. Midazolam sedation to produce complete amnesia for bronchoscopy: 2 years' experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Bowie, P E

    1999-05-01

    Patients may find bronchoscopy without sedation unpleasant. There is some evidence that patient satisfaction correlates with amnesia for the procedure. For several years we have used doses of midazolam sufficient to put patients lightly asleep hoping to produce complete amnesia. We looked at practical aspects of this technique over a 2-year period. We studied 337 consecutive patients. They were 219 men and 118 women of mean age 63 +/- 12.4 (SD). Sixty-seven patients were aged 75 years or over and the eldest was 86. Sixty-three patients were already hospital inpatients but the remainder were seen as day cases. Midazolam was given by slow i.v. injection over several minutes until the patient was judged to be lightly asleep. Patients were given supplemental oxygen (3 l min-1) and monitored by ECG and pulse oximetry. A note was made of the time at which they awakened, defined as when nursing staff felt the patients were awake enough to have a cup of tea and toast. Patients were asked if they had any memory of the procedure both on awakening and when seen a few days later to discuss the results. The procedures were carried out in a well-staffed Day Case Unit with a recovery area. The mean dose of midazolam used was 10.8 mg (mean +/- SD = 0.16 +/- 0.095 mg kg-1). The midazolam was given over a median of 4 min (range 1-15 min). Patients took 59 +/- 45 min (mean +/- SD) to wake up. Twenty-eight patients were given flumazanil to reverse the sedation (11 for concern over bleeding following biopsies, three for desaturation during and three after procedure, four as they were frail, two as they were restless, two as they were hypotensive after procedure and three for miscellaneous reasons). Only nine patients could remember any part of the procedure. Incremental doses of midazolam given slowly until patients are lightly asleep almost invariably produce complete amnesia for bronchoscopy. This is a safe technique but patients need careful monitoring and may require reversal of

  17. Maternal weight change between 1 and 2 years postpartum: the importance of 1 year weight retention.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal BMI for some women. The objective of this study was to examine maternal body weight change 1y-2y postpartum, and to compare classifications of 2y weight retention with and without accounting for 1y-2y weight gain. Early pregnancy body weight (EPW, first trimester) was measured or imputed, and follow-up measures obtained before delivery, 1 year postpartum (1y) and 2 years postpartum (2y) in an observational cohort study of women seeking prenatal care in several counties in upstate New York (n = 413). Baseline height was measured; demographic and behavioral data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Associations of 1y-2y weight change (kg) and 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) with anthropometric, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were evaluated using linear and logistic regressions. While mean ± SE 1y-2y weight change was 0.009 ± 4.6 kg, 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) was common (n = 108, 26%). Odds of weight gain 1y-2y were higher for overweight (OR(adj) = 2.63, CI(95%) = 1.43-4.82) and obese (OR(adj) = 2.93, CI(95%) = 1.62-5.27) women than for women with BMI <25. Two year weight retention (2y-EPW ≥2.25 kg) was misclassified in 38% (n = 37) of women when 1y-2y weight gain was ignored. One year weight retention (1YWR) (1y-EPW) was negatively related to 1y-2y weight change (β(adj) ± SE = -0.28 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) and weight gain (≥2.25 kg) (OR(adj) = 0.91, CI(95%) = 0.87-0.95). Relations between 1y weight retention and 1y-2y weight change were attenuated for women with higher early pregnancy BMI. Weight change 1y-2y was predicted primarily by an inverse relation with 1y weight retention. The high frequency of weight gain has important implications for classification of postpartum weight retention.

  18. Child's homocysteine concentration at 2 years is influenced by pregnancy vitamin B12 and folate status.

    PubMed

    Lubree, H G; Katre, P A; Joshi, S M; Bhat, D S; Deshmukh, U S; Memane, N S; Otiv, S R; Rush, E C; Yajnik, C S

    2012-02-01

    Longitudinal studies investigating vitamin B12 and folate status of mothers and their offspring will provide a better understanding of intergenerational nutrition. During pregnancy and 2 years (2y) after delivery, we measured plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in 118 women [aged (mean ± s.d.) 22.9 ± 3.9y] who attended a rural (n = 68) or an urban (n = 50) antenatal clinic in Pune, India. Cord blood vitamin B12 and folate were measured, and when the child was 2y total homocysteine (tHcy) was also measured. Demographic and diet measurements were recorded using standard methods. Pregnancy plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 34 weeks was low [median (25th, 75th), 115 (95, 147) pm]; 75% had low status (<150 pm). Plasma folate was high (mean ± s.d., 33 ± 21 nm); one had a folate concentration <7 pm. Cord plasma vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were higher than and positively associated with maternal concentrations. In stepwise regression, higher child vitamin B12 at 2y was predicted (total R 2 15.7%) by pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β 0.201, R 2 7.7%), current consumption of cow's milk (std β 0.194, R 2 3.3%) and whether breast feeding was stopped before 2y (std β -0.234 R 2 7.2%). Child's 2y tHcy concentration was high (11.4 ± 3.6 μm) and predicted by lower pregnancy vitamin B12 (std β -0.206, R 2 4.1%), lack of vitamin supplementation (std β -0.256, R 2 5.6%) in pregnancy and whether currently breastfed (std β 0.268, R 2 8.4%). Low maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy and prolonged breast-feeding results in disturbed one-carbon metabolism in offspring at 2y. Supplementation of women of child-bearing age, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, may improve the homocysteine status of these children.

  19. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  20. Redox-induced terpyridyl substitution in the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M H; Lee, D G; White, P S; Meyer, T J

    2001-07-30

    Reaction between the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine and O(CH(2))(4)N(-) = morpholide), and a series of N- or O-bases gives as products the substituted Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes, trans-[Os(VI)(4'-RNtpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) or trans-[Os(VI)(4'-ROtpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) (RN(-) = anilide (PhNH(-)); S,S-diphenyl sulfilimide (Ph(2)S=N(-)); benzophenone imide (Ph(2)C=N(-)); piperidide ((CH(2))(5)N(-)); morpholide (O(CH(2))(4)N(-)); ethylamide (EtNH(-)); diethylamide (Et(2)N(-)); and tert-butylamide (t-BuNH(-)) and RO(-) = tert-butoxide (t-BuO(-)) and acetate (MeCO(2)(-)). The rate law for the formation of the morpholide-substituted complex is first order in trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) and second order in morpholine with k(morp)(25 degrees C, CH(3)CN) = (2.15 +/- 0.04) x 10(6) M(-)(2) s(-)(1). Possible mechanisms are proposed for substitution at the 4'-position of the tpy ligand by the added nucleophiles. The key features of the suggested mechanisms are the extraordinary electron withdrawing effect of Os(VI) on tpy and the ability of the metal to undergo intramolecular Os(VI) to Os(IV) electron transfer. These substituted Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes can be electrochemically reduced to the corresponding Os(V), Os(IV), and Os(III) forms. The Os-N bond length of 1.778(4) A and Os-N-N angle of 172.5(4) degrees in trans-[Os(VI)(4'-O(CH(2))(4)Ntpy)(Cl)(2)(NN(CH(2))(4)O)](2+) are consistent with sp-hybridization of the alpha-nitrogen of the hydrazido ligand and an Os-N triple bond. The extensive ring substitution chemistry implied for the Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes is discussed.

  1. Clinical and Radiographic Results of Indirect Decompression and Posterior Cervical Fusion for Single-Level Cervical Radiculopathy Using an Expandable Implant with 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Janusz, Piotr; Phillips, Frank M; Youssef, Jim A; Isaacs, Robert; Tyrakowski, Marcin; McCormack, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Background Indirect posterior cervical nerve root decompression and fusion performed by placing bilateral posterior cervical cages in the facet joints from a posterior approach has been proposed as an option to treat select patients with cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to report 2-year clinical and radiologic results of this treatment method. Methods Patients who failed nonsurgical management for single-level cervical radiculopathy were recruited. Surgical treatment involved a posterior approach with decortication of the lateral mass and facet joint at the treated level followed by placement of the DTRAX Expandable Cage (Providence Medical Technology, Lafayette, California, United States) into both facet joints. Iliac crest bone autograft was mixed with demineralized bone matrix and used in all cases. The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain, and SF-12 v.2 questionnaire were evaluated preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Segmental (treated level) and overall C2-C7 cervical lordosis, disk height, adjacent segment degeneration, and fusion were assessed on computed tomography scans and radiographs acquired preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Results Overall, 53 of 60 enrolled patients were available at 2-year follow-up. There were 35 females and 18 males with a mean age of 53 years (range: 40-75 years). The operated level was C3-C4 (N = 3), C4-C5 (N = 6), C5-C6 (N = 36), and C6-C7 (N = 8). The mean preoperative and 2-year scores were NDI: 32.3 versus 9.1 (p < 0.0001); VAS Neck Pain: 7.4 versus 2.6 (p < 0.0001); VAS Arm Pain: 7.4 versus 2.6 (p < 0.0001); SF-12 Physical Component Summary: 34.6 versus 43.6 (p < 0.0001), and SF-12 Mental Component Summary: 40.8 versus 51.4 (p < 0.0001). No significant changes in overall or segmental lordosis were noted after surgery. Radiographic fusion rate was 98.1%. There was no device failure, implant lucency, or

  2. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  3. Do deviant peer associations mediate the contributions of self-esteem to problem behavior during early adolescence? A 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    DuBois, David L; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-06-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth curve modeling and covariance structure analysis, an extension of a model proposed by DuBois et al. (2002) was evaluated for each type of problem behavior. Findings revealed that lower general self-esteem and greater peer orientation in self-esteem each predicted deviant associations with peers and that deviant peer associations, in turn, were associated with higher levels and rates of change in problem behavior. Deviant peer associations mediated the associations of general and peer-oriented self-esteem with levels and rates of change in problem behavior such that direct paths from self-esteem to problem behavior generally were nonsignificant.

  4. Preoperative screening/decolonization for Staphylococcus aureus to prevent orthopedic surgical site infection: prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nalini; Cannella, Barbara A; Crossett, Lawrence S; Yates, Adolph J; McGough, Richard L; Hamilton, Cindy W

    2011-12-01

    We quantified surgical site infections (SSIs) after preoperative screening/selective decolonization before elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) with 2-year follow-up and 2 controls. Concurrent controls (n = 2284) were patients of surgeons not participating in screening/decolonization. Preintervention controls (n = 741) were patients of participating surgeons who underwent TJA the previous year. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers (321/1285 [25%]) used intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine baths as outpatients. Staphylococcal SSIs occurred in no intervention patients (0/321) and 19 concurrent controls. If all SSIs occurred in carriers and 25% of controls were carriers, staphylococcal SSI rate would have been 3.3% in controls (19/571; P = .001). Overall SSI rate decreased from 2.7% (20/741) in preintervention controls to 1.2% (17/1440) in intervention patients (P = .009). Preoperative screening/selective decolonization was associated with fewer SSIs after elective TJA.

  5. International Medical Mission Facing Global Increase of Chronic Disease: 2-Year Experience in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialists of developing countries are facing the epidemic growth of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). From 2011 to 2013, I, as a Korean volunteer doctor, had been working in a local primary healthcare center in Bangladesh, assessing rates of NCDs. Proportion of patients with NCDs was increased from 74.96% in 1999 to 83.05% in 2012, particularly due to the spreading of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and tuberculosis. To succeed in medical mission in developing countries, volunteer doctors have to take measures for preventing chronic diseases along with proper treatment. PMID:26839491

  6. Os-Sr-Nd results from sediments in the Bay of Bengal: Implications for sediment transport and the marine Os record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Reisberg, Laurie; France-Lanord, Christian; Kudrass, Herman R.

    2001-08-01

    Sr, Nd, and Os isotopic data are presented for sediments from diverse locations in the Bay of Bengal. These data allow the samples to be divided into three groups, related to their sedimentary contexts. The first group, mainly composed of sediments from the shelf off Bangladesh and the currently active fan, has Sr and Nd characteristics consistent with a dominantly Himalayan source. Their 187Os/188Os ratios (˜1.2-1.5) show that the average detrital material delivered by the Ganga-Brahmaputra (G-B) river system is not unusually radiogenic. A large difference in 187Os/188Os ratio exists between these Bengal Fan sediments and Ganga bedloads (187Os/188Os ˜2.5, Pierson-Wickmann et al. [2000]). This difference mainly reflects addition of a less radiogenic Brahmaputra component, though mineralogical sorting and loss of radiogenic Os during transport may also play some role. The second sample group contains sediments from elsewhere in the Bay, particularly those located on the continental slope. They display Os isotopic compositions (0.99-1.11) similar to that of present seawater and higher Os and Re concentrations. These characteristics suggest the presence of a large hydrogenous contribution, consistent with the lower sedimentation rate of these samples. Sr and Nd ratios indicate that a significant fraction of these sediments is derived from erosion of non-Himalayan sources, such as the Indo-Burman range. These observations could be explained by the deflection of sediments from the G-B river system by westward currents in the head of the Bay. The third group contains only one sample, but shows that in addition to a Himalayan source, sediment discharge from Sri Lanka may influence the detrital component in the distal part of the fan. The similarity between the isotopic compositions of the group I R/V Sonne samples and those of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 116 [France-Lanord et al., 1993; Reisberg et al., 1997] suggests that the material eroding in the Himalayas has been

  7. Mineral trioxide aggregate as pulp capping agent for primary teeth pulpotomy: 2 year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Konde, Sapna; Mathew, Somy; Sugnani, Sony

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) as an agent for pulpotomy in primary teeth and to compare it with that of formocresol (FC) pulpotomy. Nineteen children between the ages of 6 to 8 years with 40 carious primary molars were treated with pulpotomy using either FC or MTA. All the molars were evaluated clinically and radiographically at regular intervals over a twenty four month period. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Eighty five percent success was observed with FC pulpotomy whereas MTA showed 95% success. MTA showed a higher clinical and radiographic success rate than FC. MTA may be a favorable material for pulpotomy in primary teeth whose pulps have been compromised by a carious or mechanical pulp exposure.

  8. Orthotopic ileal neobladder in female patients after radical cystectomy: 2-year experience.

    PubMed

    Cancrini, A; De Carli, P; Fattahi, H; Pompeo, V; Cantiani, R; Von Heland, M

    1995-03-01

    We describe a surgical technique to conserve urinary continence in 7 women who underwent radical cystectomy with construction of an orthotopic ileal neobladder for infiltrating bladder carcinoma. The selection of the patients and the surgical procedure to preserve the anatomical and functional integrity of the female urethra are described. Followup ranged from 7 to 28 months. There were no postoperative deaths or serious clinical complications. The urinary continence rate was 100% during the day and 71% at night with micturition at regular 3-hour intervals. The vesical capacity varied from 250 to 400 cc and pressure at maximum capacity from 10 to 25 cm. water. Urinary flow was satisfactory and the urethral pressure profile showed a normal sphincteric mechanism at rest. Two patients died of metastases at 14 and 8 months postoperatively, and 5 are alive and disease-free. We believe that these results confirm the possibility of obtaining micturition in women via the urethra following radical cystectomy.

  9. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2014-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality. In this case study, we report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child. Despite appropriate management, such as hepatic supportive measures and plasma transfusion, the toxicity progressed to multi-organ failure and death.

  10. Losses over a 2-year period associated with fetal infection with the bovine viral diarrhea virus in a beef cow-calf herd in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, L F; Janzen, E D; Van Donkersgoed, J

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, significant calf losses occurred between birth and weaning in a 650-cow Saskatchewan beef herd. These losses occurred subsequent to ill-thrift and disease, and every calf necropsied was found to be persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The objectives of this study were to describe the losses associated with fetal infection with BVDV in this herd and to determine why they occurred. For investigative purposes, blood samples were collected from the entire cow herd and the surviving calves at pregnancy testing in 1992, and tested by virus isolation for BVDV. Between 51 and 71 persistently infected calves were born in 1992. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was only isolated from calves. The only confirmed fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of persistently infected calves. However, abortions, reduced pregnancy rates, and delayed calvings were also recorded in the cow herd and may have been the result of fetal infections. The herd was monitored again in 1993. Fetal infections with BVDV were recorded as the birth of stunted, deformed, and persistently infected calves. The greatest losses due to fetal infection with BVDV in the 2 years of this study occurred in cows that were 3-years-old at calving (second calves). Bovine viral diarrhea virus appears to have remained endemic in this herd by transmission from persistently infected calves on young 3- and 4-year-old cows to naive calved 2-year-old cows that were mingled with them annually for rebreeding. Significant numbers of the 2-year-old cows remained naive to BVDV, because they were segregated from persistently infected calves at weaning, preventing cross-infection with BVDV. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 4. PMID:8993781

  11. A randomized study on migration of the Spectron EF and the Charnley flanged 40 cemented femoral components using radiostereometric analysis at 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose We performed a randomized study to determine the migration patterns of the Spectron EF femoral stem and to compare them with those of the Charnley stem, which is regarded by many as the gold standard for comparison of implants due to its extensive documentation. Patients and methods 150 patients with a mean age of 70 years were randomized, single-blinded, to receive either a cemented Charnley flanged 40 monoblock, stainless steel, vaquasheen surface femoral stem with a 22.2-mm head (n = 30) or a cemented Spectron EF modular, matte, straight, collared, cobalt-chrome femoral stem with a 28-mm femoral head and a roughened proximal third of the stem (n = 120). The patients were followed with repeated radiostereometric analysis for 2 years to assess migration. Results At 2 years, stem retroversion was 2.3° and 0.7° (p < 0.001) and posterior translation was 0.44 mm and 0.17 mm (p = 0.002) for the Charnley group (n = 26) and the Spectron EF group (n = 74), respectively. Subsidence was 0.26 mm for the Charnley and 0.20 mm for the Spectron EF (p = 0.5). Interpretation The Spectron EF femoral stem was more stable than the Charnley flanged 40 stem in our study when evaluated at 2 years. In a report from the Norwegian arthroplasty register, the Spectron EF stem had a higher revision rate due to aseptic loosening beyond 5 years than the Charnley. Initial stability is not invariably related to good long-term results. Our results emphasize the importance of prospective long-term follow-up of prosthetic implants in clinical trials and national registries and a stepwise introduction of implants. PMID:21895504

  12. Effects of galantamine in a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Klaus; Baseman, Alan S; Nye, Jeffrey S; Brashear, H Robert; Han, John; Sano, Mary; Davis, Bonnie; Richards, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can produce mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients, but their influence on long-term survival is not well established. This study was designed to assess patient survival and drug efficacy following a 2-year galantamine treatment in patients with mild to moderately severe AD. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind study, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive galantamine or placebo. One primary end point was safety; mortality was assessed. An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board monitored mortality for the total deaths reaching prespecified numbers, using a time-to-event method and a Cox-regression model. The primary efficacy end point was cognitive change from baseline to month 24, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyzed using intent-to-treat analysis with the ‘last observation carried forward’ approach, in an analysis of covariance model. Results In all, 1,024 galantamine- and 1,021 placebo-treated patients received study drug, with mean age ~73 years, and mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline MMSE score of 19 (4.08). A total of 32% of patients (661/2,045) completed the study, 27% (554/2,045) withdrew, and 41% (830/2,045) did not complete the study and were discontinued due to a Data Safety Monitoring Board-recommended early study termination. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the galantamine group versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] =0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37; 0.89) (P=0.011). Cognitive impairment, based on the mean (SD) change in MMSE scores from baseline to month 24, significantly worsened in the placebo (−2.14 [4.34]) compared with the galantamine group (−1.41 [4.05]) (P<0.001). Functional impairment, based on mean (SD) change in the Disability Assessment in Dementia score (secondary end point), at month 24 significantly worsened in the placebo (−10.81 [18

  13. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  14. Culture, Politics, and Policy Interpretation: How Practitioners Make Sense of a Transfer Policy in a 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how educational practitioners make sense of and subsequently implement policy has been an increasingly important objective of the K-12 research community. This study extends this research into higher education via an in-depth case study of an urban public 2-year technical college. Drawing on sensemaking theory and critical policy…

  15. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  16. Outcomes of a New Residential Scheme for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y-C.; Pu, C.; Kroger, T.; Lee, W.; Chang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Taiwanese government launched a new programme in November 2004 to support adults with intellectual disabilities living in smaller facilities. This paper aims to evaluate the service outcomes of this new residential scheme over 2 years including those residents who moved from an institution and those who moved from their family.…

  17. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 2-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May the 2-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  18. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 2-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the 2-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  19. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  20. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  1. Latino Adolescents' Experiences of Discrimination across the First 2 Years of High School: Correlates and Influences on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Changes in perceptions of discrimination were examined with 668 Latino students (62% Mexican American; 56% female; M[subscript age] = 14.6 years). Adolescents' reports of discrimination increased across the first 2 years of high school. Perceptions of discrimination were higher for boys and for primary language brokers, as well as for adolescents…

  2. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  3. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  4. The Use of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity in the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid

    2010-01-01

    Although there are sound theoretical reasons for the use of botulinum toxin (Btx) as early as possible in the management of severe childhood muscle spasticity, the experience with its safety in children younger than 2 years of age is limited and information about its possible effects on the development and maturation of the human motor system…

  5. Growing Readers: A Hierarchical Linear Model of Children's Reading Growth During the First 2 Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy; O'Connell, Ann A.; Reis, Sally M.; Levitt, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the first 4 waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K), this piecewise 3-level (time-student-school) growth-curve model provides a portrait of students' reading growth over the first 2 years of school. On average, students make much greater reading gains in 1st grade than they do in kindergarten.…

  6. Temporal Stability of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions in an Undergraduate Sample: A Prospective 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullana, Miquel A.; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel; Caseras, Xavier; Taberner, Joan; Torrubia, Rafael; Mataix-Cols, David

    2007-01-01

    The temporal stability of obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions was studied in a nonclinical student sample. The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory--Revised was administered twice to 132 undergraduate students during a 2-year period. There were no significant changes in symptom dimension scores between the baseline and follow-up, except for the…

  7. Reduced prepulse inhibition in adolescents at risk for psychosis: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ziermans, Tim; Schothorst, Patricia; Magnée, Maurice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex is a hallmark feature of attention-processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that these deficits may also be present before the onset of psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) and become progressively worse as psychosis develops. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to observe the development of PPI over time in UHR adolescents and healthy controls. Methods Two-year follow-up data of PPI measures were compared between UHR adolescents and a matched control group of typically developing individuals. Results We included 42 UHR adolescents and 32 matched controls in our study. Compared with controls, UHR individuals showed reduced PPI at both assessments. Clinical improvement in UHR individuals was associated with an increase in PPI parameters. Limitations A developmental increase in startle magnitude partially confined the interpretation of the association between clinical status and PPI. Furthermore, post hoc analyses for UHR individuals who became psychotic between assessments had limited power owing to a low transition rate (14%). Conclusion Deficits in PPI are present before the onset of psychosis and represent a stable vulnerability marker over time in UHR individuals. The magnitude of this marker may partially depend on the severity of clinical symptoms. PMID:21266126

  8. [3 1/2 years experiences with ECCE with tunnel incision].

    PubMed

    Häberle, H; Anders, N; Antoni, H J; Pham, D T; Wollensak, J

    1997-01-01

    Since January 1992 planned extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) is performed routinely with the no-stitch technique at our clinic. To minimize surgically induced astigmatism further, modified wound constructions for planned ECCE with on 1.1-mm tunnel width were evaluated. The follow-up time was up to 3 years postoperatively. For 250 eyes wound closure was performed prospectively either sutureless (n = 70), with a single perpendicular suture (n = 100) or cross sutures (n = 40) at the 12 o'clock position or sutureless in the temporal position (n = 40). The complication rate was 4% (filtering bleb, iris prolapse or transient hypotonia). There were no wound ruptures, but once endophthalmitis was observed. Late mean astigmatism after up to 3 years follow-up for vertical incision was 2.05 +/- 1.16 D (1.01 +/- 0.96 D preoperatively) for sutureless wound closure, 1.63 +/- 1.08 D (0.86 +/- 0.95 D) for perpendicular and 1.76 +/- 0.88 D (0.73 +/- 0.55 D) for cross-sutures. A temporal incision resulted in 0.78 +/- 0.52 D (1.0 +/- 0.69 D) of astigmatism and was only performed on eyes with against the rule astigmatism preoperatively. Surgically induced astigmatism was stabilized early. For with the rule astigmatism preoperatively, a 12 o'clock incision with a perpendicular single suture is recommended and for against the rule astigmatism, a temporal incision.

  9. SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at +2 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Morgan; Kotak, Rubina; Pastorello, Andrea; Jerkstrand, Anders; Smartt, Stephen J.; Chen, Ting-Wan; Childress, Michael; Gilmore, Gerard; Inserra, Cosimo; Kankare, Erkki; Margheim, Steve; Mattila, Seppo; Valenti, Stefano; Ashall, Christopher; Benetti, Stefano; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Bauer, Franz Erik; Campbell, Heather; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Fleury, Mathilde; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hachinger, Stephan; Howell, D. Andrew; Le Guillou, Laurent; Léget, Pierre-François; Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia; Polshaw, Joe; Spiro, Susanna; Sullivan, Mark; Taubenberger, Stefan; Turatto, Massimo; Walker, Emma S.; Young, David R.; Zhang, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterize the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely 56Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow (≲2000 km s- 1) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe II] λ7155 and [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October, respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km s- 1. The lines are not blueshifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 d after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.

  10. Perceived outcomes and satisfaction of Saudi parents and their children following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents’ satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Results: A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents’ perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Conclusion: Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA. PMID:25625072

  11. Anterior cervical fusion with interbody cage containing beta-tricalcium phosphate augmented with plate fixation: a prospective randomized study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Yang; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    A variety of bone graft substitutes, interbody cages, and anterior plates have been used in cervical interbody fusion, but no controlled study was conducted on the clinical performance of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and the effect of supplemented anterior plate fixation. The objective of this prospective, randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implanting interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy, and the fusion rates and outcomes in patients with or without randomly assigned plate fixation. Sixty-two patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy due to soft disc herniation or spondylosis were treated with one- or two-level discectomy and fusion with interbody cages containing beta-TCP. They were randomly assigned to receive supplemented anterior plate (n = 33) or not (n = 29). The patients were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. The radiological and clinical outcomes were assessed during a 2-year follow-up. The results showed that the fusion rate (75.0%) 3 months after surgery in patients treated without anterior cervical plating was significantly lower than that (97.9%) with plate fixation (P < 0.05), but successful bone fusion was achieved in all patients of both groups at 6-month follow-up assessment. Patients treated without anterior plate fixation had 11 of 52 (19.2%) cage subsidence at last follow-up. No difference (P > 0.05) was found regarding improvement in spinal curvature as well as neck and arm pain, and recovery rate of JOA score at all time intervals between the two groups. Based on the findings of this study, interbody fusion cage containing beta-TCP following one- or two-level discectomy proved to be an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and/or myelopathy. Supplemented anterior plate fixation can promote interbody fusion and prevent cage subsidence but do not improve the 2-year outcome when compared with those treated

  12. Evaluation of patient-reported outcomes data in structured diabetes education intervention: 2-year follow-up data of patient empowerment programme.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carlos K H; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F; Chan, Anca K C; Pak, C H; Chan, Frank W K; Wong, William C W

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effects of a structured group-based education programme, patient empowerment programme (PEP), compared with usual care on 2-year changes in patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A prospective observational study of 715 patients (PEP/non-PEP: 390/325) was conducted to complete the baseline PRO survey and followed up for 2 years. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured using the short-form 12 at baseline and annually at two follow-up assessments, which yielded physical and mental component summary and SF-6D preference-based scores. Perceived control over diabetes and general health status were measured using the patient enablement instrument (PEI) and global rating scale (GRS) at follow-ups. When compared with non-PEP, PEP participants significantly reported improvement in health condition (GRS score > 0; 24.55 % vs 10.16 %; odds ratio = 2.502; P = 0.018) in 2 years and enabled the self-perceived control over diabetes (PEI score > 0; 72.20 % vs 38.40 %; odds ratio = 3.25; P < 0.001) in 1-year follow-up but no sustained effects in year 2 (52.65 % vs 39.04 %; odds ratio = 1.366; P = 0.265). There were no significant differences between PEP and non-PEP groups in the changes in quality of life scores (all P > 0.05) at 1 year. Although HRQOL scores deteriorated over 2-year period in both groups, PEP participants reported similar changes in HRQOL scores to that of non-PEP. PEP for DM patients preserved self-perceived disease control and health condition, whereas PEP participants perceived their HRQOL similar to that of non-PEP participants. Findings of PRO should be considered alongside clinical outcomes when evaluating the overall benefits of PEP.

  13. Neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os for the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Masaki, T.; Nagai, Y.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2007-08-15

    Discrete as well as continuum {gamma}-ray energy spectra from the neutron capture by {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os have been taken for the first time at 5{<=}E{sub n}{<=}90 keV by an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The detection of a weak discrete {gamma}-ray, about 0.5% of total {gamma}-ray strength, demonstrates the high sensitivity of the present measurement. The energy spectra enabled us to accurately determine the reaction cross sections with a small systematic uncertainty. Based on the new cross sections, we reestimate on the basis of a careful reaction cross section calculation the correction factor F{sub {sigma}} for the neutron capture on the 9.75-keV first excited state in {sup 187}Os as a function of stellar temperature, as required to derive the age of the galaxy within the Re-Os chronology.

  14. Combined photodynamic therapy and ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a 2-year result and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meng; Zhou, Hai-Ying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Feng; Wei, Wen-Bin; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report a cohort of patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) followed by intravitreal ranibizumab injection 24-48h later, and to compare the results between eyes with PCV treated by PDT followed by intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection and intravitreal anti-VEGF injection followed by PDT by Meta-analysis. METHODS Retrospective study and systematic literature review. Medical records of patients with PCV who were initially treated using PDT followed by intravitreal ranibizumab injection 24-48h after PDT and had completed at least 2y follow-up were reviewed and analyzed. Clinical data, including age, sex, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photograph, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography were investigated. A systematic literature review was also conducted, and a visual outcome of studies over 1y was compared using Meta-analysis. RESULTS A total of 52 patients were included in the study. Mean BCVA at baseline and follow-up at 1 or 2y were 0.71±0.61, 0.51±0.36 and 0.68±0.51 logMAR, respectively. The cumulative hazard rate for recurrence at 1 and 2y follow-up was 15.4% and 30.3% respectively. The percentage of eyes with polyps regression at 3, 12 and 24mo follow-up was 88.5%, 84.6% and 67.3% respectively. A Meta-analysis based on 22 independent studies showed the overall vision improvements at 1, 2 and 3y follow-up were 0.13±0.04 (P<0.001), 0.12±0.03 (P<0.001), 0.16±0.06 (P<0.001), respectively. The proportion of polyps regression at 1y follow-up was 64.6% (95%CI: 51.5%, 77.7%, P<0.001) in 434 eyes treated by intravitreal anti-VEGF agents before PDT and 76.0% (95%CI: 64.8%, 87.3%, P=0.001) in 199 eyes treated by intravitreal anti-VEGF agents after PDT. CONCLUSION Intravitreal ranibizumab injection 24-48h following PDT effectively stabilizes visual acuity in the eye with PCV. PDT followed by intravitreal anti

  15. Osmium uptake, distribution, and 187Os/188Os and 187Re/188Os compositions in Phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus: Implications for determining the 187Os/188Os composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racionero-Gómez, B.; Sproson, A. D.; Selby, D.; Gannoun, A.; Gröcke, D. R.; Greenwell, H. C.; Burton, K. W.

    2017-02-01

    The osmium isotopic composition (187Os/188Os) of seawater reflects the balance of input from mantle-, continental- and anthropogenic-derived sources. This study utilizes the Phaeophyceae, Fucus vesiculosus, to analyse its Os abundance and uptake, as well as to assess if macroalgae records the Os isotope composition of the seawater in which it lives. The data demonstrates that Os is not located in one specific biological structure within macroalgae, but is found throughout the organism. Osmium uptake was measured by culturing F. vesiculosus non-fertile tips with different concentrations of Os with a known 187Os/188Os composition (∼0.16), which is significantly different from the background isotopic composition of local seawater (∼0.94). The Os abundance of cultured non-fertile tips show a positive correlation to the concentration of the Os doped seawater. Moreover, the 187Os/188Os composition of the seaweed equalled that of the culture medium, strongly confirming the possible use of macroalgae as a biological proxy for the Os isotopic composition of the seawater.

  16. Impact of poor mental health in adult spinal deformity patients with poor physical function: a retrospective analysis with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Scheer, Justin K; Gum, Jeffrey L; Hostin, Richard; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Burton, Douglas C; Keefe, Malla Kate; Hart, Robert A; Mundis, Gregory M; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mental disease burden can have a significant impact on levels of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. Therefore, the authors investigated the significance of mental health status in adults with spinal deformity and poor physical function. METHODS A retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter database of 365 adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients who had undergone surgical treatment was performed. Health-related QOL variables were examined preoperatively and at the 2-year postoperative follow-up. Patients were grouped by their 36-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) scores. Both groups had PCS scores ≤ 25th percentile for matched norms; however, the low mental health (LMH) group consisted of patients with an MCS score ≤ 25th percentile, and the high mental health (HMH) group included patients with an MCS score ≥ 75th percentile. RESULTS Of the 264 patients (72.3%) with a 2-year follow-up, 104 (28.5%) met the inclusion criteria for LMH and 40 patients (11.0%) met those for HMH. The LMH group had a significantly higher overall rate of comorbidities, specifically leg weakness, depression, hypertension, and self-reported neurological and psychiatric disease processes, and were more likely to be unemployed as compared with the HMH group (p < 0.05 for all). The 2 groups had similar 2-year postoperative improvements in HRQOL (p > 0.05) except for the greater improvements in the MCS and the Scoliosis Research Society-22r questionnaire (SRS-22r) mental domain (p < 0.05) in the LMH group and greater improvements in PCS and SRS-22r satisfaction and back pain domains (p < 0.05) in the HMH group. The LMH group had a higher rate of reaching a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) on the SRS-22r mental domain (p < 0.01), and the HMH group had a higher rate of reaching an MCID on the PCS and SRS-22r activity domain (p < 0.05). On multivariable logistic regression

  17. Evidence for safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis over 4 years of treatment: Results from the 2-year, open-label, extension study of a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Steven; Lorenc, Roman S; Wenderoth, Dietrich; Stoner, Karen J; Eusebio, Rachelle; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-09-01

    A 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with osteoporosis demonstrated that treatment with risedronate 35mg once a week significantly decreased bone turnover markers (BTMs) and increased bone mineral density (BMD). This study was extended to include a 2-year, open-label extension to continue to assess the safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis. In the open-label extension, all patients received risedronate 35mg once a week, and 1000mg elemental calcium and 400 to 500IU vitamin D daily for up to 2 years. The safety of risedronate was evaluated based on adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, and physical examination results. BMD, BTMs, and the incidence of new vertebral fractures were also assessed. A total of 218 (of 284) patients enrolled in the open-label extension. Risedronate continued to produce significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (7.87%) in the group of patients who took it for 4 years. Risedronate produced significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (6.27%) in the former placebo group who took it for 2 years during the open-label extension. Few new vertebral and clinical fractures occurred during the study. There were no significant differences in BTMs between the two groups at months 36 and 48. Incidences of any upper GI adverse events during the extension were low and similar in the two groups; however, the percent of moderate to severe events were higher (8% versus 2%) in the group that received placebo prior to the extension. Safety results continued to show that risedronate was well-tolerated in men with osteoporosis. Patients who received risedronate 35mg once a week for 2years in the open-label extension study showed similar safety and efficacy results compared with those who received risedronate treatment in the first 2 double-blind years of the study. Patients who received risedronate for 4 years in total showed similar safety and efficacy to that observed in

  18. Protection against feline leukemia virus challenge for at least 2 years after vaccination with an inactivated feline leukemia virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jirjis, Faris F; Davis, Tamara; Lane, Jennifer; Carritt, Kari; Sweeney, Diane; Williams, James; Wasmoen, Terri

    2010-01-01

    Twelve cats were vaccinated at 8 and 11 weeks of age with a commercially available inactivated FeLV vaccine (Nobivac FeLV, Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health). Eleven cats served as age-matched, placebo-vaccinated controls. All cats were kept in isolation for 2 years after vaccination and were then challenged with virulent FeLV to evaluate vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity. Cats were monitored for 12 weeks after challenge for development of persistent viremia using a commercial FeLV p27 ELISA. Persistent viremia developed in all 11 (100%) of the control cats, whereas 10 of 12 (83%) vaccinated cats were fully protected from persistent viremia following challenge. The results demonstrate that the vaccine used in this study protects cats from persistent FeLV viremia for at least 2 years after vaccination.

  19. Impact of single dose of diethylcarbamazine and other antifilarial drug combinations on bancroftian filarial infection variables: assessment after 2 years.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Rajendran, R; Mani, T R; Munirathinam, A; Reuben, R; Dash, A P

    2006-09-01

    The impact of single dose mass drug administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), DEC with albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVR) with albendazole, was examined on the human bancroftian filarial infections in village scale trials in south India, from a follow-up study after 2 years. The treatment arms administered with DEC alone and DEC+ALB demonstrated long-term benefits in reducing microfilaraemia significantly (P<0.05), while antigenaemia reduction was negligible. The arm with ALB+IVR did not show such reductions. Among the antigenaemic and microfilaraemic individuals, 87% became amicrofilaraemic in DEC+ALB arm, which were higher than that observed in the other 2 treatment arms. Among amicrofilaraemics (but Ag+), nearly 35% cleared of infection in DEC+ALB, while 26% and 6% in DEC alone and IVR+ALB arms, respectively. The drug combination DEC+ALB was observed to demonstrate a significant impact in reducing filarial infection even after 2 years post treatment.

  20. Translating a health behavior change intervention for delivery to 2-year college students: the importance of formative research.

    PubMed

    Linde, Jennifer A; Sevcik, Sarah M; Petrich, Christine A; Gardner, Jolynn K; Laska, Melissa N; Lozano, Paula; Lytle, Leslie A

    2014-06-01

    Young adults are at risk for weight gain in the transition to independent adulthood; 2-year college students are at greater risk and understudied relative to 4-year students. This project conducted formative research for a randomized controlled weight gain prevention trial among 2-year college students, to ensure appropriateness of content and delivery of a curriculum originally developed for 4-year college students. Data were collected from community college students, faculty, and staff from October 2009 to August 2011. Work included focus groups and key informant interviews, curriculum pilot testing, and social network and support website beta testing. Based on focus groups and interviews, program content, course delivery modes, and communication channels were adjusted to meet population interests and preferences. The course was delivered successfully in pilot testing, and the website was received well by beta testers. Formative work successfully guided program adaptations to address population needs.

  1. Pulsed and scanned carbon dioxide laser resurfacing 2 years after treatment: comparison by means of scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Garcia, Luisa; Rigau, Josepa; Allones, Inès; Velez, Marìano

    2003-05-01

    Studies have reported short-term and long-term (1-year) findings for laser skin resurfacing. Two of the most popular systems used for this procedure, the continuous-wave Sharplan 40C SilkTouch system and the pulsed Coherent 5000C UltraPulse system with a computer pattern generator, were previously compared for a range of follow-up times up to 1 year, using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This study analyzed the 2-year morphological differences using scanning electron microscopy. Tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients (age range, 50 to 72 years; skin types II and III) who had undergone laser resurfacing 2 years previously. One half of the face of each patient had been treated with the continuous-wave system and the other half with the pulsed system. The samples were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. On the continuous-wave-treated side, significantly better dermal collagen organization was observed at 2 years, with plump-appearing fibers that were closely knit to form a compact structure. On the side treated with the pulsed system, the collagen fibers in the papillary dermis were more loosely arranged and appeared drier. In both the continuous-wave-treated and pulsed-treated areas, the epidermis appeared healthy and exhibited some signs of age-related deterioration, with slightly flatter plaques and somewhat more flaking keratin on the pulsed-treated side. Probably because of the greater degree of residual thermal damage associated with the continuous-wave system, at 2 years after treatment there was more prolific synthesis and better orientation of collagen fibers, which were maintained for longer times, compared with the pulsed-treated specimens.

  2. Color-Object Interference in Young Children: A Stroop Effect in Children 31/2-61/2 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevor, M.B.; Diamond, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Stroop color-word task cannot be administered to children who are unable to read. However, our color-object Stroop task can. One hundred and sixty-eight children of 31/2-61/2 years (50% female; 24 children at each 6-month interval) were shown line drawings of familiar objects in a color that was congruent (e.g., an orange carrot), incongruent…

  3. Psychiatric disorders in children with Prader-Willi syndrome-Results of a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lo, S T; Collin, P J L; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2015-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as psychosis are highly prevalent in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, knowledge about the presence and progression of psychiatric disorders in children with PWS is very limited. Sixty-one children with PWS aged 7-17 years were tested using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and Compulsive Behaviour Checklist (CBC), and 38/61 were retested after 2 years. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the association with age, gender, genetic subtype, and total IQ were assessed. In addition, occurrence and characteristics of compulsions were determined. Prior to the study, two boys were known with psychotic symptoms and treated with antipsychotics. At baseline, none scored positive for psychotic disorder. During the follow-up, only one boy with known psychotic symptoms required a dose adjustment of his antipsychotic medication. After 2 years, none of the children had a psychotic disorder according to the DISC. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was the most common diagnosis and present in 20% of children with PWS, and this was not associated with age (β = -0.081, P = 0.546), gender (β = 0.013, P = 0.923), genetic subtype (β = -0.073, P = 0.584), or total IQ (β = -0.150, P = 0.267). The most common compulsions were hoarding and fixed hygiene sequences. In our large group of 61 children with PWS, the majority had no psychotic disorder and no progression was found during 2-year follow-up. ODD was present in 20% of children. No changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders were found during the 2-year follow-up study and genetic subtype was not related to psychosis, depression, or ODD.

  4. Parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status over a 2-year period in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (P<0.001). Compared with the children with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.

  5. Neutron capture and inelastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os and the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Masaki, T.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2008-05-21

    We measured the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,189}Os taking for the first time their pulse height spectra for neutrons between 5 and 90 keV by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The neutron inelastic scattering cross section for {sup 187}Os as well as the neutron elastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186,187}Os were also observed with use of {sup 6}Li-glass scintillation detectors with a small systematic uncertainty.

  6. Painful os acromiale presenting as septic shoulder.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Nirav S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Fayad, Laura M; McFarland, Edward G; Millin, Michael G

    2011-10-01

    The unfused acromial apophysis of an os acromiale typically is an undetected orthopedic anomaly with minimal symptoms. In some instances, however, pain and disability can result from motion between the unfused bone fragments. Trauma to the acromion can similarly displace the unfused os acromiale or can result in chronic symptoms of pain and swelling. In this article, we report the case of a young man who had a fractured os acromiale secondary to trauma and presented with the signs and symptoms of a septic glenohumeral joint.

  7. Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Verhoeff, N I; Chen, Z; Chen, S; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, P B F

    2015-10-01

    Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator.

  8. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, S.; El Osta, N.; Souhaid, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05). The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system. PMID:28348594

  9. Financial impact of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on patients and families over 2 years: results from a multicenter pilot study.

    PubMed

    Denzen, E M; Thao, V; Hahn, T; Lee, S J; McCarthy, P L; Rizzo, J D; Ammi, M; Drexler, R; Flesch, S; James, H; Omondi, N; Murphy, E; Pederson, K; Majhail, N S

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a procedure that can significantly influence the socioeconomic wellbeing of patients, caregivers and their families. Among 30 allogeneic HCT recipients and their caregivers enrolled on a pilot study evaluating the feasibility of studying financial impact of HCT, 16 agreed to participate in the long-term phase, completed a baseline questionnaire and received phone interviews at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post HCT. Analyses showed that by 2 years post HCT, 54% of patients who previously contributed to household earnings had not returned to work and 80% of patients/caregivers reported transplant as having moderate to great impact on household income. However, patients' levels of confidence in their abilities to meet household financial obligations increased from baseline to 2 years. A relatively large proportion of patients reported inability to pay for medical care through this time period. Case studies demonstrated that patients' individual perceptions of the financial impact of HCT varies considerably, regardless of actual income. We demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a study to evaluate the financial impact of allogeneic HCT through 2 years post transplantation. Some patients/caregivers continue to experience a significant long-term financial burden after this procedure. Our study lays the foundation for a larger evaluation of patient/caregiver financial burden associated with HCT.

  10. Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Primary Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Hospitalized Children Under 2-Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, H; Ghasemi, A; Banihashem, A; Badiei, Z; Jarahi, L; Eslami, G; Langaee, T

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most prevalent cause of thrombocytopenia in children. Despite the importance of ITP in children under 2-years old, only a few publications are available in the literature.ITP usually presents itself as isolated thrombocytopenia and mucocutaneous bleeding. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on 187 under 2-year-old children diagnosed with ITP and treated at Dr. Sheikh Hospital from 2004 to 2011.In this retrospective study, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, history of viral infections, vaccination history, and treatment efficacy in children under 2-years old with ITP were investigated.Patients were followed for one year after being discharged from the hospital. Results The risk of the disease developing into chronic form was higher in older children (0.001). ITP in children under 3-months old was significantly associated with vaccination (p=0.007). There was no significant differences between male and female patients in regards to newly diagnosed ITP, persistent, and chronic disease status (p = 0.21). No significant difference in bleeding symptoms was observed between patients under 3-months old and 3 to 24-months old (p=0.18). Conclusion Infantile ITP respond favorably to treatment. The risk of the disease developing into chronic form is higher in 3-to-24-month-old children compared to under-three-month olds. PMID:27222699

  11. Financial Impact of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation on Patients and Families over 2-years: Results from a Multicenter Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Denzen, Ellen M.; Thao, Viengneesee; Hahn, Theresa; Lee, Stephanie J.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Ammi, Monique; Drexler, Rebecca; Flesch, Susan; James, Heather; Omondi, Nancy; Murphy, Elizabeth; Pederson, Kate; Majhail, Navneet S.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a procedure that can significantly influence the socioeconomic wellbeing of patients, caregivers and their families. Among 30 allogeneic HCT recipients and their caregivers enrolled on a pilot study evaluating the feasibility of studying financial impact of HCT, 16 agreed to participate in the long-term phase, completed a baseline questionnaire and received phone interviews at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post-HCT. Analyses showed that by 2-years post-HCT, 54% of patients who previously contributed to household earnings had not returned to work and 80% of patients/caregivers reported transplant as having moderate to great impact on household income. However, patients’ level of confidence in their ability to meet household financial obligations increased from baseline to 2-years. A relatively large proportion of patients reported inability to pay for medical care through this time period. Case studies demonstrated patient individual perception of financial impact of HCT varies considerably, regardless of actual income. We demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a study to evaluate financial impact of allogeneic HCT through 2-years post-transplantation. Some patients/caregivers continue to experience significant long-term financial burden after this procedure. Our study lays the foundation for a larger evaluation of patient/caregiver financial burden associated with HCT. PMID:27088381

  12. Homologous U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 Are Involved in the Positive Regulation of Low Temperature Stress Response in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Cui, Li Hua; Oh, Tae Kyung; Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Andosung; Park, Ki Youl; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2017-01-01

    Rice U-box E3 Ub ligases (OsPUBs) are implicated in biotic stress responses. However, their cellular roles in response to abiotic stress are poorly understood. In this study, we performed functional analyses of two homologous OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 in response to cold stress (4°C). OsPUB2 was up-regulated by high salinity, drought, and cold, whereas OsPUB3 was constitutively expressed. A subcellular localization assay revealed that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 were localized to the exocyst positive organelle (EXPO)-like punctate structures. OsPUB2 was also localized to the nuclei. OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 formed a hetero-dimeric complex as well as homo-dimers in yeast cells and in vitro. OsPUB2/OsPUB3 exhibited self-ubiquitination activities in vitro and were rapidly degraded in the cell-free extracts with apparent half-lives of 150-160 min. This rapid degradation of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was delayed in the presence of the crude extracts of cold-treated seedlings (apparent half-lives of 200-280 min). Moreover, a hetero-dimeric form of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was more stable than the homo-dimers. These results suggested that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 function coordinately in response to cold stress. OsPUB2- and OsPUB3-overexpressing transgenic rice plants showed markedly better tolerance to cold stress than did the wild-type plants in terms of survival rates, chlorophyll content, ion leakage, and expression levels of cold stress-inducible marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that the two homologous rice U-box E3 Ub ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 are positive regulators of the response to cold stress.

  13. Homologous U-box E3 Ubiquitin Ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 Are Involved in the Positive Regulation of Low Temperature Stress Response in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Mi Young; Cui, Li Hua; Oh, Tae Kyung; Jung, Ye-Jin; Lee, Andosung; Park, Ki Youl; Kang, Bin Goo; Kim, Woo Taek

    2017-01-01

    Rice U-box E3 Ub ligases (OsPUBs) are implicated in biotic stress responses. However, their cellular roles in response to abiotic stress are poorly understood. In this study, we performed functional analyses of two homologous OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 in response to cold stress (4°C). OsPUB2 was up-regulated by high salinity, drought, and cold, whereas OsPUB3 was constitutively expressed. A subcellular localization assay revealed that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 were localized to the exocyst positive organelle (EXPO)-like punctate structures. OsPUB2 was also localized to the nuclei. OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 formed a hetero-dimeric complex as well as homo-dimers in yeast cells and in vitro. OsPUB2/OsPUB3 exhibited self-ubiquitination activities in vitro and were rapidly degraded in the cell-free extracts with apparent half-lives of 150–160 min. This rapid degradation of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was delayed in the presence of the crude extracts of cold-treated seedlings (apparent half-lives of 200–280 min). Moreover, a hetero-dimeric form of OsPUB2/OsPUB3 was more stable than the homo-dimers. These results suggested that OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 function coordinately in response to cold stress. OsPUB2- and OsPUB3-overexpressing transgenic rice plants showed markedly better tolerance to cold stress than did the wild-type plants in terms of survival rates, chlorophyll content, ion leakage, and expression levels of cold stress-inducible marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that the two homologous rice U-box E3 Ub ligases OsPUB2 and OsPUB3 are positive regulators of the response to cold stress. PMID:28163713

  14. Intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum.

    PubMed

    Ercin, Ersin; Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Avsar, Serdar

    2012-01-16

    High levels of uric acid cause accumulation of monosodium urate crystals. This formation of masses is called tophus. Intraosseous tophus deposits are rare, even for patients with gout. We report an unusual case of intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum. The patient presented with ankle pain with no previous history of gout. On examination, tenderness on the posterior aspect of his ankle and limitation of plantarflexion was noted. Laboratory values were normal, except for an elevated serum uric acid value. Radiographs of the right ankle showed the presence of a large os trigonum with osteosclerotic changes, whereas magnetic resonance imaging showed intraosseous tophus deposits in the os trigonum. Conservative therapy failed, and the patient was admitted for an endoscopic resection of the os trigonum.Intraosseous chalky crystals were detected during endoscopic resection of the os trigonum. The histological diagnosis was tophaceous gout. The underlying pathological mechanism of intraosseous tophi is uncertain. Penetration of urate crystals from the joint due to hyperuricemia may be the mechanism of deposition in this patient.When a patient with hyperuricemia presents with posterior ankle impingement symptoms, intraosseous tophus deposits should be included in the differential diagnosis. Posterior endoscopic excision may be an option for treating intraosseous lesions of the os trigonum because of good visualization, satisfactory excision, and rapid recovery time.

  15. The causes for geographical variations in OS187/OS186 at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turekian, K. K.; Esser, B. K.; Ravizza, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at Yale has approached the problem of the osmium isotopic composition of marine deposits formed in contact with both oxidized and reduced bottom waters. The measured (187) Os/(186) Os ratios of modern bulk sediment can be explained using mixing equations involving continental detrital, volcaniclastic, cosmogenic and hydrogeneous components. These studies show that sediments deposited under reducing marine conditions contain a hydrogenous component which is enriched in Re and has a radiogenic (187) Os/(186) Os ratio. The presence of such a hydrogenous component in the marine fish clay at Stevns Klint can account for the elevation of its (187) Os/(186) Os ration above the expected meteoritic value. Mass balance considerations require the Re/Os ratio of the phase precipitated from the terminal Cretaceous sea at Stevns Klint to have been about one tenth the value observed in contemporary deposits in the Black Sea, assuming Re has not been lost (or Os gained) subsequent to precipitation. In continental sections, the elevation of the (187) Os/(186) Os ratio in boundary layers may be due to precipitation from continental waters of crustally-derived radiogenic osmium either contemporaneous with the meteoritic (or mantle) osmium deposition or later during diagenesis.

  16. Amplitude of Low-frequency Oscillations in Parkinson's Disease: A 2-year Longitudinal Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Jiu-Quan; Jiang, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Chao-Yang; Wei, Lu-Qing; Yin, Xun-Tao; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies have found that functional changes exist in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in patients with PD are task-related and cross-sectional. This study investigated the functional changes observed in patients with PD, at both baseline and after 2 years, using resting-state fMRI. It further investigated the relationship between whole-brain spontaneous neural activity of patients with PD and their clinical characteristics. Methods: Seventeen patients with PD underwent an MRI procedure at both baseline and after 2 years using resting-state fMRI that was derived from the same 3T MRI. In addition, 20 age- and sex-matched, healthy controls were examined using resting-state fMRI. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) approach was used to analyze the fMRI data. Nonlinear registration was used to model within-subject changes over the scanning interval, as well as changes between the patients with PD and the healthy controls. A correlative analysis between the fALFF values and clinical characteristics was performed in the regions showing fALFF differences. Results: Compared to the control subjects, the patients with PD showed increased fALFF values in the left inferior temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right middle frontal gyrus. Compared to the baseline in the 2 years follow-up, the patients with PD presented with increased fALFF values in the right middle temporal gyrus and right middle occipital gyrus while also having decreased fALFF values in the right cerebellum, right thalamus, right striatum, left superior parietal lobule, left IPL, left precentral gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus (P < 0.01, after correction with AlphaSim). In addition, the fALFF values in the right cerebellum were positively correlated with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores (r = 0.51, P < 0.05, uncorrected) and the change in

  17. Sustained efficacy of risedronate in men with primary and secondary osteoporosis: results of a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Ringe, Johann D; Farahmand, Parvis; Faber, Herbert; Dorst, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily relative to control in men with primary or secondary osteoporosis over 2 years. Osteoporosis is a common condition in men that can have serious clinical consequences. In an earlier interim report, we found that 1 year of risedronate therapy resulted in significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD) and a significant reduction in vertebral fractures compared to control in men with osteoporosis. We conducted an open-label, prospective, match-control trial on men with primary or secondary osteoporosis in a single center, outpatient setting. Men with primary or secondary osteoporosis, as defined by a baseline lumbar spine BMD T-score < or = -2.5 and a baseline femoral neck BMD T-score < or = 2.0, were eligible for this study. Patients who had been treated with bisphosphonates or fluoride within the last 12 months were excluded. A total of 316 men were randomized to risedronate (n = 158) or control (n = 158). Patients were stratified by the presence of prevalent vertebral fractures at baseline and case by case allocated to either daily treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily plus calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU) or to a control group (daily alfacalcidol (1 microg) plus calcium (500 mg) for those with prevalent vertebral fractures; daily vitamin D (800 IU) plus calcium (1,200 mg) for those without previous vertebral fractures). Primary study end points were identified prior to study initiation as the incidence of new vertebral fractures and changes in BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Other end points included incidence of nonvertebral fractures and change in body height and back pain. Compared to control, the incidence of new vertebral fractures was significantly reduced in the risedronate 5 mg daily group at 2 years [14/152 (9.2%) for risedronate vs. 35/148 (23.6%) for control (61% risk reduction; P = 0.0026)]. Treatment with risedronate 5 mg daily

  18. Deepwater Horizon oil in Gulf of Mexico waters after 2 years: transformation into the dissolved organic matter pool.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Thomas S; Osburn, Christopher; Shields, Michael R; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Young, Jordan; Guo, Laodong; Zhou, Zhengzhen

    2014-08-19

    Recent work has shown the presence of anomalous dissolved organic matter (DOM), with high optical yields, in deep waters 15 months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Here, we continue to use the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling, measurements of bulk organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), oil indices, and other optical properties to examine the chemical evolution and transformation of oil components derived from the DWH in the water column of the GOM. Seawater samples were collected from the GOM during July 2012, 2 years after the oil spill. This study shows that, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) values have decreased since just after the DWH spill, they remain higher at some stations than typical deep-water values for the GOM. Moreover, we continue to observe fluorescent DOM components in deep waters, similar to those of degraded oil observed in lab and field experiments, which suggest that oil-related fluorescence signatures, as part of the DOM pool, have persisted for 2 years in the deep waters. This supports the notion that some oil-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components could still be identified in deep waters after 2 years of degradation, which is further supported by the lower DIC and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) associated with greater amounts of these oil-derived components in deep waters, assuming microbial activity on DOM in the current water masses is only the controlling factor of DIC and pCO2 concentrations.

  19. Patients with Fabry Disease after Enzyme Replacement Therapy Dose Reduction and Switch-2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Malte; Canaan-Kühl, Sima; Krämer, Johannes; Duning, Thomas; Reiermann, Stefanie; Sommer, Claudia; Stypmann, Jörg; Blaschke, Daniela; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Hense, Hans-Werner; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Brand, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Because of the shortage of agalsidase-β supply between 2009 and 2012, patients with Fabry disease either were treated with reduced doses or were switched to agalsidase-α. In this observational study, we assessed end organ damage and clinical symptoms with special focus on renal outcome after 2 years of dose-reduction and/or switch to agalsidase-α. A total of 89 adult patients with Fabry disease who had received agalsidase-β (1.0 mg/kg body wt) for >1 year were nonrandomly assigned to continue this treatment regimen (regular-dose group, n=24), to receive a reduced dose of 0.3-0.5 mg/kg and a subsequent switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-α (dose-reduction-switch group, n=28), or to directly switch to 0.2 mg/kg agalsidase-α (switch group, n=37) and were followed-up for 2 years. We assessed clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, severe arrhythmia, stroke, progression to ESRD), changes in cardiac and renal function, Fabry-related symptoms (pain, hypohidrosis, diarrhea), and disease severity scores. Determination of renal function by creatinine and cystatin C-based eGFR revealed decreasing eGFRs in the dose-reduction-switch group and the switch group. The Mainz Severity Score Index increased significantly in these two groups (P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively), and higher frequencies of gastrointestinal pain occurred during follow-up. In conclusion, after 2 years of observation, all groups showed a stable clinical disease course with respect to serious clinical events. However, patients under agalsidase-β dose-reduction and switch or a direct switch to agalsidase-α showed a decline of renal function independent of the eGFR formula used.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Forward-Planned Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: Interim Results at 2 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles B.; Twyman, Nicola; Wishart, Gordon C.; Burnet, Neil G.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: This single-center randomized trial was designed to investigate whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) reduces late toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The standard tangential plans of 1,145 nonselected patients were analyzed. The patients with inhomogeneous plans were randomized to a simple method of forward-planned IMRT or standard radiotherapy (RT). The primary endpoint was serial photographic assessment of breast shrinkage. Results: At 2 years, no significant difference was found in the development of any photographically assessed breast shrinkage between the patients randomized to the interventional or control group (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.58; p = .41). The patients in the control group were more likely to develop telangiectasia than those in the IMRT group (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.40; p = .009). Poor baseline surgical cosmesis resulted in poor overall cosmesis at 2 years after RT. In patients who had good surgical cosmesis, those randomized to IMRT were less likely to deteriorate to a moderate or poor overall cosmesis than those in the control group (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.03, p = .061). Conclusions: IMRT can lead to a significant reduction in telangiectasia at comparatively early follow-up of only 2 years after RT completion. An important component of breast induration and shrinkage will actually result from the surgery and not from the RT. Surgical cosmesis is an important determinant of overall cosmesis and could partially mask the longer term benefits of IMRT at this early stage.

  1. ‘Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England

    PubMed Central

    Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438 887 (404 252 adult and 34 635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20 months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20 months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (κ 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

  2. Femoro Patella Vialla patellofemoral arthroplasty: An independent assessment of outcomes at minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Mansur; Ker, Andrew; Anthony, Iain; Holt, Graeme; Jones, Bryn; Blyth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine outcomes using the Femoro-Patella Vialla (FPV) arthroplasty and if there is an ideal patient for this implant. METHODS A total of 41 FPV patellofemoral joint replacements were performed in 31 patients (22 females, 9 males, mean age 65 years). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years (minimum 2 years). Radiographs were reviewed preoperatively and postoperatively. We assessed whether gender, age, previous surgery, patella atla or trochlear dysplasia influenced patient satisfaction or patient functional outcome. RESULTS The median Oxford Knee Score was 40 and the median Melbourne Patellofemoral Score was 21 postoperatively. Seventy-six percent of patients were satisfied, 10% unsure and 14% dissatisfied postoperatively. There was no radiological progression of tibiofemoral joint arthritis, using the Ahlback grading, in any patient. One patient, who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis postoperatively, underwent revision to total knee replacement. There were no intraoperative lateral releases and no implant failures. Gender, age, the presence of trochlear dysplasia, patella alta or bilateral surgery did not influence patient outcome. Previous surgery did not correlate with outcome. CONCLUSION In contrast to the current literature, the FPV shows promising early results. However, we cannot identify a subgroup of patients with superior outcomes. PMID:27622149

  3. Bilateral Moyamoya Disease in a 2-Year-Old Pakistani Male Treated with Bilateral Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis: A Positive Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Khoja, Adeel; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Khan, Ariba; Ishaque, Noman

    2016-01-01

    Background. We present a rare case of bilateral moyamoya disease presenting as multiple strokes and neurological deficits, treated with the neurosurgical procedure, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), in a 2-year-old male Pakistani minor. A positive outcome was achieved and the patient recovered fully. Case Summary. Our patient presented with a history of seizures and multiple episodes of hemiparesis (on and off weakness) at the age of 2 years. He had a delayed speech development and could not speak more than a few words. He had a slight slurring of speech too. He was diagnosed with bilateral moyamoya disease on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Bilateral EDAS was done in the same year, after which his symptoms improved and patient had moderate functional recovery. Conclusion. A rare disease, moyamoya has been left unexplored in Pakistan; physicians and surgeons when dealing with cases in the pediatric population presenting with symptoms of stroke, signs of generalized weakness, and seizures should consider moyamoya disease as a possibility. Furthermore, this case demonstrates the effectiveness of EDAS procedure for the treatment of moyamoya disease. PMID:28101388

  4. Bilateral Moyamoya Disease in a 2-Year-Old Pakistani Male Treated with Bilateral Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis: A Positive Outcome.

    PubMed

    Magsi, Shahvaiz; Khoja, Adeel; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Khan, Ariba; Ishaque, Noman

    2016-01-01

    Background. We present a rare case of bilateral moyamoya disease presenting as multiple strokes and neurological deficits, treated with the neurosurgical procedure, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS), in a 2-year-old male Pakistani minor. A positive outcome was achieved and the patient recovered fully. Case Summary. Our patient presented with a history of seizures and multiple episodes of hemiparesis (on and off weakness) at the age of 2 years. He had a delayed speech development and could not speak more than a few words. He had a slight slurring of speech too. He was diagnosed with bilateral moyamoya disease on Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA). Bilateral EDAS was done in the same year, after which his symptoms improved and patient had moderate functional recovery. Conclusion. A rare disease, moyamoya has been left unexplored in Pakistan; physicians and surgeons when dealing with cases in the pediatric population presenting with symptoms of stroke, signs of generalized weakness, and seizures should consider moyamoya disease as a possibility. Furthermore, this case demonstrates the effectiveness of EDAS procedure for the treatment of moyamoya disease.

  5. Visual function in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic insults: correlation with neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Haataja, L.; Guzzetta, A.; Anker, S.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Andrew, R.; Braddick, O.; Cioni, G.; Dubowitz, L.; Atkinson, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is any association between the findings of visual assessment performed at the age of 5 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years in children who have sustained hypoxic-ischaemic insults.
METHODS—Twenty nine term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and/or brain lesions on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively evaluated. At 5 months of age all the infants had their visual function assessed using the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision, which includes the assessments of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), acuity, visual fields, fixation shift and phase and orientation reversal visual evoked potentials. At 2 years of age the children had a structured neurological evaluation and a Griffiths developmental assessment.
RESULTS—There was good correlation between the extent of the early detected visual impairment and both neuromotor and global development. Children with more than three out of five abnormal visual tests at 5 months of age tended to have abnormal neurological examination results and abnormal developmental quotients. Children with three or fewer abnormalities tended to have developmental quotients in the normal range; the level of their performance, however, was still related to the number of visual tests passed.
CONCLUSIONS—Individual visual tests can provide important prognostic information. While abnormal OKN and acuity were always associated with abnormal outcome, normal results on visual evoked potentials and fixation shift tended to be associated with normal outcome.

 PMID:10325784

  6. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Versus Balloon Sinuplasty with Ethmoidectomy: A 2-year Analysis in Pediatric Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Thottam, Prasad John; Metz, Chistopher M; Kieu, Monica C; Dworkin, James; Jagini, Janardhan; Bangiyev, Johnathan N; Mehta, Deepak

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the 2-year post-operative outcomes of pediatric patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) treated with balloon catheter sinuplasty (BCS) and ethmoidectomy compared to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Two-group, retrospective cohort study of 28 children with CRS was performed. Of these 28 participants, 15 were treated with traditional FESS (53.6 %) and 13 (46.4 %) underwent traditional ethmoidectomy with balloon sinuplasty. Pre-operative and 2-year postoperative total symptom scores and medications were compared. To examine the potential long-term differences in surgical outcomes and surgical procedure on symptom outcome, one-tailed Chi square analyses were employed. The mean age of the children examined was 9.3 (SD = SD = 4.1; range 3-18) and 61.9 % were male. Pre-operative symptomatology, medication and Lund Mackay scores were evaluated for both groups and no significant differences were identified. Overall, 73.3 % of children that underwent traditional FESS and 76.9 % of those who had BCS with ethmoidectomy reported significant long-term improvement in at least one of their pre-operative sinus complaints. Our data suggests that both BCS with ethmoidectomy and traditional FESS are effective treatment options for uncomplicated CRS and result in long-term alleviation of core sinus complaints, as well as decreased sinus related medication use. Larger prospective studies are needed to further evaluate these procedures.

  7. Child Weight Growth Trajectory and its Determinants in a Sample of Iranian Children from Birth until 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications. PMID:24829720

  8. Association between the high-dose use of benzodiazepines and rehospitalization in patients with schizophrenia: a 2-year naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Takita, Yukika; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Ono, Kotaro; Futenma, Kunihiro; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Murakoshi, Akiko; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background High-dose use of benzodiazepines (BZPs) reportedly causes adverse effects on cognitive function and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. However, effects of BZPs on the clinical course of schizophrenia have not been clarified. This study was set out to investigate the association between BZPs and rehospitalization of patients with schizophrenia. Methods In this retrospective study, patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from Tokyo Medical University Hospital between January 2009 and February 2012 were eligible as subjects. One hundred and eight patients who continued treatment for >2 years after hospital discharge were included in this study. Clinical characteristics, doses of prescribed medication such as BZPs and antipsychotics, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores at discharge were investigated. The primary outcome was rehospitalization of patients for any reason. Results In a total of 108 subjects with schizophrenia, 44 subjects (40.7%) experienced rehospitalization during the 2-year study period. A multivariate analysis by the Cox proportional hazards model revealed that low educational history (hazard ratio =2.43, P=0.032), younger onset age of schizophrenia (hazard ratio =2.10, P=0.021), and higher diazepam-equivalent dose (hazard ratio =6.53, P=0.011) were significantly associated with the time to rehospitalization after hospital discharge. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that high-dose use of BZPs at discharge in patients with schizophrenia might be associated with a shorter time to rehospitalization. PMID:28008260

  9. Bilateral Symptomatic Os Epilunatum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mauler, Flavien; Rahm, Stefan; Schweizer, Andreas; Nagy, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background Accessory carpal ossicles may be the cause of atraumatic wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a fracture after a trauma. Case Description We report the case of a patient suffering with chronic, bilateral wrist pain without history of trauma. Sonographic examination showed a bilateral symptomatic os epilunatum, both of which were surgically resected, resulting in pain relief. Literature Review Os epilunatum is a rare entity that has been reported only in few cadaveric specimen. Clinical Relevance Os epilunatum is a rare accessory ossicle of the carpus that can cause this aggravating pain. Sonography enabled accurate diagnosis of this anomaly. Because of possible associated tear of the scapholunate ligament, we recommend intraoperative testing of the stability of the scapholunate joint. PMID:25709883

  10. Redox chemistry of morpholine-based Os(VI)-hydrazido complexes: trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M H; White, P S; Meyer, T J

    2001-09-24

    The oxidations of benzyl alcohol, PPh3, and the sulfides (SEt2 and SPh2) (Ph = phenyl and Et = ethyl) by the Os(VI)-hydrazido complex trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and O(CH2)4N(-) = morpholide) have been investigated in CH3CN solution by UV-visible monitoring and product analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For benzyl alcohol and the sulfides, the rate law for the formation of the Os(V)-hydrazido complex, trans-[Os(V)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](+), is first order in both trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) and reductant, with k(benzyl) (25.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C, CH3CN) = (1.80 +/- 0.07) x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1), k(SEt2) = (1.33 +/- 0.02) x 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1), and k(SPh2) = (1.12 +/- 0.05) x 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1). Reduction of trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+) by PPh3 is rapid and accompanied by isomerization and solvolysis to give the Os(IV)-hydrazido product, cis-[Os(IV)(tpy)(NCCH3)2(NN(CH2)4O)](2+), and OPPh3. This reaction presumably occurs by net double Cl-atom transfer to PPh3 to give Cl2PPh3 that subsequently undergoes hydrolysis by trace H2O to give the final product, OPPh3. In the X-ray crystal structure of the Os(IV)-hydrazido complex, the Os-N-N angle of 130.9(5) degrees and the Os-N bond length of 1.971(7) A are consistent with an Os-N double bond.

  11. Quality of life after laparoscopic gastric banding: Prospective study (152 cases) with a follow-up of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Champault, Axèle; Duwat, Olivier; Polliand, Claude; Rizk, Nabil; Champault, Gérard G

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate influence of laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB) on quality of life (QOL) in patients with morbid obesity. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a popular bariatric operation in Europe. The objectives of surgical therapy in patients with morbid obesity are reduction of body weight, and a positive influence on the obesity-related comorbidity as well the concomitant psychologic and social restrictions of these patients. In a prospective clinical trial, development of the individual patient QOL was analyzed, after LGB in patients with morbid obesity. From October 1999 to January 2001, 152 patients [119 women, 33 men, mean age 38.4 y (range 24 to 62), mean body mass index 44.3 (range 38 to 63)] underwent evaluation for LGB according the following protocol: history of obesity; concise counseling of patients and relative on nonsurgical treatment alternatives, risk of surgery, psychologic testing, questionnaire for eating habits, necessity of lifestyle change after surgery; medical evaluation including endocrinologic and nutritionist work-up, upper GI endoscopy, evaluation of QOL using the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). Decision for surgery was a multidisciplinary consensus. This group was follow-up at least 2 years, focusing on weight loss and QOL. Mean operative time was 82 minutes; mean hospital stay was 2.3 days and the mean follow-up period was 34 months. The BMI dropped from 44.3 to 29.6 kg/m and all comorbid conditions improved markedly: diabetes melitus resolved in 71% of the patients, hypertension in 33%, and sleep apnea in 90%. However, 26 patients (17%) had late complications requiring reoperation. Preoperative global GIQLI score was 95 (range 56 to 140), significant different of the healthy volunteers score (120) (70 to 140) P < 0.001. Correlated with weight loss (percentage loss of overweight and BMI), the global score of the group increased to 100 at 3 months, 104 at 6, 111 at 1 year to reach 119 at 2 years which is no

  12. Dynamic stabilization for L4-5 spondylolisthesis: comparison with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with more than 2 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Fay, Li-Yu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Cheng, Henrich; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the past decade, dynamic stabilization has been an emerging option of surgical treatment for lumbar spondylosis. However, the application of this dynamic construct for mild spondylolisthesis and its clinical outcomes remain uncertain. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of Dynesys dynamic stabilization (DDS) with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the management of single-level spondylolisthesis at L4-5. METHODS This study retrospectively reviewed 91 consecutive patients with Meyerding Grade I spondylolisthesis at L4-5 who were managed with surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: DDS and MI-TLIF. The DDS group was composed of patients who underwent standard laminectomy and the DDS system. The MI-TLIF group was composed of patients who underwent MI-TLIF. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores at each time point of evaluation. Evaluations included radiographs and CT scans for every patient for 2 years after surgery. RESULTS A total of 86 patients with L4-5 spondylolisthesis completed the follow-up of more than 2 years and were included in the analysis (follow-up rate of 94.5%). There were 64 patients in the DDS group and 22 patients in the MI-TLIF group, and the overall mean follow-up was 32.7 months. Between the 2 groups, there were no differences in demographic data (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) or preoperative clinical evaluations (e.g., visual analog scale back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores). The mean estimated blood loss of the MI-TLIF group was lower, whereas the operation time was longer compared with the DDS group (both p < 0.001). For both groups, clinical outcomes were significantly improved at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery compared with preoperative clinical status. Moreover, there were no differences between the 2

  13. The F-Box Protein OsFBK12 Targets OsSAMS1 for Degradation and Affects Pleiotropic Phenotypes, Including Leaf Senescence, in Rice1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Xu, Yunyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Wenxuan; Chen, Na; Zhang, Dajian; Chong, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Leaf senescence is related to the grain-filling rate and grain weight in cereals. Many components involved in senescence regulation at either the genetic or physiological level are known. However, less is known about molecular regulation mechanisms. Here, we report that OsFBK12 (an F-box protein containing a Kelch repeat motif) interacts with S-ADENOSYL-l-METHIONINE SYNTHETASE1 (SAMS1) to regulate leaf senescence and seed size as well as grain number in rice (Oryza sativa). Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays indicate that OsFBK12 interacts with Oryza sativa S-PHASE KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1-LIKE PROTEIN and with OsSAMS1. Biochemical and physiological data showed that OsFBK12 targets OsSAMS1 for degradation. OsFBK12-RNA interference lines and OsSAMS1 overexpression lines showed increased ethylene levels, while OsFBK12-OX lines and OsSAMS1-RNA interference plants exhibited decreased ethylene. Phenotypically, overexpression of OsFBK12 led to a delay in leaf senescence and germination and increased seed size, whereas knockdown lines of either OsFBK12 or OsSAMS1 promoted the senescence program. Our results suggest that OsFBK12 is involved in the 26S proteasome pathway by interacting with Oryza sativa S-PHASE KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN1-LIKE PROTEIN and that it targets the substrate OsSAMS1 for degradation, triggering changes in ethylene levels for the regulation of leaf senescence and grain size. These data have potential applications in the molecular breeding of rice. PMID:24144792

  14. Os isotopic composition of steels: Constraints on sources of Os in steel & crustal isotopic evolution of iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Metal contamination during sample processing is a potential concern in Os-isotope studies. We examined Os concentrations and Os isotopes in industrial steels. Samples include high Cr stainless steels (>10.5% Cr), low alloy steels (>=92% Fe) and high alloy steels (<92% Fe). The chief components used to make steel are iron ore, chromites and coke. Coke is derived from coals that have low Os concentration (~36 ppt) [1]. Chromites in steels are mined from chromitites, which have high average Os concentrations and mantle-like 187Os/188Os ratios (~88 ppb Os, 187Os/188Os ≈ 0.127×24) [2]. Iron ores used in US steel manufacturing derive chiefly from magnetites mined from iron-bearing formations such as Banded Iron Formations (BIF), which have median Os concentration of ~4.8 ppb and radiogenic 187Os/188Os ≈ 0.358×388 [3]. Os concentrations in the measured steels span a wide range, from 0.03 to 22 ppb. The 187Os/188Os ratios vary from 0.144-4.12. Such high Os concentrations and radiogenic isotopic compositions confirm that metal contamination can affect Os-isotope compositions during sample processing, particularly for low-[Os] samples. There is no correlation between C and Os concentration in steel, indicating that coke is not a major Os source in steels. Os concentrations in steels are positively correlated with Cr content, suggesting that chromite-derived Os dominates the Os budget in stainless steels. 187Os/188Os is negatively correlated with Cr content, ranging from 0.144-0.195 in high-Cr (>10.5 % Cr) steels but from 0.279-4.12 in low-Cr steels. In addition, there is a positive correlation between 1/Os and 187Os/188Os, consistent with two-component mixing of Os derived from magnetite ore and chromites. Lower Os concentrations in steels than expected from simple mixing of magnetite and chromitite suggest some volatile Os loss during smelting. Although the current data is limited, the 186Os-187Os trend defined by the steel analyses can be utilized to extrapolate

  15. Postobstructive Pulmonary Edema following Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy in a 2-Year-Old with Poland-Moebius Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Tanisha; Sharma, Nirupma; McKie, Kathleen T.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old male with Poland-Moebius syndrome was transferred from a local hospital to the Pediatric ICU at Children's Hospital of Georgia for suspected postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy (T&A). The patient's respiratory status ultimately declined and he developed respiratory failure. Imaging suggested pulmonary edema as well as a left-sided pneumonia. Echocardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension and airway exam via direct fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and remained intubated for ten days. This case highlights the association between congenital upper body abnormalities with cranial nerve dysfunction and the development of POPE with delayed resolution of symptoms. Patients with upper body abnormalities as above are at great risk of postoperative complications and should therefore be managed in a tertiary-care facility. PMID:26942029

  16. Postobstructive Pulmonary Edema following Tonsillectomy/Adenoidectomy in a 2-Year-Old with Poland-Moebius Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tanisha; Sharma, Nirupma; McKie, Kathleen T

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old male with Poland-Moebius syndrome was transferred from a local hospital to the Pediatric ICU at Children's Hospital of Georgia for suspected postobstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) after tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy (T&A). The patient's respiratory status ultimately declined and he developed respiratory failure. Imaging suggested pulmonary edema as well as a left-sided pneumonia. Echocardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension and airway exam via direct fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and remained intubated for ten days. This case highlights the association between congenital upper body abnormalities with cranial nerve dysfunction and the development of POPE with delayed resolution of symptoms. Patients with upper body abnormalities as above are at great risk of postoperative complications and should therefore be managed in a tertiary-care facility.

  17. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  18. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.

  19. Fatal accidental hanging by a high-chair waist strap in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Souheil, Mlayeh; Audrey, Farrugia; Anny, Geraut; Sebastien, Raul J; Bertrand, Ludes

    2011-03-01

    High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6 months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. In here, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue.

  20. [Personal computer-based computer monitoring system of the anesthesiologist (2-year experience in development and use)].

    PubMed

    Buniatian, A A; Sablin, I N; Flerov, E V; Mierbekov, E M; Broĭtman, O G; Shevchenko, V V; Shitikov, I I

    1995-01-01

    Creation of computer monitoring systems (CMS) for operating rooms is one of the most important spheres of personal computer employment in anesthesiology. The authors developed a PC RS/AT-based CMS and effectively used it for more than 2 years. This system permits comprehensive monitoring in cardiosurgical operations by real time processing the values of arterial and central venous pressure, pressure in the pulmonary artery, bioelectrical activity of the brain, and two temperature values. Use of this CMS helped appreciably improve patients' safety during surgery. The possibility to assess brain function by computer monitoring the EEF simultaneously with central hemodynamics and body temperature permit the anesthesiologist to objectively assess the depth of anesthesia and to diagnose cerebral hypoxia. Automated anesthesiological chart issued by the CMS after surgery reliably reflects the patient's status and the measures taken by the anesthesiologist.

  1. Reenactment of televised content by 2-year olds: toddlers use language learned from television to solve a difficult imitation problem.

    PubMed

    Barr, Rachel; Wyss, Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Parents commonly label objects on television and for some programs, verbal labels are also provided directly via voice-over. The present study investigated whether toddlers' imitation performance from television would be facilitated if verbal labels were presented on television via voice-over or if they were presented by parents who were co-viewing with their toddlers. Sixty-one 2-year olds were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (voice-over video, parent video, parent video no label, parent live) or to a baseline control condition. Toddlers were tested with novel objects after a 24h delay. Although, all experimental groups imitated significantly more target actions than the baseline control group, imitation was facilitated by novel labels regardless of whether those labels were provided by parents or by voice-over on television. These findings have important implications for toddler learning from television.

  2. Iron intakes and status of 2-year-old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Elaine K; Ní Chaoimh, Carol; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead

    2016-08-09

    Young children are at risk of iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia, resulting in long-term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development. This study aimed to describe the iron intakes, status and determinants of status in 2-year-old children. Data were collected prospectively in the mother-child Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study from 15 weeks' gestation throughout early childhood. At the 24-month assessment, serum ferritin, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were measured, and food/nutrient intake data were collected using a 2-day weighed food diary. Iron status was assessed in 729 children (median [IQR] age: 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] years) and 468 completed a food diary. From the food diary, mean (SD) iron intakes were 6.8 (2.6) mg/day and 30% had intakes < UK Estimated Average Requirement (5.3 mg/day). Using WHO definitions, iron deficiency was observed in 4.6% (n = 31) and iron deficiency anaemia in five children (1.0%). Following an iron series workup, five more children were diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia. Twenty-one per cent had ferritin concentrations <15 µg/L. Inadequate iron intakes (OR [95% CI]: 1.94 [1.09, 3.48]) and unmodified cows' milk intakes ≥ 400 mL/day (1.95 [1.07, 3.56]) increased the risk of low iron status. Iron-fortified formula consumption was associated with decreased risk (0.21 [0.11, 0.41] P < 0.05). In this, the largest study in toddlers in Europe, a lower prevalence of low iron status was observed than in previous reports. Compliance with dietary recommendations to limit cows' milk intakes in young children and consumption of iron-fortified products appears to have contributed to improved iron status at two years.

  3. Effect of changes in an FFQ: comparing data from two national dietary survey instruments among 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, A L; Lillegaard, I T L; Lande, B; Andersen, L F

    2013-01-28

    In the interpretation of dietary trends, it is important to consider the potential effect of modifications in the dietary assessment method. Therefore, our objective was to explore the comparability of data obtained at two time points by a semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) which has had slight modifications over time. In the national dietary surveys among Norwegian 2-year-olds, diet was assessed by an SFFQ which underwent modifications between the 1999 survey and the 2007 survey. In the present study, fifty-nine families with a 2-year-old child participated by completing both the SFFQ in a crossover design within a month's time. With regard to the reported intake of energy and nutrients, the largest significant differences observed between the two questionnaires were for carbohydrates and added sugar. According to intake of food groups, significant differences were observed for five out of sixteen food groups. Spearman's correlation coefficients for energy, nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.43 (Ca) to 0.85 (soft drinks). Most Bland-Altman plots indicated broad limits of agreement. The differences between the two questionnaires can be explained by changes in the questionnaires, changes in the food composition databases used and random variation. Comparing differences between the questionnaires by maternal educational level, number of children and type of day care revealed minor differences. In conclusion, this study showed that at the group level there was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires, except for carbohydrates, added sugar and some food groups. Moreover, there were moderate to high correlations for energy, nutrients and food groups.

  4. Weight status in the first 2 years of life and neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely low gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Kuban, Karl C.K.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Engelke, Stephen C.; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which weight gain and weight status in the first 2 years of life relate to the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely preterm infants. Study Design In a cohort of 1070 infants born between 23 and 27 weeks’ gestation, we examined weight gain from 7-28 days of life (in quartiles) and weight z-score at 12 and 24 months corrected age (in categories: <−2; ≥−2, <−1; ≥1, <1; ≥1) in relation to these adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes: Bayley-II mental development index <55, Bayley-II psychomotor development index <55, cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) ≥1 (cannot walk without assistance), microcephaly. We adjusted for confounders in logistic regression, stratified by sex, and performed separate analyses including the entire sample, and excluding children unable to walk without assistance (motor impairment). Results Weight gain in the lowest quartile from 7-28 days was not associated with higher risk of adverse outcomes. Children with a 12-month weight z-score <−2 were at increased risk for all adverse outcomes in girls, and for microcephaly and GMFCS ≥1 in boys. However, excluding children with motor impairment attenuated all associations except that of weight z-score <−2 with microcephaly in girls. Similarly, most associations of low weight z-score at 24 months with adverse outcomes were attenuated with exclusion of children with motor impairment. Conclusion Excluding children who have gross motor impairment appears to eliminate the association of low weight status with neurodevelopmental impairments at 2 years in extremely preterm infants. PMID:26470687

  5. From Anxious Youth to Depressed Adolescents: Prospective Prediction of 2-year Depression Symptoms via Attentional Bias Measures

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rebecca B.; Rosen, Dana; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Tang, Kevin; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Forbes, Erika E.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Anxious youth are at heightened risk for subsequent development of depression; however, little is known regarding which anxious youth are at the highest prospective risk. Biased attentional patterns (e.g., vigilance and avoidance of negative cues) are implicated as key mechanisms in both anxiety and depression. Aberrant attentional patterns may disrupt opportunities to effectively engage with, and learn from, threatening aspects of the environment during development and/or treatment, compounding risk over time. Sixty-seven anxious youth (age 9–14; 36 female) completed a dot-probe task to assess baseline attentional patterns provoked by fearful-neutral face pairs. The time course of attentional patterns both during and after threat was assessed via eyetracking and pupilometry. Self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed two years after the conclusion of a larger psychotherapy treatment trial. Eyetracking patterns indicative of threat avoidance predicted greater 2-year depression scores, over and above baseline and post-treatment symptoms. Sustained, post-threat pupillary avoidance (reflecting preferential neural engagement with the neutral relative to the previously threatening location) predicted additional variance in depression scores, suggesting sustained avoidance in the wake of threat further exacerbated risk. Identical eyetracking and pupil indices were not predictive of anxiety at 2 years. These biobehavioral markers imply that avoidant attentional processing in the context of anxiety may be a gateway to depression across a key maturational window. Excessive avoidance of threat could interfere with acquisition of adaptive emotion regulation skills during development, culminating in the broad behavioral deactivation that typifies depression. Prevention efforts explicitly targeting avoidant attentional patterns may be warranted. PMID:26595463

  6. Effect of exacerbations on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 2 year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, M; Ferrer, M; Pont, A; Zalacain, R; Alvarez-Sala, J; Masa, F; Verea, H; Murio, C; Ros, F; Vidal, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to evaluate exacerbations and their impact on the health related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A 2 year follow up study was performed in 336 patients with COPD of mean (SD) age 66 (8.2) years and mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 33 (8)% predicted. Spirometric tests, questions regarding exacerbations of COPD, and HRQL measurements (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and SF-12 Health Survey) were conducted at 6 month intervals. Results: A total of 1015 exacerbations were recorded, and 103 (30.7%) patients required at least one hospital admission during the study. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and season of assessment, frequent exacerbations had a negative effect on HRQL in patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 35–50% predicted); the change in SGRQ total score of moderate patients with ⩾3 exacerbations was almost two points per year greater (worse) than those with <3 exacerbations during the follow up (p = 0.042). For patients with severe COPD (FEV1 <35% predicted) exacerbations had no effect on HRQL. The change in SGRQ total score of patients admitted to hospital was almost 2 points per year greater (worse) than patients not admitted, but this effect failed to show statistical significance in any severity group. There was a significant and independent seasonal effect on HRQL since SGRQ total scores were, on average, 3 points better in measurements performed in spring/summer than in those measured in the winter (p<0.001). Conclusions: Frequent exacerbations significantly impair HRQL of patients with moderate COPD. A significant and independent effect of seasonality was also observed. PMID:15115864

  7. Quantitative sensory tests before and 1(1/2) years after orthognathic surgery: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, L; Arima, T; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Neumann-Jensen, B; Svensson, P

    2010-05-01

    Quality control is very important in relation to invasive and lengthy treatments, such as integrated orthodontic and surgical correction of dentofacial deformities. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare self-reported somatosensory disturbances and quantitative sensory testing (QST) findings between two groups of patients and a healthy control group (n = 24); one group (n = 21) scheduled for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (BOS) (pre-op) and one group (n = 24) examined 1(1/2) years after BOS (post-op). Self-reported data on pain and somatosensory disturbances were collected, and QST was performed at six trigeminal and one extratrigeminal site. Sensitivity to brush stroke, tactile stimuli, pinprick, two-point-discrimination threshold (2P-DT), pinch pain threshold (PiPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) was evaluated. Results were analysed with anovas, Spearman's Correlation, and chi square tests. Eight per cent of post-op patients reported intra-oral, 46% extra-oral, and 46% no somatosensory disturbances. Sensitivity to brush stroke, pinprick and 2P-DT was significantly increased at all examination sites in the post-op patients compared with healthy controls (P < 0.002). Tactile thresholds and PPT did not differ between groups (P > 0.071). Pinch pain threshold were decreased in pre-op patients compared with controls (P < 0.040). Self-reported somatosensory disturbances were not correlated with QST findings. In conclusion; 1(1/2) years after BOS, a large proportion of patients reported somatosensory disturbances and was hypersensitive to mechanical stimuli when compared with pre-op patients and healthy controls. Pre-op patients showed minor somatosensory changes. In addition to patients serving as their own control in prospective studies, a healthy control group and extratrigeminal control sites should be included in future studies.

  8. Practice patterns of family physicians with 2-year residency v. 1-year internship training: do both roads lead to Rome?

    PubMed

    Sheps, S B; Schechter, M T; Grantham, P; Finlayson, N; Sizto, R

    1989-04-15

    Are there differences in patterns of practice between actively practising physicians who have been certified after a 2-year family practice residency and matched physicians without certification who have completed the standard 1-year internship? With the use of billing files prepared by the British Columbia Medical Association a group of 65 family practice certificants in active practice in British Columbia was compared with a control group of 130 internship trainees matched by year and school of graduation, category of billing (i.e., solo or group) and region. A wide range of practice features was assessed for the fiscal years 1984-85, 1985-86 and 1986-87. No differences were detected between the groups in 1986-87 for the following practice variables: number of patients (1888 and 1842 respectively), number of personal services billed for (7265 and 7173), number of personal services per patient (3.9), amount of funding for personal services ($140,192 and $140,100) and amount per patient for personal services ($77 and $79). Age-adjusted costs for male and female patients were similar in the two groups. Of six services thought to be influenced by type of training, only maternity care generated a significantly higher number of billings in the study group (341 v. 249). These results suggest that there is no demonstrable effect of training on patterns of practice. However, the question of the effect of training on quality of care and whether the 2-year residency may have a longer effect on practice patterns should be the focus of future research.

  9. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  10. Dosimetry of Acrylamide and Glycidamide Over the Lifespan in a 2-Year Bioassay of Acrylamide in Wistar Han Rats.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Timothy R; Snyder, Rodney; Hansen, Benjamin; Friedman, Marvin

    2015-08-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical used to manufacture polymers, and is produced in foods during cooking at high heat. Hemoglobin adducts provide a long-lived dosimeter for acrylamide and glycidamide. This study determined acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) during a lifetime carcinogenesis bioassay. Exposure to acrylamide in drinking water began in utero in pregnant rats on gestation day 6. Dams were administered acrylamide until weaning, and male and female F1 rats were exposed for a further 104 weeks. Acrylamide concentration in drinking water was adjusted to provide a constant dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg/day. Blood was collected from animals euthanized at 2, 60, 90, and 120 days and 53, 79, and 104 weeks after weaning. Low levels of AAVal and GAVal at postnatal day 24 suggested that little exposure to acrylamide occurred by placental or lactational transfer, and extensive metabolism to glycidamide occurred with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of 4. Adduct levels varied somewhat from 60 days to 2 years, with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of approximately 1. Adduct formation/day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for AAVal was 1293 ± 220 and 1096 ± 338 fmol/mg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Adduct formation per day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for GAVal was 827 ± 78 fmol/mg/day for male rats, and 982 ± 222 fmol/mg/day for female rats. The study has provided estimates of linearity for dose response, and variability in internal dose throughout an entire 2-year bioassay, including the early phases of pregnancy and lactation.

  11. Parental height and child growth from birth to 2 years in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study.

    PubMed

    Garza, Cutberto; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    Linear growth from birth to 2 years of children enrolled in the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was similar despite substantial parental height differences among the six study sites. Within-site variability in child length attributable to parental height was estimated by repeated measures analysis of variance using generalized linear models. This approach was also used to examine relationships among selected traits (e.g. breastfeeding duration and child morbidity) and linear growth between 6 and 24 months of age. Differences in intergenerational adult heights were evaluated within sites by comparing mid-parental heights (average of the mother's and father's heights) to the children's predicted adult height. Mid-parental height consistently accounted for greater proportions of observed variability in attained child length than did either paternal or maternal height alone. The proportion of variability explained by mid-parental height ranged from 11% in Ghana to 21% in India. The average proportion of between-child variability accounted for by mid-parental height was 16% and the analogous within-child estimate was 6%. In the Norwegian and US samples, no significant differences were observed between mid-parental and children's predicted adult heights. For the other sites, predicted adult heights exceeded mid-parental heights by 6.2-7.8 cm. To the extent that adult height is predicted by height at age 2 years, these results support the expectation that significant community-wide advances in stature are attainable within one generation when care and nutrition approximate international recommendations, notwithstanding adverse conditions likely experienced by the previous generation.

  12. Dosimetry of Acrylamide and Glycidamide Over the Lifespan in a 2-Year Bioassay of Acrylamide in Wistar Han Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Timothy R.; Snyder, Rodney; Hansen, Benjamin; Friedman, Marvin

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide is an industrial chemical used to manufacture polymers, and is produced in foods during cooking at high heat. Hemoglobin adducts provide a long-lived dosimeter for acrylamide and glycidamide. This study determined acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) during a lifetime carcinogenesis bioassay. Exposure to acrylamide in drinking water began in utero in pregnant rats on gestation day 6. Dams were administered acrylamide until weaning, and male and female F1 rats were exposed for a further 104 weeks. Acrylamide concentration in drinking water was adjusted to provide a constant dose of 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg/day. Blood was collected from animals euthanized at 2, 60, 90, and 120 days and 53, 79, and 104 weeks after weaning. Low levels of AAVal and GAVal at postnatal day 24 suggested that little exposure to acrylamide occurred by placental or lactational transfer, and extensive metabolism to glycidamide occurred with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of 4. Adduct levels varied somewhat from 60 days to 2 years, with a GAVal:AAVal ratio of approximately 1. Adduct formation/day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for AAVal was 1293 ± 220 and 1096 ± 338 fmol/mg/day for male and female rats, respectively. Adduct formation per day estimated at each timepoint at 3 mg/kg/day for GAVal was 827 ± 78 fmol/mg/day for male rats, and 982 ± 222 fmol/mg/day for female rats. The study has provided estimates of linearity for dose response, and variability in internal dose throughout an entire 2-year bioassay, including the early phases of pregnancy and lactation. PMID:26141391

  13. ROSETTA/COSIMA at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko - 2 years of in-situ dust analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Rita; Hilchenbach, Martin; Kissel, Jochen; Langevin, Yves; Briois, Christelle; Koch, Andreas; Silen, Johan; Baklouti, Donia; Bardyn, Anais; Cottin, Herve'; Engrand, Cecile; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Glasmachers, Albrecht; Gruen, Eberhard; Haerendel, Gerhard; Henkel, Hartmut; Höfner, Hervig; Hornung, Klaus; Jessberger, Elmar; Lehto, Harry J.; Letho, Kirsi; Ligier, Nicolas; Merouane, Sihane; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Regis; Paquette, John; Raulin, F.; Le Roy, Léna; Rynö, Jouni; Siljeström, Sandra; Steiger, Wolfgang; Stenzel, Oliver; Stephan, Thomas; Thirkell, Laurent; Thomas, Roger; Torkar, Klaus; Varmuza, Kurt; Wanczek, Karl-Peter; Zaprudin, Boris

    2016-10-01

    In August 2014 the ROSETTA spacecraft rendezvoused with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and escorted it for more than 2 years along its orbit around the Sun from 4 AU preperihelion to 4 AU postperihelion. During this time the COSIMA instrument (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) onboard ROSETTA collected more than 25,000 dust particles in the vicinity of the comet nucleus. All these particles were collected on a number of specially designed metal target plates which were regularly imaged with a microscope (14 µm pixel/pixel resolution, 14mm x 14mm FOV) enabling the analysis of their individual morphologies, certain physical properties, e.g. tensile strength, albedo, as well as the overall flux and size distribution of the dust entering the COSIMA instrument. The images were also used to choose which of the particles shall go through compositional measurements with the time-of-flight mass spectrometer (sometimes repeated at a later time). All these investigations were done over 2 years. This allows to study the compositional and morphological differences of the particles collected at the various sections of the pre- and postperihelion orbit, the evolution of the morphology of the particles on the target plate with time, and the search for spatial heterogeneity of the composition within a particle by taking mass spectra at different locations on the same particle. An overview will be given on the available data and the results obtained so far in view to the analysis of dust composition and morphology, as well as dust flux and size distribution along the orbit.

  14. Predicting caries by measuring its activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence in vivo: a 2-year caries increment analysis.

    PubMed

    Meller, C; Santamaria, R M; Connert, T; Splieth, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the predictive power of several clinical baseline parameters and the de-/remineralisation properties of in vivo etched sites measured with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) for subsequent 2-year caries increment. At baseline, in 44 children (8.23 ± 1.5 years) two areas (diameter 2 mm) of the buccal surface of a primary posterior tooth were etched with 36% phosphoric acid gel for 1 and 4 min, respectively. The etched sites were analysed immediately after etching (ΔQ1) and 24 h (ΔQ2) later by QLF. Additionally, caries status (deft/DMFT and initial caries), approximal plaque, bleeding on probing, and the patient's current use of fluorides were recorded. In the 2-year follow-up, 29 children were re-assessed. After clinical examination, the caries increment was calculated (ΔDMFT) and correlated with the baseline clinical variables and the QLF readings. Results showed a significant positive correlation between ΔQ(1 min) and the ΔDMFT (r = 0.44, p = 0.02). The ΔDMFT was significantly correlated with the baseline deft (r = 0.56, p = 0.002), cavitated active caries lesions (r = 0.52, p = 0.003), and filled teeth (r = 0.53, p = 0.003). In a regression analysis the use of fluoridated salt (SC = -0.10) and fluoride gel (SC = -0.14) were negatively associated with ΔDMFT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the demineralisation properties of the etched sites and the outcome of the 24-hour measurements with QLF are significantly associated with caries increment. Previous caries experience strongly correlated with caries increment in this group of children.

  15. 186Os/188Os Isotopic Compositions of Peridotites: Constraints on Melt Depletion and Pt/Os Evolution of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Global correlations between Al2O3 and Pt/Os in mantle peridotites suggest that Pt behaves incompatibly relative to Os during partial melting [c.f., 1]. Because 190Pt decays to 186Os (t1/2 = 468 Ga), correlations between 186Os/188Os and peridotite fertility can be used to constrain the long-term Pt/Os evolution of the depleted mantle and the initial Pt/Os ratio of the primitive upper mantle (PUM). We examined 186Os/188Os in mantle peridotites from continental (Rio Grande Rift/Colorado Plateau) and oceanic (Lena Trough, Hawaiian Islands) settings that span a wide range in fertility (Al2O3 ~0.67-4.42 %) and 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1138-0.1305). The new data define a narrow range in 186Os/188Os (0.1198338 to 0.1198393, 2 SD~24 ppm), placing constraints on long-term Pt/Os variability in the DMM. 186Os/188Os is broadly correlated with indices of melt depletion including spinel Cr#, clinopyroxene Cr#, and clinopyroxene Yb content, consistent with the inferred relative compatibility of Pt and Os during partial melting. Extrapolation of the alumina-186Os/188Os trend to PUM alumina content (~4.5 wt% Al2O3; [2]) suggests a PUM 186Os/188Os of ~0.1198380±15, similar to the 186Os/188Os of H chondrites (~0.1198398±16; [3]). This 186Os/188Os value is consistent with a PUM Pt/Os of 1.8±0.3, similar to Pt/Os values measured in several classes of chondrites (Carbonaceous ~1.9±0.2, Ordinary ~2.0±0.3 and Enstatite ~1.9±0.2; [3]). Whereas ~84% of peridotites worldwide [excluding low-[Os] samples (<1 ppb Os) that may have been compromised by melt-rock reaction and/or weathering and alteration] with measured Pt/Os ratios have Pt/Os between 0.3 and 3.1 (the range permissible from 186Os/188Os variations for melt extraction from PUM at ~1.5 Ga), only ~36% fall between 1.3 and 2.2 (a narrower range consistent with an older ~4.5 Ga melt depletion age). This suggests that much of the observed Pt/Os variability in mantle peridotites is relatively recent. Close agreement between our inferred

  16. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 2-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the 2-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 2-year time limitation...

  17. 41 CFR 302-2.11 - May the 2-year time limitation for completing all aspects of a relocation be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May the 2-year time... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General Rules Time Limits § 302-2.11 May the 2-year time limitation...

  18. Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

  19. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations.

  20. Time to remission for eating disorder patients: a 2(1/2)-year follow-up study of outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Loa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse outcome, time to remission, and predictors of time to remission in a cohort of Danish eating disorder patients. Seventy-eight patients (35 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 13 unspecified eating disorder patients) were interviewed 2(1/2) years after initial assessment. Method of assessment was Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation of Eating Disorders (LIFE-EAT-II), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Symptom Check List (SCL-90R), Present State Examination (PSE) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis-II (SCID-II). Method of analysis was Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival, Log Rank test and Cox regression analysis. In total 48.7% reached remission with mean time to remission at 27 months. A trend difference between the diagnostic groups when measuring time to remission was found, i.e. patients with unspecified eating disorders remitted faster than bulimic (BN) patients who in turn remitted faster than anorexic (AN) patients. Body mass index (BMI) at baseline was the best predictor of time to remission for the total sample. Predictors differed when looking at diagnostic groups separately. Final outcome was comparable with earlier studies while relapse frequency was low. Patients with AN remitted faster than found in earlier survival analysis studies, while the remission rate for BN patients was comparable with earlier studies. Despite the prognostic value of BMI for the total sample, predictor analysis implied more disorder diversity than homogeneity.

  1. Variability in Depressive Symptoms of Cognitive Deficit and Cognitive Bias During the First 2 Years After Diagnosis in Australian Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Christie, David R H

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and contribution to total depression of the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit and cognitive bias in prostate cancer (PCa) patients were compared from cohorts sampled during the first 2 years after diagnosis. Survey data were collected from 394 patients with PCa, including background information, treatments, and disease status, plus total scores of depression and scores for subscales of the depressive symptoms of cognitive bias and cognitive deficit via the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. The sample was divided into eight 3-monthly time-since-diagnosis cohorts and according to depression severity. Mean scores for the depressive symptoms of cognitive deficit were significantly higher than those for cognitive bias for the whole sample, but the contribution of cognitive bias to total depression was stronger than that for cognitive deficit. When divided according to overall depression severity, patients with clinically significant depression showed reversed patterns of association between the two subsets of cognitive symptoms of depression and total depression compared with those patients who reported less severe depression. Differences in the incidence and contribution of these two different aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression for patients with more severe depression argue for consideration of them when assessing and diagnosing depression in patients with PCa. Treatment requirements are also different between the two types of cognitive symptoms of depression, and several suggestions for matching treatment to illness via a personalized medicine approach are discussed.

  2. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. EFFECTS OF CONVERSION TO A BICARBONATE/LACTATE-BUFFERED, NEUTRAL-PH, LOW-GDP PD REGIMEN IN PREVALENT PD: A 2-YEAR RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Karima; Douma, Caroline; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Ter Wee, Pieter M; Beelen, Robert H; van Ittersum, Frans J

    2017-03-27

    ♦ Background: The use of pH-neutral peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids low in glucose degradation products (GDP) may better preserve the peritoneal membrane and have fewer systemic effects. The effects of conversion from conventional to neutral-pH, low-GDP PD fluids in prevalent patients are unclear. Few studies on the role of neutral-pH, low-GDP PD have studied residual renal function, ultrafiltration, peritonitis incidence and technique failure, transport characteristics, and local and systemic markers of inflammation in prevalent PD patients. ♦ Methods: In a multi-center open-label randomized clinical trial (RCT), we randomly assigned 40 of 78 stable continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD) patients to treatment with bicarbonate/lactate, neutral-pH, low-GDP PD fluid (Physioneal; Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) and compared them with 38 patients continuing their current standard lactate-buffered PD fluid (PDF) (Dianeal; Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL, USA) during 2 years. Primary outcome was residual renal function (RRF) and ultrafiltration (UF) during peritoneal equilibration test (PET); peritonitis incidence was a secondary outcome. Furthermore, clinical parameters as well as several biomarkers in effluents and serum were measured. ♦ Results: During follow-up, RRF did not differ between the groups. In the Physioneal group ultrafiltration (UF) during PET remained more or less stable (-20 mL [confidence interval (CI):-163.5 - 123.5 mL]; p = 0.7 over 24 months), whereas it declined in the Dianeal group (-243 mL [CI: -376.6 to -109.4mL]; p < 0.0001 over 24 months), resulting in a difference of 233.7mL [95% CI 41.0 - 425.5 mL]; p = 0.017 between the groups at 24months. The peritonitis rate was lower in the Physioneal group: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.38 (0.15 - 0.97) p = 0.043. No differences were observed between the 2 groups in peritoneal adequacy or transport characteristics nor effluent markers of local

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Adjacent and Remote- Level Pathologic Vertebral Compression Fracture Following Balloon Kyphoplasty: 2-Year Follow-Up Comparison Versus Conservative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Faloon, Michael J; Ruoff, Mark; Deshpande, Chetan; Hohman, Donald; Dunn, Conor; Beckloff, Nicholas; Patel, Dipak V

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are a significant source of morbidity and mortality among patients of all age groups. These fractures result in both acute and chronic pain. Patients who sustain such fractures are known to suffer from more comorbidities and have a higher mortality rate compared with healthy people in the same age group. In recent years, balloon kyphoplasty has become a popular method for treating vertebral compression fractures. However, as longer-term follow-up becomes available, the effects of cement augmentation on adjacent spinal segments require investigation. Here, we have performed a retrospective chart review of 258 consecutive patients with pathologic vertebral compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, treated by either conservative measures or balloon kyphoplasty with polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation. Multivariate analysis of patient comorbidities was performed to assess the risks associated with subsequent adjacent and remote compression fracture at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. A total of 258 patients had 361 vertebral compression fractures. A total of 121 patients were treated nonoperatively and 137 underwent balloon kyphoplasty with polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation. The mean follow-up for both cohorts was 2.7 years (range, 2-6 years). The kyphoplasty cohort was significantly older than the nonoperative cohort (mean age, 78.5 versus 74.2 years; p = 0.02), had 24 more patients with diabetes mellitus (37 versus 13; p = 0.05), and had 34 more patients with a history of smoking (50 versus 16; p = 0.05). However, the kyphoplasty cohort had less patients with a history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (45 versus 71; p = 0.07). There were no demographic differences between groups in patients with secondary fractures. Nonoperative treatment was identified as a statistically significant independent risk factor for subsequent vertebral compression fracture [odds ratio (OR), 2.28]. Univariate

  5. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuan; Tian, De-Hu; Han, Chang-Ling; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhan-Jian; Mu, Zhen-Yun; Liu, Kuan-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients. We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later. The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later. We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions. We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients. Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads. Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05). Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β = 0.364, P = 0.001) and maximum pressure (β = 0.366, P = 0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head. Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β = 0.179, P = 0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β = 0.236, P = 0.020). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β = 0.137, P = 0.048). Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes. In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β = 0.244, P = 0.014), and calluses over the course of the study. Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI

  6. Combined effects of prenatal medication use and delivery type are associated with eczema at age 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward M.; KimMD, Haejin; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-01-01

    Background Separately, prenatal antibiotics and cesarian delivery have been found to be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. It is not clear if these factors may modify the effect of each other. Objective Assess whether the associations between delivery types and eczema, sensitization and total IgE at age 2 years were modified by maternal use of prenatal medications. Methods Prenatal charts of women enrolled in the WHEALS birth cohort were reviewed for delivery mode and medications prescribed and administered throughout their entire pregnancy, including systemic antibiotics and vaginally applied antifungal medications. The associations between the delivery mode and select medications and eczema, sensitization (≥1 of 10 allergen specific IgE ≥0.35 IU/ml) and total IgE at age 2 years were assessed. Results There was a lower risk of eczema among vaginally versus c-section born children (relative risk adjusted for race=aRR=0.77., 95% CI 0.56, 1.05). Although not statistically significantly different, this association was stronger among the subset of children born vaginally to a mother who did not use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications (aRR=0.69, 95% CI 0.44, 1.08) compared to those born vaginally to mothers who used systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungals (aRR=0.81, 95% CI 0.57, 1.14). A protective association between vaginal birth and sensitization (aRR=0.86, 95% CI 0.72, 1.03) was similar for those children born vaginally to a mother who did not (aRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.69, 1.10) and who did (RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.70, 1.04) use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications. There were no associations with total IgE. Conclusions Children born vaginally had lower risk of eczema and sensitization compared with those born via c-section; however, the protective association with eczema may be slightly weakened when mothers took systemic antibiotics or vaginally applied medications during pregnancy. PMID:25469564

  7. Association of genetic polymorphisms with serum estrogens measured multiple times during a 2-year period in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Galina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Kaaks, Rudolf; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2005-06-01

    There is evidence that circulating estrogens are associated with breast cancer risk. In this study of premenopausal women, we explored the association of polymorphisms in genes in the estrogen synthesis and metabolism pathways with serum and urinary levels of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) and with the urinary ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1)/16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1). This analysis included 220 women, who were participants in a 2-year randomized soy intervention. Blood specimens were collected in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle an average of 4.4 times over 2 years. Overnight urinary specimens were collected on the same cycle day, only at baseline. Levels of E1, E2, 2-OHE1, and 16alpha-OHE1 were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The DNA samples were analyzed by PCR/RFLP for the COMT Val158Met, CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2B, CYP1A2*1F, CYP1B1 Val432Leu, and CYP17 T27C polymorphisms. We applied mixed models to investigate the relations between genotypes and repeated serum hormone measurements and generalized linear models to assess associations between genotypes and urinary estrogen metabolites. The CYP1A2 C allele was significantly associated with lower serum E2 levels; in CC genotype carriers, serum E2 levels were 26.3% lower than in homo- and heterozygous common allele carriers combined (P = 0.01). CYP1A2*1F also affected the urinary 2-OHE1/16alpha-OHE1 ratio; carriers of the variant C allele had a markedly lower ratio than individuals with the AA genotype (1.37 versus 1.76; P = 0.002). These data suggest that CYP1A2*1F is associated with lower circulating levels of E2, and that it may be a susceptibility locus for breast cancer.

  8. A 2-year follow-up study on muscle size and dynamic strength in teenage tennis players.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, H; Kuno, S; Katsuta, S; Fukunaga, T

    2006-04-01

    Growth trends in the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris (CSA(QF)) and its dynamic strength in 12 teenage tennis players (six boys and six girls), aged from 10.7 to 13.2 years at the onset of the study, were investigated through a 2-year follow-up survey. CSA(QF) values at the three levels (proximal, mid, and distal to the knee joint) and dynamic torques during knee extensions at three pre-set velocities (1.05, 3.14, and 5.24 rad/s) were determined year by year, i.e., three times (T1, T2, and T3), using magnetic resonance imaging and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. In both genders, the CSA(QF) values at the three levels tended to increase across the measurement times, with greater gains in the boys than in the girls at the levels mid and distal to the knee joint. Among these changes, only the CSA(QF) at the level proximal to the knee joint significantly increased regardless of changes in both skeletal age and body height. The ratios of torque to the sum of CSA(QF) at the three levels (T/CSA) at 3.14 and 5.24 rad/s for the boys and at 5.24 rad/s for the girls were significantly higher in T2 and T3 than T1. Further, the relative increases in torque and T/CSA values at 3.14 and 5.24 rad/s were greater in the boys than the girls. The findings presented here indicate that young tennis players who are in the earlier stage of adolescence increase the CSA of the QF muscle beyond normally expected growth change at the level proximal to the knee joint and show a predominant development in torque generation capability during high-velocity knee extensions, with a greater gain in boys compared with girls.

  9. Quality of Life is Improved and Kidney Function Preserved in Patients with Nephropathic Cystinosis Treated for 2 Years with Delayed-Release Cysteamine Bitartrate

    PubMed Central

    Langman, Craig B.; Greenbaum, Larry A.; Grimm, Paul; Sarwal, Minnie; Niaudet, Patrick; Deschenes, Georges; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A. M.; Morin, Denis; Cochat, Pierre; Elenberg, Ewa; Hanna, Christian; Gaillard, Segolene; Bagger, Mary Jo; Rioux, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the long-term effects of delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate (DR-CYS) based on our previous work that established the short-term noninferiority of DR-CYS every 12 hours compared with immediate-release cysteamine bitartrate every 6 hours. Study design We conducted a prospective, controlled, open label, single-arm study of DR-CYS for 2 years in 40 patients to assess efficacy in depletion of cystine in peripheral white blood cells, to assess the dose required to maintain white blood cell content of cystine <1 nmol ½ cystine/mg protein, to measure quality of life using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, change in estimated glomerular filtration rate, and change in height Z-score. Results Through 24 months of study, the mean white blood cell content of cystine was always <1 nmol ½ cystine/mg protein, and the dose of DR-CYS decreased from 43.5-40.1 mg/kg/d (P = .05), and the significant improvement in social function, school function, and in total function scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory remained. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was maintained and growth velocity was maintained at 24 months compared with the baseline height Z-score. Conclusions The use of a DR-CYS administered every 12 hours to patients with cystinosis is of great benefit to their quality of life and to important biomarkers of disease control, when studied in a prospective, controlled fashion. We suggest that DR-CYS should be considered for substrate depletion in patients with cystinosis. PMID:24948347

  10. Re-Os isotope systematics in black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: their chronology and role in the 187Os/ 188Os evolution of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    1999-08-01

    Re and Os abundances and Os isotope systematics have been measured in a number of black shales sampled from outcrops and two underground phosphorite mines, Maldeota and Durmala, in the Lesser Himalaya. The Re and Os concentrations in these samples exhibit wide range, 0.2 to 264 ng/g and 0.02 to 13.5 ng/g, respectively, with a mean Re/Os of ˜25. The 187Os/ 188Os of these samples also show a broad range 1.02 to 11.6, with many of them far more radiogenic than the currently eroding continental crust. The black shales from the Maldeota and Durmala mines, collected a few meters above the Krol-Tal (Pc-C) boundary and occurring in the same stratigraphic horizon, yield 187Re- 187Os isochron ages of 554 ± 16 and 552 ± 22 Ma, respectively, consistent with fossil evidences and those assigned for the Pc-C boundary at various other locations. These results indicate closed system behaviour of Re and Os in these mine samples and reaffirm the validity of 187Re- 187Os pair to date organic-rich sediments. The age of these mine samples from the outer belt seems to be a few hundred millions of years younger than the preliminary Re-Os age of 839 ± 138 Ma for black shales from Theog, collected from the inner belt. These initial results lean toward the hypothesis that the inner belt sediments were deposited earlier than the outer belt; however, more analyses of black shales are needed to confirm this. The role of weathering black shales from the Himalaya in contributing to the Os isotope evolution of seawater over the past ˜25 Ma was assessed using a simple budget model for seawater Os and assuming values for Os fluxes and 187Os/ 188Os based on the available limited data on Os concentration and its 187Os/ 188Os in rivers and oceans. These calculations indicate that the required contributions from black shale weathering to account for the entire increase in oceanic 187Os/ 188Os over the past ˜16 Ma is difficult to satisfy by varying only the Os flux from HTP rivers ( 187Os/ 188Os

  11. G-protein Stimulatory α Subunit Is Involved in Osteogenic Activity in Osteoblastic Cell Line SaOS-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to study the roles of G-protein stimulatory subunit α (Gsα) in osteoblasts, we introduced an expression vector encoding Gsα into human osteoblastic cell line SaOS-2, and established the clones stably overexpressing Gsα (SaOS-2-Gsα). In SaOS-2-Gsα, the intracellular content of cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased compared with the parental SaOS-2 cells. In addition, when treated with PTH[1-34], SaOS-2-Gsα exhibited more accumulation of intracellular cAMP compared with the parental cells, suggesting an increased responsiveness to PTH. We evaluated the proliferation rates of SaOS-2-Gsα and the parental SaOS-2 cells, and found that the proliferation was accelerated in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses exhibited the increased expression of Runx2, a transcription factor involved in osteoblast differentiation, in SaOS-2-Gsα cells. Finally, to examine the osteoblastic function in vivo, we inoculated SaOS-2-Gsα or parental SaOS-2 cells subcutaneously to immunocompromised nude mice. Although tumors in nude mice were not formed after inoculation of parental SaOS-2 cells, SaOS-2-Gsα cells proliferated in host animals leading to the formation of tumors with mineralized bone-like tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that the signals via Gsα play critical roles in the proliferation and osteogenic functions of osteoblasts.

  12. Neutron capture studies on /sup 189/Os

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, A.M.; Colvin, G.G.; Gelletly, W.; Warner, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive study of the level structure of /sup 189/Os has been carried out using the (n,..gamma..) and (n,e-) reactions. The use of the Average Resonance Capture technique ensures that the complete set of 1/2-, 3/2- states has been established up to 1500 keV in excitation energy and secondary ..gamma..-rays have been measured in singles and coincidence to build up the detailed level scheme. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Advanced Development of Certified OS Kernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and Coq Ltac libraries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Certified Software; Certified OS Kernels; Certified Compilers; Abstraction Layers; Modularity; Deep ...module should only need to be done once (to show that it implements its deep functional specification [14]). Global properties should be derived from the...building certified abstraction layers with deep specifications. A certified layer is a new language-based module construct that consists of a triple pL1,M

  14. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  15. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  16. Soft tissue stability in segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated soft tissue changes in adult patients treated with distraction osteogenesis (DOG) of the anterior mandibular alveolar process and related it to different parameters. 33 patients (27 females; 6 males) were analysed retrospectively before surgery at T1 (17.0 days), after surgery at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), and at T4 (mean 2.0 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear backward regression analysis. 2 years postoperatively (T4), the net effect of the soft tissue at point B' was 100% of the advancement at point B whilst the lower lip (labrale inferior) followed the advancement of incision inferior to 46%. Increased preoperative age was correlated (p<0.05) with more horizontal backward movement (T4-T3) for labrale superior and pogonion'. Higher NL/ML' angles were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with smaller horizontal soft tissue change at point B'. Gender and the amount of skeletal and dental advancement were not correlated with postoperative soft tissue changes (T4-T3). DOG of the anterior mandibular alveolar process is a valuable alternative for mandibular advancement regarding soft tissue change and predictability.

  17. Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish; Ogloff, James R P; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Ferguson, Murray

    2009-02-01

    Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory - Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies.

  18. High-accuracy, high-resolution gravity profiles from 2 years of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mcadoo, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite altimeter data from the first 44 repeat cycles (2 years) of the Geosat Exact Repeat Mission (EWRM) were averaged to improve accuracy, resolution and coverage of the marine gravity field. Individual 17-day repeat cycles were first edited and differentiated, resulting in the along-track vertical deflection (i.e., gravity disturbance). To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, 44 of these cycles were then averaged to form a single highly accurate vertical deflection profile. The largest contribution to the vertical deflection error is short-wavelength altimeter noise and longer-wavelength oceanographic variability; the combined noise level is typically 6 microrad. Both types of noise are reduced by averaging many repeat cycles. Over most ocean areas the uncertainty of the average profile is less than 1 microrad which corresponds to 1 mgal of along-track gravity disturbance. However, in areas of seasonal ice coverage, its uncertainty can exceed 5 microrad. To assess the resolution of individual and average Geosat gravity profiles, the cross-spectral analysis technique was applied to repeat profiles. Individual Geosat repeat cycles are coherent (greater than 0.5) for wavelengths greater than about 30 km and become increasingly incoherent at shorter wavelengths.

  19. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P < 0.001), increased knowledge of health education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.

  20. A 2 year record of atmospheric mercury species at a background Southern Hemisphere station on Amsterdam Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, H.; Barret, M.; Magand, O.; Ramonet, M.; Dommergue, A.

    2014-06-01

    Scarcity of mercury species records in the Southern Hemisphere is a critical weak point for the development of appropriate modeling and regulation scenarios. Under the framework of the "Global Mercury Observation System" (GMOS) project, a monitoring station has been set up on Amsterdam Island (37°48' S, 77°34' E) in the remote southern Indian Ocean. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, a 2 year record of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) is presented. GEM concentrations were remarkably steady (1.03 ± 0.08 pg m-3) while RGM and PBM concentrations were very low and exhibited a strong variability (mean: 0.34 pg m-3 [range: 0.28-4.07 pg m-3] and mean: 0.67 pg m-3 [range: 0.28-12.67 pg m-3], respectively). Despite the remoteness of the island, wind sector analysis, air mass back trajectories and the observation of radonic storms highlighted a long-range contribution from the southern African continent to the GEM and PBM budgets in winter during the biomass burning season. Lowest concentrations of GEM were associated with southerly polar and marine air masses from the remote southern Indian Ocean. This unique dataset provides new baseline GEM concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes for further modeling studies, while mercury speciation along with upcoming wet deposition data will help improving our understanding of mercury cycle in the marine boundary layer.

  1. Serum Anti-Cryptosporidial gp15 Antibodies in Mothers and Children Less than 2 Years of Age in India.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Robin P; Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Sarkar, Rajiv; Geetha, Jayanthy C; Prabakaran, Ashok D; Velusamy, Vasanth; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the type and longevity of the humoral response to cryptosporidial infections in developing countries. We evaluated serum antibody response to Cryptosporidium gp15 in 150 sets of maternal, preweaning and postinfection/end-of-follow-up sera from children followed up to 2 years of age to determine the influence of maternal and preweaning serological status on childhood cryptosporidiosis. Fifty two percent (N = 78) of mothers and 20% (N = 30) of children were seropositive preweaning. However, most positive preweaning samples from children were collected early in life indicating transplacental transfer and subsequent rapid waning of antibodies. Although 62% (N = 94) of children had a parasitologically confirmed cryptosporidial infection (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) during the follow-up, only 54% (N = 51) of children were seropositive postinfection. Given there were striking differences in seropositivity depending on when the sample was collected, even though Cryptosporidium was detected in the stool of the majority of the children, this study indicates that antibodies wane rapidly. During follow-up, the acquisition or severity of cryptosporidial infections was not influenced by maternal (P = 0.331 and 0.720, respectively) as well as the preweaning serological status of the child (P = 0.076 and 0.196, respectively).

  2. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships.

  3. Knowledge, use of and attitudes towards peer support: a 2-year follow-up to the Prince's Trust survey.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Helen; Naylor, Paul; Talamelli, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Preeti; Smith, Peter

    2002-10-01

    This present study investigated how school peer support systems studied 2 years earlier in a survey funded by The Prince's Trust have evolved. In all, 413 pupils (actual and potential users of the systems) aged 13-14 (Year 9--Y9) and 15-16 (Year 11--Y11), 34 teachers in charge of systems and 80 peer supporters in 35 secondary schools were interviewed using structured schedules for the pupils and semi-structured ones for the teachers and peer supporters. All of these interviews focussed on the respondents' perceptions and experiences of the school's peer support system, including: the perceived benefits to users of the system; benefits to peer supporters; problems with the system and the attempts made to overcome them. There was widespread support for the systems and a strong sense that both teachers and peer supporters were increasingly confident about the value of their service. However, some problems remain, notably with regard to gender. The study documents difficulties in the recruitment and retention of boys as peer supporters because of peer pressure to conform to a "macho" image. The issue is discussed and some solutions presented.

  4. Serum Anti-Cryptosporidial gp15 Antibodies in Mothers and Children Less than 2 Years of Age in India

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Robin P.; Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Geetha, Jayanthy C.; Prabakaran, Ashok D.; Velusamy, Vasanth; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the type and longevity of the humoral response to cryptosporidial infections in developing countries. We evaluated serum antibody response to Cryptosporidium gp15 in 150 sets of maternal, preweaning and postinfection/end-of-follow-up sera from children followed up to 2 years of age to determine the influence of maternal and preweaning serological status on childhood cryptosporidiosis. Fifty two percent (N = 78) of mothers and 20% (N = 30) of children were seropositive preweaning. However, most positive preweaning samples from children were collected early in life indicating transplacental transfer and subsequent rapid waning of antibodies. Although 62% (N = 94) of children had a parasitologically confirmed cryptosporidial infection (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) during the follow-up, only 54% (N = 51) of children were seropositive postinfection. Given there were striking differences in seropositivity depending on when the sample was collected, even though Cryptosporidium was detected in the stool of the majority of the children, this study indicates that antibodies wane rapidly. During follow-up, the acquisition or severity of cryptosporidial infections was not influenced by maternal (P = 0.331 and 0.720, respectively) as well as the preweaning serological status of the child (P = 0.076 and 0.196, respectively). PMID:26304924

  5. Genetic profiles of Shiga toxin and intimin genes found in stool broth cultures: a 2-year reference laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Michel, Pierre A; Kase, Julie A

    2009-10-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are associated with potentially serious illness in humans. STEC detection is often based on the presence of Stxs, Stx(1) and/or Stx(2), and intimin, encoded by the eae gene. A 2-year collection of stool broth cultures was tested for variants of stx(1), stx(2), and eae. Approximately 80% (138 of 174) were positive for stx(1) and/or stx(2), with stx(1) as the most prevalent (66%). Of the stx(1) variants, stx(1) was the most common (76%) followed by stx(1c) (22%). Analysis of stx(2)-positive isolates found 20 (53%) stx(2), 13 (34%) stx(2)/stx(2v-ha), 3 (8%) stx(2v-ha), 1 (3%) stx(2v-hb), and 1 (3%) stx(2d-activatable). Findings of stx(2)/stx(2v-ha) and stx(2d-activatable) are noteworthy given associations with hemolytic uremic syndrome and increased cytotoxicity, respectively. Of the Stx positive, 94 (68%) were eae positive with 31 (33%) eae(varepsilon1), 19 (20%) eae(gamma1), and 18 (19%) eae(beta1). A predominance of eae(varepsilon1) may suggest a new pathogenic significance because, reportedly, eae(beta1) is one of the most widespread variants.

  6. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  7. A 2-year record of atmospheric mercury species at a background Southern Hemisphere station on Amsterdam Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angot, H.; Barret, M.; Magand, O.; Ramonet, M.; Dommergue, A.

    2014-10-01

    Although essential to fully understand the cycling of mercury at the global scale, mercury species records in the Southern Hemisphere are scarce. Under the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, a monitoring station has been set up on Amsterdam Island (37°48´ S, 77°34´ E) in the remote southern Indian Ocean. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, a 2-year record of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) is presented. GEM concentrations were remarkably steady (1.03 ± 0.08 ng m-3) while RGM and PBM concentrations were very low and exhibited a strong variability (mean: 0.34 pg m-3, range: < detection limit-4.07 pg m-3; and mean: 0.67 pg m-3, range: < detection limit-12.67 pg m-3, respectively). Despite the remoteness of the island, wind sector analysis, air mass back trajectories and the observation of radonic storms highlighted a long-range contribution from the southern African continent to the GEM and PBM budgets from July to September during the biomass burning season. Low concentrations of GEM were associated with southerly polar and marine air masses from the remote southern Indian Ocean. This unique data set provides new baseline GEM concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes while mercury speciation along with upcoming wet deposition data will help to improve our understanding of the mercury cycle in the marine boundary layer.

  8. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign. PMID:27065773

  9. A novel KRT5 mutation associated with generalized severe epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 2-year-old Chinese boy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Ming; Liang, Jianying; Li, Ming; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in keratin 5 (KRT5) or KRT14 genes are responsible for the most severe form of epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), which is EBS generalized severe (EBS-gen sev). To date, only four pathogenic mutations (p.Arg165Ser and p.Lys199Asn in KRT5; p.Arg125Cys and p.Arg125His in KRT14) have been reported to be responsible for EBS-gen sev in the Chinese population. In the present study, a 2-year-old Chinese boy was clinically suspected to suffer from EBS, and thus Sanger sequencing was performed in the extracted genomic DNA samples from the patient, his parents and 100 healthy controls. A novel de novo heterozygous missense mutation c.503A>G (p.Glu168Gly) located at the N-terminal end segment of the 1A domain in KRT5 was identified by molecular analysis. In silico analysis tools were used to predict the pathogenicity of the novel missense mutation. A diagnosis of EBS-gen sev was thus confirmed according to the clinical presentations and molecular results. PMID:27882080

  10. 2-Year Natural Decline of Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation in Idiopathic Parkinson Disease Studied with 11C-Hydroxyephedrine PET.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Kit; Raffel, David M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Altinok, Gulcin; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to detect regional patterns of cardiac sympathetic denervation in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using (11)C-hydroxyephedrine ((11)C-HED) PET and determine the denervation rate over 2 y.

  11. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  12. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,γ) cross sections of Os186,187,188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Mosconi, M.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Käppeler, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-07-01

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of Os186, Os187, and Os188 measured at the n_TOF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the Os187 abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  13. The protein phosphatase 2C clade A protein OsPP2C51 positively regulates seed germination by directly inactivating OsbZIP10.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Nikita; Min, Myung-Ki; Choi, Eun-Hye; Kim, Namhyo; Moon, Seok-Jun; Yoon, Insun; Kwon, Taekryoun; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS histochemical assay confirmed that OsPP2C51 is expressed in the seed embryo and that this expression pattern is unique compared with those of other OsPP2CA genes. Data obtained from germination assays and alpha-amylase assays of OsPP2C51 knockout and overexpression lines suggest that OsPP2C51 positively regulates seed germination in rice. The expression of alpha-amylase synthesizing genes was high in OsPP2C51 overexpressing plants, suggesting that elevated levels of OsPP2C51 might enhance gene expression related to higher rates of seed germination. Analysis of protein interactions between ABA signaling components showed that OsPP2C51 interacts with OsPYL/RCAR5 in an ABA-dependent manner. Furthermore, interactions were observed between OsPP2C51 and SAPK2, and between OsPP2C51 and OsbZIP10 and we found out that OsPP2C51 can dephosphorylates OsbZIP10. These findings suggest the existence of a new branch in ABA signaling pathway consisting of OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-bZIP apart from the previously reported OsPYL/RCAR-OsPP2C-SAPK-bZIP. Overall, our result suggests that OsPP2C51 is a positive regulator of seed germination by directly suppressing active phosphorylated OsbZIP10.

  14. The Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion: Chemostratigraphy, cosmic dust flux and the Early Oligocene glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Tarun K.; Ravizza, Gregory E.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution records (ca. 100 kyr) of Os isotope composition ( 187Os / 188Os) in bulk sediments from two tropical Pacific sites (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219) capture the complete Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os excursion and confirm that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum, earlier reported by Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 210 (2003) 151-165], is a global feature. Using the astronomically tuned age models available for these sites, it is suggested that the Late Eocene 187Os / 188Os minimum can be placed at 34.5 ± 0.1 Ma in the marine records. In addition, two other distinct features of the 187Os / 188Os excursion that are correlatable among sections are proposed as chemostratigraphic markers which can serve as age control points with a precision of ca. ± 0.1 Myr. We propose a speculative hypothesis that higher cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene may have contributed to global cooling and Early Oligocene glaciation (Oi-1) by supplying bio-essential trace elements to the oceans and thereby resulting in higher ocean productivity, enhanced burial of organic carbon and draw down of atmospheric CO 2. To determine if the hypothesis that enhanced cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene was a cause for the 187Os / 188Os excursion can be tested by using the paired bulk sediment and leachate Os isotope composition; 187Os / 188Os were also measured in sediment leachates. Results of analyses of leachates are inconsistent between the south Atlantic and the Pacific sites, and therefore do not yield a robust test of this hypothesis. Comparison of 187Os / 188Os records with high resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O records across the Eocene-Oligocene transition suggests that 187Os flux to the oceans decreased during cooling and ice growth leading to the Oi-1 glaciation, whereas subsequent decay of ice-sheets and deglacial weathering drove seawater 187Os / 188Os to higher values. Although the precise timing and magnitude of these changes in weathering fluxes

  15. Risk Factors of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis after Multilevel Fusion Surgery: More Than 2 Years Follow-Up Data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Keun; Kim, Ji Yong; Kim, Do Yeon; Rhim, Seung Chul; Yoon, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is radiologic finding, and is defined as kyphosis of >10° at the proximal end of a construct. The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with PJK after segmental spinal instrumented fusion in adults with spinal deformity with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods A total of 49 cases of adult spinal deformity treated by segmental spinal instrumented fusion at two university hospitals from 2004 to 2011 were enrolled in this study. All enrolled cases included at least 4 or more levels from L5 or the sacral level. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of PJK during follow-up, and these two groups were compared to identify factors related to PJK. Results PJK was observed in 16 of the 49 cases. Age, sex and mean follow-up duration were not statistically different between two groups. However, mean bone marrow density (BMD) and mean back muscle volume at the T10 to L2 level was significantly lower in the PJK group. Preoperatively, the distance between the C7 plumb line and uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV) were no different in the two groups, but at final follow-up a significant intergroup difference was observed. Interestingly, spinal instrumentation factors, such as, receipt of a revision operation, the use of a cross-link, and screw fracture were no different in the two groups at final follow-up. Conclusion Preoperative BMD, sagittal imbalance at UIV, and thoracolumbar muscle volume were found to be strongly associated with the presence of PJK. PMID:28264237

  16. Minimally Invasive Periodontal Treatment Using the Er,Cr: YSGG Laser. A 2-year Retrospective Preliminary Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Bret; Sung, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase, Irvine, CA) to treat moderate to advanced periodontal disease is presented as an alternative to conventional therapies. To date, there are few short- or long-term studies to demonstrate the effects of this laser in treating and maintaining periodontal health. Electronic clinical records from 16 patients – total of 126 teeth, with pocket depths ranging from 4 mm to 9 mm – were treated with the same protocol using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean baseline probing depths (PD) were 5 mm and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were 5 mm in the 4 - 6 mm pretreated laser group. The mean baseline probing depths were 7.5 and 7.6 mm for PD and CAL respectfully in the 7 – 9 mm pretreatment laser group. At the 2 year mark, the average PD was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 ± 1.2 mm. mean CAL was 3.1 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 ± 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group with an overall reduction of 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. At one and two years, both groups remained stable with PD comparable to the three-month gains. The CAL measurements at one and two years were also comparable to the three-month gains. PMID:22615717

  17. Refractive, Topographic, and Aberrometric Results at 2-Year Follow-Up for Accelerated Corneal Cross-Link for Progressive Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ercüment; Akcay, Betul Ilkay Sezgin; Kurt, Tugba; Yildirim, Yusuf; Günaydin, Zehra Karaagaç; Demirok, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To report the visual, refractive, and corneal topography and wavefront aberration results of accelerated corneal cross-linking (CXL) during a 24-month follow-up. Methods. Forty-seven eyes underwent riboflavin-ultraviolet A-induced accelerated CXL treatment (30 mW/cm2 with a total dose of 7.2 joules/cm2). Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical and cylindrical values, keratometry (K) measurements (Ksteep, Kflat, Kavg, and Kapex), central corneal thickness, and anterior corneal aberrometric analyses including total wavefront error (WFE), total high order aberration (HOA), astigmatism, trefoil, coma, quadrafoil, secondary astigmatism, and spherical aberration were evaluated. Results. The mean UDVA and CDVA were significantly improved at 1 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, resp.) and 2 years after treatment (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, resp.). The mean Ksteep, Kflat, Kaverage, and Kapex values were significantly lower than baseline at 12 months (p = 0.008, p = 0.024, p = 0.001, and p = 0.014, resp.) and 24 months (p = 0.014, p = 0.017, p = 0.001, and p = 0.012, resp.). Corneal thickness showed a significant decrease at 1 month. Total HOA and coma decreased significantly at the 12-month (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, resp.) and 24-month visits (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, resp.). Conclusion. Accelerated CXL (30 mW/cm2) was found to be effective in improving UDVA, CDVA, corneal topography readings, total HOA, and coma aberrations during the 24-month follow-up. PMID:28197339

  18. Associations between weather conditions and clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a 2-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Burdorf, Alex; Rozendaal, Rianne M; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bos, Pieter K; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether there is an association between ambient weather conditions and patients' clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The design was a cohort study with a 2-year follow-up and 3-monthly measurements and prospectively collected data on weather variables. The study population consisted of 222 primary care patients with hip OA. Weather variables included temperature, wind speed, total amount of sun hours, precipitation, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain and hip disability as measured with the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function subscales. Associations between hip pain and hip disability and the weather variables were assessed using crude and multivariate adjusted linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements. On the day of questionnaire completion, mean relative humidity was associated with WOMAC pain (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.2; P=.02). Relative humidity contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC pain score. Mean barometric pressure was associated with WOMAC function (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.1; P=.02). Barometric pressure contributed < or = 1% to the explained within-patient variance and between-patient variance of the WOMAC function score. The other weather variables were not associated with the WOMAC pain or function score. Our results support the general opinion of OA patients that barometric pressure and relative humidity influence perceived OA symptoms. However, the contribution of these weather variables (< or = 1%) to the severity of OA symptoms is not considered to be clinically relevant.

  19. Survey in the Emergency Department of Parents’ Understanding of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Children Younger Than 2 Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Survey in the Emergency Department of Parents’ Understanding of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Children Younger Than 2 Years Shawn M. Varney, MD...Administration (FDA) released a public health advisory recommending that over-the-counter cough and cold medications (CCMs) not be used in children...CCM use in children younger than 2 years. Most thought CCMs were safe and effective. KeyWords: cough and cold medications, Food and Drug

  20. MADS-box transcription factor OsMADS25 regulates root development through affection of nitrate accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant's responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice.

  1. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alan D; Macdonald, Francis A; Strauss, Justin V; Dudás, Francis Ö; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-07

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post-Snowball Earth hothouse.

  2. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Alan D.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Strauss, Justin V.; Dudás, Francis Ö.; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post–Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  3. Cooperative application/OS DRAM fault recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Heroux, Michael Allen; Hoemmen, Mark; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Exascale systems will present considerable fault-tolerance challenges to applications and system software. These systems are expected to suffer several hard and soft errors per day. Unfortunately, many fault-tolerance methods in use, such as rollback recovery, are unsuitable for many expected errors, for example DRAM failures. As a result, applications will need to address these resilience challenges to more effectively utilize future systems. In this paper, we describe work on a cross-layer application/OS framework to handle uncorrected memory errors. We illustrate the use of this framework through its integration with a new fault-tolerant iterative solver within the Trilinos library, and present initial convergence results.

  4. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  5. The Prognosis of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care in the U.S. A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Bartmess-LeVasseur, Elizabeth; Acree, Mike; Pressman, Alice; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick M; Carey, Tim; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to assess the prognosis of patients presenting with acute low back pain (LBP) in a primary care setting in the U.S. Summary of Background Data Practice guidelines for acute LBP based on return-to-work outcomes underestimate the development of chronic pain in the primary care setting. Due to differences in inclusion criteria, chronic pain definitions and national health systems, prognostic cohort studies have reported a wide range of results limiting interpretation and generalization. Current data from carefully designed prognostic studies of acute LBP are lacking for the U.S. primary care system. Methods Members of a large health service organization were enrolled after seeking medical care for acute LBP, with or without sciatica, of up to 30 days duration, with no prior episode in the past 12 months and no history of spine surgery. We conducted phone interviews at baseline, six months and two years. Based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, a combination of global perceived recovery with pain intensity was used as primary outcome for chronic pain. Recurrence and multiple secondary outcomes were assessed to allow for comparison with other studies. Results 605 patients had an average pain intensity of 5.6 (numeric rating scale 0–10) and disability of 15.8 (Roland Morris scale 0–24). Eight percent had declared sick leave between pain onset and baseline interview. 13% of 521 patients (86% follow-up) suffered from chronic pain at six months and 19% of 443 patients at 2 years. At six months, 54% had experienced at least one LBP recurrence, and 47% in the subsequent 18 months. Conclusion The prognosis of strictly-defined acute LBP, with or without sciatica, is less favorable than commonly stated in practice guidelines based on failure to return to work. Broad initiatives to develop new means for the primary and secondary prevention of recurrent and chronic LBP are urgently needed. PMID:22504516

  6. Semi-automatic lung segmentation of DCE-MRI data sets of 2-year old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Frank G; Daab, Markus; Weidner, Meike; Sommer, Verena; Zahn, Katrin; Schaible, Thomas; Weisser, Gerald; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Neff, K Wolfgang; Schad, Lothar R

    2015-12-01

    In congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), lung hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of death and severe disability. Based on new therapeutic strategies survival rates could be improved to up to 80%. However, after surgical repair of CDH, long-term follow-up of these pediatric patients is necessary. In this, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides insights into the pulmonary microcirculation and might become a tool within the routine follow-up program of CDH patients. However, whole lung segmentation from DCE-MRI scans is tedious and automated procedures are warranted. Therefore, in this study, an approach to semi-automated lung segmentation is presented. Segmentation of the lung is obtained by calculating the cross correlation and the area under curve between all voxels in the data set and a reference region-of-interest (ROI), here the arterial input function (AIF). By applying an upper and lower threshold to the obtained maps and intersecting these, a final segmentation is reached. This approach was tested on twelve DCE-MRI data sets of 2-year old children after CDH repair. Segmentation accuracy was evaluated by comparing obtained automatic segmentations to manual delineations using the Dice overlap measure. Optimal thresholds for the cross correlation were 0.5/0.95 and 0.1/0.5 for the area under curve, respectively. The ipsilateral (left) lung showed reduced segmentation accuracy compared to the contralateral (right) lung. Average processing time was about 1.4s per data set. Average Dice score was 0.7±0.1 for the whole lung. In conclusion, initial results are promising. By our approach, whole lung segmentation is possible and a rapid evaluation of whole lung perfusion becomes possible. This might allow for a more detailed analysis of lung hypoplasia of children after CDH.

  7. Population-Level Persistence of Immunity 2 Years After the PsA-TT Mass-Vaccination Campaign in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole E.; Borrow, Ray; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Dembélé, Awa Traoré Eps; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Townsend, Kelly; Boukary, Rahamatou M.; Mabey, Lesley; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Sow, Samba O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2010, Africa's first preventive meningococcal mass vaccination campaign was launched using a newly developed Neisseria meningitidis group A (NmA) polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), designed specifically for the meningitis belt. Given PsA-TT's recent introduction, the duration of protection against meningococcal group A is unknown. Methods. We conducted a household-based, age-stratified seroprevalence survey in Bamako, Mali, in 2012, 2 years after the vaccination campaign targeted all 1- to 29-year-olds. Randomly selected participants who had been eligible for PsA-TT provided a blood sample and responded to a questionnaire. Sera were analyzed to assess NmA-specific serum bactericidal antibody titers using rabbit complement (rSBA) and NmA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proportion of participants putatively protected and the age group- and sex-specific rSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) and IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were determined. Results. Two years postvaccination, nearly all of the 800 participants (99.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.3%–99.7%) maintained NmA-specific rSBA titers ≥8, the accepted threshold for protection; 98.6% (95% CI, 97.8%–99.4%) had titers ≥128, and 89.5% (95% CI, 87.4%–91.6%) had titers ≥1024. The rSBA GMTs were significantly higher in females than in males aged <18 years at vaccination (P < .0001). NmA-specific IgG levels ≥2 µg/mL were found in 88.5% (95% CI, 86.3%–90.7%) of participants. Conclusions. Two years after PsA-TT introduction, a very high proportion of the population targeted for vaccination maintains high antibody titers against NmA. Assessing the duration of protection provided by PsA-TT is a priority for implementing evidence-based vaccination strategies. Representative, population-based seroprevalence studies complement clinical trials and provide this key evidence. PMID:26553687

  8. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P < .001, and OR = 3.7, P < .001, respectively, for nonhigh school and high school graduates, compared with college graduates), being exposed to stressful life events (OR = 1.6, P = .048), having current posttraumatic stress disorder (3.1, P < .001), having a fear of death (OR = 2.5, P = .002), and reporting a likelihood of fleeing an attack against advice (OR = 1.5, P = .034). The best predictors of preparedness in a multivariate model was being between 30 to 64 years old (30−44 years old, OR = 2.6, P = .001; 45−64 yeas old, OR = 1.8, P = .03, respectively, compared with 18−29 years old), having higher exposure to the WTCD (moderate exposure, OR = 1.7, P = .05; high exposure, OR = 2.4, P = .002; very high exposure, OR = 4.1, P < .001), respectively, compared

  9. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B.; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation. PMID:27607063

  10. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  11. Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. Methods We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Results We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly

  12. The auxin response factor, OsARF19, controls rice leaf angles through positively regulating OsGH3-5 and OsBRI1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, SaiNa; Wang, SuiKang; Xu, YanXia; Yu, ChenLiang; Shen, ChenJia; Qian, Qian; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-04-01

    Auxin and brassinosteroid (BR) are important phytohormones for controlling lamina inclination implicated in plant architecture and grain yield. But the molecular mechanism of auxin and BR crosstalk for regulating lamina inclination remains unknown. Auxin response factors (ARFs) control various aspects of plant growth and development. We here report that OsARF19-overexpression rice lines show an enlarged lamina inclination due to increase of its adaxial cell division. OsARF19 is expressed in various organs including lamina joint and strongly induced by auxin and BR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that OsARF19 binds to the promoter of OsGH3-5 and brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (OsBRI1) directing their expression. OsGH3-5-overexpression lines show a similar phenotype as OsARF19-O1. Free auxin contents in the lamina joint of OsGH3-5-O1 or OsARF19-O1 are reduced. OsGH3-5 is localized at the endoplasmic retieulum (ER) matching reduction of the free auxin contents in OsGH3-5-O1. osarf19-TDNA and osgh3-5-Tos17 mutants without erected leaves show a function redundancy with other members of their gene family. OsARF19-overexpression lines are sensitive to exogenous BR treatment and alter the expressions of genes related to BR signalling. These findings provide novel insights into auxin and BR signalling, and might have significant implications for improving plant architecture of monocot crops.

  13. Trial of a screening technique of the developmental assessment of infants and young children (6 weeks-2 years).

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Patel, N V

    1991-08-01

    Six hundred and nineteen infants and young children from the slums of Jabalpur City were screened by twenty trained paramedical workers using the Woodside Screening Technique. A second screen was given by the author within three days of the first screen on 350 (56.5%) children. The tester/author agreement was 97%. The results of the Woodside Screening Technique were validated against the standard Gesell's Schedules. The specificity and sensitivity rates of 88 and 83%, respectively were better than the original Denver Developmental Screening Test (77% each). Over referral rates which vary between 10-28% were comparable to the original Denver Developmental Screening Test. The under referral rate was 24%. All children tested belonged to the deprived sections of society, having weights below 50th centile of Harvard Standards. Inspite of this 74% of children scored above and at par on the Gesell's Developmental Schedule, only 11% children showing any developmental abnormality. The need to eliminate the cultural bias from the test and draw a new threshold line to separate questionable cases from abnormal ones is highlighted. Recommendations and specific modifications of the Woodside Screening Technique are suggested.

  14. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean . E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Magne, Nicolas; Poissonnet, Gilles; Ramaioli, Alain; Lemanski, Claire; Bourdin, Sylvain; Tortochaux, Jacques; Peyrade, Frederic; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Vallicioni, Jacques; Seng Hang; Alzieu, Claude; Gery, Bernard; Chauvel, Pierre; Schneider, Maurice; Santini, Jose; Demard, Francois; Calais, Gilles

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  15. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  16. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  17. Os-187/Os-188 and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Apollo 17 Aphanitic Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; James, O. B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Generally chondritic relative abundances and high absolute abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) in Earth s upper mantle provide strong evidence that these elements were added to the Earth following the last major interaction between its metallic core and silicate fraction. So called "late accretion" may have added materials comprising as much as 0.8% of the total mass of the Earth and possibly a similar proportion of mass to the Moon. We have begun to study the chemical nature of late accreted materials to the Earth - Moon system by examining the HSE contained in lunar impact-melt rocks. The HSE contained in melt rocks were largely added to the Moon during the period of time from the origin of the lunar highlands crust (4.4- 4.5 Ga) to the end of the late bombardment period (ca. 3.9 Ga). These materials provide the only direct chemical link to the late accretionary period. The chemical fingerprints of the HSE in late accreted materials may enable us to ascertain under what conditions and where in the solar system the late accreted materials formed. The Os-187/Os-188 ratios (reflecting long-term Re/Os), coupled with ratios of other HSE, can be diagnostic for identifying the nature of the impactor. A critical issue, however, will be deconvolving the exogenous from indigenous components.

  18. Comprehensive Design for the Intervention and Reduction of Dropout Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Harry Michael

    Dropout rates had increased for 2 years at a suburban public high school with approximately 2,200 students. Recent legislation mandating increased credit requirements, more academic schedules and standards, and mandatory attendance requirements has contributed to an increase in the dropout rate. A dropout intervention program was implemented with…

  19. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  20. Q-I/IIA-OS formula for predicting left atrial pressure in mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yiğitbaşi, Ömer; Nalbantgil, İstemi; Birand, Ahmet; Terek, Ahmet

    1970-01-01

    The relation of the phonocardiographic time intervals (Q-I) and (IIA-OS) and the use of two formulas (Q-I, IIA-OS difference versus their ratio) for estimation of left atrial pressure were investigated in 70 cases of pure mitral stenosis. It was noted that, in cases with normal blood pressure and pluse rate, there was a fair correlation of the two intervals to left atrial pressure. In our studies the best correlation was obtained by using the ratio of these two intervals (Q-I)/(IIA-OS). These results indicate that it is possible to use a new formula and equation that are dependable for phonocardiographic evaluation of left atrial pressure. PMID:5433316

  1. A retrospective study of radiographic abnormalities in the repositories of 2-year-old Thoroughbred in-training sales in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKOSHI, Daisuke; SENBA, Hiroyuki; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; MAEDA, Masaya; SHIBATA, Ryo; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age. PMID:27330400

  2. Ectopic Expression of OsSta2 Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Juyoung; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter. The OsSta2-Ox plants were salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage, based on our calculations of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll concentrations, and survival rates. Under normal paddy field conditions, the Ox plants were somewhat shorter than the WT control but had improved agronomic traits such as higher total grain yield. They were also more tolerant to osmotic stress and hypersensitive to abscisic acid. Based on all of these results, we suggest that OsSta2 has important roles in determining yields as well as in conferring tolerance to salt stresses. PMID:28344585

  3. OsABCB14 functions in auxin transport and iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanxia; Zhang, Saina; Guo, Haipeng; Wang, Suikang; Xu, Ligen; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Chen, Fan; Geisler, Markus; Qi, Yanhua; Jiang, De An

    2014-07-01

    Members of the ATP Binding Cassette B/Multidrug-Resistance/P-glyco-protein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) subfamily were shown to function primarily in Oryza sativa (rice) auxin transport; however, none of the rice ABCB transporters have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe that a knock-down of OsABCB14 confers decreased auxin concentrations and polar auxin transport rates, conferring insensitivity to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). OsABCB14 displays enhanced specific auxin influx activity in yeast and protoplasts prepared from rice knock-down alleles. OsABCB14 is localized at the plasma membrane, pointing to an important directionality under physiological conditions. osabcb14 mutants were surprisingly found to be insensitive to iron deficiency treatment (-Fe). Their Fe concentration is higher and upregulation of Fe deficiency-responsive genes is lower in osabcb14 mutants than in wild-type rice (Nipponbare, NIP). Taken together, our results strongly support the role of OsABCB14 as an auxin influx transporter involved in Fe homeostasis. The functional characterization of OsABCB14 provides insights in monocot auxin transport and its relationship to Fe nutrition.

  4. Does Poststroke Lower-Limb Spasticity Influence the Recovery of Standing Balance Control? A 2-Year Multilevel Growth Model.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jonathan C; Nishihara, Kanako; Mochizuki, George

    2016-08-01

    Background Poststroke lower-limb spasticity (LLS) has been shown to degrade standing balance control by disrupting the temporal synchronization between individual limb centers of pressure (COPs). Time-varying changes in standing balance control associated with alterations in the extent of LLS have yet to be documented and are important to informing treatment strategies to improve such functional outcomes. Objective The present work aimed to understand the natural recovery of standing balance control among stroke survivors with LLS using limb-specific indices of standing balance control. Furthermore, we sought to understand if time-varying changes in LLS were associated with alterations in standing balance control. Methods A retrospective analysis of 92 participants was performed; 47 participants never exhibited LLS during the study (No_LLS), and 45 participants exhibited LLS during at least 1 testing session (LLS). Quiet standing for a duration of 30 s on 2 force platforms was recorded. Temporal synchrony and spatial symmetry of COP displacements were assessed, along with interlimb weight-bearing symmetry. Results All variables, except spatial symmetry, indicated initial improvement followed by deceleration in the rate of balance control recovery. Limb-specific measures indicated that individuals with LLS exhibited deficits in balance control. The recovery trajectories were not different between groups, suggesting a similar rate, but reduced extent, of balance control recovery among the LLS relative to the No_LLS group. Only temporal synchrony was altered by time-varying changes in spasticity. Conclusions The present results suggest that the reduction in spasticity may be beneficial to balance control recovery.

  5. X-ray Observations of the Black Hole Transient 4U 1630-47 During 2 Years of X-ray Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Corbel, Stephane; Goldwurm, Andrea; Kaaret, Philip

    2005-01-01

    The black hole candidate (BHC) X-ray transient 4U 1630-47 continuously produced strong X-ray emission for more than 2 years during its 2002-2004 outburst, which is one of the brightest and longest outbursts ever seen from this source. We use more than 300 observations made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RM E) to study the source throughout the outburst, along with hard X-ray images from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), which are critical for interpreting the RXTE data in this crowded field. The source exhibits extreme behaviors, which can be interpreted as an indication that the system luminosity approaches the Eddington limit. For 15 observations, fitting the spectral continuum with a disk-blackbody plus power-law model results in measured inner disk temperatures between 2.7 and 3.8 key and such temperatures are only rivaled by the brightest BHC systems, such as GRS 1915+105 and XTE 51550-564. If the high temperatures are caused by the dominance of electron scattering opacity in the inner regions of the accretion disk, it is theoretically required that the source luminosity be considerably higher than 20% of the Eddington limit. We detect a variety of high-amplitude variability, including hard 10-100 s flares, which peak at levels as much as 2-3 times higher than nonflare levels. This flaring occurs at the highest disk luminosities in a regime in which the source deviates from the L(sub disk) infinity T(sup 4)(sub in) relationship that is seen at lower luminosities, possibly suggesting that we are seeing transitions between a Shakura & Sunyaev disk and a "slim" disk, which is predicted to occur at very high mass accretion rates. The X-ray properties in 2002-2004 are significantly different from those seen during the 1998 outburst, which is the only outburst with detected radio jet emission. Our results support the "jet line" concept recently advanced by Fender and coworkers. Our study allows for a test of the quantitative Mc

  6. Minimum 2-year outcome of cervical laminoplasty with deep extensor muscle-preserving approach: impact on cervical spine function and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yoshihisa; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Sudo, Hideki; Takahata, Masahiko; Ohshima, Shigeki; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio

    2009-05-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, two surgical methods of conventional open-door laminoplasty and deep extensor muscle-preserving laminoplasty were allocated for the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and were specifically compared in terms of axial pain, cervical spine function, and quality of life (QOL) with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Eighty-four patients were divided into two groups and received either a conventional open-door laminoplasty (CL group) or laminoplasty using a deep extensor muscle-preserving approach (MP group). The latter approach was performed by preserving multifidus and semispinalis cervicis attachments followed by open-door laminoplasty and re-suture of the bisected spinous processes at each decompression level. The average follow-up period was 38 months (25-53 months). The preoperative and follow-up evaluations included the original Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, the new tentative JOA score including cervical spine function and QOL, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) of axial pain. Radiological analyses included cervical lordosis and flexion-extension range of motion (flex-ext ROM) (C2-7), and deep extensor muscle areas on MR axial images. The JOA recovery rates were statistically equivalent between two groups. The MP group demonstrated a statistically superior cervical spine function (84% vs 63%) and QOL (61% vs 45%) when compared to the CL group at final follow-up (P < 0.05). The average VAS scores at final follow-up were 2.3 and 4.9 in MP and CL groups (P < 0.05). The cervical lordosis and flex-ext ROM were statistically equivalent. The percent deep muscle area on MRI demonstrated a significant atrophy in CL group compared to that in MP group (56% vs 88%; P < 0.01). Laminoplasty employing the deep extensor muscle-preserving approach appeared to be effective in reducing the axial pain and deep muscle atrophy as well as improving cervical spine function and QOL when compared to conventional open-door laminoplasty.

  7. Minimum 2-year outcome of cervical laminoplasty with deep extensor muscle-preserving approach: impact on cervical spine function and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Sudo, Hideki; Takahata, Masahiko; Ohshima, Shigeki; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio

    2009-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, two surgical methods of conventional open-door laminoplasty and deep extensor muscle-preserving laminoplasty were allocated for the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and were specifically compared in terms of axial pain, cervical spine function, and quality of life (QOL) with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Eighty-four patients were divided into two groups and received either a conventional open-door laminoplasty (CL group) or laminoplasty using a deep extensor muscle-preserving approach (MP group). The latter approach was performed by preserving multifidus and semispinalis cervicis attachments followed by open-door laminoplasty and re-suture of the bisected spinous processes at each decompression level. The average follow-up period was 38 months (25–53 months). The preoperative and follow-up evaluations included the original Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, the new tentative JOA score including cervical spine function and QOL, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) of axial pain. Radiological analyses included cervical lordosis and flexion–extension range of motion (flex–ext ROM) (C2–7), and deep extensor muscle areas on MR axial images. The JOA recovery rates were statistically equivalent between two groups. The MP group demonstrated a statistically superior cervical spine function (84% vs 63%) and QOL (61% vs 45%) when compared to the CL group at final follow-up (P < 0.05). The average VAS scores at final follow-up were 2.3 and 4.9 in MP and CL groups (P < 0.05). The cervical lordosis and flex–ext ROM were statistically equivalent. The percent deep muscle area on MRI demonstrated a significant atrophy in CL group compared to that in MP group (56% vs 88%; P < 0.01). Laminoplasty employing the deep extensor muscle-preserving approach appeared to be effective in reducing the axial pain and deep muscle atrophy as well as improving cervical spine function and QOL when compared to conventional open

  8. iOS and OS X Apps for Exploring Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies rapidly provide information following earthquakes. This timely information garners great public interest and provides a rich opportunity to engage students in discussion and analysis of earthquakes and tectonics. In this presentation I will describe a suite of iOS and Mac OS X apps that I use for teaching and that Penn State employs in outreach efforts in a small museum run by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. The iOS apps include a simple, global overview of earthquake activity, epicentral, designed for a quick review or event lookup. A more full-featured iPad app, epicentral-plus, includes a simple global overview along with views that allow a more detailed exploration of geographic regions of interest. In addition, epicentral-plus allows the user to monitor ground motions using seismic channel lists compatible with the IRIS web services. Some limited seismogram processing features are included to allow focus on appropriate signal bandwidths. A companion web site, which includes background material on earthquakes, and a blog that includes sample images and channel lists appropriate for monitoring earthquakes in regions of recent earthquake activity can be accessed through the a third panel in the app. I use epicentral-plus at the beginning of each earthquake seismology class to review recent earthquake activity and to stimulate students to formulate and to ask questions that lead to discussions of earthquake and tectonic processes. Less interactive OS X versions of the apps are used to display a global map of earthquake activity and seismograms in near real time in a small museum on the ground floor of the building hosting Penn State's Geoscience Department.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N = 312…

  10. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as a Support Mechanism for Novel Word Learning: A Training Study with 2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Polišenská, Kamila; Süssová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    A training study examined novel word learning in 2-year-old children and assessed two nonverbal mechanisms, pictures and gestures, which are commonly used as communication support. The aim was to (1) compare these two support mechanisms and measure their effects on expressive word learning and (2) to investigate these effects on word production…

  11. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  12. Recognition of Pretend and Real Actions in Play by 1- and 2-Year-Olds: Early Success and Why They Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Friedman, Ori; Leslie, Alan M.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 1- and 2-year-old children's performance on Pretend and Reality tasks. Pretend tasks involved the comprehension of a pretend scenario, whereas Reality tasks did not. For example, the experimenter pretends to drink water from an empty cup, she fills another cup with imaginary water and then invites the child to drink. In the Reality…

  13. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  14. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  15. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  16. Realizing the Cognitive Potential of Children 5-7 with a Mathematics Focus: Post-Test and Long-Term Effects of a 2-Year Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayer, Michael; Adhami, Mundher

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the context of the British Government's policy directed on improving standards in schools, this paper presents research on the effects of a programme intended to promote the cognitive development of children in the first 2 years of primary school (Y1 & 2, aged 5-7 years). The programme is based on earlier work dealing with…

  17. Academic Transfer Shock and Social Integration: A Comparison of Outcomes for Traditional and Nontraditional Students Transferring from 2-Year to 4-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahn-Koller, Brooke Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether traditional and nontraditional students who transferred from 2-year to 4-year institutions experienced differences in transfer shock, academic integration, and social integration. A substantial body of knowledge comparing transfer students to native students on transfer shock exists, while only a…

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Panic Disorder Versus Treatment as Usual in a Managed Care Setting: 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addis, Michael E.; Hatgis, Christina; Cardemil, Esteban; Jacob, Karen; Krasnow, Aaron D.; Mansfield, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Eighty clients meeting criteria for panic disorder and receiving either panic control therapy (PCT; M. G. Craske, E. Meadows, & D. H. Barlow, 1994) or treatment as usual (TAU) in a managed care setting were assessed 1 and 2 years following acute treatment. PCT was provided by therapists with little or no previous exposure to cognitive-behavioral…

  19. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

  20. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  1. Skeletal and dental stability of segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process. A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2012-05-01

    33 patients (27 females; 6 males) were retrospectively analysed for skeletal and dental relapse before distraction osteogenesis (DOG) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process at T1 (17.0 days), after DOG at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), and at T4 (mean 2.0 years). Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated. Skeletal correction (T3-T1) was mainly achieved through the distraction of the anterior alveolar segment in a rotational manner where the incisors were more proclined. The horizontal backward relapse (T4-T3) measured -0.8mm or 19.0% at point B (p<0.001) and -1.6mm or 25.0% at incision inferior (p<0.001). Age, gender, amount and type (rotational versus translational) of advancement were not correlated with the amount of relapse. High angle patients (NL/ML'; p<0.01) and patients with large gonial angle (p<0.05) showed significantly smaller relapse rates at point B. Overcorrection of the overjet achieved by the distraction was seen in a third of the patients and could be a reason for relapse. Considering the amount of skeletal relapse the DOG could be an alternative to bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular advancement in selected cases.

  2. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  3. Barriers to procreational intentions among cancer survivors 2 years after diagnosis: a French national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Julien; Rey, Dominique; Préau, Marie; Le Corroller-Soriano, Anne Gaëlle; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the rates of parenthood projects among two-year cancer survivors with a preserved fertility, and to identify factors associated with parenthood project, opposing cancer-related factors to socio-demographic factors usually associated with parenting in healthy individuals. Methods Among 6,957 adult cancer patients randomly selected in the Long Duration Disease File of the French National Health Insurance Fund between September and October 2002, still alive and not hospitalised two years after diagnosis, 4,270 responded to this cross-sectional questionnaire study of whom 969 reported having preserved fertility. Results Among women aged 20–44 (n=175) and men aged 20–70 (n=784), 26.3% and 6.1% respectively planned to have a child or another child. Such plans were more frequently reported by in younger patients but were also reported by the oldest ones (until 70 years old for men). 33.5% of the 257 male and female survivors, aged 20–45, had parenthood project. After adjustment for age, previous children, and gender, only high education level (adjusted odds ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.8) and stability or increase of financial resources (2.4, 1.0 to 5.7) were independently associated with parenthood project. Cancer stage at diagnosis and evolution did not modify this project. Conclusions Two years after cancer diagnosis when fertility has been preserved, motives against parenthood project tend to be similar among cancer survivors and in the general population. Survivors who reported a reduction in financial resources were less likely to have a parenthood project. Targeted support is needed to help them to face financial consequences of the disease. PMID:20151410

  4. Outcomes of a 2-year investigation on enhanced biological nutrients removal and trace organics elimination in membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Lesjean, B; Gnirss, R; Buisson, H; Keller, S; Tazi-Pain, A; Luck, F

    2005-01-01

    Two configurations of membrane bioreactors were identified to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal, and assessed over more than two years with two parallel pilot plants of 2m3 each. Both configurations included an anaerobic zone ahead of the biological reactor, and differed by the position of the anoxic zone: standard pre-denitrification, or post-denitrification without dosing of carbon source. Both configurations achieved improved phosphorus removal. The goal of 50 microgP/L in the effluent could be consistently achieved with two types of municipal wastewater, the second site requiring a low dose of ferric salt ferric salt < 3 mgFe/L. The full potential of biological phosphorus removal could be demonstrated during phosphate spiking trials, where up to 1 mg of phosphorus was biologically eliminated for 10 mg BOD5 in the influent. The post-denitrification configuration enabled a very good elimination of nitrogen. Daily nitrate concentration as low as 1 mgN/L could be monitored in the effluent in some periods. The denitrification rates, greater than those expected for endogenous denitrification, could be accounted for by the use of the glycogene pool, internally stored by the denitrifying microorganisms in the anaerobic zone. Pharmaceuticals residues and steroids were regularly monitored on the two parallel MBR pilot plants during the length of the trials, and compared with the performance of the Berlin-Ruhleben WWTP. Although some compounds such as carbamazepine were persistent through all the systems, most of the compounds could be better removed by the MBR plants. The influence of temperature, sludge age and compound concentration could be shown, as well as the significance of biological mechanisms in the removal of trace organic compounds.

  5. Radiographic characterization of the os penis in the cat.

    PubMed

    Piola, Valentina; Posch, Barbara; Aghte, Petra; Caine, Abby; Herrtage, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The os penis in the cat has not been described radiographically, as compared with the dog. However, a small linear bony radiopacity is sometimes detected in the perineal area of male cats. We hypothesized that the feline os penis might be visible on survey radiographs of the pelvis, and we aimed to investigate the frequency of its visualization using analog and computed radiography (CR) system. One hundred radiographs of the pelvis of 99 male cats were reviewed retrospectively (50 were obtained with a CR system and 50 with an analog system). Age, breed, neutering status, and reason for presentation were recorded, as well as the visualization of the os penis. An os penis was detected in 19/50 (38%) cats with CR and in eight of 50 (16%) cats with analog radiography; this difference was statistically significant. With CR, the median age of cats with a visible os penis was significantly higher than in cats where the os penis was not seen. In one cat with a visible os penis examined with CR and analog radiography, the os penis was only visible on CR images. The penile tissues were examined histopathologically in one cat and well-differentiated bone was found but there were no pathologic findings detected in surrounding tissues. Thus, the os penis can be detected on radiographs of cats and this should not be mistaken for a pathologic finding such as urolithiasis or dystrophic mineralization.

  6. Total disc replacement compared to lumbar fusion: a randomised controlled trial with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tullberg, Tycho; Branth, Björn; Olerud, Claes; Tropp, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The study design includes a prospective, randomised controlled study comparing total disc replacement (TDR) with posterior fusion. The main objective of this study is to compare TDR with lumbar spinal fusion, in terms of clinical outcome, in patients referred to a spine clinic for surgical evaluation. Fusion is effective for treating chronic low back pain (LBP), but has drawbacks, such as stiffness and possibly adjacent level degradation. Motion-preserving options have emerged, of which TDR is frequently used because of these drawbacks. How the results of TDR compare to fusion, however, is uncertain. One hundred and fifty-two patients with a mean age of 40 years (21–55) were included: 90 were women, and 80 underwent TDR. The patients had not responded to a conservative treatment programme and suffered from predominantly LBP, with varying degrees of leg pain. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, radiographs, MRI, and in unclear cases, diagnostic injections. Outcome measures were global assessment (GA), VAS for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, SF36 and EQ5D at 1 and 2 years. Follow-up rate was 100%, at both 1 and 2 years. All outcome variables improved in both groups between preoperative and follow-up assessment. The primary outcome measure, GA, revealed that 30% in the TDR group and 15% in the fusion group were totally pain-free at 2 years (P = 0.031). TDR patients had reached maximum recovery in virtually all variables at 1 year, with significant differences compared to the fusion group. The fusion patients continued to improve and at 2 years had results similar to TDR patients apart from numbers of pain-free. Complications and reoperations were similar in both groups, but pedicle screw removal as additive surgery, was frequent in the fusion group. One year after surgery, TDR was superior to spinal fusion in clinical outcome, but this difference had diminished by 2 years, apart from (VAS for back pain and) numbers of pain-free. The

  7. Local control rates with five-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic cancer to the lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhchyau; Hare, Mary Z.; Usuki, Kenneth Y.; Zhang, Hong; Lundquist, Thomas; Joyce, Neil; Schell, Michael C.; Milano, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report our institutional experience with five fractions of daily 8-12 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of oligometastatic cancer to the lung. Methods Thirty-four consecutive patients with oligometastatic cancers to the lung were treated with image-guided SBRT between 2008 and 2011. Patient age ranged from 38 to 81 years. There were 17 males and 17 females. Lung metastases were from the following primary cancer types: colon cancer (n=13 patients), head and neck cancer (n=6), breast cancer (n=4), melanoma (n=4), sarcoma (n=4) and renal cell carcinoma (n=3). The median prescription dose was 50 Gy in five fractions (range, 40-60 Gy) to the isocenter, with the 80% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume (PTV) [defined as gross tumor volume (GTV) + 7-11 mm volumetric expansion]. The follow-up interval ranged from 2.4-54 months, with a median of 16.7 months. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient local control (LC) rates for all patients were 93%, 88%, and 80% respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 62%, 44%, and 23% respectively. The 1- and 2-year patient LC rates were 95% and 88% for tumor size 1-2 cm (n=25), and 86% for tumor size 2-3 cm (n=7). The majority (n=4) of local failures occurred within 12 months. No patient experienced local failure after 12 months except for one patient with colon cancer whose tumors progressed locally at 26 months. All five patients with local recurrences had colorectal cancer. Statistical analyses showed that age, gender, previous chemotherapy, previous surgery or radiation had no significant effect on LC rates. No patient was reported to have any symptomatic pneumonitis at any time point. Conclusions SBRT for oligometastatic disease to the lung using 8-12 Gy daily fractions over five treatments resulted in excellent 1- and 2-year LC rates. Most local failures occurred within the first 12 months, with five local failures associated with colorectal cancer

  8. OsRRMh, a Spen-like gene, plays an important role during the vegetative to reproductive transition in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derui; Cai, Xiuling

    2013-09-01

    OsRRMh, a homologue of OsRRM, encodes a Spen-like protein, and is composed of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and one C-terminal Spen paralogue and an orthologue C-terminal domain (SPOC). The gene has been found to be constitutively expressed in the root, stem, leaf, spikelet, and immature seed, and alternative splicing patterns were confirmed in different tissues, which may indicate diverse functions for OsRRMh. The OsRRMh dsRNAi lines exhibited late-flowering and a larger panicle phenotype. When full-length OsRRMh and/or its SPOC domain were overexpressed, the fertility rate and number of spikelets per panicle were both markedly reduced. Also, overexpression of OsRRMh in the Arabidopsis fpa mutant did not restore the normal flowering time, and it delayed flowering in Col plants. Therefore, we propose that OsRRMh may confer one of its functions in the vegetative-to-reproductive transition in rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica cv. Zhonghua No. 11 (ZH11)).

  9. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  10. Hydrogen peroxide overload increases adriamycin-induced apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM, a manganese superoxide dismutase-overexpressing human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadi; Kuroda, Masahiro; Gao, Xian-Shu; Asaumi, Jun-Ichi; Shibuya, Kohichi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Akaki, Shiro; St Clair, Daret; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-05-01

    We previously developed a new microscopic observation system that enables time-lapse quantitative analysis of apoptosis and necrosis. With this system we quantitatively analyzed adriamycin (ADR)-induced cell death using manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)- and wild-type p53-gene transfectants on SaOS(2), a p53-deficient human osteosarcoma cell line. A highly MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(H), acquired ADR-tolerance compared to the parent cell line SaOS(2). The ADR-tolerance of SaOS(2)FM(H) diminished by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), to the similar ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2). A wild-type p53-expressing cell line, SaOS(2)wtp53, significantly increased in ADR-sensitivity compared to SaOS(2). This ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2)wtp53 was enhanced by BSO. When isosorbide 5-mononitrate was combined with BSO, isosorbide 5-mononitrate increased ADR sensitivity of a moderately MnSOD-overexpressing cell line, SaOS(2)FM(L), decreased that of SaOS(2) FM(H), and did not change those of SaOS(2) and SaOS(2)wtp53 compared to BSO alone. Time-lapse microscopic observations during ADR treatment for 24 h indicated that the most cells of each cell line underwent apoptosis, and a few cells (less than 11%) died by necrosis. When cells were treated with iso-concentration of ADR, apoptosis of SaOS(2)FM(H) was less than that of SaOS(2). BSO, which did not change ADR-sensitivity of SaOS(2), increased appearance rate of ADR-induced apoptosis, but not necrosis of MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. When iso-survival dose of ADR, which reduced surviving fraction to 0.01, was given for each cell line, no difference was observed in appearance of either apoptosis or necrosis between SaOS(2) and MnSOD-overexpressing cell lines. On the other hands, appearance of both apoptosis and the following secondary necrosis of SaOS(2) wtp53 was significantly accelerated compared to those of SaOS(2). These findings indicate that hydrogen peroxide

  11. Mechanistic control of product selectivity. Reactions between cis-/trans cis-/trans-[OsVI(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]+ and triphenylphosphine sulfide.

    PubMed

    Huynh, M H; White, P S; Meyer, T J

    2000-06-26

    Reactions between the Os(VI)-nitrido complexes cis- and trans-[Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]+ (tpy is 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine) and triphenylphosphine sulfide, SPPh3, give the corresponding Os(IV)-phosphoraniminato, [Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)]+, and Os(II)-thionitrosyl, [Os(II)(tpy)(Cl)2(NS)]+, complexes as products. The Os-N bond length and Os-N-P angle in cis-[Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)](PF6) are 2.077(6) A and 138.4(4) degrees. The rate law for formation of cis- and trans-[Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)]+ is first order in both [Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]+ and SPPh3 with ktrans(25 degrees C, CH3CN) = 24.6 +/- 0.6 M(-1) s(-1) and kcis(25 degrees C, CH3CN) = 0.84 +/- 0.09 M(-1) s(-1). As found earlier for [Os(II)(tpm)(Cl)2(NS)]+, both cis- and trans-[Os(II)(tpy)(Cl)2(NS)]+ react with PPh3 to give [Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)]+ and SPPh3. For both complexes, the reaction is first order in each reagent with ktrans(25 degrees C, CH3CN) = (6.79 +/- 0.08) x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) and kcis(25 degrees C, CH3CN) = (2.30 +/- 0.07) x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1). The fact that both reactions occur rules out mechanisms involving S atom transfer. These results can be explained by invoking a common intermediate, [Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NSPPh3)]+, which undergoes further reaction with PPh3 to give [Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)]+ and SPPh3 or with [Os(VI)(tpy)(Cl)2(N)]+ to give [Os(IV)(tpy)(Cl)2(NPPh3)]+ and [Os(II)(tpy)(Cl)2(NS)]+.

  12. 186Os-187Os and highly siderophile element abundance systematics of the mantle revealed by abyssal peridotites and Os-rich alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Walker, Richard J.; Warren, Jessica M.

    2017-03-01

    Abyssal peridotites are oceanic mantle fragments that were recently processed through ridges and represent residues of both modern and ancient melting. To constrain the nature and timing of melt depletion processes, and the composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Os isotope data for abyssal peridotites from three ocean basins, as well as for Os-rich alloys, primarily from Mesozoic ophiolites. These data are complemented by whole-rock highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), trace- and major-element abundances for the abyssal peridotites, which are from the Southwest Indian (SWIR), Central Indian (CIR), Mid-Atlantic (MAR) and Gakkel Ridges. The results reveal a limited role for melt refertilization or secondary alteration processes in modifying abyssal peridotite HSE compositions. The abyssal peridotites examined have experienced variable melt depletion (2% to >16%), which occurred >0.5 Ga ago for some samples. Abyssal peridotites typically exhibit low Pd/Ir and, combined with high-degrees of estimated total melt extraction, imply that they were relatively refractory residues prior to incorporation into their present ridge setting. Recent partial melting processes and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) generation therefore played a limited role in the chemical evolution of their precursor mantle domains. The results confirm that many abyssal peridotites are not simple residues of recent MORB source melting, having a more complex and long-lived depletion history. Peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge, SWIR, CIR and MAR indicate that the depleted MORB mantle has 186Os/188Os of 0.1198356 ± 21 (2SD). The Phanerozoic Os-rich alloys yield an average 186Os/188Os within uncertainty of abyssal peridotites (0.1198361 ± 20). Melt depletion trends defined between Os isotopes and melt extraction indices (e.g., Al2O3) allow an estimate of the primitive mantle (PM) composition, using only abyssal peridotites. This yields 187Os/188Os (0.1292 ± 25), and 186Os

  13. Evaluation of XIENCE V everolimus-eluting and Taxus Express2 paclitaxel-eluting coronary stents in patients with jailed side branches from the SPIRIT IV trial at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Forrest, John K; Lansky, Alexandra J; Meller, Stephanie M; Hou, Liming; Sood, Poornima; Applegate, Robert J; Wang, John C; Skelding, Kimberly A; Shah, Aakar; Kereiakes, Dean J; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Cristea, Ecaterina; Yaqub, Manejeh; Stone, Gregg W

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether patients from the Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With de Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions (SPIRIT) IV trial who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, who had target lesions with jailed side branches, had improved clinical outcomes when treated with the XIENCE V versus Taxus Express(2) drug-eluting stent. In the SPIRIT III randomized trial, patients with target lesions with jailed side branches after XIENCE V compared with Taxus Express(2) implantation had lower 2-year rates of major adverse cardiac events. The SPIRIT IV trial represents a larger more diverse patient population compared with SPIRIT III. In the large-scale, prospective, multicenter, randomized SPIRIT IV trial, 3,687 patients who underwent coronary stenting with up to 3 de novo native coronary artery lesions were randomized 2:1 to receive XIENCE V versus Taxus Express(2) stents. Two-year clinical outcomes of patients with or without jailed side branches after stenting were compared. A jailed side branch was defined as any side branch >1.0 mm in diameter within the target segment being stented, excluding bifurcations deemed to require treatment. Of the 3,687 patients in SPIRIT IV, a total of 1,426 had side branches that were jailed during angioplasty of the target lesion. Patients with jailed side branches after XIENCE V compared with Taxus Express(2) implantation had significantly lower 2-year rates of target lesion failure (6.5% vs 11.9%, p = 0.001), major adverse cardiac events (6.6% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0008), ischemia-driven target vessel revascularization (4.1% vs 7.9%, p = 0.004), and stent thrombosis (0.6% vs 2.8%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, patients with jailed side branches after stenting with XIENCE V compared to Taxus Express(2) devices had superior clinical outcomes at 2 years in the large-scale randomized SPIRIT IV trial.

  14. Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder Followed for 2 Years: Those Who Gained and Those Who Lost the Most in Terms of Adaptive Functioning Outcome.

    PubMed

    Hedvall, Åsa; Westerlund, Joakim; Fernell, Elisabeth; Norrelgen, Fritjof; Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Eriksson, Mats A; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Clinical predictors of 2-year outcome in preschoolers with ASD were studied in a population-based group of very young children with ASD (n = 208). Children who gained the most (n = 30) and lost the most (n = 23), i.e., increased or decreased their adaptive functioning outcome according to the Vineland Composite Score between study entry (T1) and follow-up (T2), 2 years later were compared. Individual factors that differed significantly between the two outcome groups were cognitive level, age at referral, not passing expected milestones at 18 months, autistic type behavior problems and regression. However, logistic regression analysis showed that only cognitive level at T1 (dichotomized into IQ < 70 and IQ ≥ 70) made a unique statistically significant contribution to outcome prediction (p = <.001) with an odds ratio of 18.01. The findings have significant clinical implications in terms of information at diagnosis regarding clinical prognosis in ASD.

  15. 2-year postoperative evaluation of a patient with a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect repaired with particulated juvenile cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Kevin F; Daner, William; Yao, Jian Q

    2010-06-01

    This case report describes the early results of a 36-year-old man who underwent repair of a symptomatic full-thickness patellar cartilage defect with transplanted particulated juvenile articular cartilage. At 2 years postoperatively, the patient has experienced substantial clinical improvement in both pain and function when evaluated with both International Knee Documentation Committee subjective evaluation and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score outcome measures. Two-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates fill of the defect with repair tissue and near complete resolution of preoperative subchondral bone edema. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this case report is the first to report clinical results of this new technique at 2 years postoperatively.

  16. Alcoholics anonymous involvement and positive alcohol-related outcomes: cause, consequence, or just a correlate? A prospective 2-year study of 2,319 alcohol-dependent men.

    PubMed

    McKellar, John; Stewart, Eric; Humphreys, Keith

    2003-04-01

    A positive corelation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate. The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural equation model indicated that 1-year posttreatment levels of AA affiliation predicted lower alcohol-related problems at 2-year follow-up, whereas level of alcohol-related problems at 1-year did not predict AA affiliation at 2-year follow-up. Additional models found that these effects were not attributable to motivation or psychopathology. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AA participation has a positive effect on alcohol-related outcomes.

  17. Long-Term Outcome of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma 71/2 Years After Surgery and Repeated Radiofrequency Ablation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, L. Mylona, S.; Nikita, A.; Ptohis, N.; Kelekis, D.A.

    2007-04-15

    An interesting case is presented of a 78-year-old patient with cirrhosis who was managed with combined treatment (surgery and radiofrequency (RF) ablation) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has survived for 71/2 years. Elevation of the {alpha}-FP (alpha-fetoprotein) levels was noted 2 years after surgery. CT demonstrated two lesions: one central at the remaining right liver lobe, and the other at the excision site. Biopsy of the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of HCC for both of them. RF ablation of these two lesions was performed in one session with technical success. Four and a half years after the first RF ablation a new recurrence was demonstrated at the CT follow-up control. RF ablation was again applied successfully. The imaging findings and the therapeutic percutaneous management of this patient along with the natural course of HCC and its recurrence are discussed, and the literature concerning risk factors is reviewed.

  18. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  20. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  1. Evolution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A duplication: a 2-year clinico-electrophysiological and lower-limb muscle MRI longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Gallardo, Elena; García, Antonio; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Infante, Jon; Berciano, José

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) evolution. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study in 14 CMT1A patients and 14 age- and sex-matched controls. In the patients, we performed neurological examination with hand-held dynamometry, electrophysiology, and lower-limb muscle MRI, both at baseline and 2 years later, while controls were examined at baseline only. Patients' ages ranged from 12 to 51 years. Outstanding manifestations on initial evaluation included pes cavus, areflexia, lower-limb weakness, and foot hypopallesthesia. In evaluating muscle power, good correlation was observed between manual testing and dynamometry. Compared to controls, Lunge, 10-Meter-Walking, and 9-Hole-Peg tests were impaired. Their CMT neuropathy score and functional disability scale showed that patients exhibited mild phenotype and at most slight walking difficulty. Electrophysiology revealed marked nerve conduction slowing and variable compound muscle action potential amplitude reduction. On lower-limb muscle MRI, there was distally accentuated fatty infiltration accompanied by edema in calf muscles. All these clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings remained almost unaltered during monitoring. Using multivariate analysis, no significant predictors of progression associated to the disease were obtained. We conclude that in the 2-year period of study, CMT1A patients showed mild progression with good concordance between clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings.

  2. Os odontoideum in identical twins: Comparative gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Straus, David; Xu, Shunbin; Traynelis, Vincent C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Os odontoideum is a well identified anomaly of the craniovertebral junction. Since its initial description, there has been a continuous debate regarding the nature of its etiology: Whether congenital or traumatic. We sought to compare the gene expression profiles in patients with congenital os odontoideum, those with traumatic os odontoideum and controls. Methods: We have evaluated a pair of identical twins both with os odontoideum. We identified two additional patients with and four subjects without os odontoideum. We analyzed the gene expression profiles in these patients using a custom TaqMan microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The relative gene expression profiles in the two identical twins, the two nontwin patients with os odontoideum and the controls were assessed. Results: A total of 213 genes with significantly different expression between the twin os odontoideum patients and the subjects without os odontoideum were detected. CACNG6, PHEX, CACNAD3, IL2, FAS, TUFT1, KIT, TGFBR2, and IGF2 were expressed at levels greater than 100-fold more in the twins. There were six genes with significantly different expression profiles in the twins as compared with the nontwin os odontoideum patients: CMK4, ATF1, PLCG1, TAB1, E2F3, and ATF4. There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression in the four patients with os odontoideum and the subjects without. Trends, however, were noted in MMP8, KIT, HIF1A, CREB3, PWHAZ, TGFBR1, NFKB2, FGFR1, IPO8, STAT1, COL1A1, and BMP3. Conclusions: Os odontoideum has multiple etiologies, both traumatic and congenital and perhaps some represent a combination of the two. This work has identified a number of genes that show increased expression in a pair of twins with congenital os odontoideum and also demonstrates trends in gene expression profiles between a larger group of os odontoideum patients and non-os patients. A number of these genes are related to

  3. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection among three successive generations of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Solomieu, V; Dégremont, L; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio-Valle, F; Boudry, P; Renault, T

    2005-01-01

    Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) was likely detected in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, at different stages of development. Viral infections were associated with high mortality rates in the spat and larvae. Furthermore, the persistance of OsHV-1 in asymptomatic adults was demonstrated by detection of viral DNA and proteins. In the present study, three successive generations of C. gigas (G0 and G1 parental oysters, G1 and G2 larvae) were screened for OsHV-1 by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in 2-day-old larvae, indicating that infection may take place at very early stages. Although results strengthen the hypothesis of a vertical transmission, it was not possible to predict the issue of a particular type of cross. Indeed, the detection of viral DNA in parental oysters did not systematically correspond to a productive infection or result in a successful transmission to the progeny. However, the infective status of the parents appeared to have an influence on both the infection and the survival rates of the progeny. Crosses involving an OsHV-1 infected male and a non-infected female resulted in hatching and larval survival rates statistically lower than those observed in the other types of cross. These results suggest that OsHV-1-infected females may transmit to their offspring some kind of protection or resistance against viral infection.

  4. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  5. Transcriptional Activation of OsDERF1 in OsERF3 and OsAP2-39 Negatively Modulates Ethylene Synthesis and Drought Tolerance in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiwen; Zhang, Zhijin; Quan, Ruidang; Zhou, Shirong; Huang, Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene is a key signaling molecule that regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. Transcriptional modulation is a pivotal process controlling ethylene synthesis, which further triggers the expression of stress-related genes and plant adaptation to stresses; however, it is unclear how this process is transcriptionally modulated in rice. In the present research, we report the transcriptional regulation of a novel rice ethylene response factor (ERF) in ethylene synthesis and drought tolerance. Through analysis of transcriptional data, one of the drought-responsive ERF genes, OsDERF1, was identified for its activation in response to drought, ethylene and abscisic acid. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsDERF1 (OE) led to reduced tolerance to drought stress in rice at seedling stage, while knockdown of OsDERF1 (RI) expression conferred enhanced tolerance at seedling and tillering stages. This regulation was supported by negative modulation in osmotic adjustment response. To elucidate the molecular basis of drought tolerance, we identified the target genes of OsDERF1 using the Affymetrix GeneChip, including the activation of cluster stress-related negative regulators such as ERF repressors. Biochemical and molecular approaches showed that OsDERF1 at least directly interacted with the GCC box in the promoters of ERF repressors OsERF3 and OsAP2-39. Further investigations showed that OE seedlings had reduced expression (while RI lines showed enhanced expression) of ethylene synthesis genes, thereby resulting in changes in ethylene production. Moreover, overexpression of OsERF3/OsAP2-39 suppressed ethylene synthesis. In addition, application of ACC recovered the drought-sensitive phenotype in the lines overexpressing OsERF3, showing that ethylene production contributed to drought response in rice. Thus our data reveal that a novel ERF transcriptional cascade modulates drought response through controlling the ethylene

  6. Clinical and radiological evaluation of Trabecular Metal and the Smith-Robinson technique in anterior cervical fusion for degenerative disease: a prospective, randomized, controlled study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Håkan; Engquist, M; Hoffmann, P; Sigstedt, B; Vavruch, L

    2010-03-01

    A prospective, randomized, controlled study was carried out to compare the radiological and clinical outcomes after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with Trabecular Metal (TM) to the traditional Smith-Robinson (SR) procedure with autograft. The clinical results of cervical fusion with autograft from the iliac crest are typically satisfactory, but implications from the donor site are frequently reported. Alternative materials for cervical body interfusion have shown lower fusion rates. Trabecular Metal is a porous tantalum biomaterial with structure and mechanical properties similar to that of trabecular bone and with proven osteoconductivity. As much as 80 consecutive patients planned for ACDF were randomized for fusion with either TM or tricortical autograft from the iliac crest (SR) after discectomy and decompression. Digitized plain radiographic images of 78 (98%) patients were obtained preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up and were subsequently evaluated by two senior radiologists. Fusion/non-fusion was classified by visual evaluation of the A-P and lateral views in forced flexion/extension of the cervical spine and by measuring the mobility between the fused vertebrae. MRI of 20 TM cases at 2 years was successfully used to assess the decompression of the neural structures, but was not helpful in determining fusion/non-fusion. Pain intensity in the neck, arms and pelvis/hip were rated by patients on a visual analog scale (VAS) and neck function was rated using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) the day before surgery and 4, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Follow-ups at 12 and 24 months were performed by an unbiased observer, when patients also assessed their global outcome. Fusion rate in the SR group was 92%, and in the TM group 69% (P < 0.05). The accuracy of the measurements was calculated to be 2.4 degrees . Operating time was shorter for fusion with TM compared with autograft; mean times were 100 min (SD 18) and 123 min (SD 23

  7. Cervical compensatory alignment changes following correction of adult thoracic deformity: a multicenter experience in 57 patients with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taemin; Scheer, Justin K; Eastlack, Robert; Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Klineberg, Eric; Passias, Peter G; Deviren, Vedat; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Alignment changes in the cervical spine that occur following surgical correction for thoracic deformity remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate such changes in a cohort of adults with thoracic deformity treated surgically. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with thoracic deformity. Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: corrective osteotomy for thoracic deformity, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV) between T-1 and T-4, lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) at or above L-5 (LIV ≥ L-5) or at the ilium (LIV-ilium), and a minimum radiographic follow-up of 2 years. Sagittal radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively as well as at 3 months and 2 years postoperatively, including the C-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2-7 cervical lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, T-1 slope (T1S), T1S minus CL (T1S-CL), T2-12 thoracic kyphosis (TK), apical TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), PI-LL, pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). RESULTS Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.6 years met the study inclusion criteria. The preoperative prevalence of increased CL (CL > 15°) was 48.9%. Both 3-month and 2-year apical TK improved from baseline (p < 0.05, statistically significant). At the 2-year follow-up, only the C2-7 SVA increased significantly from baseline (p = 0.01), whereas LL decreased from baseline (p < 0.01). The prevalence of increased CL was 35.3% at 3 months and 47.8% at 2 years, which did not represent a significant change. Postoperative cervical alignment changes were not significantly different from preoperative values regardless of the LIV (LIV ≥ L-5 or LIV-ilium, p > 0.05 for both). In a subset of patients with a maximum TK ≥ 60° (35 patients) and 3-column osteotomy (38 patients), no significant postoperative cervical changes were seen. CONCLUSION Increased CL is common in adult spinal deformity patients with thoracic deformities

  8. Phosphate transporters OsPHT1;9 and OsPHT1;10 are involved in phosphate uptake in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs, and lateral roots, with the expression being specifically induced by Pi-starvation. In leaves, the expression of the two ...

  9. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... school. You can help enrich his vocabulary and language skills by making reading a part of your everyday routine. At this age, he can follow a story line and will understand and remember many ideas and ...

  10. Rash - child under 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... containing alcohol) when cleaning the infant. Ointments or creams may help reduce friction and protect the baby's ... rash , the health care provider will prescribe a cream to treat it. OTHER RASHES Heat rash or ...

  11. Assessment and 2-Year Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jama L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a national study of the current availability and use of commercially and institutionally developed educational assessment instruments. Indicates that two-year institutions reported less activity than four-year institutions in assessing the major fields of study but that 77% of all two-year institutions assessed basic skills. (MAB)

  12. Bilateral Os Acromiale in a Division I Basketball Player

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, Christina D.; Fluker, Dave

    2003-01-01

    An unfused acromial epiphysis, called os acromiale, can become unstable and mobile when the deltoid contracts. This may cause pain and lead to impingement syndrome and rotator cuff tearing. After sustaining a direct blow to the right shoulder, a male division I basketball player was diagnosed with impingement syndrome and an os acromiale. Following failed conservative treatment, the athlete underwent arthroscopic subacromial decompression & debridement of the loose os acromiale in the right shoulder. One year later, following a fall on the left shoulder, the athlete was diagnosed with os acromiale, impingement syndrome and a superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion. Arthroscopic repair of the unstable type II SLAP lesion, together, with arthroscopic subacromial decompression, and resection of the os acromiale was performed on the left shoulder. Both surgeries were successful and the athlete was able to return to competition subsequent to completing a progressive shoulder rehabilitation program. Symptomatic os acromiale is rarely seen in young athletes. However, proper diagnosis and management is necessary for a successful recovery. Os acromiale should be considered as a part of the differential diagnosis in any athlete with rotator cuff impingement symptoms. PMID:24688280

  13. Accretion rate of extraterrestrial particles determined from osmium isotope systematics of pacific pelagic clay and manganese nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser, B.K.; Turekian, K.K. )

    1988-06-01

    Pelagic clay and Mn nodules from DOMES sites in the North Pacific and a varved glacial lake deposit from Connecticut were analyzed for Os concentration and isotopic composition by isotope-dilution secondary ion mass spectrometry after treatment by NiS fusion of oxalic acid leaching. Bulk pelagic clay from DOMES site C has {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 6.5 and Os = 0.14 ng/g. Oxalic acid leaches of this same sediment and of Mn nodules for DOMES sites A and C have more radiogenic {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratios which average 8.3. Bulk glacial Lake Hitchcock sediment has {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 12.5 and Os = 0.06 ng/g. The total Os flux to North Pacific pelagic clay is 7 to 10 ng Os/cm{sup 2}/10{sup 6} y. Lake Hitchcock sediment provides an integrated value for the local crustal {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio. The oxalic acid leaches are assumed to attack hydrogenous phases selectively. A simple model in which the only sources of Os to the ocean are continental crust with the isotopic composition of Lake Hitchcock and extraterrestrial particles with {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 1.1 results in a cosmic flux of osmium to the sediment of 4.9 ng Os/cm{sup 2}/10{sub 6} y of which 20% is hydrogenous. A model in which the sources of Os to the ocean are continental crust with an {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os ratio of 30, oceanic mantle or crust with {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 1.04 and extraterrestrial particles with {sup 187}Os/{sup 186}Os = 1.1 results in a cosmic flux of Os to the sediment of 5.7 ng Os/cm{sup 2}/10{sup 6} y of which none is hydrogenous. These extraterrestrial Os fluxes correspond to maximum C-1 chondrite accretion rates of between 4.9 {times} 10{sub 4} and 5.6 {times}10{sub 4} tonnes/y.

  14. PCSK7 Genotype Modifies Effect of a Weight-Loss Diet on 2-Year Changes of Insulin Resistance: The POUNDS LOST Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Jinyan; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Bray, George A.; Rood, Jennifer; Sacks, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A common variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene has the strongest association with iron homeostasis and is related to insulin resistance. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO) modulates the genetic effect on insulin resistance. We examined whether 2-year weight-loss diets modify the effect of PCSK7 genetic variants on changes in fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance in a randomized, controlled trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were analyzed in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial, which is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial using diets that differed in macronutrient proportions. PCSK7 rs236918 was genotyped in 730 overweight or obese adults (80% whites) in this trial. We assessed the progression in fasting insulin and glucose levels, and insulin resistance by genotypes. RESULTS During the 6-month weight-loss phase, the PCSK7 rs236918 G allele was significantly associated with greater decreases in fasting insulin levels in the high–dietary CHO group (P for interaction = 0.04), while the interaction for changes in HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P for interaction = 0.06) did not reach significant levels in white subjects. The G allele was significantly associated with a greater decrease in fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in response to high dietary CHO levels (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). From 6 months to 2 years (weight-regain phase), the interactions became attenuated due to the regaining of weight (P for interactions = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). In addition, we observed similar and even stronger results in the whole-study samples from the trial. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that PCSK7 genotypes may interact with dietary CHO intake on changes in insulin sensitivity in the white Americans. PMID:25504030

  15. Adalimumab effectiveness for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis is maintained for up to 2 years: long-term results from the ATLAS trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, D; Schiff, M H; Sieper, J; Kivitz, A J; Wong, R L; Kupper, H; Dijkmans, B A C; Mease, P J; Davis, J C

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the long-term effect of adalimumab on patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who participated in the Adalimumab Trial Evaluating Long-Term Efficacy and Safety in AS (ATLAS), a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, 24-week trial. Methods: Patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week (eow) or placebo for 24 weeks in ATLAS. At week 24, patients were switched to open-label adalimumab 40 mg eow. Efficacy measures included 20% improvement in the Assessment in SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria (ASAS20), ASAS40 and ASAS partial remission responses and changes in individual components of the ASAS20 response evaluations, for example, Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Two-year interim data were analysed based on the total duration of adalimumab exposure, irrespective of the treatment randomisation group. Results: At 2 years, 255 (82.0%) of the original 311 ATLAS patients continued receiving adalimumab treatment. Improvements in ASAS responses observed in ATLAS were sustained during long-term treatment; 64.5% (200/310) were ASAS20 responders, 50.6% (157/310) were ASAS40 responders and 33.5% (104/310) had maintained ASAS-defined partial remission. Changes in individual ASAS response components were sustained or improved during long-term adalimumab treatment. From ATLAS baseline to 2 years of adalimumab exposure, respectively, BASDAI improved from 6.3 (SD 1.7) to 2.4 (SD 2.3) and BASFI improved from 5.2 (SD 2.4) to 2.9 (SD 2.5). Adalimumab was well tolerated. No cases of tuberculosis, congestive heart failure, lupus-like symptoms, or demyelinating disease were reported. Conclusions: Adalimumab reduced the signs and symptoms of AS and induced partial remission for up to 2 years. The long-term safety profile was similar to the short-term safety profile. Trial registration information: NCT00085644 PMID:18701556

  16. Neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism modifies effects of a weight-loss diet on 2-year changes of blood pressure: the preventing overweight using novel dietary strategies trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2012-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is implicated in the regulation of blood pressure (BP), and NPY pathways in the hypothalamus are sensitive to dietary fat. We evaluated the potential effect of a functional variant rs16147 located in the NPY gene promoter region on the association between 2-year diet intervention and change in multiple BP measures in the randomized Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies Trial. The NPY rs16147 was genotyped in 723 obese adults who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets differing in the target percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrate. The changes of 4 BP phenotypes, including systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure, during 2-year diet intervention were analyzed. In the total participants and participants with hypertension, we observed significant and consistent interactions between rs16147 genotype and dietary fat intake on changes in multiple BP phenotypes at 2 years (all P for interactions <0.05). The risk allele (C allele) was associated with a greater reduction of BP phenotypes in response to low-fat diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed in response to high-fat diet. In addition, the C allele was related to greater changes in 4 BP phenotypes in hypertensive compared with nonhypertensive participants. Our data suggest that NPY rs16147 may modulate the association between dietary fat intake and changes in BP phenotypes, and the C allele exerts a long-term beneficial effect on lowering BP in response to low-fat diet in obese and hypertensive subjects.

  17. Effectiveness Trial of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Adolescent Depression Prevention Program versus Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the longterm effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) adolescent depression indicated prevention program through 2-year follow-up, relative to CB bibliotherapy and brochure control, when high school personnel recruited students and delivered the program. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms who were randomized to CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control were assessed at pre, post, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results By 2 years post-intervention, CB group participants showed significantly lower major depressive disorder (MDD) onset versus CB bibliotherapy (10% vs. 25%, respectively; HR = 2.48, p = .006), but the incidence difference relative to brochure controls (17%) was nonsignificant; MDD incidence for bibliotherapy and brochure controls did not differ. Although CB group participants showed lower depressive symptoms at post versus brochure controls, there were no effects for this outcome or for social adjustment or substance use over 2-year follow-up. Moderator analyses suggested that participants with higher baseline depressive symptoms showed greater longterm symptom reductions in the CB group intervention versus bibliotherapy. Conclusions The evidence that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset versus CB bibliotherapy is potentially encouraging. However, the lack of MDD prevention effects relative to brochure control and lack of longterm symptom effects (though consistent with results from other depression prevention trials), suggest that the delivery of CB group should be refined to strengthen its effectiveness. PMID:25894666

  18. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Mengmeng; Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  19. Distortion, interaction, and conceptual DFT perspectives of MO4-alkene (M = Os, Re, Tc, Mn) cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H

    2009-02-20

    The reaction pathways (including the transition states) of ethylene addition to osmium tetroxide (OsO(4), and amine ligated), rhenate (ReO(4)(-)), technetate (TcO(4)(-)), and permanganate (MnO(4)(-)) have been studied by qualitative and quantitative analyses. Distortion/interaction and absolutely localized energy decomposition analyses provide new insights into why the (3 + 2) pathway is highly preferred over the (2 + 2) pathway, the origin of rate enhancement from ligated base, and reactivity differences between OsO(4), ReO(4)(-), TcO(4)(-), and MnO(4)(-). The (2 + 2) transition state has a much larger barrier than the (3 + 2) transition state because (1) the Os-O bond is stretched significantly resulting in a larger distortion energy (DeltaE(d)(double dagger)) value and (2) the transition state interaction energy (DeltaE(i)(double dagger)) is destabilizing due to large exchange repulsions overwhelming stabilizing charge-transfer terms. Base ligation lowers osmium tetroxide and ethylene distortion energies due to the ground-state O-Os-O angle being predistorted from 110 degrees to 103 degrees. Because MO(4) distortion energies are comparable, reactivity differences between OsO(4), ReO(4)(-), TcO(4)(-), and MnO(4)(-) is shown to be a function of ethylene to MO(4) charge-transfer. This interaction also dictates the position of the transition state along the reaction coordinate and corresponds to the onset of a stabilizing DeltaE(i)(double dagger) value. The conceptual DFT hardness profile and hardness response show that the (3 + 2) reaction pathway may be classified as an "allowed" pathway while the (2 + 2) reaction coordinate is best designated as "forbidden".

  20. Symptomatic stroke complicating central skull base osteomyelitis following otitis media in a 2-year old boy: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kilich, Eliz; Dwivedi, Reena; Segal, Shelley; Jayawant, Sandeep; Sadarangani, Manish

    2016-10-01

    We describe the youngest case to date of a 2 year old child who developed central skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) initially presenting with a fever, vomiting and sore throat. An extremely rare complication of mastoiditis following otitis media in children is SBO which can present with non-specific symptoms. This report describes the first case of symptomatic ischaemic stroke secondary to SBO in an immunocompetent child. We review the literature of the management and the potential cerebrovascular complications of central SBO in children secondary to otolaryngological infection.

  1. Vitamin D metabolism-related genetic variants, dietary protein intake and improvement of insulin resistance in a 2 year weight-loss trial: POUNDS Lost

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Vitamin D and related genetic variants are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We aimed to examine whether vitamin D metabolism-related variants affect changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient content. Methods Three vitamin D metabolism-related variants, DHCR7 rs12785878, CYP2R1 rs10741657 and GC rs2282679, were genotyped in 732 overweight/obese participants from a 2 year weight-loss trial (POUNDS Lost). We assessed genotype effects on changes in body weight, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, and HOMA-IR at 6 months (up to 656 participants) and 2 years (up to 596 participants) in response to low-protein vs high-protein diets, and low-fat vs high-fat diets. Results We found significant interactions between DHCR7 rs12785878 and diets varying in protein, but not in fat, on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR at both 6 months (p for interaction <0.001) and 2 years (p for interaction ≤0.03). The T allele (vitamin-D-increasing allele) of DHCR7 rs12785878 was associated with greater decreases in insulin and HOMA-IR (p<0.002) in response to high-protein diets, while there was no significant genotype effect on changes in these traits in the low-protein diet group. Generalised estimating equation analyses indicated significant genotype effects on trajectory of changes in insulin resistance over the 2 year intervention in response to high-protein diets (p<0.001). We did not observe significant interaction between the other two variants and dietary protein or fat on changes in these traits. Conclusions/interpretation Our data suggest that individuals carrying the T allele of DHCR7 rs12785878 might benefit more in improvement of insulin resistance than noncarriers by consuming high-protein weight-loss diets. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00072995 PMID:26416604

  2. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: biofilm control and surgical therapy with gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser-A 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Costa, Soraya Carvalho; Baeder, Fernando; de Souza Merli, Luiz Antonio; Dos Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced gingival enlargement has been reported in patients treated with various types of anticonvulsant drugs, and is generally associated with the presence of plaque, gingival inflammation, and a genetic predisposition. Effective treatment includes daily oral hygiene and periodic professional prophylaxis. However, in some patients, surgical removal of the gingival tissue overgrowth becomes necessary. The patient in this case report was mentally impaired and had severe drug-induced gingival enlargement. This report describes the initial protocol, the gingivectomy, and a 2-year follow-up. A diode laser was used as an effective and safe method to remove the patient's overgrown gingival tissue.

  3. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 1- and 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Subjects and Methods The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Results We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0

  4. Pathology Working Group review and evaluation of proliferative lesions of mammary gland tissues in female rats fed ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in the diet for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Jerry F; Willson, Gabrielle A; Brown, W Ray; McConnell, Ernest E; Frame, Steven R; Gaylor, David W; Kennedy, Gerald L; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) is a perfluorinated carboxylate that is widely distributed in the environment. A 2-year chronic study was conducted in rats fed either 30 or 300 ppm of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). To investigate the possible relationship of APFO exposure to proliferative mammary lesions, a Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of the original slides was performed. The consensus reached by the PWG was that the incidence of mammary-gland neoplasms was not affected by chronic dietary administration of APFO. Therefore, feeding female rats up to 300 ppm of APFO resulted in no increase in proliferative lesions of the mammary tissue.

  5. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  6. Architecture of the Pruned Tree: Impact of Contrasted Pruning Procedures Over 2 Years on Shoot Demography and Spatial Distribution of Leaf Area in Apple (Malus domestica)

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Jean; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Dones, Nicolas; Haddad, Nicolas; Talhouk, Salma; Sinoquet, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Demography and spatial distribution of shoots are rarely studied on pruned trees. The present 2-year study deals with the effect of pruning strategies on shoot demography and development, and consequences on the spatial distribution of leaf area in three architecturally contrasted — from type II to IV — apple cultivars: ‘Scarletspur Delicious’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Granny Smith’. Methods All trees were initially subjected during 5 years to Central Leader training with winter heading on all long shoots. For 2 years, half of the trees were further trained with Centrifugal training, where removal of flowering shoots — called extinction pruning — was carried out along the trunk and at the bottom of branches at flowering time. During these 2 years, shoot type (vegetative, inflorescence) and length, and the three-dimensional spatial distribution of all shoots were assessed with an electromagnetic digitizer. Key Results Shoot demography, frequency of transitions toward an inflorescence from either an inflorescence (bourse-over-bourse) or a vegetative shoot (trend toward flowering), and the number of bourse-shoots per bourse were strongly affected by cultivar, with little influence of tree manipulation. In contrast, the proportion of vegetative long shoots developing from previous year latent buds was significantly lower in Centrifugal-trained trees for the three cultivars. Canopy volume showed large variations between cultivars, but only that of ‘Granny Smith’ was affected by tree manipulation in the 2 years. Spatial distribution of shoots varied significantly according to cultivar and manipulation. In ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ and, to a lesser extent ‘Golden Delicious’, the distribution of vegetative and flowering shoots in the outer and the inner parts, respectively, was not affected by tree manipulation. In contrast, in ‘Granny Smith’, vegetative shoots were stimulated in the periphery of Central Leader trees

  7. Long-term outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year follow-up considering features of injury mechanism and somatic, radiologic, and psychosocial findings.

    PubMed

    Radanov, B P; Sturzenegger, M; Di Stefano, G

    1995-09-01

    With the increased incidence of whiplash injury following the introduction of compulsory car seat belts, a large number of reports have dealt with the aftermath of this condition. Previous studies, however, focused on somatic symptoms on the one hand or considered only psychological or neuropsychological variables on the other hand, often in loosely defined or selected groups of patients. No study so far has analyzed the long-term outcome in a nonselected group of patients using a clear injury definition considering patient history; somatic, radiologic, and neuropsychological findings; and features of the injury mechanisms assessed soon after trauma and during follow-up. the present investigation was designed to assess these combined factors. According to a strict definition of whiplash injury, we assessed a consecutive nonselected sample of 117 patients with recent injury who had similar sociocultural and educational backgrounds. The patients had been in automobile crashes and were all equally covered by accident insurance according to the country-wide scheme. Initial examination was performed 7.2 +/- 4.2 days after trauma, and follow-up examinations 3, 6, 12, and 24 months later. At baseline, features of injury mechanism, subjective complaints, and different aspects of patient history were documented and cervical spine X rays performed. At all examinations patients underwent neurologic examination and cognitive and psychosocial factor assessment. At 2 years, patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups and then compared with regard to the initial findings. In addition, symptomatic patients who were disabled at the 2-year follow-up examination and symptomatic patients not disabled (that is, they were able to work at the pretraumatic level) were compared regarding initial and 2-year findings. At 2 years, 18% of patients still had injury-related symptoms. With regard to baseline findings the following significant differences were found: Symptomatic

  8. B11 NMR in the layered diborides OsB2 and RuB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, B. J.; Zong, X.; Singh, Y.; Niazi, A.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-10-01

    B11 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed on B11 enriched OsB2 and RuB2 polycrystalline powder samples in an external field of 4.7T and in the temperature range, 4.2Krate T1-1 follows a Korringa law in the whole temperature range investigated with T1T=600 and 680sK for OsB2 and RuB2 , respectively. The experimental results indicate that a p character dominates the conduction electron wave function at the B site with a negligibly small s character in both compounds.

  9. Sources of osmium to the modern oceans: New evidence from the 190Pt-186Os system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, D.K.; Walker, R.J.; Hemming, S.R.; Horan, M.F.; Becker, H.; Grauch, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    High precision Os isotope analysis of young marine manganese nodules indicate that whereas the composition of modern seawater is radiogenic with respect to 187Os/188Os, it has 186Os/188Os that is within uncertainty of the chondritic value. Marine Mn nodule compositions thus indicate that the average continental source of Os to modern seawater had long-term high Re/Os compared to Pt/Os. Analyses of loess and freshwater Mn nodules support existing evidence that average upper continental crust (UCC) has resolvably suprachondritic 186Os/188Os, as well as radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Modeling the composition of seawater as a two-component mixture of oceanic/cosmic Os with chondritic Os compositions and continentally-derived Os demonstrates that, insofar as estimates for the composition of average UCC are accurate, congruently weathered average UCC cannot be the sole continental source of Os to seawater. Our analysis of four Cambrian black shales confirm that organic-rich sediments can have 187Os/188Os ratios that are much higher than average UCC, but 186Os/188Os compositions that are generally between those of chondrites and average-UCC. Preferential weathering of black shales can result in dissolved Os discharged to the ocean basins that has a much lower 186Os/188Os than does average upper crust. Modeling the available data demonstrates that augmentation of estimated average UCC compositions with less than 0.1% additional black shale and 1.4% additional ultramafic rock can produce a continental end-member Os isotopic composition that satisfies the requirements imposed by the marine Mn nodule data. The interplay of these two sources provides a mechanism by which the 187Os/188Os of seawater can change as sources and weathering conditions change, yet seawater 186Os/188Os varies only minimally. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. Research on Separation of Three Powers Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Xin, Siyuan

    The privilege in the operating system (OS) often results in the break of confidentiality and integrity of the system. To solve this problem, several security mechanisms are proposed, such as Role-based Access Control, Separation of Duty. However, these mechanisms can not eliminate the privilege in OS kernel layer. This paper proposes a Separation of Three Powers Architecture (STPA). The authorizations in OS are divided into three parts: System Management Subsystem (SMS), Security Management Subsystem (SEMS) and Audit Subsystem (AS). Mutual support and mutual checks and balances which are the design principles of STPA eliminate the administrator in the kernel layer. Furthermore, the paper gives the formal description for authorization division using the graph theory. Finally, the implementation of STPA is given. Proved by experiments, the Separation of Three Powers Architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through authorization division.

  12. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  13. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Daas, M.; Assaf, A.; Dada, K.; Makzoumé, J.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  14. Prevalence of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium found in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Greiner, Ellis

    2006-01-30

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 1-2-year-old heifers was determined for 571 animals on 14 dairy farms in seven states on the East Coast of the United States. A fecal specimen collected directly from each heifer was processed to concentrate oocysts that were then examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For every PCR-positive specimen the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium was sequenced. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR from heifers on 13 of 14 farms. On all except four farms groups of heifers were housed in a barn or in large covered pens. Others were pastured. From many of the same farms an earlier study reported that 41% of 393 pre-weaned calves and 26.2% of 447 post-weaned calves were infected. In the present study, 11.9% of 571 heifers were infected with Cryptosporidium, 0.7% with Cryptosporidium parvum, the zoonotic species. Of 68 PCR-positive specimens characterized by gene sequencing 1, 4, 10, 24, and 29 calves were infected with Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype, Cryptosporidium bovis, and Cryptosporidium andersoni, respectively. These findings demonstrate a lower prevalence of infection in 1-2-year-old dairy cattle than in younger cattle as well as a change in the diversity of species present. Consequently, the risk of humans acquiring infection with C. parvum from exposure to feces from yearling and older cattle appears much lower than from exposure to pre-weaned calves.

  15. Magnitude and Variability of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Response in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes up to 2 Years Following Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Van der Schueren, Bart J.; Homel, Peter; Alam, Mariam; Agenor, Keesandra; Wang, Gary; Reilly, David; Laferrère, Blandine

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the magnitude and variance of the change of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations, and to identify determinants of glucose control up to 2 years after gastric bypass (GBP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Glucose and GLP-1 concentrations were measured during an oral glucose challenge before and 1, 12, and 24 months after GBP in 15 severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Glucose area under the curve from 0 to 180 min (AUC0–180) started decreasing in magnitude (P < 0.05) 1 month after surgery. GLP-1 AUC0–180 increased in magnitude 1 month after GBP (P < 0.05), with increased variance only after 1 year (Pσ2 ≤ 0.001). GLP-1 AUC0–180 was positively associated with insulin AUC0–180 (P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS The increase in variance of GLP-1 at 1 and 2 years after GBP suggests mechanisms other than proximal gut bypass to explain the enhancement of GLP-1 secretion. The association between GLP-1 and insulin concentrations supports the idea that the incretins are involved in glucose control after GBP. PMID:22124715

  16. Outcome and structural integrity of rotator cuff after arthroscopic treatment of large and massive tears with double row technique: a 2-year followup.

    PubMed

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity.

  17. Outcome and Structural Integrity of Rotator Cuff after Arthroscopic Treatment of Large and Massive Tears with Double Row Technique: A 2-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Carbonel, Ignacio; Martínez, Angel A.; Aldea, Elisa; Ripalda, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the tendon healing after arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair of large and massive rotator cuff tears. Methods. 82 patients with a full-thickness large and massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic repair with double row technique. Results were evaluated by use of the UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires, the Shoulder Strength Index (SSI), and range of motion. Follow-up time was 2 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on each shoulder preoperatively and 2 years after repair. Results. 100% of the patients were followed up. UCLA, ASES, and Constant questionnaires showed significant improvement compared with preoperatively (P < 0.001). Range of motion and SSI in flexion, abduction, and internal and external rotation also showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). MRI studies showed 24 cases of tear after repair (29%). Only 8 cases were a full-thickness tear. Conclusions. At two years of followup, in large and massive rotator cuff tears, an arthroscopic double row rotator cuff repair technique produces an excellent functional outcome and structural integrity. PMID:23533788

  18. Serum Levels of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase 2 in Patients With Systemic Sclerosis With Duration More Than 2 Years: Correlation With Cardiac and Pulmonary Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Amira; Elsawaf, Amani; Ramadan, Shahira; Shaker, Olfat; Amin, Mona; Taha, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measured the serum concentration of TIMP-2 in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and explored its possible correlation with cardiac and pulmonary lesions. We studied 42 patients with SSc, with duration equal to or more than 2 years. CT chest, ECG, echocardiography, and serum TIMP-2 concentration measurement using ELISA technique were performed in all patients and in 25 normal controls. The mean serum levels of TIMP-2 in patients was higher than in controls (P = .005). The mean CT score of dSSc patients with elevated TIMP-2 levels was significantly higher than dSSc patients with normal levels (P = .013). Four patients out of five with elevated TIMP-2 levels showed diastolic dysfunction (80%), compared to 2 out of 15 lSSc patients with normal levels (13.3%), with P = .014. Our research, though involving a small group of patients, points to the probable role of TIMP-2 in the development of pulmonary lesions in dSSc patients and cardiac lesions in lSSc patients with duration equal to or more than 2 years. PMID:17392585

  19. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  20. Carotenoderma in a young woman of normal body mass index with hypothalamic amenorrhoea: a 2-year follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Nyekiova, M; Ghaderi, S; Han, T S

    2014-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhoea has been shown to be associated with hypercarotenaemia, but no causal link has been established. Many people are unaware of the health implications of carotenoderma. We report on a 36-year-old woman with normal body mass index and with a history of secondary amenorrhoea for 2 years and carotenoderma for 5 years. She had a history of practising a fixed-menu diet of predominantly leafy greens, exercised intensively and had a stressful job. Blood tests confirmed the presence of hypercarotenaemia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Carotenoderma subsided after 6 months of lifestyle modification, but she remained amenorrhoeic up to 12 months later. Since then, her condition had relapsed up to the time of 2 years of follow-up. We conclude that hypercarotenaemia/carotenoderma and hypothalamic amenorrhoea are manifestations of a constrained lifestyle rather than causally linked. The presence of carotenoderma should alert public individuals and clinicians, especially in primary care, alike for signs of potential health complications including reproductive dysfunction even without weight problems.

  1. Altered functional connectivity in the brain default-mode network of earthquake survivors persists after 2 years despite recovery from anxiety symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ming-Ying; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Fei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jing; Chen, Hua-Fu; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Although acute impact of traumatic experiences on brain function in disaster survivors is similar to that observed in post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), little is known about the long-term impact of this experience. We have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate resting-state functional connectivity and gray and white matter (WM) changes occurring in the brains of healthy Wenchuan earthquake survivors both 3 weeks and 2 years after the disaster. Results show that while functional connectivity changes 3 weeks after the disaster involved both frontal–limbic–striatal and default-mode networks (DMN), at the 2-year follow-up only changes in the latter persisted, despite complete recovery from high initial levels of anxiety. No gray or WM volume changes were found at either time point. Taken together, our findings provide important new evidence that while altered functional connectivity in the frontal–limbic–striatal network may underlie the post-trauma anxiety experienced by survivors, parallel changes in the DMN persist despite the apparent absence of anxiety symptoms. This suggests that long-term changes occur in neural networks involved in core aspects of self-processing, cognitive and emotional functioning in disaster survivors which are independent of anxiety symptoms and which may also confer increased risk of subsequent development of PTSD. PMID:25862672

  2. How the neck affects the back: changes in regional cervical sagittal alignment correlate to HRQOL improvement in adult thoracolumbar deformity patients at 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Scheer, Justin K; Terran, Jamie S; Smith, Justin S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Greg M; Hart, Robert A; McCarthy, Ian M; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Regional cervical sagittal alignment (C2-7 sagittal vertical axis [SVA]) has been shown to correlate with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The study objective was to examine the relationship between cervical and thoracolumbar alignment parameters with HRQOL among patients with operative and nonoperative adult thoracolumbar deformity. METHODS This is a multicenter prospective data collection of consecutive patients with adult thoracolumbar spinal deformity. Clinical measures of disability included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society-22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22), and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Cervical radiographic parameters were correlated with global sagittal parameters within the nonoperative and operative cohorts. A partial correlation analysis was performed controlling for C-7 SVA. The operative group was subanalyzed by the magnitude of global deformity (C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm vs < 5 cm). RESULTS A total of 318 patients were included (186 operative and 132 nonoperative). The mean age was 55.4 ± 14.9 years. Operative patients had significantly worse baseline HRQOL and significantly larger C-7 SVA, pelvic tilt (PT), mismatch between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), and C2-7 SVA. The operative patients with baseline C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm had significantly larger C2-7 lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, C-7 SVA, PI-LL, and PT than patients with a normal C-7 SVA. For all patients, baseline C2-7 SVA and CL significantly correlated with baseline ODI, Physical Component Summary (PCS), SRS Activity domain, and SRS Appearance domain. Baseline C2-7 SVA also correlated with SRS Pain and SRS Total. For the operative patients with baseline C-7 SVA ≥ 5 cm, the 2-year C2-7 SVA significantly correlated with 2-year Mental Component Summary, SRS Mental, SRS Satisfaction, and decreases in ODI. Decreases in C2-7 SVA at 2 years significantly correlated with lower ODI at 2 years. Using partial correlations while controlling for

  3. On-surface reaction of tetraphenylporphyrins with Os3(CO)12 precursors and Os clusters: A scanning tunnelling microscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sağlam, Özge; Yetik, Görsel; Reichert, Joachim; Barth, Johannes V.; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.

    2016-04-01

    The ability of porphyrin molecules to incorporate metal atoms into the cavity of the macrocycle is the primary factor that enables the plethora of their applications. The fabrication and characterisation of surface confined metal-organic architectures by employing porphyrins promise unique technical applications in the field of nanotechnology. Here we report on the efforts to use triosmium dodecacarbonyl as a metal precursor for the on-surface Os functionalisation of porphyrins under ultra-high vacuum conditions. We address the effects of the temperature treatment of mixtures of tetraphenylporphyrins and the Os precursor molecules, which can decompose to yield Os clusters, on Ag(111) via scanning tunnelling microscopy, a technique that provides real-space visualisation of the reaction products formed. It is shown that free base porphyrins can be metallated to osmium porphyrins. Furthermore the presence of Os on the Ag(111) surface catalyses intramolecular cyclodehydrogenations in tetraphenylporphyrins, as well as intermolecular tetraphenylporphyrin polymerisation.

  4. Rice Stress Associated Protein 1 (OsSAP1) Interacts with Aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and Pathogenesis-Related 1a Protein (OsSCP) and Regulates Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Kamakshi S.; Dansana, Prasant K.; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated proteins (SAPs) are the A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing proteins which can regulate the stress signaling in plants. The rice SAP protein, OsSAP1 has been shown to confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants, when overexpressed, by modulating the expression of endogenous stress-related genes. To further understand the mechanism of OsSAP1-mediated stress signaling, OsSAP1 interacting proteins were identified using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Two novel proteins, aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and a SCP/TAPS or pathogenesis-related 1 class of protein (OsSCP) were found to interact with OsSAP1. The genes encoding OsAMTR1 and OsSCP were stress-responsive and showed higher expression upon abiotic stress treatments. The role of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP under stress was analyzed by overexpressing them constitutively in Arabidopsis and responses of transgenic plants were assessed under salt and water-deficit stress. The OsAMTR1 and OsSCP overexpressing plants showed higher seed germination, root growth and fresh weight than wild-type plants under stress conditions. Overexpression of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP affected the expression of many known stress-responsive genes which were not affected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Moreover, the transcript levels of OsSCP and OsAMTR1 were also unaffected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Hence, it was concluded that OsSAP1 regulates the stress responsive signaling by interacting with these proteins which further regulate the downstream stress responsive gene expression. PMID:27486471

  5. New Applications of the Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 Isotope Systems to the Study of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. L.; Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 isotope systems are applied to dating evolved iron meteorites. The Re-Os systematics of some evolved irons may indicate late stage system closure. This conclusion appears to be supported by a "young" Pt-Os isochron age.

  6. 4-Coumarate-CoA Ligase-Like Gene OsAAE3 Negatively Mediates the Rice Blast Resistance, Floret Development and Lignin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Guo, Zhenhua; Gu, Fengwei; Ke, Shanwen; Sun, Dayuan; Dong, Shuangyu; Liu, Wei; Huang, Ming; Xiao, Wuming; Yang, Guili; Liu, Yongzhu; Guo, Tao; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jiafeng; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Although adenosine monophosphate (AMP) binding domain is widely distributed in multiple plant species, detailed molecular functions of AMP binding proteins (AMPBPs) in plant development and plant-pathogen interaction remain unclear. In the present study, we identified an AMPBP OsAAE3 from a previous analysis of early responsive genes in rice during Magnaporthe oryzae infection. OsAAE3 is a homolog of Arabidopsis AAE3 in rice, which encodes a 4-coumarate-Co-A ligase (4CL) like protein. A phylogenetic analysis showed that OsAAE3 was most likely 4CL-like 10 in an independent group. OsAAE3 was localized to cytoplasm, and it could be expressed in various tissues. Histochemical staining of transgenic plants carrying OsAAE3 promoter-driven GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter gene suggested that OsAAE3 was expressed in all tissues of rice. Furthermore, OsAAE3-OX plants showed increased susceptibility to M. Oryzae, and this finding was attributable to decreased expression of pathogen-related 1a (PR1) and low level of peroxidase (POD) activity. Moreover, OsAAE3 over-expression resulted in increased content of H2O2, leading to programmed cell-death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, OsAAE3 over-expression repressed the floret development, exhibiting dramatically twisted glume and decreased fertility rate of anther. Meanwhile, the expressions of lignin biosynthesis genes were significantly decreased in OsAAE3-OX plants, thereby leading to reduced lignin content. Taken together, OsAAE3 functioned as a negative regulator in rice blast resistance, floret development, and lignin biosynthesis. Our findings further expanded the knowledge in functions of AMBPs in plant floret development and the regulation of rice-fungus interaction. PMID:28119718

  7. Comment on "Behavior of Re and Os during contact between an aqueous solution and oil: Consequences for the application of the Re-Os geochronometer to petroleum" [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 158 (2015) 1-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-ce

    2016-08-01

    In a recent study, Mahdaoui et al. (2015) simulated the contact of oil with Re/Os-bearing aqueous fluids in petroleum reservoirs and concluded that both metals could be rapidly and substantially enriched in the oil fraction. These findings could have significant geological ramifications for the use of rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in the age-dating of oil deposits. However, the lack of data reproducibility between parallel experiments and misused parameter of "recovery rate" has cast doubt on the main conclusions of the paper. Re-analyses of the raw data provided sufficient evidence to suggest that in petroleum basins with very low abundances of Re and Os, the extraction of these metals to oil is unlikely to be a geologically instantaneous process as the authors implied in their study. In addition, the possibility of reactor leakage in the contacting experiments cannot be completely ruled out.

  8. Posterolateral instrumented fusion with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis: A randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Hadi, Abdollah; Masouleh, Mehran Feizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spondylolisthesis is a common cause of surgery in patients with lower back pain. Although posterolateral fusion and pedicle screw fixation are a relatively common treatment method for the treatment of spondylolisthesis, controversy exists about the necessity of adding interbody fusion to posterolateral fusion. The aim of our study was to assess the functional disability, pain, and complications in patients with spondylolisthesis treated by posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) with and without transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) in a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: From February 2007 to February 2011, 50 adult patients with spondylolisthesis were randomly assigned to be treated with PLF or PLF+TLIF techniques (25 patients in each group) by a single surgeon. Back pain, leg pain, and disability were assessed before treatment and until 2 years after surgical treatment using visual analog scale (VAS) and oswestry disability index (ODI). Patients were also evaluated for postoperative complications such as infection, neurological complications, and instrument failure. Results: All patients completed the 24 months of follow-up. Twenty patients were females and 30 were males. Average age of the patients was 53 ± 11 years for the PLF group and 51 ± 13 for the PLF + TLIF group. Back pain, leg pain, and disability score were significantly improved postoperatively compared to preoperative scores (P < 0.001). At 3 months of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in VAS score for back pain and leg pain in both groups; however, after 6 months and 1 year and 2 years follow-up, the reported scores for back pain and leg pain were significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group (P < 0.05). The ODI score was also significantly lower in the PLF+TLIF group at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up (P < 0.05). One screw breakage and one superficial infection occurred in the PLF+TLIF group, which had no statistical significance (P = 0