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Sample records for 2-year period results

  1. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  2. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  3. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  4. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  5. Translating theory into practice: results of a 2-year trial for the LEAD programme.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents data for 2 years of a continuing study aimed to reduce the risk of first-time involvement by minority youth with the juvenile justice system. A quasi-experimental design was used to test a 14-week expressive art curriculum (LEAD: leadership, education, achievement and development) implemented in two rural communities. A total of 70 African American youth participated in the programme over a 2-year period. Pre- and post-test differences were examined for protective factors, behavioural self-control, self-esteem and resilience measures. When compared with the after-school programme (control group), youth in the LEAD programme in both communities had more dramatic increases in post-test scores following the intervention. The combined data from year 1 and year 2 provide positive findings in support of LEAD as a prevention programme for young offenders. The placement of the programme within an African American church in year 2 improved the processes of the LEAD programme and seemed to provide a better fit with the original design of the programme, highlighting the importance of the context, in which the programme was provided. PMID:18387150

  6. Natrelle 410 Extra-Full Projection Silicone Breast Implants: 2-Year Results from Two Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Patricia; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety and effectiveness of the Natrelle Style 410 highly cohesive silicone gel breast implant (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) in full or moderate height and projection have been shown in a 10-year study. Extra-full projection implants may be an appropriate option for some women undergoing breast reconstruction. Methods: A total of 2795 women received at least one Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant (X-style) for breast reconstruction in two similarly designed, prospective, multicenter studies. Data collected for 2 years after implantation in these studies were pooled to evaluate complication rates and subject and physician satisfaction. Results: Most subjects (76.0 percent) underwent bilateral reconstruction; a total of 4912 devices were implanted. Complication rates at 2 years were low. The most common complications were asymmetry (4.8 percent) and capsular contracture (3.3 percent). The cumulative risk of reoperation was 21.6 percent by subject and 16.6 percent by device; the most common reasons for reoperation were scarring (n = 97), asymmetry (n = 89), implant malposition (n = 78), and infection (n = 71). Subject and physician satisfaction rates exceeded 90 percent. At 2 years, 97 percent of physicians reported that the shape of the breast reflected the shape of the implant, and that the breast implant had maintained its original position. Conclusions: The safety profile of the Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant mirrors that of its moderate projection and full projection counterparts. Both physicians and subjects were highly satisfied with the implants 2 years after surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:26090764

  7. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP. PMID:25726022

  8. Double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty for proboscoid umbilical hernia in a 2 years old child with satisfactory results 2 years later

    PubMed Central

    Ashu, Eseme Ebai; Leroy, Guifo Marc; Aristide, Bang Guy; Joss, Bitang Mafok Louis; Bonaventure, Jemea; Patrick, Savom Eric; Myriam, Fotso Guegne

    2015-01-01

    Surgical repair of large umbilical hernias may present a challenging surgical problem; standard surgical techniques have proven to be inadequate for both closing the fascial defect of the umbilicus and providing a satisfactory cosmetic result. We describe here a case of double half-cone flap umbilicoplasty that was performed in a 2 years old boy. The case of a 2 years old child with proboscoid umbilical hernia. The protruding umbilical skin was excised sharply by two V-shaped cuts leaving two half cones, a short cephalic (0.5cm) and a long caudal (1cm). A classic herniotomy was carried out, with repair of the facial defect. The caudal half cone was sutured from its apex till half it's length upon itself with interrupted sutures and it was anchored deeply to the fascia. Then we inverted the cephalic half cone which was sutured to the caudal cone to form the new umbilicus. The early result was excellent with no complications and the result after 2years revealed a cosmetically satisfactory shape of the umbilicus. this technique provides a good solution for reconstruction of the protruding umbilical skin and it is easy to learn, easy to be taught and perform in surgical environments and may be applicable for any kind of umbilical reconstruction. PMID:26664545

  9. 2-year outcomes in Initial survivors with Acute Liver failure: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie E.; Rangnekar, Amol; Reddy, K. Rajender; Stravitz, Todd; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Reuben, Adrian; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Ganger, Daniel R; Chung, Raymond T.; Schilsky, Mike; Han, Steven; Hynan, Linda S.; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known. AIMS The aim of the current study is to provide an overview of the 2 year clinical outcomes amongst initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrollment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). METHODS Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed. RESULTS 2-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (p < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the 3 groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (p< 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic =0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic=0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical co-morbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. PMID:25039930

  10. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    PubMed Central

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential. PMID:26644677

  11. Clinical and etiological characteristics of enterovirus 71-related diseases during a recent 2-year period in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byounghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2010-07-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV 71) has caused large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in the Asian-Pacific region. In this study, we report a major outbreak of EV 71 infection in Korea and describe the clinical differences between EV 71 and non-EV 71 enterovirus infections. We prospectively enrolled patients with suspected viral infections during a recent 2-year period through a nationwide surveillance system. We identified 719 patients with suspected HFMD or herpangina using real-time PCR and genotyping based on VP1 sequence analysis. The major pathogen causing HFMD changed substantially from 2008 to 2009, with EV 71 becoming the most common cause of HFMD in Korea in 2009. We successfully identified the enteroviral genotypes for 218 of the 719 patients. Patients with EV 71 infections tended to be younger than those with non-EV 71 enteroviral infections and presented with HFMD and meningoencephalitis. In addition, the occurrence of fever, headache, and neck stiffness was significantly higher in patients with EV 71 infections. Multivariable analysis showed that for patients presenting with HFMD, fever, or a sore throat, each covariate was independently associated with EV 71 infection; the adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) for these variables were 31.86 (10.04 to 101.09), 4.76 (1.71 to 13.25), and 0.18 (0.04 to 0.77), respectively. Our results indicate that EV 71 was a major cause of HFMD in Korea during the study period. In addition, we found that clinical symptoms may be helpful in the early identification of patients with EV 71 infections. PMID:20463159

  12. Comparison of wear and clinical performance between amalgam, composite and open sandwich restorations: 2-year results.

    PubMed

    Sachdeo, A; Gray, Gordon B; Sulieman, M A; Jagger, Daryll C

    2004-03-01

    There has been some disquiet over the use of mercury containing restorative materials. The most commonly used alternative is composite resin but this has the potential disadvantage associated with wear and marginal leakage, which in turn, has proven to result in secondary caries and sensitivity. To overcome the shortcomings of a directly placed composite restoration, the glass-ionomer/composite open sandwich technique was introduced followed by the subsequent introduction of compomer systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear and clinical performance of a control group of amalgam restorations compared with that of a group of posterior composite resin restorations fillings and a group of compomer/composite open sandwich restorations placed by a single general dental practitioner. The duration of the study was 2 years. One hundred and thirty three (71.4%) patients were successfully recalled and the wear and clinical performance of each restoration after 6, 12 and 24 months was measured, indirectly. There was no statistically significant difference recorded between the groups at 6 months or 1 year (p > 0.05). However, at the end of the 2-year study, there was a significantly lower rate of wear recorded for the control amalgam restorations compared with other two groups (p = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference in wear recorded between the two groups of tooth-coloured restorations (p > 0.05). With regards to clinical performance of the restorations, occlusal and proximal contacts in each group of restoration remained satisfactory throughout the study. PMID:15058177

  13. Peginterferon beta-1a in multiple sclerosis: 2-year results from ADVANCE

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey A; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron; Sheikh, Sarah I; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a over 2 years in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis in the ADVANCE study. Methods: Patients were randomized to placebo or 125 µg peginterferon beta-1a every 2 or 4 weeks. For Year 2 (Y2), patients originally randomized to placebo were re-randomized to peginterferon beta-1a every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. Patients randomized to peginterferon beta-1a in Year 1 (Y1) remained on the same dosing regimen in Y2. Results: Compared with Y1, annualized relapse rate (ARR) was further reduced in Y2 with every 2 week dosing (Y1: 0.230 [95% CI 0.183–0.291], Y2: 0.178 [0.136–0.233]) and maintained with every 4 week dosing (Y1: 0.286 [0.231–0.355], Y2: 0.291 [0.231–0.368]). Patients starting peginterferon beta-1a from Y1 displayed improved efficacy versus patients initially assigned placebo, with reductions in ARR (every 2 weeks: 37%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 17%, p=0.0906), risk of relapse (every 2 weeks: 39%, p<0.0001; every 4 weeks: 19%, p=0.0465), 12-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 33%, p=0.0257; every 4 weeks: 25%, p=0.0960), and 24-week disability progression (every 2 weeks: 41%, p=0.0137; every 4 weeks: 9%, p=0.6243). Over 2 years, greater reductions were observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing for all endpoints and peginterferon beta-1a was well tolerated. Conclusions: Peginterferon beta-1a efficacy is maintained beyond 1 year, with greater effects observed with every 2 week versus every 4 week dosing, and a similar safety profile to Y1. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT00906399. PMID:25432952

  14. Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: results at 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dadds, M R; Holland, D E; Laurens, K R; Mullins, M; Barrett, P M; Spence, S H

    1999-02-01

    The Queensland Early Intervention and Prevention of Anxiety Project evaluated a child- and family-focused group intervention for preventing anxiety problems in children. This article reports on 12- and 24-month follow-up data to previously reported outcomes at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 1,786 7- to 14-year-olds were screened for anxiety problems using teacher nominations and children's self-report. After diagnostic interviews, 128 children were selected and assigned to either a 10-week school-based child- and parent-focused psychosocial intervention or a monitoring group. Both groups showed improvements immediately at postintervention and at 6-month follow-up; the improvement was maintained in the intervention group only reducing the rate of existing anxiety disorder and preventing the onset of new anxiety disorders. At 12 months, the groups converged, but the superiority of the intervention group was evident again at 2-year follow-up. Severity of pretreatment diagnoses, gender, and parental anxiety predicted poor initial response to intervention, whereas pretreatment severity was the only predictor of chronicity at 24 months. Overall, follow-up results show that a brief school-based intervention for children can produce durable reductions in anxiety problems. PMID:10028219

  15. Typing of Clinical Mycobacterium avium Complex Strains Cultured during a 2-Year Period in Denmark by Using IS1245

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe; Giese, Sten B.; Larsen, Birger

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potential routes of transmission of these microorganisms. As a first step, the genetic diversity among isolates from AIDS patients and non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was described. In addition, a number of isolates from nonhuman sources cultured during the same period were analyzed and compared to the human isolates. A total of 203 isolates from AIDS patients (n = 90), non-HIV-infected patients (n = 91), and nonhuman sources (n = 22) were analyzed. The presence of IS1245 was restricted to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates. The majority of human isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while nonhuman isolates could be divided into a high-copy-number group and a low-copy-number group. Groups of identical strains were found to be geographically widespread, comprising strains from AIDS patients as well as strains from non-HIV-infected patients. Samples of peat (to be used as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M. avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans. PMID:9986819

  16. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%–47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1–2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. Methods This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM−CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM−CWP− (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Results Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM−CWP− and nine became FM−CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM−CWP− and eight from FM−CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. Conclusion The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience

  17. New vertebral fractures after vertebroplasty: 2 year results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Staples, MP; Howe, BM; Ringler, MD; Mitchell, P; Wriedt, CHR; Wark, JD; Ebeling, PR; Osborne, RH; Kallmes, DF; Buchbinder, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of vertebroplasty (VP) on the risk of further radiologically apparent vertebral fracture within two years of the procedure. Methods We conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of VP in people with acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to VP (n=38) or placebo (n=40). Cement volume and leakage were recorded for the VP group. Plain thoracolumbar radiographs were taken at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Two independent radiologists assessed these for new and progressed fractures at the same, adjacent and non-adjacent levels. Results At 12 and 24 months, radiographs were available for 45 (58%) and 47 (60%) participants respectively. There were no between-group differences for new or progressed fractures: 32 and 40 in the VP group after 12 and 24 months compared with 21 and 33 in the placebo group (hazard ratio (HR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 3.94). Similar results were seen when considering only adjacent (HR (95% CI): 2.30 (0.57 to 9.29)), and non-adjacent (HR (95% CI): 1.45 (0.55 to 3.81) levels. In all comparisons there was a consistent trend towards higher risk of any type of fracture in the group undergoing VP. Within the VP group, fracture risk was unrelated to total (HR (95% CI): 0.91 (0.71 to 1.17)) or relative (HR (95% CI): 1.31 (0.15 to 11.48)) cement volume, or cement leakage (HR (95% CI): 1.20 (0.63 to 2.31)). Conclusion For patients undergoing VP our study did not demonstrate significant increases in subsequent fracture risk beyond that experienced by those with vertebral fractures who did not undergo the procedure. However, because of the non-significant numerical increases observed, studies with adequate power are needed to draw definite conclusions about fracture risk. PMID:26272712

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Forward-Planned Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer: Interim Results at 2 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles B.; Twyman, Nicola; Wishart, Gordon C.; Burnet, Neil G.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: This single-center randomized trial was designed to investigate whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) reduces late toxicity in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The standard tangential plans of 1,145 nonselected patients were analyzed. The patients with inhomogeneous plans were randomized to a simple method of forward-planned IMRT or standard radiotherapy (RT). The primary endpoint was serial photographic assessment of breast shrinkage. Results: At 2 years, no significant difference was found in the development of any photographically assessed breast shrinkage between the patients randomized to the interventional or control group (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.58; p = .41). The patients in the control group were more likely to develop telangiectasia than those in the IMRT group (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.40; p = .009). Poor baseline surgical cosmesis resulted in poor overall cosmesis at 2 years after RT. In patients who had good surgical cosmesis, those randomized to IMRT were less likely to deteriorate to a moderate or poor overall cosmesis than those in the control group (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.03, p = .061). Conclusions: IMRT can lead to a significant reduction in telangiectasia at comparatively early follow-up of only 2 years after RT completion. An important component of breast induration and shrinkage will actually result from the surgery and not from the RT. Surgical cosmesis is an important determinant of overall cosmesis and could partially mask the longer term benefits of IMRT at this early stage.

  19. Intermediate clinical and radiological results of cervical TDR (Mobi-C®) with up to 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Beaurain, J.; Bernard, P.; Dufour, T.; Fuentes, J. M.; Hovorka, I.; Huppert, J.; Steib, J. P.; Vital, J. M.; Aubourg, L.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in cervical total disc replacement (TDR) as an alternative to the so-far gold standard in the surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD), e.g anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), is growing very rapidly. Many authors have established the fact that ACDF may result in progressive degeneration in adjacent segments. On the contrary, but still theoretically, preservation of motion with TDR at the surgically treated level may potentially reduce the occurrence of adjacent-level degeneration (ALD). The authors report the intermediate results of an undergoing multicentre prospective study of TDR with Mobi-C® prosthesis. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the device in the treatment of DDD and secondary to evaluate the radiological status of adjacent levels and the occurrence of ossifications, at 2-year follow-up (FU). 76 patients have performed their 2-year FU visit and have been analyzed clinically and radiologically. Clinical outcomes (NDI, VAS, SF-36) and ROM measurements were analyzed pre-operatively and at the different post-operative time-points. Complications and re-operations were also assessed. Occurrences of heterotopic ossifications (HOs) and of adjacent disc degeneration radiographic changes have been analyzed from 2-year FU X-rays. The mean NDI and VAS scores for arm and neck are reduced significantly at each post-operative time-point compared to pre-operative condition. Motion is preserved over the time at index levels (mean ROM = 9° at 2 years) and 85.5% of the segments are mobile at 2 years. HOs are responsible for the fusion of 6/76 levels at 2 years. However, presence of HO does not alter the clinical outcomes. The occurrence rate of radiological signs of ALD is very low at 2 years (9.1%). There has been no subsidence, no expulsion and no sub-luxation of the implant. Finally, after 2 years, 91% of the patients assume that they would undergo the procedure again. These intermediate

  20. Results of a unicentric series of 15 wrist prosthesis implantations at a 5.2 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chevrollier, Jérémie; Strugarek-Lecoanet, Clotilde; Dap, François; Dautel, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional and radiological results of a unicentric series of 17 total wrist prostheses implanted between 2001 and 2011. Nine women and seven men, mean age 59, underwent wrist joint arthroplasty, bilateral in one case. Universal Total Wrist and Remotion prostheses were used and followed-up at a mean of 5.2 years (1.1-10). Fifteen patients were reviewed. Four patients had postoperative complications, three of whom required arthrodesis. The rest obtained satisfactory pain relief. Grip strength nevertheless decreased compared to the contralateral side and mobility was reduced: flexion/extension=33°, ulnar/radial deviation=20°. The Quick DASH score was 29% and PRWE, 26%. Radiological assessment revealed carpal implant loosening in eight patients. Our series confirms the discordance generally observed between patients' subjective satisfaction and mediocre clinical and radiological results over the medium term. PMID:26984652

  1. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  2. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  3. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  4. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  5. Efficacy of telbivudine with conditional tenofovir intensification in patients with chronic hepatitis B: results from the 2-year roadmap strategy

    PubMed Central

    Piratvisuth, Teerha; Komolmit, Piyawat; Chan, Henry LY; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Wattana; Pessoa, Mário G; Fassio, Eduardo; Ono, Suzane K; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge; Zeuzem, Stefan; Manns, Michael; Uddin, Alkaz; Dong, Yuhong; Trylesinski, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A 2-year roadmap study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir intensification at Week 24 in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) receiving telbivudine. Scope: A prospective multicenter study was conducted in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. All patients received telbivudine (600 mg/day) until Week 24. Thereafter, patients with detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (≥300 copies/mL) were administered tenofovir (300 mg/day) plus telbivudine, and patients with undetectable HBV DNA continued telbivudine monotherapy until Week 104. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) at Weeks 52 and 104. Findings: A total of 105 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 100 were eligible for efficacy analysis. Undetectable HBV DNA levels were observed at Week 24 in 55 patients who continued on with telbivudine monotherapy. The remaining 45 patients with detectable HBV DNA received tenofovir add-on therapy. With monotherapy, 100% (55/55) and 94.5% (52/55) of patients achieved HBV DNA <300 copies/mL at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively; the corresponding values for patients with add-on therapy were 84.4% (38/45) and 93.3% (42/45). Overall, undetectable HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) was found in 93% (93/100) and 94% (94/100) of patients at Weeks 52 and 104, respectively. HBeAg seroconversion rate was 44.4% (44/99) at Week 104 for the overall patient population. One patient in the monotherapy group and six in the intensification group demonstrated HBsAg clearance at Week 104. HBsAg seroconversion was observed in four patients at Week 104, all belonged to the tenofovir intensification group. Eight patients sustained HBsAg loss during a posttreatment follow-up period of 16 weeks. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization was constant in the telbivudine monotherapy group, whereas a progressive improvement was observed in the tenofovir intensification group

  6. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  7. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  8. High risk of peripheral arterial disease in the United Kingdom: 2-year results of a prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Stansby, Gerard; Mister, Rebecca; Fowkes, Gerry; Roughton, Michael; Nugara, Fiona; Brittenden, Julie; Bradbury, Andrew; Ashley, Simon; Shearman, Cliff; Hannon, Ray; Flather, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    We report a prospective 2-year, multicenter study of patients presenting with intermittent claudication (IC; ankle brachial blood pressure index, ABPI ≤ 0.9). Mean age of the 473 patients enrolled was 68 years, 20% were diabetics, 30% had prior symptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD), 7% had prior stroke, and 39% were current smokers. At baseline, 26.2% of patients had BP ≤ 140/85 mm Hg or lower and at 2 years this figure was 32.5% (P = .01). Current smokers had fallen to 27% (from 39%) at 2 years (P < .001). Use of antiplatelet agents, statins, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors increased significantly during the course of the study as did claudication distance. Death and the composite of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), occurred in 8.4% and 11.6% of patients, respectively. Prognosis was worse in patients with prior history of CHD, older age, those with diabetes and a lower ABPI. PMID:21220371

  9. Diabetes Nurse Case Management and Motivational Interviewing for Change (DYNAMIC): Results of a 2-year Randomized Controlled Pragmatic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Robert A.; Añel-Tiangco, Raquel M.; Dellasega, Cheryl; Mauger, David T.; Adelman, Alan; Van Horn, Deborah H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if the addition of nurse case managers (NCMs) trained in motivational interviewing (MI) to usual care would result in improved outcomes in high risk type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A 2-year randomized controlled pragmatic trial randomized 545 patients to usual care control (n=313) or those who received the intervention (n= 232) with additional practice embedded NCM care, including MI-guided behavior change counseling. NCMs received intensive MI training with ongoing fidelity assessment. Results Systolic BP was better in the intervention group (131±15.9 vs. 135±18.2, p < 0.05). HbA1c, LDL, and diastolic BP improved in both groups: HbA1c (control group 9.1% to 8.0%, intervention group 8.8% to 7.8%), LDL (control group 127 to 100 mg/dL, intervention group 128 to 102 mg/dL), diastolic BP (control group 78 to 74 mm Hg, intervention group 80 to 74 mm Hg). Depression symptom scores were better in the intervention group. The reduction in diabetes-related distress approached statistical significance. Conclusions NCMs and MI improved systolic BP and complications screening. The large decrease in HbA1C and LDL in the control group may have obscured any further intervention effect. Although nurses prompted providers for medication titration, strategies to reduce provider clinical inertia might also be needed. Significant findings of the study In patients with type 2 diabetes, an intervention with nurse case management and motivational interviewing improves systolic blood pressure, depression, and screening for complications. What this study adds First study to look at the benefit of the addition of motivational interviewing to nurse case management in the care of the high-risk adult with type 2 diabetes. Particular attention was given to ensuring fidelity to the motivational interviewing approach. PMID:23368423

  10. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  11. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  12. Budd-Chiari Syndrome Caused by Obstruction of the Hepatic Inferior Vena Cava: Immediate and 2-Year Treatment Results of Transluminal Angioplasty and Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Ke; He Fangxian; Zhang Hanguo; Zhang Xitong; Han Minjun; Wang Changrong; Kaneko, Masao; Takahashi, Motoichiro; Okawada, Taketoshi

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the usefulness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and expandable metallic stent (EMS) placement for treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). Methods: Thirty-two patients with BCS were treated by PTA alone or by PTA and EMS placement. Among the 32 patients, a membranous obstruction was found in 24 and a segmental stenosis or occlusion in 8 patients. The follow-up period for PTA was 38<+>-<+>68 months (mean 52.2 months); for EMS it was 20<+>-<+>36 months (mean 24.3 months). Results: Twenty-one patients underwent PTA as the primary treatment. Of these, one patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation shortly after the procedure; 20 had good to excellent initial angiographic and clinical results. Of the 20, restenosis or reocclusion developed in 10 patients (48%), all before 27 months; 8 patients (38%) became symptomatic, and 2 remained symptom-free for a total recurrent obstruction rate of 50%. The EMS group of 17 patients included 11 patients who underwent primary stenting and 6 patients with secondary stenting after recurrence following primary PTA; restenosis was demonstrated in only 2 patients (12%). Conclusions: We conclude that PTA alone produces excellent short-term results and about 50% sustained patency after 2 years in patients with BCS; therefore it should remain the procedure of first choice. Stents should be reserved for primary or secondary PTA failures.

  13. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P < 0.001), increased knowledge of health education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program. PMID:23385382

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: 2-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Peters, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital therapeutics are evidence-based behavioral treatments delivered online that can increase accessibility and effectiveness of health care. However, few studies have examined long-term clinical outcomes of digital therapeutics. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a 2-year follow-up on participants in the Internet-based Prevent diabetes prevention program pilot study, specifically examining the effects on body weight and A1c, which are risk factors for diabetes development. Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used, including a single-arm pre- and post-intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 16-week weight loss intervention and an ongoing weight maintenance intervention. As part of the program, participants received a wireless scale, which was used to collect body weight data on an ongoing basis. Participants also received A1c test kits at baseline, 0.5 year, 1 year, and 2-year time points. Results Participants previously diagnosed with prediabetes (n=220) were originally enrolled in the pilot study. A subset of participants (n=187) met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for starting the program (starters), and a further subset (n=155) met CDC criteria for completing the program (completers) and were both included in analyses. Program starters lost an average of 4.7% (SD 0.4) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.2% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by mean 0.38% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.43% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. Program completers lost mean 4.9% (SD 0.5) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.3% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by 0.40% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.46% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. For both groups, neither 2-year weight loss nor A1c results were significantly different from 1-year results. Conclusions Users of the Prevent program experienced significant reductions in body weight and A1c that are maintained after 2 years. Contrary to the

  15. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Walford, Roy L; Mock, Dennis; Verdery, Roy; MacCallum, Taber

    2002-06-01

    restriction in calories and marked weight loss, all crew members remained in excellent health and sustained a high level of physical and mental activity throughout the entire 2 years. PMID:12023257

  16. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  17. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  18. Surgical results of dynamic nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for degenerative lumbar spinal diseases with instability: Minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hideki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Morishita, Yuichirou; Sakai, Tsubasa; Huang, George; Kida, Hirotaka; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background When spinal fusion is applied to degenerative lumbar spinal disease with instability, adjacent segment disorder will be an issue in the future. However, decompression alone could cause recurrence of spinal canal stenosis because of increased instability on operated segments and lead to revision surgery. Covering the disadvantages of both procedures, we applied nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System (Ulrich Medical, Ulm, Germany) and decompression. Methods The surgical results of 52 patients (35 men and 17 women) with a minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed: 10 patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis, 15 with lumbar canal stenosis with disc herniation, 20 with degenerative spondylolisthesis, 6 with disc herniation, and 1 with lumbar discopathy. Results The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was improved, from 14.4 ± 5.3 to 25.5 ± 2.8. The improvement rate was 76%. Range of motion of the operated segments was significantly decreased, from 9.6° ± 4.2° to 2.0° ± 1.8°. Only 1 patient had adjacent segment disease that required revision surgery. There was only 1 screw breakage, but the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions Over a minimum 2-year follow-up, the results of nonfusion stabilization with the Segmental Spinal Correction System for unstable degenerative lumbar disease were good. It is necessary to follow up the cases with a focus on adjacent segment disorders in the future. PMID:25802671

  19. CAD/CAM ZIRCONIA VS. SLIP-CAST GLASS-INFILTRATED ALUMINA/ZIRCONIA ALL-CERAMIC CROWNS: 2-YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to compare the early clinical outcome of slip-cast glass-infiltrated Alumina/Zirconia and CAD/CAM Zirconia all-ceramic crowns. A total of 30 InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns were fabricated and cemented with a glass ionomer cement in 20 patients. At baseline, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year recall appointments, Californian Dental Association (CDA) quality evaluation system was used to evaluate the prosthetic replacements, and plaque and gingival index scores were used to explore the periodontal outcome of the treatments. No clinical sign of marginal discoloration, persistent pain and secondary caries was detected in any of the restorations. All InCeram® Zirconia crowns survived during the 2-year period, although one nonvital tooth experienced root fracture coupled with the fracture of the veneering porcelain of the restoration. One Cercon® Zirconia restoration fractured and was replaced. According to the CDA criteria, marginal integrity was rated excellent for InCeram® Zirconia (73%) and Cercon® Zirconia (80%) restorations, respectively. Slight color mismatch rate was higher for InCeram® Zirconia restorations (66%) than Cercon® Zirconia (26%) restorations. Plaque and gingival index scores were mostly zero and almost constant over time. Time-dependent changes in plaque and gingival index scores within and between groups were statistically similar (p>0.05). This clinical study demonstrates that single-tooth InCeram® Zirconia and Cercon® Zirconia crowns have comparable early clinical outcome, both seem as acceptable treatment modalities, and most importantly, all-ceramic alumina crowns strengthened by 25% zirconia can sufficiently withstand functional load in the posterior zone. PMID:19148406

  20. Treatment of posttraumatic and focal osteoarthritic cartilage defects of the knee with autologous polymer-based three-dimensional chondrocyte grafts: 2-year clinical results

    PubMed Central

    Ossendorf, Christian; Kaps, Christian; Kreuz, Peter C; Burmester, Gerd R; Sittinger, Michael; Erggelet, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective clinical procedure for the regeneration of articular cartilage defects. BioSeed®-C is a second-generation ACI tissue engineering cartilage graft that is based on autologous chondrocytes embedded in a three-dimensional bioresorbable two-component gel-polymer scaffold. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the short-term to mid-term efficacy of BioSeed-C for the arthrotomic and arthroscopic treatment of posttraumatic and degenerative cartilage defects in a group of patients suffering from chronic posttraumatic and/or degenerative cartilage lesions of the knee. Clinical outcome was assessed in 40 patients with a 2-year clinical follow-up before implantation and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation by using the modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System, the Lysholm score, the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the current health assessment form (SF-36) of the International Knee Documentation Committee, as well as histological analysis of second-look biopsies. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the evaluated scores was observed at 1 and/or 2 years after implantation of BioSeed-C, and histological staining of the biopsies showed good integration of the graft and formation of a cartilaginous repair tissue. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score showed significant improvement in the subclasses pain, other symptoms, and knee-related quality of life 2 years after implantation of BioSeed-C in focal osteoarthritic defects. The results suggest that implanting BioSeed-C is an effective treatment option for the regeneration of posttraumatic and/or osteoarthritic defects of the knee. PMID:17451597

  1. Internet-based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 1- and 2-year results of a randomized controlled trial with a focus on pelvic floor muscle training

    PubMed Central

    Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Subjects and Methods The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Results We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0

  2. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  3. [Centipede stings notified by the "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém", over a 2-year period].

    PubMed

    Barroso, E; Hidaka, A S; dos Santos, A X; Matos França, J D; de Sousa, A M; Rodrigues Valente, J; Amoras Magalhães, A F; Oliveira Pardal, P P

    2001-01-01

    Centipedes are arthropods of the class Chilopoda. The objective of this work was to study the incidence of accidents involving centipedes at "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém" (CIT-Belém) over a two-year period. Seventy-six patients were studied from March 30, 1998 until March 30, 2000. Centipede accidents occurred in 16.8% of all accidents by venomous animals at Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém; compared to snake accidents, 44.4 % and scorpion accidents, 20.5%. The majority of cases occurred in the residence (86.8%). The most important age group was 20-49 years old (64.4%). The part of human body mostly affected was the superior members (47.4 %). Local pain and edema were found in 95.8% and 52.1% of the patients, respectively. Treatment was symptomatic. Healing occurred in 94.7%, although the outcome of 5.3% of cases was unknown. Centipede accidents are a benign accident, occurring within the residence and treatment consists of measures to decrease the pain. PMID:11813058

  4. Clinical Results and Prognostic Factors of Arthroscopic Surgeries for Discoid Lateral Menisci Tear: Analysis of 179 Cases with Minimum 2 Years Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Tae-Han; Jung, Bong-Sung; Ha, Sang-Ho; Lee, Bum-Sik; Chung, Jong-Won; Kim, Jong-Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results and prognostic factors of arthroscopic surgeries for tears of the discoid lateral menisci. Materials and Methods From March 1997 to September 2005, 260 patients received arthroscopic surgeries due to discoid lateral menisci tears. Among these patients, 179 knees in 168 patients were followed up for at least 2 years and were enrolled into this study. The following prognostic factors were evaluated: sex, age, symptom duration, and type of meniscal tear. Visual analogue score (VAS), Lysholm score, and Ikeuchi grade were assessed as clinical results of arthroscopic surgeries. Results The mean VAS and Lysholm score improved at the last follow-up. According to the Ikeuchi grade, 104 cases were rated as excellent, 51 cases as good, and 23 cases as fair. Male sex (p<0.033), age younger than 20 years (p=0.0474), and symptom duration less than 12 months (p<0.044) were good prognostic factors. However, there was no correlation between tear types of discoid lateral menisci and clinical results. Conclusions Sex, age, and symptom duration could be significant prognostic factors of arthroscopic surgeries for tears of discoid lateral menisci. PMID:22708112

  5. Operation of lumbar zygoapophyseal joint cysts using a full-endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal approach: prospective 2-year results of 74 patients.

    PubMed

    Komp, Martin; Hahn, Patrick; Ozdemir, Semih; Merk, Harry; Kasch, Richard; Godolias, Georgios; Ruetten, Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    In appropriate situations, extensive decompression with laminectomy often continues to be described as the method of choice for operations involving lumbar zygoapophyseal joint (z-joint) cysts. Tissue-sparing procedures are nevertheless becoming more common. Endoscopic techniques have become the standard procedures in many areas because of the advantages they offer in terms of surgical technique and in rehabilitation. One key aspect in spinal surgery was the development of instruments for sufficient bone resection carried out under continuous visual control. This enabled endoscopes to be used when operating on z-joint cysts. The objective of this prospective study was to examine the technical possibilities for the full-endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal technique in lumbar z-joint cysts. A total of 74 patients were followed up for 2 years. The results show that 85% of the patients no longer have any leg pain or that the pain had been almost completely eliminated, and 11 % experience occasional pain. The complication rate was low. The full-endoscopic techniques brought advantages in the following areas: operation, complications, traumatization, and rehabilitation. The recorded results show that full-endoscopic resection of a z-joint cyst using an interlaminar and transforaminal approach provides an adequate and safe supplement, and is an alternative to conventional procedures when the indication criteria are fulfilled. It also offers the advantages of a minimally invasive intervention. PMID:24667524

  6. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuan; Tian, De-Hu; Han, Chang-Ling; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhan-Jian; Mu, Zhen-Yun; Liu, Kuan-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients. We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later. The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later. We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions. We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients. Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads. Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05). Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β = 0.364, P = 0.001) and maximum pressure (β = 0.366, P = 0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head. Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β = 0.179, P = 0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β = 0.236, P = 0.020). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β = 0.137, P = 0.048). Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes. In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β = 0.244, P = 0.014), and calluses over the course of the study. Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI

  7. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24604922

  8. Impact of baseline anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 antibody concentration on efficacy outcomes following treatment with subcutaneous abatacept or adalimumab: 2-year results from the AMPLE trial

    PubMed Central

    Sokolove, Jeremy; Schiff, Michael; Fleischmann, Roy; Weinblatt, Michael E; Connolly, Sean E; Johnsen, Alyssa; Zhu, Jin; Maldonado, Michael A; Patel, Salil; Robinson, William H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether baseline anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 (CCP2) antibody status and concentration correlated with clinical outcomes in patients treated with abatacept or adalimumab on background methotrexate (MTX) in the 2-year AMPLE (Abatacept versus adaliMumab comParison in bioLogic-naïvE rheumatoid arthritis subjects with background MTX) study. Methods In this exploratory analysis, anti-CCP2 antibody concentration was measured at baseline, and antibody-positive patients were divided into equal quartiles, Q1–Q4, representing increasing antibody concentrations. Clinical outcomes analysed by baseline anti-CCP2 status and quartile included change from baseline in disease activity and disability and remission rates. Results Baseline characteristics were generally comparable across quartiles and treatment groups. In both treatment groups, anti-CCP2 antibody-negative patients responded less well than antibody-positive patients. At year 2, improvements in disease activity and disability and remission rates were similar across Q1–Q3, but were numerically higher in Q4 in the abatacept group; in contrast, treatment effects were similar across all quartiles in the adalimumab group. Conclusions In AMPLE, baseline anti-CCP2 positivity was associated with a better response for abatacept and adalimumab. Patients with the highest baseline anti-CCP2 antibody concentrations had better clinical response with abatacept than patients with lower concentrations, an association that was not observed with adalimumab. Trial registration number NCT00929864. PMID:26359449

  9. Rationale for a 'Male Lumpectomy,' a Prostate Cancer Targeted Approach Using Cryoablation: Results in 21 Patients with at Least 2 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Onik, Gary

    2008-01-15

    Background. Prostate cancer in men raises many of the same issues that breast cancer does in women. Complications of prostate cancer treatment, including impotence and incontinence, affect the self-image and psyche of a man no less than does the loss of a breast in a woman. We present a pilot study in which 21 patients were treated with a focal cryoablation procedure. Methods. Focal cryoablation was performed using biplane transrectal ultrasound if the tumor was confined to only one prostate lobe. Preoperative PSA values were recorded. Cryoablation was planned to encompass the area of known tumor. PSA values were obtained every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter. Potency and continence status was obtained at the same intervals. Routine biopsy was obtained at 1 year. Results. Twenty-one patients had focal cryoablation. Follow-up ranged from 24 to 105 months with a mean of 50 months. Twenty of 21 (95%) patients have stable PSA values with no evidence for cancer, despite 10 patients being at medium to high risk for recurrence. All patients biopsied (n = 19) were negative for tumor. Potency was maintained in 17 of 21 patients (80%). No other complications, including incontinence or fistula formation, were noted. Conclusion. These preliminary results indicate a 'male lumpectomy,' in which the prostate tumor region itself is destroyed, appears to preserve potency in a majority of patients and limits other complications, without compromising cancer control. If these results are confirmed by further studies and long-term follow-up, this treatment approach could have a profound effect on prostate cancer management.

  10. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  11. Semi-automatic lung segmentation of DCE-MRI data sets of 2-year old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair: Initial results.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Frank G; Daab, Markus; Weidner, Meike; Sommer, Verena; Zahn, Katrin; Schaible, Thomas; Weisser, Gerald; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Neff, K Wolfgang; Schad, Lothar R

    2015-12-01

    In congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), lung hypoplasia and secondary pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of death and severe disability. Based on new therapeutic strategies survival rates could be improved to up to 80%. However, after surgical repair of CDH, long-term follow-up of these pediatric patients is necessary. In this, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides insights into the pulmonary microcirculation and might become a tool within the routine follow-up program of CDH patients. However, whole lung segmentation from DCE-MRI scans is tedious and automated procedures are warranted. Therefore, in this study, an approach to semi-automated lung segmentation is presented. Segmentation of the lung is obtained by calculating the cross correlation and the area under curve between all voxels in the data set and a reference region-of-interest (ROI), here the arterial input function (AIF). By applying an upper and lower threshold to the obtained maps and intersecting these, a final segmentation is reached. This approach was tested on twelve DCE-MRI data sets of 2-year old children after CDH repair. Segmentation accuracy was evaluated by comparing obtained automatic segmentations to manual delineations using the Dice overlap measure. Optimal thresholds for the cross correlation were 0.5/0.95 and 0.1/0.5 for the area under curve, respectively. The ipsilateral (left) lung showed reduced segmentation accuracy compared to the contralateral (right) lung. Average processing time was about 1.4s per data set. Average Dice score was 0.7±0.1 for the whole lung. In conclusion, initial results are promising. By our approach, whole lung segmentation is possible and a rapid evaluation of whole lung perfusion becomes possible. This might allow for a more detailed analysis of lung hypoplasia of children after CDH. PMID:26277730

  12. Mammography-based screening program: preliminary results from a first 2-year round in a Brazilian region using mobile and fixed units

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. The use of mobile mammography units to offer screening to women living in remote areas is a rational strategy to increase the number of women examined. This study aimed to evaluate results from the first 2 years of a government-organized mammography screening program implemented with a mobile unit (MU) and a fixed unit (FU) in a rural county in Brazil. The program offered breast cancer screening to women living in Barretos and the surrounding area. Methods Based on epidemiologic data, 54 238 women, aged 40 to 69 years, were eligible for breast cancer screening. The study included women examined from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2005. The chi-square test and Bonferroni correction analyses were used to evaluate the frequencies of tumors and the importance of clinical parameters and tumor characteristics. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Overall, 17 964 women underwent mammography. This represented 33.1% of eligible women in the area. A mean of 18.6 and 26.3 women per day were examined in the FU and MU, respectively. Seventy six patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (41 (54%) in the MU). This represented 4.2 cases of breast cancer per 1000 examinations. The number of cancers detected was significantly higher in women aged 60 to 69 years than in those aged 50 to 59 years (p < 0.001) or 40 to 49 years (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between women aged 40 to 49 years and those aged 50 to 59 years (p = 0.164). The proportion of tumors in the early (EC 0 and EC I) and advanced (CS III and CS IV) stages of development were 43.4% and 15.8%, respectively. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that this mammography screening program is feasible for implementation in a rural Brazilian territory and favor program continuation. PMID:23031787

  13. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still ...

  14. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still have ...

  15. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (the PROSPECT study). PROscar Safety Plus Efficacy Canadian Two year Study.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J C; Fradet, Y; Boake, R C; Pommerville, P J; Perreault, J P; Afridi, S K; Elhilali, M M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 years' treatment of moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with finasteride. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, prospective randomized study. SETTING: Outpatient care in 28 centres across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 45 to 80, in good health, with moderate BPH and no evidence of prostate cancer. A total of 613 men were entered into the study; 472 completed the 2 years of treatment. INTERVENTION: After 1 month of receiving a placebo (run-in period), patients were given either finasteride (5 mg/d) or a placebo for 2 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy: changes from baseline in BPH symptom scores, maximum urinary flow rates and prostate volume. Safety: onset, course and resolution of all adverse events during the treatment period. RESULTS: In the efficacy analyses the mean BPH symptom scores decreased 2.1 points (from 15.8 to 13.7) in the finasteride group, as compared with a decrease of 0.7 points (from 16.6 to 15.9) in the placebo group (P < or = 0.01). The maximum urinary flow rate increased by a mean of 1.4 mL/s (from 11.1 to 12.5 mL/s) in the finasteride group, as compared with an increase of 0.3 mL/s (from 10.9 to 11.2 mL/s) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). The mean prostate volume decreased by 21% (from a mean volume of 44.1 cm3 at baseline) in the treatment group; it increased by 8.4% (from a mean volume of 45.8 cm3 at baseline) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). In the safety analysis, the proportion of patients who experienced any adverse event was similar in the two groups (81.0% in the treatment group and 81.2% in the placebo group). However, the incidence of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in the finasteride group than in the placebo group (ejaculation disorder 7.7% v. 1.7% and impotence 15.8% v. 6.3%; p < or = 0.01 for both parameters). CONCLUSION: Finasteride is a well-tolerated and effective alternative to watchful

  16. Parental Estimation of Their Child's Increased Type 1 Diabetes Risk During the First 2 Years of Participation in an International Observational Study: Results From the TEDDY study.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Ulrica; Lynch, Kristian; Smith, Laura; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's risk of getting type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the first 2 years of their participation in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. TEDDY parents were informed of their child's increased genetic risk for T1D at study inception. Parent perception of the child's risk was assessed at 3, 6, 15, and 27 months of age. In families with no history of T1D, underestimation of the child's T1D risk was common in mothers (>38%) and more so in fathers (>50%). The analyses indicated that parental education, country of residence, family history of T1D, household crowding, ethnic minority status, and beliefs that the child's T1D risk can be reduced were factors associated with parental risk perception accuracy. Even when given extensive information about their child's T1D risk, parents often fail to accurately grasp the information provided. This is particularly true for fathers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and those with no family history of T1D. It is important to develop improved tools for risk communication tailored to individual family needs. PMID:27241873

  17. What Controls the Net Forest-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbonyl Sulfide? Results from 2 Years of Eddy Flux Measurements and SiB Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehr, R. A.; Commane, R.; Baker, I. T.; Munger, J. W.; Saleska, S. R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is currently a focus of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based measurements as well as of model development, owing mainly to its potential use as a large-scale proxy for gross primary production (GPP). OCS is taken up by leaves and either taken up or emitted by soils, depending on the circumstances. Because OCS is destroyed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase within the leaf rather than by any light-dependent reaction, the leaf uptake is expected to be related to the conductance of the diffusive pathway into the leaf (stomata + mesophyll + leaf boundary air layer) rather than to GPP directly, though GPP and the diffusive conductance are often strongly correlated. Here we use 2 years of eddy covariance measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of OCS, along with measurements of the vertical profile of OCS within the forest, to investigate the controls on ecosystem-scale OCS uptake and emission. We compare the OCS measurements, and simultaneous CO2 isotope flux and profile measurements, to predictions from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, which has been used to simulate OCS and 13CO2 fluxes for both vegetation and soils but has not yet been systematically tested against these relatively novel tracers. We thereby address the key question: How can measurements of the net ecosystem-atmosphere OCS exchange contribute to empirical quantification of stomatal conductance and GPP and to improving process-based ecosystem models?

  18. The incidence and risk factors for shipping fever in horses transported by air to Hong Kong: Results from a 2-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M J; Riggs, C M; Cogger, N; Rosanowski, S M

    2016-08-01

    A 2 year prospective study was performed between February 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and risk factors for shipping fever (SF) in horses transported by air to Hong Kong (HK). Using a questionnaire, data were collected from professional flying grooms regarding the journey to HK and horses in the shipment. Horses were monitored in quarantine for 2 weeks after arrival in HK, and clinical signs of SF recorded. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for SF at the horse and shipment levels. The study analysed data from 869 horses on 81 flights arriving from Australia (n = 24), New Zealand (NZ; n = 18), the United Kingdom (UK; n = 33) and the United States of America (USA; n = 6). The incidence risk of SF was 10.8 per 100 horses and the proportion of shipments with at least one horse that developed SF was 49/81 (60%). The study identified that the rate per shipment of SF in shipments of horses originating from NZ, the USA and the UK was 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.71), 2.43 (95% CI 0.66-8.89) and 3.08 (95% CI 1.60-5.93) times the rate of SF compared to Australia. Shipments arriving in HK during March and May were 5.61 (95% CI 1.55-20.31) and 4.51 (95% CI 1.43-14.26) times more likely to contain horses that developed SF compared to shipments arriving in January. The identification of these risk factors and the recognition of at-risk shipments will help focus attention on preventative strategies. PMID:27387724

  19. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system. PMID:15656181

  20. Eddy covariance measurements of the net turbulent methane flux in the city centre - results of 2-year campaign in Łódź, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    To investigate temporal variability of methane (CH4) fluxes in an urban environment, air-surface exchange fluxes of CH4 were continuously measured using eddy covariance techniques at a city-centre site in Łódź, Poland, from July 2013 to August 2015. In the immediate vicinity of the measurement site, potential methane sources include vehicle traffic, dense sewerage infrastructure and natural gas networks. Sensible and latent heat fluxes have also been measured since 2000 and carbon dioxide fluxes since 2007 at this site. Upward CH4 fluxes dominated during the measurement period, indicating that the city centre is a net source of CH4 to the troposphere. The highest monthly fluxes were observed in winter (2.0 to 2.7 g m-2 month-1) and the lowest in summer (0.8 to 1.0 g m-2 month-1). Fluxes on working days were around 6 % higher than on weekends. The cumulative flux indicates that the city centre emitted a net quantity of nearly 18 g m-2 of CH4 in 2014. Stable values of the FCO2/ FCH4 ratio in months (minimum 2.41 × 10-3, maximum 5.3 × 10-3) and the lack of a clear annual course suggest comparable magnitude of both fluxes.

  1. Multilevel analysis of clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Mdala, Ibrahimu; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Thoresen, Magne; Olsen, Ingar; Goodson, J. Max

    2012-01-01

    Aim Find the periodontal treatment that best maintained clinical results over time evaluated by changes in pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Methods 229 patients with chronic periodontitis from USA (n=134) and Sweden (n=95) were randomly assigned to eight groups receiving (1) scaling+root planing (SRP) alone or combined with (2) surgery (SURG)+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX)+systemic metronidazole (MET); (3) SURG+local tetracycline (TET); (4) SURG; (5) AMOX+MET+TET; (6) AMOX+MET; (7) TET; and (8) SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately after SRP. Plaque, gingival redness, bleeding on probing, suppuration, PD, and CAL were recorded at baseline and after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Treatment effects were evaluated by linear multilevel regression and logistic multilevel regression models. We considered only data from sites with a baseline PD of at least 5 mm of 187 patients completing the study. Results Surgically treated patients experienced most CAL loss. Adjunctive therapy including SURG was most effective in reducing PD. Combining SURG with AMOX, MET, and TET gave significant clinical benefits. Past and current smoking habits were significant predictors of deeper PD. Only current smoking was a significant predictor of CAL loss. Bleeding, accumulation of plaque, gingival redness, and suppuration were significant predictors of further CAL loss and deeper PD. Conclusions Both surgical and non-surgical therapies can be used to arrest chronic periodontitis. SURG+AMOX+MET+TET gave best maintenance of clinical results. PMID:22545190

  2. Multi-Institutional Experience Using the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System in the Treatment of Early-Stage Breast Cancer: 2-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttino, Laurie W. Keisch, Martin; Jenrette, Joseph M.; Dragun, Anthony E.; Prestidge, Bradley R.; Quiet, Coral A.; Vicini, Frank A.; Rescigno, John; Wazer, David E.; Kaufman, Seth A.; Patel, Rakesh; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To present a retrospective multi-institutional experience of patients treated with the MammoSite radiation therapy system (RTS). Methods and Materials: Nine institutions participated in a pooled analysis of data evaluating the clinical experience of the MammoSite RTS for delivering accelerated partial breast irradiation. Between 2000 and 2004, 483 patients were treated with the MammoSite RTS to 34 Gy delivered in 10 fractions. Treatment parameters were analyzed to identify factors affecting outcome. Results: Median follow-up was 24 months (minimum of 1 year). Overall, infection was documented in 9% of patients, but the rate was only 4.8% if the catheter was placed after lumpectomy. Six patients (1.2%) experienced an in-breast failure; four failures occurred remote from the lumpectomy site (elsewhere failure). Cosmetic results were good/excellent in 91% of patients. Treatment parameters identified as significant on univariate analysis were tested in multivariate regression analysis. The closed-cavity placement technique significantly reduced the risk of infection (p = 0.0267). A skin spacing of <6 mm increased the risk of severe acute skin reaction (p 0.0178) and telangiectasia (p = 0.0280). The use of prophylactic antibiotics reduced the risk of severe acute skin reaction (p < 0.0001). The use of multiple dwell positions reduced the risk of severe hyperpigmentation (p 0.0278). Infection was associated with an increased risk of fair or poor overall cosmesis (p = 0.0009). Conclusions: In this series of patients, the MammoSite RTS seems to have acceptable toxicity rates and cosmetic outcomes, comparable to those with whole-breast radiotherapy. On the basis of these data, the closed-cavity placement technique, use of prophylactic antibiotics, use of multiple dwell positions, and a minimum skin spacing of 6 mm seem to improve patient outcome.

  3. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  4. Decreased use of glucocorticoids in biological-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis who initiated intravenous abatacept: results from the 2-year ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Rieke; Nüßlein, Hubert; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Bensen, William G; Burmester, Gerd R; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pavelka, Karel; Chartier, Mélanie; Poncet, Coralie; Rauch, Christiane; Elbez, Yedid; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged glucocorticoid use may increase the risk of adverse safety outcomes, including cardiovascular events. The European League Against Rheumatism and the Canadian Rheumatology Association advise tapering glucocorticoid dose as rapidly as clinically feasible. There is a paucity of published data on RA that adequately describe concomitant treatment patterns. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a non-interventional cohort study of patients from Europe and Canada that investigated the long-term retention of intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. We assessed concomitant glucocorticoids in patients with established RA who had participated in ACTION and received ≥1 biological agent prior to abatacept initiation. Results The analysis included 1009 patients. Glucocorticoids were prescribed at abatacept initiation in 734 (72.7%) patients at a median 7.5 mg/day dose (n=692). Of the patients who remained on abatacept at 24 months, 40.7% were able to decrease their dose of glucocorticoids, including 26.9% who decreased their dose from >5 mg/day to ≤5 mg/day. Conclusion Reduction and/or cessation of glucocorticoid therapy is possible with intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. PMID:26925253

  5. Comparison of Retrograde Balloon Dilatation and Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty for Treatment of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction: Results of a 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xue-Yi; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Wei, Yong; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Cai, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic pyeloplasty relative to retrograde balloon dilatation for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Methods This retrospective study enrolled UPJO patients with stricture length < 2 cm who had been treated with laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP; 44 cases) or balloon dilatation (BD; 38 cases) from Jan 2010 to Jan 2012, according to patients’ preference after consultation. Demographics and clinical parameters were collected. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Ultrasonography, intravenous urography, and diuretic renography were applied to evaluate the remission of hydronephrosis. Results Both groups were comparable with respect to age, UPJO location, gender, and other baseline parameters. Compared to the LP group, patients receiving BD experienced significantly shorter operative time, analgesia time, hospital stay, and urethral catheter indwelling time, and less cost (P<0.001). Three and 6 months after their respective procedures, the success rates of the LP (97.7%, both) and BD (94.7% and 86.8%) groups were similar, and at 12 and 24 months the long-term success rate of LP (95.5%, both) was better than that of BD (78.9% and 71.0%). Conclusions LP showed better long-term success rate than did BD in the management of UPJO with length of stricture < 2 cm. Considering that BD is more minimally invasive, simpler and easier to perform, and costs less, we recommend it for some selective UPJO patients as the first-line therapy. PMID:27019289

  6. Prospective Analysis of a New Bone Graft in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a 2- Year Prospective Clinical and Radiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raskin, Yannic

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of bone graft material ABM/P-15 (iFACTOR) for use in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. ABM/P-15 has been used safely for more than a decade in dental applications. Methods Forty patients underwent PLIF surgery, with each patient as control. Assessments up to 24 months included radiographs, CT scan, VAS, and ODI. Primary success criteria were fusion and safety. Results Intra-cage bridging bone occurred earlier with ABM/P-15 than autograft (97.73% vs. 59.09% at 6 months). On average pain decreased 29 points and function improved 43 points. Radio dense material outside the disk space occurred more frequently with ABM/P-15 than autograft, without clinical consequence. Conclusions This study suggests that ABM/P-15 has equal or greater efficacy at 6 and 12 months. Pain improvements exceeded success criteria at all time points. Functional improvement exceeded success criteria at all time points. Clinical Relevance This study explores the safety and efficacy of an osteobiologic peptide enhanced bone graft material as a viable alternative to autograft and its attendant risks. PMID:25709887

  7. Serum antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in the first 2 years of life: results from an SE Asian longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Turner, P; Turner, C; Green, N; Ashton, L; Lwe, E; Jankhot, A; Day, N P; White, N J; Nosten, F; Goldblatt, D

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in early childhood may aid our understanding of protection and inform vaccine antigen selection. Serum samples were collected from mother-infant pairs during a longitudinal pneumococcal colonization study in Burmese refugees. Maternal and cord sera were collected at birth and infants were bled monthly (1–24 months of age). Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken monthly to detect colonization. Serum IgG titres to 27 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured in 2624 sera and IgG to dominant serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, 19A and 23F) were quantified in 864 infant sera. Antibodies to all protein antigens were detect ablein maternal sera. Titres to four proteins (LytB, PcpA, PhtD and PhtE) were significantly higher in mothers colonized by pneumococci at delivery. Maternally-derived antibodies to PiuA and Spr0096 were associated with delayed pneumococcal acquisition in infants in univariate,but not multivariate models. Controlling for infant age and previous homologous serotype exposure, nasopharyngeal acquisition of serotypes 19A, 23F, 14 or 19F was associated significantly with a ≥2-fold antibody response to the homologous capsule (OR 12.84, 7.52,6.52, 5.33; p <0.05). Acquisition of pneumococcal serotypes in the nasopharynx of infants was not significantly associated with a ≥2-fold rise in antibodies to any of the protein antigens studied. In conclusion, nasopharyngeal colonization in young children resulted in demonstrable serum IgG responses to pneumococcal capsules and surface/virulence proteins. However, the relationship between serum IgG and the prevention of, or response to, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization remains complex. Mechanisms other than serum IgG are likely to have a role but are currently poorly understood. PMID:24255996

  8. The Prospective Intraoperative and Perioperative Ophthalmic ImagiNg with Optical CoherEncE TomogRaphy (PIONEER) Study: 2-year Results

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Dupps, William J.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Goshe, Jeff; Singh, Rishi P.; Petkovsek, Dan; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and utility of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for use during ophthalmic surgery. Design Prospective, consecutive, case series Methods A prospective, single-center, consecutive, case series was initiated to assess intraoperative OCT in ophthalmic surgery. Intraoperative scanning was performed with a microscope mounted spectral domain OCT system. Disease specific or procedure-specific imaging protocols (e.g., scan type, pattern, size, orientation, density) were utilized for anterior and posterior segment applications. A surgeon feedback form was recorded as part of the study protocol to answer specific questions regarding intraoperative OCT utility immediately after the surgical procedure was completed. Results During the first 24 months of the PIONEER study, 531 eyes were enrolled (275 anterior segment cases and 256 posterior segment surgical cases). Intraoperative OCT imaging was obtained in 518 of 531 eyes (98%). Surgeon feedback indicated that intraoperative OCT informed surgical decision-making and altered surgeon understanding of underlying tissue configurations in 69/144 (48%) lamellar keratoplasty cases and 63/146 (43%) membrane peeling procedures. The most common anterior segment surgical procedure was descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 135). Vitrectomy with membrane peeling was the most common procedure for posterior segment surgery (n = 154). The median time that surgery was paused to perform intraoperative OCT was 4.9 minutes per scan session. No adverse events were specifically attributed to intraoperative OCT scanning during the procedure. Conclusions Intraoperative OCT is feasible for numerous anterior and posterior segment ophthalmic surgical procedures. A microscope mounted intraoperative OCT system provided efficient imaging during operative procedures. The information gained from intraoperative OCT may impact surgical decision-making in a high frequency

  9. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  10. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  11. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  12. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean . E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Magne, Nicolas; Poissonnet, Gilles; Ramaioli, Alain; Lemanski, Claire; Bourdin, Sylvain; Tortochaux, Jacques; Peyrade, Frederic; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Vallicioni, Jacques; Seng Hang; Alzieu, Claude; Gery, Bernard; Chauvel, Pierre; Schneider, Maurice; Santini, Jose; Demard, Francois; Calais, Gilles

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  13. Adding tocilizumab or switching to tocilizumab monotherapy in methotrexate inadequate responders: 24-week symptomatic and structural results of a 2-year randomised controlled strategy trial in rheumatoid arthritis (ACT-RAY)

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, Maxime; Kissel, Karsten; Sheeran, Tom; Tak, Paul P; Conaghan, Philip G; Mola, Emilio Martín; Schett, Georg; Amital, Howard; Navarro-Sarabia, Federico; Hou, Antony; Bernasconi, Corrado; Huizinga, TWJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective In patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate, to compare the efficacy of adding tocilizumab to that of switching to tocilizumab monotherapy. Methods Double-blind, 2-year study in which adults with active RA (DAS28 >4.4) despite methotrexate were randomly assigned either to continue methotrexate with the addition of tocilizumab (MTX+TCZ) 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks or switch to tocilizumab and placebo (TCZ+PBO). The primary endpoint was the DAS28–erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) remission rate at week 24. Secondary objectives included other symptomatic outcomes, quality of life and progression of structural damage. Results Of 556 randomly assigned patients, 512 (92%) completed 24 weeks. DAS28–ESR remission rates were 40.4% for TCZ+MTX and 34.8% for TCZ+PBO (p=0.19); American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70/90 rates were 71.5%/45.5%/24.5%/5.8% (TCZ+MTX) and 70.3%/40.2%/25.4%/5.1% (TCZ+PBO; differences not significant). A significant difference between groups was seen for low DAS28 (61.7% vs 51.4%). Radiographic progression was small and not different between groups (Genant–Sharp score progression ≤ smallest detectable change in 91% (TCZ+MTX) and 87% (TCZ+PBO)). Rates per 100 patient-years of serious adverse events and serious infections were 21 and six, respectively, for TCZ+MTX and 18 and six, respectively, for TCZ+PBO. Alanine aminotransferase elevations greater than threefold the upper limit of normal occurred in 7.8% and 1.2% of TCZ+MTX and TCZ+PBO patients, respectively. Conclusion No clinically relevant superiority of the TCZ+MTX add-on strategy over the switch to tocilizumab monotherapy strategy was observed. The combination was more commonly associated with transaminase increases. Meaningful clinical and radiographic responses were achieved with both strategies, suggesting that tocilizumab monotherapy might be a valuable treatment strategy in suitable RA patients. PMID:22562983

  14. A result on quasi-periodic solutions of a nonlinear beam equation with a quasi-periodic forcing term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Si, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a quasi-periodically forced nonlinear beam equation {u_{tt}+u_{xxxx}+μ u+\\varepsilonφ(t)h(u)=0} with hinged boundary conditions is considered, where μ > 0, {\\varepsilon} is a small positive parameter, {φ} is a real analytic quasi-periodic function in t with a frequency vector ω = ( ω 1, ω 2 . . . , ω m ), and the nonlinearity h is a real analytic odd function of the form {h(u)=η_1u+η_{2bar{r}+1}u^{2bar{r}+1}+sum_{k≥ bar{r}+1}η_{2k+1}u^{2k+1},η_1,η_{2bar{r}+1} neq0, bar{r} in {mathbb {N}}.} The above equation admits a quasi-periodic solution.

  15. Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

    Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the height’s component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillation’s amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is

  16. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  17. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  18. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  19. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  20. The Neutral Atmosphere Parameters on Measurements Using the Artificial Periodic Irregularities. Techniques, processing, results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Kalinina, Elena E.

    The measurements with the aid of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) were begun in 1990. The APIs are created in the ionosphere illuminated by a high power HF radio wave of a frequency below the critical one. The APIs diagnostics is based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio waves from the periodic structure. The amplitudes and phases of the probe signals back scattered by the APIs are measured. At the E-region heights the APIs relax in the ambipolar diffusion process. Based on this fact we could determine the neutral atmosphere parameters suggesting that the processes of isothermal on small scales (3-5 km) and the electron, ion and neutral temperatures are equal at the E-region heights. The atmospheric height scale H and the neutral atmospheric temperature T are determined on the height dependence of the relaxation times tau(z). The altitude step is about 3 km. Whole height interval of the measurements of τ is equal to about 20-30 km. Selecting small height intervals step by step we obtain altitude dependences T(z), nu(z) and rho(z). Such a way was employed because the steady state is achieved on the scales 20-30 km for a long time. We obtained a lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere. These results are presented in the report. Firstly, there were temperature profiles with minimum about 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. But in summer of 1999 temperature maximum was observed on z = 100 km. Secondary, there were often profiles with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about to 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters had periods from 15 minutes to some hours. These variations caused by the propagation of the internal gravity and tide waves. Planetary waves produce the longer temporal variations. Thirdly, we observed some cases of the instability growth. The dependencies of the atmospheric parameters on the solar and geomagnetic activity

  1. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  2. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  3. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  4. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  5. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  6. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  7. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  8. The OmegaWhite survey for short-period variable stars - I. Overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Eislöffel, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the goals, strategy and first results of the OmegaWhite survey: a wide-field high-cadence g-band synoptic survey which aims to unveil the Galactic population of short-period variable stars (with periods <80 min), including ultracompact binary star systems and stellar pulsators. The ultimate goal of OmegaWhite is to cover 400 deg2 along the Galactic plane reaching a depth of g = 21.5 mag (10σ), using OmegaCam on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The fields are selected to overlap with surveys such as the Galactic Bulge Survey and the VST Photometric Hα Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane for multiband colour information. Each field is observed using 38 exposures of 39 s each, with a median cadence of ˜2.7 min for a total duration of two hours. Within an initial 26 deg2, we have extracted the light curves of 1.6 million stars, and have identified 613 variable candidates which satisfy our selection criteria. Furthermore, we present the light curves and statistical properties of 20 sources which have the highest likelihood of being variable stars. One of these candidates exhibits the colours and light-curve properties typically associated with ultracompact AM CVn binaries, although its spectrum exhibits weak Balmer absorption lines and is thus not likely to be such a binary system. We also present follow-up spectroscopy of five other variable candidates, which identifies them as likely low-amplitude δ Sct pulsating stars.

  9. Hydrochemical monitoring results in relation to the vogtland-nw bohemian earthquake swarm period 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, H.; Bräuer, K.; Dulski, P.; Faber, E.; Koch, U.; Mrlina, J.; Strauch, G.; Weise, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Vogtland-NW Bohemian earthquake swarm area/Central Europe is characterised by carbon dioxide- rich mineral springs and mofetts. The August-December 2000 earthquake period was the strongest compared with the December 1985/86 swarms occurred in the area of Novy Kostel, Czech Republic. Here, we present first results of long-term hydrochemical monitoring studies before, during and after the 2000 swarm period. The swarm 2000 lasted from August 28 until December 26 and consisted of altogether nine sub-swarm episodes, each of them lasting for several days. At the mineral spring Wettinquelle, Bad Brambach/Germany the water chemistry and isotope (D, 18O) composition was monitored weekly and two-weekly, respectively, since May 2000. The mineral spring Wettinquelle is located in a distance of about 10 km from the epicentral area of Novy Kostel. The aim of our investigation was to look for seismic induced or seismic coupled changes of the chemical and isotope composition of the mineral water. We had to separate seismohydrological effects from seasonal and hydrological caused changes. The seasonal caused shifts were found for water temperature and alkaline elements (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) as well as for discharge, conductivity, hydrogenecarbonate- concentration, and the concentration of the alkaline earth's (Ca, Mg, Sr). Strain related anomalies which could influence the hydrogeochemistry of the mineral water seems to be visible in the iron- concentration of the spring water, in the methane- concentration of the free gas component and caused probably changes of the groundwater level of the well H3 located about 5 km SE of the Wettinquelle at Skalna.

  10. Efficacy and safety of dutasteride, tamsulosin and their combination in a subpopulation of the CombAT study: 2-year results in Asian men with moderate-to-severe BPH.

    PubMed

    Chung, B-H; Roehrborn, C G; Siami, P; Major-Walker, K; Morrill, B B; Wilson, T H; Montorsi, F

    2009-01-01

    Although ethnicity-based differences in prostate size and physiology have been reported, results of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment trials in predominantly Caucasian patients are assumed to be applicable to non-Caucasian populations. This post hoc analysis investigated whether an Asian subpopulation of men with moderate-to-severe BPH in the CombAT study achieves treatment responses in line with those of the overall study population. In this double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial, 325 Asian men were assigned to treatment with 0.5 mg dutasteride once daily, 0.4 mg tamsulosin once daily or the combination. Decrease in international prostate symptom score (IPSS) at month 24 from baseline (the primary endpoint) was significantly greater with combination treatment compared with tamsulosin (P<0.05), and numerically, but not statistically significantly, greater compared with dutasteride. Mean IPSS was reduced from baseline by 7.5 (+/-0.84) in the combination group, by 6.3 (+/-0.86) in the dutasteride group and by 4.5 (+/-0.78) in the tamsulosin group, resulting in respective mean IPSS at months 24 of 11.4 (+/-0.60), 12.7 (+/-0.70) and 14.3 (+/-0.74). The adverse event profile was similar to that observed in the overall CombAT population, and drug-related adverse events were more common with combination therapy (26%) than with tamsulosin (15%) or dutasteride (9%). No unexpected adverse events emerged. In conclusion, in Asian men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms and an enlarged prostate, combination therapy achieved significantly greater improvements from baseline BPH symptoms, flow rate, quality of life, reduced prostate volume and improved treatment satisfaction compared with tamsulosin monotherapy. PMID:18813219

  11. Time periods of GSR particles deposition after discharge-final results.

    PubMed

    Fojtásek, Lubor; Kmjec, Tomás

    2005-10-29

    The elemental objects of the research study are: determination of time periods corresponding to gunshot residue particles (GSR) deposition after the shot from selected pistols and a revolver, and evaluation of the deposited particles number. For several shooting experiments were used a pistol CZ model 85, caliber 9 mm Luger with common ammunition 9 mm Luger FMJ Sellier & Bellot, a pistol CZ model 70, caliber 7.65 mm Browning (32 ACP) with common 7.65 mm Browning FMJ Sellier & Bellot ammunition and a revolver S&W Modell 60, barell length 2-1/8'', cal. .38 Special with common Sellier&Bellot (FMJ) ammunition. The results of the study have indicated the behavior of GSR particles deposited after a single discharge. The overall time interval of GSR particles deposition and the number of deposited particles with the above mentioned arms and ammunition were established. The results can potentially be used for clarifying the situation at crime scenes and for subsequent interpretation of GSR evidential value in caseworks. PMID:16139100

  12. Is There a Critical Period for Amblyopia Therapy? Results of a Study on Older Anisometropic Amblyopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia, a common cause of low vision, is rarely treated in adults. Improvement in vision has been seen beyond the critical period at times. Hence, this study was taken up to study the effect of minimal occlusion therapy (2-4 hours/day) in anisometropic amblyopic patients in the age group of 12-30 years. Materials and Methods The study is a prospective, randomized case series of anisometropic amblyopia patients aged 12-30 years who reported in the outpatient department of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Thorough ocular examination and cycloplegic refraction was done to rule out other ocular disease. Anisometropic Amblyopia was diagnosed only after four weeks of spectacle wear. The selected patients were then advised occlusion therapy of 2-4 hours per day of better eye with stress on near visual task. Videogames, computers, mobile phone gaming and colouring in especially designed patterns were used as vision training aids. The outcome measure selected was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) achieved that remained stable for three consecutive months of occlusion. Results Sixty one patients of anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study (32 males and 29 females) aged 12-30 years (mean age 17 years). Mean BCVA at the start of treatment was 20/125 (0.8 log MAR units) and 20/32 (0.2 log MAR units) at the end of the treatment. Thirty three patients (54%) out of 61 had BCVA of 20/20, while 58 patients (95%) had ≥ 20/40 BCVA, 01(1.6%) had 20/50 and 02 (3.27%) had 20/80 BCVA at the end of therapy. The results were statistically significant (p- value <0.0001) with a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion This study clearly proves that there is no critical period for the treatment in older (12-30 years) anisometropic amblyope. Even 2-4 hours per day of occlusion of better eye with vision training thorough near visual task of amblyopic eye is effective. However, counseling and patient compliance is

  13. 2 Years of Science, One-of-a-Kind Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen years ago, Bruce A. Jackson was doing his postdoctoral work at the Boston University School of Medicine and working nights teaching at nearby Roxbury Community College. But his exhausting shuttle between two colleges was about to come to an end. Mr. Jackson, a biochemist, had recently received word from the National Science Foundation…

  14. Are symptom features of depression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period distinct? Results from a nationally representative sample using Item Response Theory (IRT)

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; López, Saioa; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M.; González-Pinto, Ana; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether there are systematic differences in depression symptom expression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside these periods (i.e., outside the peripartum period) remains debated. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine, after equating for depression severity, differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) in women of childbearing age (i.e., aged 18-50) during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. Method We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample of women of childbearing age from the USA (n = 11,256) who participated in the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Results The overall 12-month prevalence of all depressive criteria (except for worthlessness/guilt) was significantly lower in pregnant women than in women of childbearing age outside the peripartum period, whereas the prevalence of all symptoms (except for “psychomotor symptoms”) were not significantly different between the postpartum and the non-peripartum group. There were no clinically significant differences in the endorsement rates of symptoms of MDE by pregnancy status when equating for levels of depression severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the clinical presentation of depressive symptoms in women of childbearing age does not differ during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. These findings do not provide psychometric support for the inclusion of the peripartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5. PMID:25424539

  15. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  16. Long Period Variables in the LMC: Results from MACHO and 2Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Cook, K H; Keller, S C; Hawley, S L

    2004-07-19

    We use the eight year light curve database from the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) project together with infrared colors and magnitudes from 2MASS (the Two Micron All Sky Survey) to identify a sample of 22,000 long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (referred to hereafter as LMC LPVs). A period luminosity diagram of these stars reveals six well defined sequences, in substantial agreement with previous analyses of samples from OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment). In our analysis we identify analogues to galactic LPVs in the LMC LPV sample. We find that carbon dominated AGB stars populate only two of the sequences, one of which includes the Mira variables. The high luminosity end of the same two sequences are also the location of the only stars with J K{sub s} > 2, indicating that they are enshrouded in dust. The unknown mechanism that produces the variability of the last sequence--those stars with long secondary periods--produces different morphology in the period luminosity diagram than what is seen in the first four sequences, which are thought to be caused by pulsation. In particular, the last sequence extends to lower luminosity RGB stars and the luminosity function does not peak among the AGB stars. We point out several features which will constrain new models of the period luminosity sequences.

  17. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  18. Boundary conditions for creeping flow along periodic or random rough surfaces : experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions between particles and walls are relevant for the open problem of specifying boundary conditions for suspension flows. The Reynolds number around a small particle close to a wall is usually low and creeping flow equations apply. From the solution of these equations, the drag coefficient on a sphere becomes infinite when the gap between the sphere and a smooth wall vanishes, so that contact may not occur. Physically, the drag is finite because of various reasons, one of them being the particle and wall roughness. Then, for vanishing gap, even though some layers of fluid molecules may be left between the particle and wall roughness peaks, it may conventionally be said that contact occurs. In this paper, we are considering the example of a smooth sphere moving towards a rough wall. The roughness considered here consist of random rough planes or parallel periodic wedges, the characteristic length of which is small compared with the sphere radius. This problem is considered both experimentally and theoretically. The motion of a millimetre size bead settling towards a corrugated horizontal wall in a viscous oil is measured with laser interferometry giving an accuracy on the displacement of 0.2μm. Several random rough planes and wedge shaped walls were used, with various wavelengths and wedge angles. From the results, it is observed that the velocity of the sphere is, except for small gaps, similar to that towards a smooth plane that is shifted down from the top of corrugations. For the periodic wedges, the creeping flow is calculated as a series in the slope of the roughness grooves. The convergence of the series for the shift distance in term of the slope is accelerated by use of Euler transformation and of the existence of a limit for large slope. The cases of a flow along and across the grooves are considered separately. The shift is larger in the former case. Slightly flattened tops of the wedges used in experiments are also considered in

  19. [Quality of results of therapy of acute respiratory failure : changes over a period of two decades].

    PubMed

    Briegel, I; Dolch, M; Irlbeck, M; Hauer, D; Kaufmann, I; Schelling, G

    2013-04-01

    Progress in intensive care (ICU) treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over the last 20 years includes the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for CO2 removal and the widespread use of evidence-based lung-protective ventilatory strategies. Little is known, however, about whether these changes have resulted in improvements in short-term and long-term outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) within the two decades after introduction. In a retrospective study 167 long-term survivors of severe ARDS who were transferred to the clinic for anesthesiology of the University of Munich, Campus Großhadern by means of specialized intensive care unit (ICU) transport teams and treated over a period of 20 years (1985-2005) were evaluated to investigate whether significant improvements in outcome as a consequence of the above mentioned progress in ARDS therapy have occurred. The ARDS patient cohort studied was characterized with regard to demographic variables, initial acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, duration of ICU treatment, the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Data on long-term outcome were collected in a subcohort (n = 125) of patients who responded to mailed questionnaires and included health-related quality of life (HRQL, SF-36 questionnaire), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic memories from ICU treatment (PTSS-10 instrument) and current state of employment. During the observation period no significant changes regarding patient age (39 ± 16 years, mean ± SD), disease severity on admission to the ICU (APACHE II scores 22 ± 5), duration of ICU treatment (47 ± 39 days) or duration of mechanical ventilation (39 ± 38 days) were found. Overall ICU mortality during the two decades was 37.3 % (range 25.0 %-38.1 %) between 1995 and 2001 and a non-significant increase in values between 36.8 % and 58.3 % during the time interval from 2002 und 2005. The

  20. CULP (California Union List of Periodicals) 1980 User Survey Results. PN-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This survey of California libraries was conducted to gather information on the use of the California Union List of Periodicals (CULP), a microfiche finding list for serials held in all kinds of libraries statewide, exept for those held by major academic institutions. Returned by 391 of 696 libraries in October 1980, the survey questionnaire was…

  1. Saturn's periodicities: New results from an MHD simulation of magnetospheric response to rotating ionospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work we demonstrated that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in which periodicity is imposed by rotating vortical flows in the ionosphere reproduces many reported periodically varying properties of the system. Here we shall show that previously unreported features of the MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere illuminate additional measured properties of the system. By averaging over a rotation period, we identify a global electric field whose magnitude is a few tenths of a mV/m (see Figure 1). The electric field intensity decreases with radial distance in the middle magnetosphere, consistent with drift speeds v=E/B of a few km/s towards the morning side and relatively independent of radial distance. The electric field within 10 RS in the equatorial plane is oriented from post-noon to post-midnight, in excellent agreement with observations [e.g., Thomsen et al., 2012; Andriopoulou et al., 2012, 2013; Wilson et al., 2013]. By following the electric field over a full rotation phase we identify oscillatory behavior whose magnitude is consistent with the reported fluctuations of measured electric fields. Of particular interest is the nature of the fast mode perturbations that produce periodic displacement of the magnetopause and flapping of the current sheet. Figure (2) shows the total perturbation pressure (the sum of magnetic and thermal pressure) in the equatorial plane at a rotation phase for which the ionospheric flow near noon is equatorward. By following the perturbations over a full rotation period, we demonstrate properties of the fast mode wave launched by the rotating flow structures and thereby characterize the 'cam' signal originally proposed by Espinosa et al. [2003].

  2. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  3. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331

  4. Displacement reactions in the Ni-Al-O system resulting in periodic layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Song, D.W.; Subramanian, R.; Dieckmann, R.

    1995-10-01

    Displacement reactions may play an important role in in situ processing technologies for the production of metal-ceramic composites. To better understand such reactions displacement reactions between NiO and Al were studied at high temperatures. Different reaction layers with periodic structures were observed involving Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, Ni and Al. The experimental observations are presented and discussed with regard to the reaction mechanism.

  5. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  6. Lateral resonances in 1{endash}3 piezoelectric periodic composite: Modeling and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Certon, D.; Patat, F.; Levassort, F.; Feuillard, G.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to provide an accurate model of the lateral resonance modes in 1{endash}3 piezoelectric composite materials. These materials are widely used in ultrasonic transducers and the lowest lateral mode frequency gives the upper limit for the usable transducer bandwidth. Considering the propagation of purely transverse waves in a 2-D periodic medium of infinite thickness, two different approaches for obtaining the solutions are presented and compared. The first approach is based on the use of the Bloch waves theory. The second is a straightforward method (a so-called membrane method) which consists in numerically solving the propagation equation in the two-phase medium while taking into account the periodic boundary conditions. Methods based on both models are described that allow the calculation of the dispersion curves and the stop band limits, as well as the frequencies and the displacement fields of the lateral modes. A test case is used to compare and discuss the theoretical predictions provided by each model. The calculations of the first lateral mode frequency are compared with experimental values obtained for samples with different ceramic volume fractions. The conclusion reached indicates that the infinite thickness assumption is valid for plates of practical interest and that the membrane model enables the prediction of lateral mode frequency with low computation effort and an accuracy better than 5{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  7. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  8. Results of magnetic measurements of ELF fields in Tomsk for the period 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. A.; Kolesnik, S. A.; Nedosekov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes a method of magnetic measurements of natural electromagnetic fields ELF range. The results of the analysis of the frequency characteristics of fashion Schumann resonances in a suburban area in the seasonally-daily cycle of observations.

  9. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  10. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  11. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  12. Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

  13. A new paleointensity result deduced for the Oligocene period fromQatrani basalt, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    We have conducted paleodirection and paleointensity measurements of basalt flows from Qatrani basalt, Egypt. Published age of Qatrani basat is 25±2 Ma. Various rock magnetic analyses indicate that the main magnetic carriers of samples are one phase of pure magnetite (Ti-poor titanomagnetites), which have pseudo single domain (PSD) sizes. Directional analysis of the Oligocene basalts is very straightforward and updated mean VGPs have been calculated from the Qatrani (68N, 90E; Kappa=274; A95=1.8) which is coincide with the previous Oligocene paleomagnetic studies. The Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) method yielded five successful results of 12.9-17.5 μTfrom two sites, giving one acceptable site-mean paleointensityof 15.5 μT with a standard deviation of 1.8 μTat the 25±2Ma. In terms of a dipole moment, an average VDM is calculated to be 2.7×1022A m2with a standard deviation of 1.29×1022Am2. This is the first result from Egypt, and is associated with a reasonably high QPI value (Biggin and Paterson, 2015) of 5. The newly obtained VDM is indistinguishable from an average VDM of 3.55×1022Am2with a standard deviation of 0.67×1022Am2 calculated from theselected 65 site-mean Thellier paleointensity data from the latest paleointensity database, and is about third of the present geomagnetic dipole moment (˜8×1022 Am2).

  14. Clinical and functional results after the rehabilitation period in minimally-invasive unicondylar knee arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Susanne; Rolauffs, Bernd; Plaumann, Thorsten; Tibesku, Carsten O; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and functional outcome after minimally-invasive implantation of a Repicci-type unicompartmental sledge prosthesis . In 29 patients with primary unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis, 29 replacements of the medial compartment and four of the lateral compartment were performed using the minimally-invasive technique with the metal-backed and the all-polyethylene versions of the Repicci sledge prosthesis. Electromyography (EMG) of standardized locations was measured with the MyoSystem 2000 and analyzed with Myoresearch software. Gait analysis was performed with a six-camera motion analysis system and force platforms. Established clinical and quality of life (SF-36) scores were used to compare patients with 11 healthy age-matched individuals. The Repicci sledge prosthesis led postoperatively to functional results that were in the range of healthy joints, and superior to sledge prostheses of a different design. Gait and balance parameters were comparable to the control group, whilst electromyographically lower amplitudes were found in the patients than the controls and in the operated legs as compared to the non-operated legs. Many parameters of quality of life and activity were comparable to age-matched healthy individuals, and quality of life was superior to total knee replacement. When implanted using a minimally-invasive technique and with suitable patient selection, the Repicci sledge led to functional results comparable to those of healthy joints and gait parameters comparable to those of healthy individuals. The level of evidence is Level III, retrospective cohort study. PMID:15175850

  15. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  16. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  17. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY...

  18. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  19. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  20. Age-related light scattering in rat lenses observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    from the posttreatment period confirmed the results of the 2-year study. The depth of the anterior chamber increased constantly over the 2.5-year period, but again, treatment did not affect this. This study provided completely new data on age-related light scattering in the cornea and in defined layers of the lens in long-term toxicity studies in Wistar rats. PMID:12381887

  1. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0–5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0–5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  2. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  3. Joint inversion of displacement and gravity changes at Mt. Etna volcano during the 1995-2000 period: results and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Jose; Camacho, Antonio; Carbone, Daniele; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Persistent inflation and long-period gravity fluctuations were observed at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the time interval bounded by the 1991-93 and 2001 main flank eruptions. Past studies suggest that, since 1993 and before the 2001 eruption, a large amount of magma was stored at depth. Until now, a joint inversion of displacement and gravity data has not been performed. We carry out simultaneous inversion of gravity, GNSS and Advanced Differential InSAR displacement data covering the 1995-2000 period. Our inversion scheme uses bodies with a 3D free geometry to determine the best-fitting configuration of pressure and density sources. Results provide new insight into the shallow plumbing system of Etna. Inflation pressure sources are located below the northwestern flank, at depths of 4-6 km, while a mass source is located in a shallower position below the SE flank. Mass increases and decreases are observed without significant associated deformation. The neat separation between mass and pressure sources is a key feature to understand the processes which controlled the activity of Mt Etna during the studied period.

  4. The main results of the long-term measurements of the neutral atmosphere parameters by the artificial periodic irregularities techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennady I.; Kalinina, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the atmospheric parameter determination by the method of artificial periodic irregularities (the API techniques) at the E-region heights obtained during many years of the observation are presented. The features of the obtaining data, their processing and the determination of the atmospheric parameters are given in details. A lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere has been obtained. There are often height profiles of the atmospheric parameters with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters take place with the periods from 15 min to some hours. Such variations could be caused by the passage of the internal gravity waves (IGWs) and the tide waves. The temperature minima were observed as 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. The instability growth is also observed in the number of cases. The dependence of the neutral temperature and the density on solar and geomagnetic activity is not found.

  5. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  6. [Relationship between the intensity of gynecologic supervision during the postpartum period and fertility results in dairy cow herds].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Maurer, G

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of regular post-partum gynaecological care in the dairy cow can only be correctly evaluated if cows with a normal post-partum period and those with problems during this time are distinguished. From 1,125 dairy cows being fed a high proportion of maize silage it was shown that gynaecological examinations on days 12, 28 and 40 post-partum had a positive effect on herd fertility. Regular checks resulted in significant reductions in the calving to conception interval, the insemination index and in the percentage culled due to fertility problems in comparison to the control animals (n = 451) where veterinary control took place only occasionally. In particular the early detection and treatment of endometritis and ovary function abnormalities contributed to a high conception rate with appropriate calving interval. The administration of GnRH (20 micrograms Buserelin) to cows with problems in the post-partum period and under continuous gynaecological supervision resulted in improvements in only some aspects (uterine involution, ovarian cyst incidence). The conception rates in the treated group and in the intensively controlled group were the same. PMID:2124734

  7. Exenatide once weekly treatment maintained improvements in glycemic control and weight loss over 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The once-weekly (QW) formulation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide has been demonstrated to improve A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, serum lipid profiles, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes through 52 weeks of treatment. In this report, we describe the 2-year results of the open-label, open-ended extension to the DURATION-1 trial of exenatide QW for type 2 diabetes. Methods A 2-stage protocol was used: patients received either exenatide QW (2 mg) or exenatide twice daily for 30 weeks (5 μg for the first 4 weeks and 10 μg thereafter), followed by 1.5 years of treatment with exenatide QW (2 mg), for a total of 2 years (104 weeks) of exenatide treatment. Of the 295 (intent-to-treat [ITT]) patients who entered the trial, 73% (n = 216) completed 2 years of treatment (completer population). Baseline characteristics (mean ± SE) for these patients were: A1C, 8.2 ± 0.1%; FPG, 168.4 ± 43.0 mg/dL; body weight, 101.1 ± 18.7 kg; and diabetes duration, 7 ± 5 years. Results In the completer population, significant improvements (LS mean ± SE [95% CI]) were maintained after 2 years of treatment in A1C (-1.71 ± 0.08% [-1.86 to -1.55%]), FPG (-40.1 ± 2.9 mg/dL [-45.7 to -34.5 mg/dL]), and body weight (-2.61 ± 0.52 kg [-3.64 to -1.58 kg]) compared with baseline. The percentages of patients who achieved an A1C of <7.0% and ≤6.5% at 2 years were 60% and 39%, respectively. A significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP; -3.0 ± 1.0 mmHg [-4.9 to -1.1 mmHg]) was maintained through 2 years of treatment. Serum lipid profiles were also significantly improved, including triglycerides (geometric LS mean change from baseline, -15 ± 2.7% [-21% to -10%]), total cholesterol (-8.6 ± 2.8 mg/dL [-14.0 to -3.1 mg/dL]), and low-density lipoproteins (-4.5 ± 2.2 mg/dL [-8.9 to -0.01 mg/dL]). Changes in A1C, body weight, FPG, SBP, and lipids in the ITT population were similar to those seen in the completer

  8. The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C.

    1995-03-01

    A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

  9. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  10. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  11. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  12. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  13. Reactions Following Completion of 1 and 2 Year Multidrug Therapy (MDT)

    PubMed Central

    Balagon, Ma. Victoria F.; Gelber, Robert H.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Cellona, Roland V.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence, severity, and duration of reactional states in 139 multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients in the first 2 years after the completion of the 1 year regimen of multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and compared those findings with 295 MB leprosy patients treated with the same regimen previously recommended for 2 years. During the first year after the completion of 1 year MDT, patients experienced 1 or more reactional states 27% of the time, the vast majority being lepra type 1 reactions (reversal reactions, RR), whereas patients who received 2 year MDT experienced a reactional state during that time period only 8% of the time (P < 0.001). Furthermore, during the first year after the completion of therapy, and during the first 2 years, both the number of reactional states and reversal reactions were significantly (P ≤ 0.004) more frequent, severe, of longer duration, and more commonly associated with neuritis. PMID:20810832

  14. Radiostereometric migration analysis of the Cerafit femoral stem: 28 patients followed for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Tschunko, Franz; Wagner, Benedikt; Hong, Yutong; Söder, Stephan; Wölfel, Rainer; Müller, Lutz A; Forst, Raimund; Sesselmann, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard evaluating micromovements after total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to investigate the migratory pattern of an uncemented femoral stem during the first 2 years after surgery. We followed 28 patients with a mean age of 57 (SD 13) years for the first two postoperative years. Radiostereometric analysis was used to measure the translation and rotation of the femoral component. The Harris hip score (HHS) was determined to evaluate the clinical outcome. No stem had to be revised. The mean HHS advanced from 35 (SD 11) preoperative to 89 (SD 10) 1 year after surgery. At the end of the observation period, mean subsidence of the stem was 0.26 mm (SD 0.82). Maximum total point motion (MTPM) was 1.23 mm (SD 1.22). The main distal migration took place up to 6 weeks after surgery with nearly no further subsidence up to 2 years postoperatively. All the measured migrations of the hip stem were very small. Results of the HHS demonstrate good clinical outcome. Long-term RSA is necessary to assess possible late migration of the Cerafit standard femoral stem. PMID:25996482

  15. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  16. A phonological system at 2 years after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    CHIN, STEVEN B.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a description of a developing phonological system as manifested in the productions of a prelingually deafened child approximately 2 years after fitting with a Nucleus 22-Channel Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. A probe list consisting of 23 proper nouns familiar to the child was used to elicit samples of her speech; stimulus materials consisted of photographs of those persons (friends and family members) whose names were included in the probe list. Analysis of the child's productions addressed the composition of the phonetic inventory of consonants and vowels and the presence of syllable structure and other phonotactic constraints. Results indicated a rich inventory of speech sound segments (among both consonants and vowels) and a lack of stringent constraints on syllable structure and consonants permitted in specified word positions. A further comparative analysis of correspondences with the ambient language showed a number of patterns that are also common in the speech of children with normal hearing. PMID:22091697

  17. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A Text Size ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  18. Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity.

    PubMed

    He, Ling-jie; Liu, Nan; Cheng, Tian-lin; Chen, Xiao-jing; Li, Yi-ding; Shu, You-sheng; Qiu, Zi-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2(-/y)) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experience-dependent cortical plasticity. PMID:25297674

  19. [Arthroplasty of the cervical disks using artificial prodisc C(tm) in 54 patients with 2-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Sukhomel, P; Byval'tsev, V A

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study was to analyze results of arthroplasty using artificial discs Prodisc C(tm) ("Synthes, Inc., Paoli, PA) during a 2-year period. 54 patients with degenerative cervical disk disease were included in the study. 65 artificial disks Prodisc C(tm) were implanted. Results were assessed by neurological examination, neuroradiological techniques and Neck Disability Index (NDI). Significance of differences in parameters was evaluated using Student and Fischer tests (p < 0.05). Results of treatment were the following parameters: timing of surgery--82 minutes, blood loss--81 ml, hospital stay--4 days. Significant decrease of frequency and intensity of pain in cervical spine and upper extremities was observed after surgery (according to Visual Analog Scale (VAS) data). VAS assessment revealed discovered reduction of cervical pain severity from 4.5 to 2.8 points and its frequency from 6.1 to 3.2 points, and intensity of pain in arms decreased from 5.6 to 2.5 points while frequency changed from 7.0 to 2.7 points. 2-year of postoperative follow-up discovered decrease of NDI from 32 to 22. Full preservation of movement range in operated segments after 2 years was observed in 76.9% patients, stage 0, I and II limitation of movements--in 15.4%, absence of movements (stage IV)--in 7.7% (p < 0.05). Spontaneous heterotopy of bone tissue after implantation of artificial disks was encountered in 61.5% cases (stages I-IV) (p < 0.05). 2 intraoperative complications (splitting of vertebral body during insertion of implant) occurred. Arthroplasty using artificial disks Prodisc C(tm) is a perspective innovation of modem spinal surgery. Analysis of results of treatment during 2-year follow-up demonstrates necessity of further investigations in this area of neurosurgery. PMID:19062591

  20. ATLAS Detector Performance status, improvements during winter 2010 shutdown and results with initial 2011 data taking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benekos, Nektarios Chr

    2012-02-01

    After the successful 2010 LHC run, where the ATLAS detector recorder 45pb-1 of proton-proton collision data with 93.6% data taking efficiency and during the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. Maintenance on the Muon Spectrometer included repairs on the readout system as well as updates and leak checks in the gas system. Six TGC chambers have been also replaced. For the Calorimeters, repairs were carried out on the front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that have been lost since the last maintenance period. Repairs were also performed on the Inner Detector, but at a smaller scale. Finally the ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is being commissioned. This talk summarizes the above repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of the ATLAS for the 2011 LHC run.

  1. Results of the Tiegcm and the Peak Height Disturbance Models on the Occasion of Selected Magnetically Disturbed Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania; Marsal, Santiago

    The AMPERE-driven Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the ionospheric peak height disturbances model have been used to analyze the ionospheric effects at global and local scales. The AMPERE-driven TIEGCM has been newly improved with auroral conductivities consistent with field-aligned currents provided by the AMPERE satellite mission. Both models are validated using real ionosonde and ground magnetic data on the occasion of recent magnetically active periods.

  2. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  3. Observations of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Over India During the Asian Summer Monsoon Period: Results from CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from onboard a long-range commercial airliner. Since December 2004, flights for the second phase of CARIBIC have been aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 traveling between Frankfurt, Germany and destinations in Asia, North America and South America. The instrument package housed in the container (1.5 ton) is fully automated and during each monthly set of flights carries out a variety of real-time trace gas and aerosol measurements, and also collects 28 air samples, which are analyzed upon return to the laboratory. Routine measurements made from the sampling flasks include non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis, and these measurements provide the basis for the data presented here. Between April and September of 2008, the container was deployed monthly on two sequential roundtrip flights between Frankfurt and Chennai, India. To achieve greater resolution, air samples were collected only on the first of the roundtrip flights, with 14 samples collected on the flight to Chennai and 14 collected on the return. These flights provided the opportunity to study the composition of the upper troposphere in this region during the Asian summer monsoon period (typically June-September), which is characterized by anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere coupled with deep convection. Samples collected during the monsoon period exhibit elevated levels of NMHCs relative to samples collected outside of the monsoon period, with enhancements in ethyne and benzene being more substantial than enhancements in the alkanes. Enhanced mixing ratios are observed between 15N and 40N, and correspond to enhancements in other trace gases, namely methane and CO. Ethyne in particular is strongly correlated with both methane and CO in this region

  4. Results of Groundwater Monitoring for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins Reporting Period: July-December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2007-04-10

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act monitoring at the 183 H basins. It fulfills a requirement of WAC 173-303-645(11)(g) to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from July through December 2006. The current objective of corrective action monitoring is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current RCRA permit and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends.

  5. Environmental Modifications and 2-Year Measured and Self-reported Stair-Use: A Worksite Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Cousins, Julie M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental modifications have been shown to increase short-term stair use, longer-term success is unclear. This study assessed the 2-year effectiveness of an environmental intervention promoting worksite stair use. We assessed stair use at work by means of self-reports and infrared beam counters (which send a safe and invisible beam of infrared light from one side of a stairwell to a reflector on the other side; when an individual uses the stairs, the infrared beam is disrupted and an instance of stair use is recorded) at six worksites (three intervention, three control) in a group randomized, controlled worksite weight-gain prevention trial in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Intervention modifications were signs encouraging stair use, music, and art posters in stairwells. We collected data before environmental modifications (2006–2007) and at the end of the 2-year intervention (2008–2009). The intervention had a significant positive effect on stair use measured both objectively and via self-report, with greatest increases reported among those participants who used the stairs least at baseline. Following 2-years of continuously-maintained stairwell modifications, increases in both objectively-measured and self-reported stair use were significantly larger at intervention than control worksites. Study findings suggest that the positive impact of environmental modifications on stair use persist over a longer time period than has been previously demonstrated. Results also indicate that infrequent stair users may be most amenable to the behavior changes encouraged by these environmental enhancements. PMID:23979097

  6. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  7. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  8. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  9. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: precipitation measurements, retrieval techniques and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvio Marzano, Frank; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Ferretti, Rossella; Gatlin, Patrick.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.org/) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological site in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within CI region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area. The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  10. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  11. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKinlay, Christopher J.D.; Alsweiler, Jane M.; Ansell, Judith M.; Anstice, Nicola S.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D.; Harris, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Results Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, <47 mg per deciliter). Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P = 0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P = 0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. Conclusions In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  12. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years. PMID:22007002

  13. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  14. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2010-30554, published on December 7, 2010, at 75 FR 76082, make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery...

  15. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  16. Detection of Flare Stars in TAOS 2-year Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.-I.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Wang, J.-H.; King, S.-K.; Wen, C. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Coehlo, N. K.; Mondal, S.; Axelrod, T.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S. Y.

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed 2 years of data from the Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS, Lehner et al. 2009), accumulated during 2005 and 2006, and found 3 flare stars. All of them are known x-ray sources. Among the detected flare stars, 1RXS J044712.8+203809 shows three recurrences of flare events within a month.

  17. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  18. How many well-baby visits are necessary in the first 2 years of life?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J. R.; Feldman, W.; Siegel, L. S.; Mills, D. A.; Dunnett, C.; Stoddart, G.

    1984-01-01

    Since we could find no scientific basis for the 10 well-baby visits recommended in the first 2 years of life in Ontario, we carried out a randomized trial in 570 healthy, low-risk newborns to determine the efficacy and safety of decreasing the number of scheduled well-baby visits from 10 to 5. Among the 466 babies still in the trial at the end of the study period those in the 10-visit group had had a mean of 7.63 scheduled and 0.26 unscheduled well-baby visits and those in the 5-visit group a mean of 4.77 scheduled and 1.42 unscheduled well-baby visits. Reducing the recommended number of visits did not result in an increased incidence of illness or an increased prevalence of undetected abnormality, and the physical development of the babies in the two groups was almost identical. The mean scores of the two groups in assessments of mental development, maternal-child relations, maternal anxiety and parental satisfaction with health care were close. The results suggest that the recommended number of well-baby visits for healthy, low-risk newborns can be reduced to five for children of multiparas and six for children of primiparas. Any additional well-baby visits should be scheduled according to the needs and experience of the parents. PMID:6704838

  19. Lumbar disc replacement: preliminary results with ProDisc II after a minimum follow-up period of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, Patrick; Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Marnay, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Total disc replacement has the potential to replace fusion as the gold standard surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. Potential advantages of disc replacement over fusion include avoidance of pseudarthrosis, postoperative orthoses, and junctional degeneration. After observing satisfactory clinical results at 7-11 years' follow-up with the ProDisc first-generation implant, a second-generation prosthesis was designed. This study is a prospective analysis of the early results of total disc replacement with the ProDisc II total disc prosthesis. Fifty-three patients had single-level or multilevel disc replacement and were evaluated clinically and radiographically preoperatively and at mean 1.4-year follow-up. There were clinically and statistically significant improvements in back and leg pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry disability scores that were maintained at final follow-up. The clinical results of patients with single- and multilevel surgery were equivalent. Satisfactory results were achieved in 90% of patients who had previous lumbar surgery. Complications occurred in 9% of patients and included vertebral body fracture, transient radicular pain, implant malposition, and transient retrograde ejaculation. Three patients (6%) required reoperation to address complications. No mechanical failure of the implants or loosening was observed, and the prostheses retained motion. Randomized, prospective, long-term studies will be necessary to compare the effectiveness of arthrodesis with total disc replacement. PMID:12902952

  20. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  1. A Higher Cardiothoracic Ratio Is Associated with 2-Year Mortality after Hemodialysis Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kiyonori; Ookawara, Susumu; Ueda, Yuichiro; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Yamada, Hodaka; Goto, Sawako; Ishii, Hiroki; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Kitano, Taisuke; Hirai, Keiji; Yoshida, Masashi; Kaku, Yoshio; Hoshino, Taro; Nabata, Aoi; Mori, Honami; Yoshida, Izumi; Kakei, Masafumi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Tabei, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    A high cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) is indicative of a cardiac disorder. However, few reports have revealed an association between the CTR and mortality in patients starting hemodialysis (HD). Methods Patients with HD initiation (n = 387; mean age, 66.7 ± 12.7 years) were divided into the following three groups according to their CTR at HD initiation: CTR <50%, 50% ≤ CTR < 55%, and CTR ≥55%. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare 2-year all-cause mortality among these groups. Furthermore, we investigated the factors affecting their 2-year mortality using a Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Results Sixty-five patients (17%) died within 2 years after HD initiation. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with CTR ≥55% had a higher mortality rate than those in the other groups. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed using parameters with p values <0.1 among these three groups [sex, age, presence or absence of ischemic heart disease, hemoglobin levels, serum albumin levels, CTR, body mass index (BMI)] and confounding factors [presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)]. Age, eGFR, BMI, and CTR ≥55% at HD initiation were identified as factors influencing 2-year mortality. Conclusion CTR >55% is one of the most important independent factors to affect 2-year all-cause mortality. Thus, confirming the cardiac condition of patients at HD initiation with a CTR >55% may improve their survival. PMID:26951636

  2. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  3. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that required 2 years for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Isoniazid (H) or rifampicin (R) mono-resistant disease can be treated easily and effectively with first-line drugs, while combined H and R resistance (ie, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB)) requires treatment with at least four agents, including a quinolone and an injectable agent. Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are reported to be extremely difficult to cultivate invitro. The authors report a case of MDRTB that required 2 years for diagnosis, and was detected only in sputum culture on solid medium. Physicians should consider MDRTB if TB is suspected but pathogens are not detected. PMID:22605803

  4. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  5. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  6. Impact of Living Environment on 2-Year Mortality in Elderly Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. Methods A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Results Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography. PMID:24058552

  7. Evolution of nonspecific duodenal lymphocytosis over 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giangaspero, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Buffelli, Francesca; Giorgio, Floriana; Montenegro, Lucia; Sorrentino, Claudia; Amoruso, Annacinzia; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the evolution of duodenal lymphocytosis (DL), a condition characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy/histology for abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness or other extraintestinal features compatible with celiac disease (CD) were included. Evaluation of IELs infiltrate in duodenal biopsy samples was carried out by CD3-immunohistochemistry and expressed as number of positive cells/100 enterocytes. Diagnostic agreement on the IELs count was tested by calculating the weighted k coefficient. All patients underwent serological detection of autoantibodies associated with CD: IgG and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Each patient underwent further investigations to clarify the origin of DL at baseline and/or in the course of 2 years of follow-up every six months. Autoimmune thyroiditis, intestinal infections, parasitic diseases, bacterial intestinal overgrowth, hypolactasia and wheat allergy were detected. Colonoscopy and enteric magnetic resonance imaging were performed when necessary. Risk factors affecting the final diagnosis were detected by multinomial logistic regression and expressed as OR. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (16 males, 69 females, aged 34.1 ± 12.5 years) were followed up for a mean period of 21.7 ± 11.7 mo. At baseline, endoscopy/duodenal biopsy, CD3 immunohistochemistry revealed: > 25 IELs/100 enterocytes in 22 subjects, 15-25 IELs in 37 and < 15 IELs in 26. They all had negative serum anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium, whilst 5 showed IgG anti-gliadin positivity. In the course of follow-up, 23 developed CD seropositivity and gluten sensitivity (GS) was identified in 19. Other diagnoses were: 5 Helicobacter pylori infections, 4 jejunal Crohn’s disease, 1 lymphocytic colitis and 1 systemic sclerosis. The disease in the remaining 32 patients was classified as irritable bowel syndrome because of the lack

  8. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  9. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. PMID:26865423

  10. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

  11. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    the BMRCS treatment were likely because of a reduction in fill, whereas the increased intakes in the postpartum period in cows fed the BMRCS were either because of the higher intakes during the prepartum period or because of a reduction in fill limitations in the postpartum period. The carryover response in wk 4 to 15 may have resulted from cows that received BMRCS during the transition period being in a more positive nutrient balance than cows fed CCS. The results of this study indicate the importance that digestible NDF can have in transition diets and the long-term production responses that can occur when intake is increased in the transition period. PMID:22959939

  12. Ankle Sprain Injuries: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Female Greek Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2007-01-01

    Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995

  13. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  14. Rapid fast-mapping abilities in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Chad; Halberda, Justin

    2011-05-01

    Learning a new word consists of two primary tasks that have often been conflated into a single process: referent selection, in which a child must determine the correct referent of a novel label, and referent retention, which is the ability to store this newly formed label-object mapping in memory for later use. In addition, children must be capable of performing these tasks rapidly and repeatedly as they are frequently exposed to novel words during the course of natural conversation. Here we used a preferential pointing task to investigate 2-year-olds' (N=72) ability to infer the referent of a novel noun from a single ambiguous exposure and their ability to retain this mapping over time. Children were asked to identify the referent of a novel label on six critical trials distributed throughout the course of a 10-min study involving many familiar and novel objects. On these critical trials, images of a known object and a novel object (e.g., a ball and a nameless artifact constructed in the laboratory) appeared on two computer screens and a voice asked children to "point at the _____ [e.g., glark]." Following label onset, children were allowed only 3s during which to infer the correct referent, point at it, and potentially store this new word-object mapping. In a final posttest trial, all previously labeled novel objects appeared and children were asked to point to one of them (e.g., "Can you find the glark?"). To succeed, children needed to have initially mapped the novel labels correctly and retained these mappings over the course of the study. Despite the difficult demands of the current task, children successfully identified the target object on the retention trial. We conclude that 2-year-olds are able to fast map novel nouns during a brief single exposure under ambiguous labeling conditions. PMID:21145067

  15. SSPS-CRS first period of operation: preliminary operation results, experiences, and events. IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project SR4

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, W.

    1984-05-01

    Some lessons learned from operating the SSPS-CRS plant for over one and a half years are presented and major results from the evaluation of plant performance data are provided. Meteorological conditions at the site during the period of operation are described, including insolation, wind, temperatures, precipitation, and a thunderstorm. The performance of the heliostat field system, receiver, sodium heat transfer system, and power conversion system is discussed, and results are given of heliostat flux measurements, receiver efficiencies and losses, sodium heat transfer system losses, heat transfer system performance and efficiency. (LEW)

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and caudal epidural injections in managing post lumbar surgery syndrome: 2-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature is replete with evaluations of failed surgery, illustrating a 9.5%–25% reoperation rate. Speculated causes of post lumbar surgery syndrome include epidural fibrosis, acquired stenosis, recurrent disc herniation, sacroiliac joint pain, and facet joint pain among other causes. Methods Patients (n = 120) were randomly assigned to two groups with a 2-year follow-up. Group I (control group, n = 60) received caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic (lidocaine 2%, 5 mL), nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg, 1 mL), and 6 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Group II (intervention group, n = 60) received percutaneous adhesiolysis of the targeted area, with targeted delivery of lidocaine 2% (5 mL), 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution (6 mL), and nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg). The multiple outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale, the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0, employment status, and opioid intake with assessments at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months posttreatment. Primary outcome was defined as 50% improvement in pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores. Results Significant improvement with at least 50% relief with pain and improvement in functional status was illustrated in 82% of patients at the 2-year follow-up in the intervention group compared to 5% in the control group receiving caudal epidural injections. The average number of procedures over a period of 2 years in Group II was 6.4 ± 2.35 with overall total relief of approximately 78 weeks out of 104 weeks. Conclusion The results of this study show significant improvement in 82% of patients over a period of 2 years with an average of six to seven procedures of 1-day percutaneous adhesiolysis in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. PMID:23293536

  17. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  18. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model. PMID:15645436

  19. Efficacy of Salvage Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Postradical Prostatectomy Patients With PSA Relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) as salvage treatment for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Seventy-five patients with PSA relapse after RP were treated with salvage RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. AS started within 1 month after completion of salvage RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate including freedom from PSA relapse was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. PSA relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Results: Median age of the cohort was 63 years at the time of salvage RT. Median follow-up from salvage RT was 6.4 years. All achieved initially complete PSA response (< 0.2) with the protocol treatment. Relapse-free rate including the freedom from PSA relapse was 91.5% at 5 years and 78.6% at 7 years. Overall survival rate was 93.2% at both 5 and 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, pT3 stage and PSA relapse less than 2 years after RP were significant prognostic factors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of salvage RT plus 2-year AS yielded an encouraging result for patients with PSA relapse after RP and needs a confirmatory study.

  20. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development: Option 2 Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Option 2 Year from December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1997. The Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides products and deliverable in the form of models, data bases, methodologies, studies and analyses for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PPO3) the Program Plans and Requirements Officer (PP02), and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Progress reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section TV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work accomplishments, deliverables submitted, major meetings held, and other pertinent information. This Final Report will summarize these activities at higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 29,830 man-hours in tile performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work and reported oil in this yearly Final Report. This represents approximately 16 full-time EPs. Included are the basis Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Chicago, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  1. New geoscience teachers division for 2-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, Debra; Granshaw, Frank

    2011-11-01

    The role of 2-year colleges (2YCs) in geoscience education is growing as the number of students enrolled in Earth and space science courses increases and as these institutions—which include community colleges and junior colleges—provide more students majoring in geoscience at public universities. In recognition of the increasing role of 2YCs in geoscience education, the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) recently created a Geo2YC division for faculty, administrators, graduate students, and other geoscience professionals who share a professional interest in geoscience education at 2YCs. The mission of the new division, which is NAGT's first national division, is to serve as a forum for exchanging curricular ideas, concerns, and resources; establish a network of geoscience educators at 2YCs and other institutions with shared interests; sponsor NAGT 2YC activities and make recommendations to the NAGT Council in support of 2YC geoscience education; support and coordinate research on 2YC geoscience education; and advocate for 2YC geoscience education within NAGT and with other organizations.

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease in Children Younger Than 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Bush, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a highly heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of chILD remains limited, important advances have recently been made, the most important being probably the appreciation that disorders that present in early life are distinct from those occurring in older children and adults, albeit with some overlap. chILD manifests with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, making exclusion of common conditions presenting in a similar fashion an essential preliminary step. Subsequently, a systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history and physical examination, computed tomography of the chest, and some or all of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, genetic testing, and if diagnostic uncertainty persists, lung biopsy. This review focuses on chILD presenting in infants younger than 2 years of age and discusses recent advances in the classification, diagnostic approach, and management of chILD in this age range. We describe novel genetic entities, along with initiatives that aim at collecting clinical data and biologic samples from carefully characterized patients in a prospective and standardized fashion. Early referral to expert centers and timely diagnosis may have important implications for patient management and prognosis, but effective therapies are often lacking. Following massive efforts, international collaborations among the key stakeholders are finally starting to be in place. These have allowed the setting up and conducting of the first randomized controlled trial of therapeutic interventions in patients with chILD. PMID:27245831

  3. Hemodialysis does not impair ventricular functions over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Duran, Mustafa; Unal, Aydin; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Kocyigit, Ismail; Oguz, Fatih; Ocak, Ayse; Ozdogru, İbrahim; Kasapkara, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ekrem; Oymak, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    significantly after long-term HD treatment. We suggest that this result may be due to regulated blood pressure levels of the patients, treatment of anemia and other metabolic disorders during the HD period and the prevention of weight gain and hypervolemia. PMID:21507196

  4. Methemoglobinemia due to ingestion of at most three pills of pyridium in a 2-year-old: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Gold, Nina A; Bithoney, William G

    2003-08-01

    Pyridium (phenazopyridine HCl) is a commonly prescribed medication in the treatment of urinary tract infections and is known to cause methemoglobinemia in excessive doses. We report the case of a 2-year-old child who ingested a maximum of three 200-mg tablets (approximately 50 mg/kg) of pyridium and yet developed cyanosis and methemoglobinemia (29.1%), resulting in methylene blue therapy. We urge physicians to consider a period of observation (4-6 h) or to obtain methemoglobin levels in children who ingest even a small number of pyridium tablets because this can represent a toxic dose in a small child. PMID:12901999

  5. Increased Food Insecurity Among Mothers of 2 Year Olds with Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Hoffmann, Laurel M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Peters, Dawn; Pennise, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and food insecurity when the child is 2 years old. We studied women who had a live birth in 2004-2005 and responded to Oregon's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey 3 months postpartum (Time 1) and the follow-up survey (PRAMS-2), when the child was 2 years old (Time 2). Women answering affirmatively to the PRAMS-2 question, "In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there was not enough money for food?" were considered food insecure. CSHCN status was identified by affirmative responses to questions about needs for ongoing services (Time 2). PRAMS and PRAMS-2 responses were weighted for study design and non-response. Results report weighted analyses, unless noted. Among 1812 mothers completing PRAMS-2, 13.6 % (unweighted) had a 2-year-old CSHCN and 11.9 % (unweighted) were food insecure at Time 2. The estimated prevalence of food insecurity at 2-year follow-up was 20.7 % among families of CSHCN and 9.7 % for others. After adjustment for Time 2 marital status, education, lifetime U.S. residence, income and health conditions, multivariable logistic regression revealed that odds of food insecurity were more than two times as great for CSHCN mothers 2 years post-partum compared to non-CSHCN mothers (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.3, 4.6). Families of CSHCN face increased risk for food insecurity. Improved understanding of causal determinants of food insecurity among households of CSHCN is needed. PMID:25682114

  6. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy.

  7. METHODS AND RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF NOBLE GAS RELEASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE MAYAK PA GRAPHITE REACTORS OVER THE WHOLE PERIOD OF THEIR OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Brief analysis of design features and operational modes of Mayak PA industrial graphite-uranium reactors (PUGRs) is given. The above mentioned Mayak PA PUGRs determined the rates of releases of radioactive noble gases (RNG) from activation (41Ar) and fission (isotopes of Krypton and Xenon) through the vent stack of the reactor. Information is given on methods and results of experimental determination of RNG atmospheric releases for the period starting from 1965 till PUGRs decommissioning in 1987-1990. A calculation method for reconstruction of radioactive noble gas releases is proposed and justified. The results of reconstruction are given. It is shown that maximum rates of RNG releases from PUGRs high stacks were observed in the 1950s, when ordinary atmospheric air was used as a cover gas for the reactor graphite stacks and gas purification systems (flow-type gas holders) had not been installed yet.

  8. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hervik, Jill; Mjåland, Odd

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes. Methods and materials Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture), who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life. Conclusion Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients. Patients who had previously been treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture complained less of hot flashes, and had a more positive outlook on life, than women who had

  9. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  10. Tooth stain during 2 years' use of chlorhexidine- and fluoride-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Dolles, O K; Eriksen, H M; Gjermo, P

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride upon the stain-inducing capacity of chlorhexidine. Ninety-one children, 13 years of age, volunteered for the experiment. Three test dentifrices were used, containing 0.1% NaF, 0.1% NaF + 2% chlorhexidine, and 2% chlorhexidine respectively. The experiment was carried out as a double-blind test, and the degree of staining was recorded after 1 and 2 years. Four methods were used for stain scoring. The results after 1 year showed that chlorhexidine induced less stain when applied together with fluoride than when applied alone. After 2 years this difference disappeared, indicating that fluoride only retarded chlorhexidine-induced staining of teeth. PMID:295486

  11. How are the VLF quasi-periodic emissions controlled by harmonics of field line oscillations? - The results of a comparison between ground and GEOS satellites measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    1986-06-01

    Data on VLF and UHF waves observed in situ for the first time by the GEOS 1 and 2 satellites close to the equatorial plane are compared with ground-based measurements. The results permit a more complete explanation of quasi-periodic (QP) modulation. The data are described, and a general ground-satellite comparison of occurrence and spectra of simultaneous emission is given. A detailed study of some selected events shows that, when the GEOS data are taken into account, it is sometimes difficult to classify QP emissions as either type I or type II. It is suggested that QPs may be due to the same mechanism involving compressional harmonics of a standing fundamental ULF wave.

  12. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  13. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  14. The improving outcomes in intermittent exotropia study: outcomes at 2 years after diagnosis in an observational cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate current patterns of management and outcomes of intermittent distance exotropia [X(T)] in the UK. Methods This was an observational cohort study which recruited 460 children aged < 12 years with previously untreated X(T). Eligible subjects were enrolled from 26 UK hospital ophthalmology clinics between May 2005 and December 2006. Over a 2-year period of follow-up, clinical data were prospectively recorded at standard intervals from enrolment. Data collected included angle, near stereoacuity, visual acuity, control of X(T) measured with the Newcastle Control Score (NCS), and treatment. The main outcome measures were change in clinical outcomes (angle, stereoacuity, visual acuity and NCS) in treated and untreated X(T), 2 years from enrolment (or, where applicable, 6 months after surgery). Change over time was tested using the chi-square test for categorical, Wilcoxon test for non-parametric and paired-samples t-test for parametric data. Results At follow-up, data were available for 371 children (81% of the original cohort). Of these: 53% (195) had no treatment; 17% (63) had treatment for reduced visual acuity only (pure refractive error and amblyopia); 13% (50) had non surgical treatment for control (spectacle lenses, occlusion, prisms, exercises) and 17% (63) had surgery. Only 0.5% (2/371) children developed constant exotropia. The surgically treated group was the only group with clinically significant improvements in angle or NCS. However, 8% (5) of those treated surgically required second procedures for overcorrection within 6 months of the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up 21% (13) were overcorrected. Conclusions Many children in the UK with X(T) receive active monitoring only. Deterioration to constant exotropia, with or without treatment, is rare. Surgery appears effective in improving angle of X(T) and NCS, but rates of overcorrection are high. PMID:22257496

  15. Improved safety of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis over the 8-year period since implementation in Japan: long-term results from a multicenter observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Nobunori; Funahashi, Koji; Asai, Shuji; Terabe, Kenya; Kaneko, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Takagi, Hideki; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Yabe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi; Shioura, Tomone; Ito, Takayasu; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hisato; Asai, Nobuyuki; Takemoto, Toki; Kojima, Masayo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the long-term safety of biologics by initiation year of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. RA patients who started their first biologics including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab between 2003 and 2008 were identified in the Tsurumai Biologics Communication Registry (TBCR), multicenter observational cohort, and followed for 2 years or until discontinuation of the drugs. We identified baseline predictors for adverse events (AEs) resulting in discontinuation of the first TNFI using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 874 cases (1,340 person-years) were observed. During the observation period, 96 AEs (4.7 events/100 person-years) occurred. From 2003 to 2008, there were significant changes in disease duration, Steinbrocker stage, and disease activity in those aged ≤64 years with no increase of incidence of AEs, whereas those aged >64 years had no significant changes in these variables. In the later initiation year of treatment with biologics, the fewer AEs were observed (log-rank, p = 0.017, 2008 vs. 2003-2005). Multivariate analysis showed that the initiation year significantly impacted the incidence of AEs 6 months into the observation period [initiation at 2008 (vs. 2003-2005): OR: 0.30, 95 % CI: (0.14-0.68)] after adjusting for variables at baseline. The decrease of AEs in the later initiation year was evident in those aged >64 years. The safety of biologic therapy improved over the course of the 8 years from its implementation in Japan. PMID:26846135

  16. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  17. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  18. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU. PMID:26526444

  19. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  20. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  1. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  3. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  4. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  5. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2- Year) Activity Under OMB Review... correspondence. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Title: Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year), VA Form 40-40....

  6. Interdental papilla regeneration around implants: A novel window technique (2 years follow-up)

    PubMed Central

    Lambodharan, R.; Balaji, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing predictable and esthetic papilla is the most complex and challenging aspect of implant dentistry. To obtain an esthetic and predictable gingival architecture and implant restoration, interdental papilla plays an important role. The main objective of the surgeon during the second stage of implant treatment should be the creation of interdental papilla prior to prosthetic restoration. The aim of this case report was to demonstrate a novel window technique for developing predictable and esthetic papilla around dental implants, which was followed for 2 years with excellent esthetic results. PMID:26538979

  7. Dermestid Dermatitis in a 2-Year-Old Girl: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hoverson, Kara; Wohltmann, Wendi E; Pollack, Richard J; Schissel, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis from contact with carpet, larder, and hide beetles (family Dermestidae) is a seemingly uncommon or underrecognized hypersensitivity reaction to the specialized hairs on the larvae of certain dermestid beetles. The erythematous papulovesicular dermatitis that may result from such contact can be mistakenly construed as evidence of bites of bedbugs or other arthropods or infestation with scabies mites or can be the basis for a diagnosis of delusory parasitosis. We present a case of dermestid dermatitis in a 2-year-old girl and provide a review of the current literature. PMID:26250481

  8. Assessment of sensory and chemical characteristics of new University of Florida strawberry selections over a period of 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Festival, the main cultivar grown by the large commercial strawberry farms in Florida, can produce firm, attractive and sweet fruit with a strong aroma. However, 'Festival' has low yields in early December and the overall flavor of its fruit tends to be low in March. New selections are being evaluat...

  9. Technical notes published in BJOMS over a 2-year period--should we be doing it differently?

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Shekar, K; Shelley, M; Mackenzie, N; Spencer, H; Kiani, H; Brennan, P A

    2009-06-01

    Between January 2007 and December 2008, 44 technical notes or related publications (such as letters) were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). These covered most of the remit of the specialty and ranged from operative surgical techniques to the use of digital photographs to orientate surgical specimens. However, there would seem to be very little feedback on the value of these articles in everyday practice. We reviewed these technical notes and assessed readability, the value and use of illustrations, the possible expense and/or equipment required in their use, and finally the frequency that the techniques could be used. The anonymised publications were read and scored by a minimum of two dentally qualified senior house officers, two doubly qualified specialist registrars, an SAS grade and two consultants in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The six techniques that gained the highest mean average score are briefly discussed. Although we used a relatively small number of assessors who might not be representative of the whole BJOMS readership, this study would suggest that some sort of change in the way that these technical notes are published should be considered. Options might include inviting a commentary from the reviewers who have tried the technique and also encouraging colleagues to report their experiences of these techniques in the 'letters to the editor' section. PMID:19297058

  10. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  11. SMOS after 2 YEARS and a half in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Richaume, P.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Waldteufel, P.; Mecklenburg, S.; Cabot, F.; Boutin, J.; Font, J.; Reul, N.

    2012-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3) and ocean salinity. These two geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches in particular in improving models forecasts. The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than two years in orbit as well as some outstanding results already obtained. A special attention will be devoted to level 2 products. Modeling multi-angular brightness temperatures is not straightforward. The radiative model transfer model L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission) is used over land while different models with different approaches as to the modeling of sea surface roughness are used over ocean surfaces. Over land the approach is based on semi-empirical relationships, adapted to different type of surface. The model computes a dielectric constant leading to surface emissivity. Surface features (roughness, vegetation) are also considered in the models. However, considering SMOS spatial resolution a wide area is seen by the instrument with strong heterogeneity. The L2 soil moisture retrieval scheme takes this into account. Brightness temperatures are computed for every classes composing a working area. A weighted function is applied for the incidence angle and the antenna beam. Once the brightness temperature is computed for the entire working area, the minimizing process starts. If no soil moisture is derived (not attempted or process failed) a dielectric constant is still derived from an simplified modeled (the cardioid model). SMOS data enabled very quickly to infer Sea surface salinity fields. As salinity retrieval is quite challenging, retrieving it enable to assess very

  12. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  13. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period. PMID:25533212

  14. Chronic intermittent form of isovaleric aciduria in a 2-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Yoo-Mi; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Isovaleric aciduria (IVA) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). IVA presents either in the neonatal period as an acute episode of fulminant metabolic acidosis, which may lead to coma or death, or later as a "chronic intermittent form" that is associated with developmental delays, with or without recurrent acidotic episodes during periods of stress, such as infections. Here, we report the case of a 2-year old boy with IVA who presented with the chronic intermittent form. He was admitted to Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital with recurrent vomiting. Metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, elevated serum lactate and isovalerylcarnitine levels, and markedly increased urine isovalerylglycine concentration were noted. Sequence analysis of the IVD gene in the patient revealed the novel compound mutations-a missense mutation, c.986T>C (p.Met329Thr) and a frameshift mutation, c.1083del (p.Ile361fs*11). Following stabilization during the acute phase, the patient has remained in a stable condition on a low-leucine diet. PMID:24019846

  15. Complete Traumatic Separation of Proximal Femoral Epiphysis in A 2 Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Pulkesh; Gaurav, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hip fractures are very common in adults, but are rare in children, comprising less than 1% of all pediatric fractures. Separation of the proximal femoral epiphysis can occur in a child with a traumatic hip dislocation and an open epiphysis. Regardless of the mechanism of proximal femoral epiphyseal separation, the prognosis is poor secondary to the development of osteonecrosis. Case Report: Here we are reporting a case of complete separation of the proximal epiphysis of the femur in a 2 year old female child. She was treated by open reduction and internal fixation by a single k-wire of proximal femoral epiphysis. Regular follow up showed fusion of proximal femoral epiphysis at about 3 months of post operative period. After 8 months of follow up she can stand and walk without support. Long term outcome is awaited. Conclusion: Traumatic separation of the proximal femoral epiphysis is a rare but devastating injury because osteonecrosis occurs in most cases. In our study we found fusion of the proximal femoral epiphysis to the neck after 3 months of postoperative period. But to comment upon the final outcome a long follow up is awaited.

  16. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  17. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology. PMID:25937563

  18. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  19. Remission in schizophrenia: results of cross-sectional with 6-month follow-up period and 1-year observational therapeutic studies in an outpatient population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A standardized definition of remission criteria in schizophrenia was proposed by the International group of NC Andreasen in 2005 (low symptom threshold for the eight core Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms for at least 6 consecutive months). Methods A cross-sectional study of remission rate, using a 6-month follow-up to assess symptomatic stability, was conducted in two healthcare districts (first and second) of an outpatient psychiatric service in Moscow. The key inclusion criteria were outpatients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Remission was assessed using modern criteria (severity and time criteria), PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients who were stable but did not satisfied the symptomatic criteria were included in a further 1-year observational study, with the first group (first district) receiving risperidone (long-acting, injectable) (RLAI) and the second group (second district) continuing to receiving routine treatment. Symptoms were assessed with PANSS, social functioning with the personal and social performance scale, compliance with rating of medication influences scale, and extrapyramidal side effects with the Simpson-Angus scale. Results Only 64 (31.5%) of 203 outpatients met the criteria for symptomatic remission in the cross-sectional study, but at the end of the 6-month follow-up period, 158 (77.8%) were stable (irrespective of remission status). Among these only 53 (26.1%) patients fulfilled the remission criteria. The observational study had 42 stable patients in the RLAI group and 35 in the routine treatment group: 19.0% in the RLAI group and 5.7% in the control group met remission criteria after 12 months of therapy. Furthermore, reduction of PANSS total and subscale scores, as well as improvement in social functioning, was more significant in the first group. Conclusions Only around one-quarter of

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels. PMID:16176606

  1. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  2. Patients Awaiting Heart Transplantation on HVAD Support for Greater Than 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Aaronson, Keith D; Silvestry, Scott C; Maltais, Simon; Mallidi, Hari R; Frazier, O H; Boyce, Steven W; Leadley, Katrin; Najarian, Kevin B; Slaughter, Mark S; Pagani, Francis D

    2016-01-01

    Advanced heart failure patients who are classified as bridge to transplant (BTT) often remain on mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for long durations because of the limited supply of donor organs. Here, we present the outcomes of patients who have been supported by the HeartWare ventricular assist device system for more than 2 years. In the HeartWare BTT and continued access protocol trial, 74 of the 382 total patients (19.4%) had more than 2 years of MCS with a mean time of 1,045 days on device. The long-term group was more frequently female, was nonwhite, and had Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profiles 4-7. Postimplant adverse event rates including bleeding, cardiac arrhythmia, infection, stroke, renal dysfunction, and right heart failure were less frequent in the long-term cohort. In addition, the long-term cohort displayed significant improvements in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score, EuroQOL-5D Overall Health State Score, and 6 minute walk scores from baseline values. The rate of heart transplantation was lower for the long-term cohort, which may have been a result of their sex and blood type. However, most of these patients are still listed for cardiac transplantation and maintained their quality of life profiles through 3 years of support. PMID:27111739

  3. Brain activity during a visuospatial working memory task predicts arithmetical performance 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Klingberg, Torkel

    2012-05-01

    Visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity is highly correlated with mathematical reasoning abilities and can predict future development of arithmetical performance. Activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during visuospatial WM tasks correlates with interindividual differences in WM capacity. This region has also been implicated in numerical representation, and its structure and activity reflect arithmetical performance impairments (e.g., dyscalculia). We collected behavioral (N = 246) and neuroimaging data (N = 46) in a longitudinal sample to test whether IPS activity during a visuospatial WM task could provide more information than psychological testing alone and predict arithmetical performance 2 years later in healthy participants aged 6-16 years. Nonverbal reasoning and verbal and visuospatial WM measures were found to be independent predictors of arithmetical outcome. In addition, WM activation in the left IPS predicted arithmetical outcome independently of behavioral measures. A logistic model including both behavioral and imaging data showed improved sensitivity by correctly classifying more than twice as many children as poor arithmetical performers after 2 years than a model with behavioral measures only. These results demonstrate that neuroimaging data can provide useful information in addition to behavioral assessments and be used to improve the identification of individuals at risk of future low academic performance. PMID:21768226

  4. Hospital admissions before the age of 2 years in Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Read, A W; Gibbins, J; Stanley, F J; Morich, P

    1994-01-01

    A linked data file of birth records and hospital admissions was used to investigate inpatient hospital morbidity before 2 years of age for all non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children born in Western Australia in 1986. Of the non-Aboriginal children, 31.8% were admitted to hospital at least once before the age of 2 years, with an overall admission rate of 526/1000 live births; the corresponding figures for Aboriginal children were 68.7% and 2797. The mean number of days in hospital for each non-Aboriginal child admitted was 7.4, and 26.5 for Aboriginal children. Of the total cohort, 21% of non-Aboriginal and 20% of Aboriginal children were admitted only once, and 4% of non-Aboriginal and 36% of Aboriginal children were admitted at least three times; 23% of non-Aboriginal and 24% of Aboriginal children were admitted for only one major disease category, and 1% of non-Aboriginal and 16% of Aboriginal children were in at least four categories. The highest admission rates and highest percentages of the cohort admitted were for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and social admissions. These results illustrate the importance for both descriptive and analytical research of relating admissions to hospital for the total population to the individual child, and of using clinically relevant disease classifications. PMID:8135564

  5. Live Pups from Evaporatively Dried Mouse Sperm Stored at Ambient Temperature for up to 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Gloria Y.; Lawitts, Joel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C) for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm. PMID:24924588

  6. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  7. Incidence of Second ACL Injuries 2 Years After Primary ACL Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0–22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5–18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8–8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an

  8. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis METHODS : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique RESULTS : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients CONCLUSION : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27057144

  9. Speech identification in Spanish- and English-learning 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Oller, D K; Eilers, R E

    1983-03-01

    English- and Spanish-learning 2-year-olds were tested for speech skills in a real speech context. Each child was tested in his/her native language on one native and one nonnative contrast. The nonnative contrast consisted of a real native word paired with a nonsense word containing a nonnative element. The native contrast consisted of a native word paired with a nonsense word containing a minimally paired native element. The results showed that both groups of children found identification of native contrasts much easier than identification of nonnative contrasts. The results suggest that by age 2, normal children may have achieved an awareness of their native phonology, an awareness that encourages them to ignore certain distinctions that are not part of their language's contrastive meaning system. PMID:6865381

  10. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: a 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    de Croon, Einar M; Sluiter, Judith K; Blonk, Roland W B; Broersen, Jake P J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-06-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological strain (need for recovery after work and fatigue), and turnover were obtained from 820 drivers in 1998 and 2000. In agreement with the model, the results showed that strain mediates the influence of stressful work on voluntary turnover. Also in conformity with the model, job movement to any job outside the trucking industry (i.e., interoccupational turnover) resulted in a larger strain reduction as compared to job movement within the trucking industry (intraoccupational turnover). Finally, strain was found to stimulate interoccupational turnover more strongly than it stimulated intraoccupational turnover. These findings provide a thorough validation of existing turnover theory and give new insights into the turnover (decision) process. PMID:15161404

  11. Attention to Multiple Events Helps 2 1/2-Year-Olds Extend New Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    An important question in verb learning is how children extend new verbs to new situational contexts. In Study 1, 2 1/2-year-old children were shown a complex event followed by new events that preserved only the action from the initial event, only the result, or no new events. Children seeing events that preserved either the action or the result produced appropriate verb extensions at test while children without this information did not. In a follow-up study, children hearing new verbs produced more extensions than did children hearing nonlabeling speech. These studies suggest that attention to related events is helpful to young verb learners, perhaps because they structurally align these events (e.g., Gentner, 1983; 1989) during verb learning. PMID:24324284

  12. Patients With Isolated PCL Injuries Improve From Surgery as Much as Patients With ACL Injuries After 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Owesen, Christian; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas; Engebretsen, Lars; Granan, Lars-Petter; Årøen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reports on outcome after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction often contain both isolated PCL and combined knee ligament injuries. This makes it difficult to conclude on the outcome after reconstruction of isolated PCL injuries. Purpose: To investigate the outcome after PCL reconstruction in patients with an isolated PCL injury and to compare this with the outcome of patients treated with reconstruction after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seventy-one patients with an isolated PCL injury that was reconstructed surgically and who had registered in the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between 2004 and 2010 were included in this study. Patients with isolated ACL reconstructions (n = 9661) who had registered in the same period were included for comparison. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the patient-reported outcome measure. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative KOOS scores were compared. Changes in KOOS score reported by the PCL patients were compared with changes reported by the ACL patients. Results: At the 2-year postoperative follow-up of the PCL-reconstructed patients, the patient-reported outcome was improved, measured by KOOS as follows: pain, 15.1 (95% CI, 8.5-21.8; P < .001); symptoms, 0.9 (95% CI, –6.6 to 8.3; P = .82); activities of daily living, 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6-13.9; P < .001); sports, 20.7 (95% CI, 11.8-29.4; P < .001); and quality of life, 26.6 (95% CI, 18.9-34.2; P < .001). According to the KOOS, the incremental improvements were similar for PCL and ACL patients. Time from injury to surgery was longer for the PCL patients compared with ACL patients (median, 21.5 vs 8.0 months; P < .001). Conclusion: Patients undergoing PCL reconstruction can expect the same improvements in KOOS score as patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. However, PCL patients start out with an inferior score on average and consequently end up

  13. Frequency and nature of spontaneous age-related eye lesions observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    A group of 160 Wistar rats (both sexes) from a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was monitored at baseline and after 1 and 2 years with a photo-slitlamp microscope and a direct ophthalmoscope to record spontaneous age-related eye lesions and treatment-related eye lesions over a period of 24 months. A second group from the same study was monitored at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) total particulate matter concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke (RASS) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. All ophthalmological examinations were performed in mydriasis, and relevant observations were documented on color slide film. At baseline, all animals with eye lesions were excluded from the study. After 1 year, only minor lesions were found: retrolental opacities (14%) and a few cases of corneal dryness with reddish lid margins. After 2 years, 23% of the animals had unilateral or bilateral retrolental opacities, but the most frequent eye lesions were posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC, 32%). Water clefts and spokes were found in 11% of the lenses and mature cataracts in 6%. All other eye lesions observed were much less frequent. There were a few cases of glaucoma, corneal dryness and stromal neovascularization. The frequency and type of lesion in animals monitored from the start of the posttreatment period was comparable to what was seen after 2 years. Toward the end of this period the frequency of mature cataracts went up to 9% and that of (secondary) glaucomas to 5%. None of the eye lesions observed showed any association in frequency or severity of expression to the treatment, either RASS or DEE, or to the sex of the animals. In comparison to the (limited) literature data available, far fewer corneal lesions were found in this

  14. Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD): 352 cases with an 8 1/2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Choy, D S

    1995-02-01

    Percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) was pioneered by Dr. Peter Ascher and myself in 1986. This report describes patient selection, operative technique, laser dosimetry, and results in 352 cases with an 8 1/2-year follow-up. The conclusion is that PLDD is relatively non-invasive, safe, simple and effective. PMID:10150569

  15. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  16. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  17. FORGE Canada Consortium: outcomes of a 2-year national rare-disease gene-discovery project.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Samuels, Mark E; Fernandez, Bridget A; Bernier, Francois P; Brudno, Michael; Knoppers, Bartha; Marcadier, Janet; Dyment, David; Adam, Shelin; Bulman, Dennis E; Jones, Steve J M; Avard, Denise; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Rousseau, Francois; Marshall, Christian; Wintle, Richard F; Shen, Yaoqing; Scherer, Stephen W; Friedman, Jan M; Michaud, Jacques L; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-06-01

    Inherited monogenic disease has an enormous impact on the well-being of children and their families. Over half of the children living with one of these conditions are without a molecular diagnosis because of the rarity of the disease, the marked clinical heterogeneity, and the reality that there are thousands of rare diseases for which causative mutations have yet to be identified. It is in this context that in 2010 a Canadian consortium was formed to rapidly identify mutations causing a wide spectrum of pediatric-onset rare diseases by using whole-exome sequencing. The FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium brought together clinicians and scientists from 21 genetics centers and three science and technology innovation centers from across Canada. From nation-wide requests for proposals, 264 disorders were selected for study from the 371 submitted; disease-causing variants (including in 67 genes not previously associated with human disease; 41 of these have been genetically or functionally validated, and 26 are currently under study) were identified for 146 disorders over a 2-year period. Here, we present our experience with four strategies employed for gene discovery and discuss FORGE's impact in a number of realms, from clinical diagnostics to the broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of many diseases to the biological insight gained into both disease states and normal human development. Lastly, on the basis of this experience, we discuss the way forward for rare-disease genetic discovery both in Canada and internationally. PMID:24906018

  18. Perceived outcomes and satisfaction of Saudi parents and their children following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents’ satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Results: A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents’ perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Conclusion: Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA. PMID:25625072

  19. Flare, Persistently Active Disease, and Serologically Active Clinically Quiescent Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Fabrizio; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Miranda, Francesca; Truglia, Simona; Massaro, Laura; Pacucci, Viviana Antonella; Conti, Virginia; Bartosiewicz, Izabella; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several indices have been proposed to assess disease activity in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have showed a prevalence of flare between 28–35.3%, persistently active disease (PAD) between 46%–52% and serologically active clinically quiescent (SACQ) disease ranging from 6 to 15%. Our goal was to evaluate the flare, PAD and SACQ rate incidence in a cohort of SLE patients over a 2-year follow-up. Methods We evaluated 394 SLE patients. Flare was defined as an increase in SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4 from the previous visit; PAD was defined as a SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4, on >2 consecutive visits; SACQ was defined as at least a 2-year period without clinical activity and with persistent serologic activity. Results Among the 95 patients eligible for the analysis in 2009, 7 (7.3%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 9 (9.4%) had PAD. Similarly, among the 118 patients selected for the analysis in 2010, 6 (5%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 16 (13.5%) had PAD. Only 1/45 patient (2.2%) showed SACQ during the follow-up. Conclusion We showed a low incidence of flare, PAD and SACQ in Italian SLE patients compared with previous studies which could be partly explained by ethnic differences. PMID:23029327

  20. A 2-year retrospective analysis of facial injuries in patients treated at department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, IGGDC, Jammu, India

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Parveen; Singh, Amrit Pal; Kour, Indumeet; Kumar, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial injuries is on the rise due to motor vehicle accidents and increased incidence of violence in recent times. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence, etiology, and the pattern of fractures in the maxillofacial region. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the concerned authorities, a predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data from the department. A retrospective analysis of 787 patients, who suffered trauma and were managed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College (IGGDC), Jammu over a period of 2 years was carried out. Results: Road traffic accident (RTA) was the common cause of maxillofacial injuries. Men sustained more injuries as compared to women. Injuries were most commonly sustained in the age group of 11-40 years, constituting about 76% of all injuries, mandibular fractures were the most common. Conclusion: RTAs were the commonest cause for the maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25937724

  1. Predicting school readiness from neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years after respiratory distress syndrome in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    PATRIANAKOS-HOOBLER, ATHENA I; MSALL, MICHAEL E; HUO, DEZHENG; MARKS, JEREMY D; PLESHA-TROYKE, SUSAN; SCHREIBER, MICHAEL D

    2010-01-01

    AIM To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. METHOD Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal outcomes at the age of 2 years were defined as neurosensory disability (cerebral palsy, blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no neurosensory disability but Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental or performance developmental index scores <70). School readiness (assessed at a mean age of 5y 6mo, SD 1y) was determined using neurodevelopmental assessments of motor, sensory, receptive vocabulary, perceptual, conceptual, and adaptive skills. RESULTS The mean birthweight of the cohort (57 males, 64 females) was 987g (SD 374), and the mean gestational age was 27.3 weeks (SD 2.6). At the age of 2 years, the neurodevelopmental classification was ‘disabled’ in 11% and ‘delayed’ in 23%. At the age of 5 years 6 months, intensive special education was required for 11% and some special education for 21%. Disability and delay at the age of 2 years were 92% and 50% predictive of lack of school readiness respectively, whereas only 15% of children who were normal at the age of 2 years were not school ready at the later assessment. Children with delay at 2 years were more likely to need special education if they were socially disadvantaged. INTERPRETATION Without preschool developmental supports, preterm survivors living in poverty will require more special education services. PMID:20002128

  2. Higher Tetanus Toxoid Immunity 2 Years After PsA-TT Introduction in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Nicole E.; Borrow, Ray; Berthe, Abdoulaye; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Dembélé, Awa Traoré Eps; Almond, Rachael; Frankland, Sarah; Patel, Sima; Wood, Daniel; Nascimento, Maria; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L.; Greenwood, Brian; Sow, Samba O.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 2010, mass vaccination with a then-new meningococcal A polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid protein conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, or MenAfriVac) was undertaken in 1- to 29-year-olds in Bamako, Mali. Whether vaccination with PsA-TT effectively boosts tetanus immunity in a population with heterogeneous baseline tetanus immunity is not known. We assessed the impact of PsA-TT on tetanus toxoid (TT) immunity by quantifying age- and sex-specific immunity prior to and 2 years after introduction. Methods. Using a household-based, age-stratified design, we randomly selected participants for a prevaccination serological survey in 2010 and a postvaccination survey in 2012. TT immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were quantified and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) pre- and postvaccination among all age groups targeted for vaccination were compared. The probability of TT IgG levels ≥0.1 IU/mL (indicating short-term protection) and ≥1.0 IU/mL (indicating long-term protection) by age and sex was determined using logistic regression models. Results. Analysis of 793 prevaccination and 800 postvaccination sera indicated that while GMCs were low pre–PsA-TT, significantly higher GMCs in all age–sex strata were observed 2 years after PsA-TT introduction. The percentage with short-term immunity increased from 57.1% to 88.4% (31.3-point increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 26.6–36.0;, P < .0001) and with long-term immunity increased from 20.0% to 58.5% (38.5-point increase; 95% CI, 33.7–43.3; P < .0001) pre- and postvaccination. Conclusions. Significantly higher TT immunity was observed among vaccine-targeted age groups up to 2 years after Mali's PsA-TT mass vaccination campaign. Our results, combined with evidence from clinical trials, strongly suggest that conjugate vaccines containing TT such as PsA-TT should be considered bivalent vaccines because of their ability to boost tetanus immunity. PMID:26553691

  3. Nutrient emissions from diffuse and point sources into the River Danube and its main tributaries for the period of 1998-2000--results and problems.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, H; Behrendt, H; Constantinescu, L T; Cvitanic, I; Drumea, D; Jabucar, D; Juran, S; Pataki, B; Snishko, S; Zessner, M

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient emissions by point and diffuse sources were estimated for 388 sub-catchments of the Danube river basin for the period 1998-2000 by means of the Model MONERIS. For nitrogen total emissions of 684 kt/a N were estimated for the Danube basin. 80% of these emissions were caused by diffuse sources (mainly groundwater, urban areas and tile drainage). For phosphorus the emission was 57 kt/a P, with a contribution of diffuse sources to this sum of 58%. The comparison of calculated and observed loads shows that the mean deviation for the investigated sub-catchments of the Danube river basin is 20% for dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 34% for phosphorus. The spatial resolution of the emission calculations allows the identification of regional hot spots and the derivation of specific regional measures to reduce the emissions into the Danube and consequently into the Western Black Sea. PMID:15850201

  4. A worksite smoking intervention: a 2 year assessment of groups, incentives and self-help.

    PubMed

    Jason, L A; Salina, D; McMahon, S D; Hedeker, D; Stockton, M

    1997-03-01

    Sixty-three companies in the Chicago area were recruited to participate in a worksite smoking cessation program. Participants in each worksite received a television program and newspaper supplement (part of a community-wide media campaign), and one of three conditions: (1) self-help manuals alone (M), (2) self-help manuals and incentives for 6 months (IM) or (3) maintenance manuals, incentives and cognitive-behavioral support groups for 6 months (GIM). Results at the 2 year assessment are examined using a random-effects regression model. In addition, various definitions of quit-rate commonly used in smoking cessation research are explored and the advantages of using a public health approach in the worksite are examined. PMID:10166900

  5. The Histological Changes of the Great Saphenous Vein at 2 Years after Cryosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Istvan Bence; Bali, Ottilia; Vargovics, Eszter; Simon, Eva; Vizsy, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Cryosclerosis was developed at the end of the last decade. It is the endovenous cryoablation of the great saphenous vein and has been forgotten before the era of the endovenous ablation techniques began. The caused histomorphological changes of the vein weren’t described before, especially, years after the procedure. A 31-year-old female patient underwent cryosclerosis 2 years ago. Because of the recanalization of the great saphenous vein and recurrent varicosity, high ligation, cryostripping and phlebectomy of varices were performed. During surgery, a saphenous vein piece was harvested to investigate the histomorphological effect of cryosclerosis. Histological findings verified that recanalization had occurred, the vein wall had undergone remodeling, and the picro-sirius red stain showed collagen deposition in the whole vein wall. Cryosclerosis seems to result in the remodeling of the vein wall. PMID:26217627

  6. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors Among 2-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants The purpose of this paper is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) Study and completed baseline assessments. Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating eating and activity patterns, sleep, and stress and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Results Participants were primarily female (68%), white (73%), with a mean age of 22.8 years and 66.2% reporting an annual income <$12,000. Almost half (47%) were overweight or obese. Young males appeared to engage the most in risky health behaviors and had higher levels of overweight or obesity, compared to young females. Conclusions Findings confirm the need for innovative interventions targeting this understudied and underserved young adult population. PMID:25692380

  7. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    PubMed

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity. PMID:23971327

  8. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  9. In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

  10. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Claire; Skellgaard, Preben H; West, Torben; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC) in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i) the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii) the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii) whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points). Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2) vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2), p < 0.01. The programme achieved a clinically important difference for 27% and 24% of the clients one month and 1–2 years after the first consultation, respectively. It appeared that greater improvement in THI score was related to higher baseline THI score and possibly also to treatment by a particular CHC therapist. The absolute reduction in mean THI score after 1–2 years for clients with moderate and severe handicap was 14 and 20 points, respectively, i.e. similar to that previously reported for TRT (14–28 points). The cost of the current programme was approximately 200 EUR per client. Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of

  11. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  12. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  13. Chief Student Affairs Officers in 2-Year Colleges: Their Demographics and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine demographics and educational backgrounds of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) in public 2-year colleges. Using systematic sampling techniques, 300 2-year colleges were selected from the AACC Membership Directory for inclusion in the study. Each college's website was visited to determine the name of…

  14. The Role of 2-Year Colleges in the Improving Situation of Hispanic Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo; Hilmer, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades 2-year colleges have become an increasingly important part of the American higher education system, especially for Hispanics who are disproportionately likely to start their careers in 2-year colleges. Given that today's economy rewards college attendance more than every before [Bound & Johnson (1992). "The…

  15. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  16. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  17. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  18. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  19. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  20. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  1. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  2. 2-year follow-up report on micromotion of a short tibia stem

    PubMed Central

    Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose A shortened tibial stem could influence the early prosthetic fixation. We therefore compared the short stem to the standard-length stem using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) as primary outcome measure. Patients and methods 60 patients were randomized to receive a cemented Triathlon total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a tibial tray of either standard or short stem length. The patients were blinded regarding treatment allocation. The micromotion of the tibial component was measured by RSA postoperatively, at 3 months, and after 1 and 2 years; clinical outcome was measured with the American Knee Society score (AKSS) and the knee osteoarthritis and injury outcome score (KOOS). Results The maximum total point motion (MTPM) for the standard stem was 0.36 (SD 0.16) mm at 3 months, 0.51 (SD 0.27) mm at 1 year, and 0.54 (SD 0.28) mm at 2 years. For the short stem, it was 0.42 (0.24) mm, 0.59 (0.43) mm, and 0.61 (0.39) mm. 4 short-stemmed components and 2 standard-stemmed components had more than 0.2 mm of migration between the first- and second-year follow-up, and were classified as continuously migrating. Interpretation The short-stemmed cemented tibial prosthesis showed an early prosthetic migratory pattern similar to that of the standard-stemmed cemented Triathlon knee prosthesis. The number of continuously migrating tibial plates in each group is predictive of a lower revision rate than 5% at 10 years. PMID:25809183

  3. Spatial Patterns, Longitudinal Development, and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cortical Thickness in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-06-17

    Cortical thickness (CT) is related to normal development and neurodevelopmental disorders. It remains largely unclear how the characteristic patterns of CT evolve in the first 2 years. In this paper, we systematically characterized for the first time the detailed vertex-wise patterns of spatial distribution, longitudinal development, and hemispheric asymmetries of CT at 0, 1, and 2 years of age, via surface-based analysis of 219 longitudinal magnetic resonance images from 73 infants. Despite the dynamic increase of CT in the first year and the little change of CT in the second year, we found that the overall spatial distribution of thin and thick cortices was largely present at birth, and evolved only modestly during the first 2 years. Specifically, the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, occipital cortex, and superior parietal region had thin cortices, whereas the prefrontal, lateral temporal, insula, and inferior parietal regions had thick cortices. We revealed that in the first year thin cortices exhibited low growth rates of CT, whereas thick cortices exhibited high growth rates. We also found that gyri were thicker than sulci, and that the anterior bank of the central sulcus was thicker than the posterior bank. Moreover, we showed rightward hemispheric asymmetries of CT in the lateral temporal and posterior insula regions at birth, which shrank gradually in the first 2 years, and also leftward asymmetries in the medial prefrontal, paracentral, and anterior cingulate cortices, which expanded substantially during this period. This study provides the first comprehensive picture of early patterns and evolution of CT during infancy. PMID:26085637

  4. All-Cause Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Children <2 Years Old in Sweden, 1998 to 2012: Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Anders; Ekelund, Mats; Fletcher, Mark A.; Nyman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background In late 2007, some Swedish County Councils started 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation for children, and PCV7 was included in the national immunization program in 2009. By 2010, both PCV10 and PCV13 were licensed, and the selection of vaccine was subject to County Councils tenders. This study investigated the impact of the order of PCV introduction into vaccination programs on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children <2 years-old. Methods Using population-based data from the publicly available National Inpatient Registry, the incidence of inpatient pneumonia (ICD-10 J12-J18) hospitalizations by County Councils among children <2 years old was identified between 1998 and 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRR; 95% CI) were calculated during the nationwide implementation of PCV7 and then between County Councils, as based on the higher-valent vaccine chosen for a program. Results There was a lower risk of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among <2 year-old children following the introduction of PCV7, as compared to the pre-PCV7 period (0.77; 0.63–0.93). A decreased risk of all-cause pneumonia was also observed in the County Councils that followed the order PCV7 then PCV13 (0.82; 0.66–1.01), while no trend was observed in County Councils with a program in the order PCV7 then PCV10 (1.03; 0.82–1.30). When comparing the higher-valent vaccines, there was a 21% (0.79; 0.66–0.96) lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization in County Councils finally using PCV13 as compared to the experience in County Councils that ultimately adopted PCV10. Conclusions Among children <2 years-old, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations were significantly reduced by 23% one to two years after introduction of PCV7 vaccination in Sweden. In those County Councils that next introduced PCV13, a further decline in all-cause pneumonia hospitalization was observed, in contrast to those County Councils that followed with PCV10; this

  5. Meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 Levels of Physical Activity: Agreement of 2 Measures across 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rod K.; Rooks, Cherie R.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measuring the way people vary across time in meeting recommended levels of physical activity should be a fundamental component of public health surveillance. However, we were unaware of prospective cohort studies that had examined this in a population base using convergent measures. Purpose We examined agreement between two validated measures used to estimate periodic change in the rate of meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 guidelines for participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Methods A cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of adults living in Hawaii was assessed every 6-months for 2 years starting spring 2004. Latent transition analysis classified people as meeting or not meeting the guidelines. Intra-class kappa statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate agreement. Results Agreement for classifying stable classes of people who met or did not meet the guideline each time was substantial for vigorous activity (kappa ∼ .65 - .70) but fair-to-moderate for moderate activity (kappa ∼ .38 - .48). Agreement was poorer for classifying people who transitioned between meeting and not meeting the vigorous guideline (kappa ∼ .45) or the moderate guideline (kappa ∼ .21 - .29). Conclusion Rates of meeting the guidelines varied across time and were estimated differently by the two measures, especially for moderate activity. This illustrates an understudied problem for public health promotion. Accurate classification of change within people is necessary for determining exposure in outcome studies, personal determinants of sufficient activity, and for evaluating whether interventions are successful in sustaining increases in rates of meeting physical activity guidelines. PMID:20538194

  6. Mapping Longitudinal Hemispheric Structural Asymmetries of the Human Cerebral Cortex From Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Nie, Jingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-01-01

    Mapping cortical hemispheric asymmetries in infants would increase our understanding of the origins and developmental trajectories of hemispheric asymmetries. We analyze longitudinal cortical hemispheric asymmetries in 73 healthy subjects at birth, 1, and 2 years of age using surface-based morphometry of magnetic resonance images with a specific focus on the vertex position, sulcal depth, mean curvature, and local surface area. Prominent cortical asymmetries are found around the peri-Sylvian region and superior temporal sulcus (STS) at birth that evolve modestly from birth to 2 years of age. Sexual dimorphisms of cortical asymmetries are present at birth, with males having the larger magnitudes and sizes of the clusters of asymmetries than females that persist from birth to 2 years of age. The left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is significantly posterior to the right SMG, and the maximum position difference increases from 10.2 mm for males (6.9 mm for females) at birth to 12.0 mm for males (8.4 mm for females) by 2 years of age. The right STS and parieto-occipital sulcus are significantly larger and deeper than those in the left hemisphere, and the left planum temporale is significantly larger and deeper than that in the right hemisphere at all 3 ages. Our results indicate that early hemispheric structural asymmetries are inherent and gender related. PMID:23307634

  7. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  8. Comparison of analytical predictions of longitudinal short period pilot-induced oscillations with results from a simulation study of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical analysis of conditions producing pilot induced oscillations (PIO's) was made for the space shuttle orbiter in a landing approach configuration for the task of milling the elevation angle of the line of sight to a target vehicle. The analysis yielded a value of PIO frequency and a value for the amount of total system time delay (pilot + control system) that can be tolerated before instability results. Calculations were performed showing the effect of varying the range to the target and of varying the handling qualities of the orbiter vehicle. Analytical predictions were compared with simulation results obtained using a visual motion simulator.

  9. States' Tax Funds for Colleges Top $28-Billion, Up 16 Pct. in 2 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1984-01-01

    The results of an annual national survey of state appropriations for higher education are analyzed and discussed and it is suggested that the 16 percent increase in a two-year period may mark the beginning of a recovery for tax support of higher education. (MSE)

  10. The content of family practice: a family medicine resident's 2 1/2-year experience with the E-book.

    PubMed

    Shank, J C

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the content of office family practice problems seen over a 2 1/2-year residency period and to afford comparison with the well-known Virginia Study. It illustrates the usefulness of the diagnostic E-Book, with which all the data were collected and preserved. Over a 2 1/2-year period, the author cared for 592 patients in the family practice office. The ratio of one physician to 592 patients compares to the Virginia Study's one physician to approximately 745 patients. A total of 1,640 problems were coded in the E-Book. In this study 55 problems/physician/month were seen, whereas in the Virginia Study approximately 177 problems/physician/month were noted. Respiratory illnesses were the most common diagnostic category in both studies. Among specific problems, obesity ranked first at Hershey, with afebrile colds second, hypertension and Beta streptococcal pharyngitis third, and smoking fourth. Obesity and smoking were ranked considerably lower in the Virginia Study, whereas "health maintenance examinations" were ranked number one. Finally, for age-sex practice profiles, the present data revealed two peak age groups for both sexes, whereas the Virginia work noted only one peak age range. PMID:903750

  11. Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This study used a prospective longitudinal design to quantify fatigue and associated factors during the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one individuals were assessed at 3 time points: within the first 6, 12, and 18-24 months after TBI. Self-reported fatigue improved during the first year, as did pain, sleep quality, cognitive independence, and involvement in productive activity. Further changes up to 2 years after TBI were not observed. The subset of individuals who reported significant increases in fatigue over the first 2 years demonstrated poorer outcomes in cognition, motor symptoms, and general functioning than those with decreased or stable fatigue. PMID:18219232

  12. Postradiotherapy 2-Year Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir as a Predictor of Long-Term Prostate Cancer Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Shi Weiji; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett; Park, Jessica; Seshan, Venkatraman E.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report the influence of posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir response at 2 years after external beam radiotherapy (RT) on distant metastases (DM) and cause-specific mortality (CSM). Methods and Materials: Eight hundred forty-four patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with conformal RT. The median duration of follow-up was 9.1 years. A fixed landmark time point at 2 years was used to assess the influence of nadir PSA value as a time-dependent variable on long-term outcomes. Results: Multivariate analysis demonstrated that nadir PSA <=1.5 ng/mL at the landmark was an independent predictor of progression-free survival after adjusting for T stage, Gleason score, pre-RT PSA value, and RT dose (p = 0.03). The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of DM were 2.4% and 7.9%, respectively, in those with nadir PSA levels <=1.5 ng/mL at the 2-year landmark, and were 10.3% and 17.5%, respectively, in patients with higher nadir values. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher nadir PSA value at the 2-year landmark (p = 0.002), higher Gleason scores (p < 0.001), and increasing T stage (p = 0.03) were predictors of DM after adjusting for pre-RT PSA values and RT dose. Multivariate analysis also showed that higher Gleason scores (p = 0.002), and higher nadir PSA values at the 2-year landmark (p = 0.03) were risk factors associated with CSM after adjusting for T stage and pre-RT PSA value. Conclusions: Nadir PSA values of <=1.5 ng/mL at 2 years after RT for prostate cancer predict for long-term DM and CSM outcomes. Patients with higher absolute nadir levels at 2 years after treatment should be evaluated for the presence of nonresponding disease, and earlier salvage treatment interventions should be considered.

  13. Visual Analysis of the Daily QA Results of Photon and Electron Beams of a Trilogy Linac over a Five-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maria F.; Li, Qiongge; Tang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiang; Li, Jingdong; Tang, Grace; Hunt, Margie A.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization technique was applied to analyze the daily QA results of photon and electron beams. Special attention was paid to any trend the beams might display. A Varian Trilogy Linac equipped with dual photon energies and five electron energies was commissioned in early 2010. Daily Linac QA tests including the output constancy, beam flatness and symmetry (radial and transverse directions) were performed with an ionization chamber array device (QA BeamChecker Plus, Standard Imaging). The data of five years were collected and analyzed. For each energy, the measured data were exported and processed for visual trending using an in-house Matlab program. These daily data were cross-correlated with the monthly QA and annual QA results, as well as the preventive maintenance records. Majority of the output were within 1% of variation, with a consistent positive/upward drift for all seven energies (~+0.25% per month). The baseline of daily device is reset annually right after the TG-51 calibration. This results in a sudden drop of the output. On the other hand, the large amount of data using the same baseline exhibits a sinusoidal behavior (cycle = 12 months; amplitude = 0.8%, 0.5% for photons, electrons, respectively) on symmetry and flatness when normalization of baselines is accounted for. The well known phenomenon of new Linac output drift was clearly displayed. This output drift was a result of the air leakage of the over-pressurized sealed monitor chambers for the specific vendor. Data visualization is a new trend in the era of big data in radiation oncology research. It allows the data to be displayed visually and therefore more intuitive. Based on the visual display from the past, the physicist might predict the trend of the Linac and take actions proactively. It also makes comparisons, alerts failures, and potentially identifies causalities.

  14. The Influence of 2-Year Changes in Physical Activity, Maturation, and Nutrition on Adiposity in Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Carrillo de Albornoz, Margarita; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Barrera-Expósito, Jesús; Dorado-Guzmán, Manuel; Moore, Justin B; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Three assessments were performed: September 2011 (S1), 2012 (S2), and 2013 (S3). A repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted to examine temporal changes in PA and FMP and sex change in maturation categories (two factor mixed-design, 2x2x3). A stepwise linear regression was conducted in order to estimate the predictors of FMP change. Significant changes for FMP were found between S1, S2, and S3 (23.41±8.24 vs. 21.89±7.82 vs. 22.05±8.06, p<0.05; respectively); a significant interaction of FMP with sex was observed (F = 4.387, p<0.05 for S2-S3), but not for maturation. PA at S2 was significantly higher than S3 (2.58±0.72 vs. 2.29±0.73, p<0.001). An interaction between PA change and sex was statically significant (F = 4.889, p<0.05 for S2-S3). A reduction in PA was observed after the S2 period without changes in adiposity. In contrast, a significant reduction in FMP was seen between S1 and S2, while PA did not significantly change. There were no significant differences for nutritional variables between S1 and S3, and nutrition was not a determinant of the changes in PA or FMP. Our results suggest that body composition changes observed during adolescence are not driven by changes in PA. Moreover, the interaction analysis suggests that PA behavior is affected by sex, but is not modified by maturation. PMID:27607063

  15. 75 FR 60172 - Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the...

  16. 78 FR 68909 - Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year)) Activity: Comment Request... Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the...

  17. Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157959.html Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study Findings show need to coordinate care after organ transplant, researcher says To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  18. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  19. Artificial-recharge investigation near Aurora, Nebraska: 2-year progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first 2 years of a 4-year investigation of potential for artificial recharge and recharge methods that might be used to mitigate excessive aquifer depletion in Nebraska. A Quaternary sand-and-gravel aquifer near Aurora, Nebr., was recharged by injecting water through a well at a rate of approximately 730 gallons per minute for nearly 6 months. Total recharge was 530 acre-feet. Recharge was intermittent during the first 2 months, but was virtually continuous during the last 4 months. Buildup of the water level in the recharge well was 17 feet. The rate of buildup indicates that the well could have accepted water by gravity flow at more than 3,000 gallons per minute for at least 1 year. The cause of a continuing slow rise in water levels in the recharge well in contrast to nearly stable water levels in observation wells as close as 10 feet from the recharge well is as yet uncertain. The recharge water and the native ground water appeared to be chemically compatible. Infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter surface impoundments ranged from 0.04 to 0.66 feet per day. The higher rates may have resulted in part from leakage down incompletely sealed holes that were drilled to install monitoring equipment. The investigation, including a report on the entire project, is scheduled for completion by 1980.

  20. Changes in body mass index in Canadians over a five-year period: Results of a prospective, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hopman, Wilma M; Leroux, Cristine; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Barr, Susan I; Prior, Jerilynn C; Harrison, Mark; Poliquin, Suzette; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Goltzman, David

    2007-01-01

    Background The initiation of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study in 1996, and subsequent follow-up of the cohort 5 years later, provided longitudinal body mass index (BMI) data for a random sample of Canadians. Methods Height and weight were measured at baseline and 5 years and used to calculate BMI and assign one of six weight categories. Multiple imputation was used to adjust for missing weight at year 5. Data were stratified by age and gender. The proportion of participants moving between categories was generated, and multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors associated with weight change. Results Baseline data were available for 8548 participants, year 5 data for 6721, and year 5 weight was imputed for 1827 (17.6%). Mean BMI for every age and gender group exceeded healthy weight guidelines. Most remained within their BMI classification over 5 years, but when change occurred, BMI category was more likely to increase than decrease. Several sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics were associated with change. Conclusion Mean baseline BMI tended to be higher than recommended. Moreover, on average, men under age 45 and women under age 55 were gaining approximately 0.45 kilograms (one pound) per year, which leveled off with increased age and reversed in the oldest age groups. These findings underscore the need for public health efforts aimed at combating obesity. PMID:17620129

  1. [Ambulatory recording of esophageal pH over a 24-hour period in a population of 27 control subjects: analysis of technical and methodological factors influencing results].

    PubMed

    Gignoux, C; Bonnet-Eymard, P O; Hostein, J; Fournet, J

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four hour pH monitoring is used increasingly as a technique for diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The Synectics recording apparatus (Stockholm, Sweden) was used in 27 ambulatory control subjects in order to: identify the variations of the data-dependent factors (electrodes, buffer solutions, calibration, placement of esophageal electrode). The consequences of these variations were evaluated by studying the measurement deflection after 24 h, baseline variations, and a comparative double pH esophageal recording with reference equipment for 3 h postprandial; to provide normal values for several parameters of GER measurement under the conditions of this study (total number of reflux, number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min, duration of the longest reflux, percentage of time during which pH was less than 4.0). Important interindividual variations were observed. When interpreting the results provided by this type of apparatus, one should take into account these large variations due, first, to the technique used and second, to the conditions of ambulatory recording. PMID:3556956

  2. Changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in central information processing speed: a prospective 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ebus, S C M; IJff, D M; den Boer, J T; van Hall, M J H; Klinkenberg, S; van der Does, A; Boon, P J; Arends, J B A M; Aldenkamp, A P

    2015-02-01

    We prospectively examined whether changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in cognition. Twenty-six children with benign focal spikes (19 with Rolandic epilepsy) and learning difficulties were examined with repeated 24-hour EEG recordings, three cognitive tests on central information processing speed (CIPS), and questionnaires on cognition and behavior at baseline, 6months, and 2years. Antiepileptic drug changes were allowed when estimated necessary by the treating physician. At baseline, a lower CIPS was correlated with a higher frequency of diurnal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and with worse academic achievement. At follow-up, there was a significant correlation between changes in CIPS and EEG changes in wakefulness (in the same direction) when the EEG outcome was dichotomized in IED frequency "increased" or "not increased". Behavioral problems were more often observed in patients with higher frequency of IEDs in sleep at baseline and in those with ongoing IEDs compared with those with EEG remission (without or with sporadic IEDs in the recording) at the end of the study period. No changes were observed in the results of the questionnaires. A lower diurnal IED frequency at baseline, lack of serial IEDs, and occurrence of only unilateral IEDs were correlated with a higher chance of EEG remission at 2-year follow-up. Electroencephalography remission could not be predicted from other epilepsy variables except from seizure freedom in the last six months. Our results confirm the nonbenign character of 'benign' focal spikes. Whether an early and stable EEG remission can be achieved through antiepileptic treatment and whether this is of benefit for cognitive development should be examined in prospective placebo-controlled randomized trials. PMID:25546731

  3. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance--Veterans' Group Life Insurance regulation update--ABO, VGLI application, SGLI 2-year disability extension. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-07-31

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) insurance regulations concerning Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (SGLI) to reflect the statutory provisions of the Veterans' Benefits Act of 2010, which became law on October 13, 2010, and resulted in the need for amendments to change the SGLI Disability Extension period from 1 year to 2 years in duration; provide SGLI Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) retroactive coverage effective from October 7, 2001, for all qualifying injuries regardless of the geographic location and military operation in which the injuries were incurred; and remove the SGLI and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) Accelerated Benefits Option (ABO) discount rate. This rule also clarifies that ``initial premium'' refers to ``initial Veterans' Group Life Insurance premium,'' updates the current address of the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (OSGLI), managed by Prudential Insurance Company of America, to reflect where the ABO application is mailed for processing, and corrects the OSGLI phone number. Finally, this rule removes the ABO application form from the regulation, and it corrects and clarifies language concerning the VGLI application period that was inadvertently incorrectly modified in a prior amendment of the regulations. PMID:25122940

  4. Prescription Disposal Practices: A 2-Year Ecological Study of Drug Drop Box Donations in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeier, Nicholas; Brooks, Billy; Alamian, Arsham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified controlled substance donations via permanent drug donation boxes over 2 years in a region with high prescription abuse, assessing medication characteristics, time between dispensing and donation, and weight of medications donated per capita. Methods. In partnership with Drug Enforcement Administration and local law enforcement, we analyzed permanent drug donation box collections in 8 Northeast Tennessee locations from June 2012 to April 2014. We recorded controlled substance dosage units along with the product dispensing date. Results. We collected 4841 pounds of pharmaceutical waste, 4.9% (238.5 pounds) of which were controlled substances, totaling 106 464 controlled substance doses. Analysis of dispensing dates for controlled substances indicated a median of 34 months lapsed from dispensing to donation (range = 1–484 months). The mean controlled substance donation rate was 1.39 pounds per 1000 residents. Communities with fewer than 10 000 residents had a statistically higher controlled substance donation rate (P = .002) compared with communities with 10 000 or more residents. Conclusions. Permanent drug donation boxes can be an effective mechanism to remove controlled substances from community settings. Rural and urban community residents should be provided convenient and timely access to drug disposal options. PMID:26180956

  5. Effects of cognitive rehabilitation training on schizophrenia: 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianqing; Zeng, Qiang; Liang, Jia; Zhou, Aihua; Yin, Xuebing; Xu, Ai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder and characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. The current study was to explore the long-term effects of cognitive rehabilitation training on schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty six cases of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into study group and control group. The relapse and employment (attending school) rates were used as indicators to assess the treatment effect. All patients were followed up by 2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted with relapse and employment (attending school) rates. Results: The rates of relapse in the study group and the control group were 18% and 41%, and relapse free survival time was 22.22 months and 18.55 months; the rates of employment (attending school) were 64% and 43%, and not employment (attending school) time were 10.68 months and 15.74 months, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: We found that the cognitive rehabilitation training could significantly reduce schizophrenic relapse rate, prolong the time of patients without relapse, improve the employment (attending school) rate, and shorten the discharged time, which is a powerful treatment method to improve social competence in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26629117

  6. A 2-year-old with 4 weeks of daily fever.

    PubMed

    Darby, John B; Liddell, Lucette; DeGuzman, Marietta; McClain, Kenneth L; Rubenstein, Jared; Chase, Lindsay; Marquez, Lucila

    2015-05-01

    A 2-year-old female presents for evaluation of 4 weeks of daily fevers. When the fevers began, she had mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, which quickly resolved. The fevers persisted, however, with a maximum of 40°C. The child's review of symptoms was significant for a 1-kg weight loss over the past month. Ten months before presentation, she had moved from Saudi Arabia with her family. One week before the onset of symptoms, she had visited a petting zoo. During episodes of fever, the patient was ill-appearing and had an elevated heart rate and respiratory rate. On examination, she was found to be thin, febrile, tachycardic, and with scattered lymphadenopathy. Results of laboratory tests were remarkable for an elevated white blood cell count of 16,100 cells per uL with a neutrophilic predominance. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated at 99 mm/h and 27 mg/dL, respectively. A chest radiograph indicated a small amount of fluid in the interlobar fissures. Our expert panel examines her case, offers a definition of fever of unknown origin, and makes diagnostic considerations. PMID:25917994

  7. Physical Education, Obesity, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Investigation of Australian Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Ross B.; Fitzgerald, Robert; Olive, Lisa S.; Prosser, Laurence; Jiang, Xiaoli; Telford, Rohan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether physical education (PE) taught by specialists contributed to academic development and prevention of obesity in elementary school children. Methods. Our 2-year longitudinal study involved 620 boys and girls initially in grade 3 in Australia, all receiving 150 minutes per week of PE. One group (specialist-taught PE; n = 312) included 90 minutes per week of PE from visiting specialists; the other (common-practice PE; n = 308) received all PE from generalist classroom teachers. Measurements included percentage of body fat (measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry) and writing, numeracy, and reading proficiency (by government tests). Results. Compared with common-practice PE, specialist-taught PE was associated with a smaller increase in age-related percentage of body fat (P = .02). Specialist-taught PE was also associated with greater improvements in numeracy (P < .03) and writing (P = .13) scores. There was no evidence of a reading effect. Conclusions. The attenuated age-related increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development. PMID:21940922

  8. Mechanical Properties of Cranial Bones and Sutures in 1–2-Year-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawen; Zou, Donghua; Li, Zhengdong; Huang, Ping; Li, Dongri; Shao, Yu; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Yijiu

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of 1–2-year-old pediatric cranial bones and sutures and their influential factors were studied to better understand how the pediatric calvarium reacts to loading. Material/Methods Cranial bone and suture specimens were extracted from seven fresh-frozen human infant cadavers (1.5±0.5 years old). Eight specimens were obtained from each subject: two frontal bones, two parietal bones, two sagittal suture samples, and two coronal suture samples. The specimens were tested in a three-point bend setup at 1.5 mm/s. The mechanical properties, such as ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and ultimate strain, were calculated for each specimen. Results The ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the frontal bone were higher than those of the parietal bone (P<0.05). No differences were found between the coronal and sagittal sutures in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, or ultimate strain (P>0.05). The ultimate stress and elastic modulus of the frontal and parietal bones were higher than those of the sagittal and coronal sutures (P<0.05), whereas the opposite ultimate strain findings were revealed (P<0.05). Conclusions There was no significant difference in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, or ultimate strain between the sagittal and coronal sutures. However, there were significant differences in ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and ultimate strain between the frontal and parietal bones as well as between the cranial bones and sutures. PMID:25279966

  9. A 3 1/2 year old girl with distal trisomy 19q defined by FISH.

    PubMed Central

    James, C; Jauch, A; Robson, L; Watson, N; Smith, A

    1996-01-01

    A 3 1/2 year old girl was evaluated because of developmental delay. Short stature was evident with height between the 3rd and 10th centiles, while weight and head circumference were on the 50th centile. Dysmorphic features consisted of a high bossed forehead, pointed short ear lobes, small nose, bilateral convergent strabismus, left simian crease, a gap between the first and second toes bilaterally, mild clinodactyly, and a broad, barrel shaped thorax. Cytogenetic investigations showed an unbalanced karyotype, 46,XX,10q+, which was de novo in origin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using three library probes (from chromosomes 10, 19, and 19q) and a YAC probe (from 10q telomere) showed that the additional material on 10q was derived from chromosome 19q. The patient had an unbalanced translocation, 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(10;19)(q26.3; q13.3), which resulted in distal trisomy 19q. Few other cases of proven distal trisomy 19q are available for comparison of clinical features. Images PMID:8880586

  10. Unaffected family members report improvements in daily routine sun-protection 2 years following melanoma genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Taber, Jennifer M.; Kohlmann, Wendy; Leaf, Samantha L.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Reducing ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure may decrease melanoma risk in the hereditary melanoma setting. It is unknown whether genetic counseling and test reporting of CDKN2A/p16 mutation status promote long-term compliance with photoprotection recommendations, especially in unaffected mutation carriers. Methods This study evaluated changes 2 years following melanoma genetic testing in self-reported practice of sun-protection (sunscreen, photoprotective clothing, UVR avoidance) among 37 members of two CDKN2A/p16 kindreds (10 unaffected carriers, 11 affected carriers, 16 unaffected noncarriers; response rate=64.9% of eligible participants). Results Multivariate profile analysis indicated that all 3 participant groups reported increased daily routine practice of sun-protection 2 years following melanoma genetic testing (p<.02), with 96.9% reporting that at least 1 sun-protection behavior was part of their daily routine, up from 78.1% at baseline (p<.015). Unaffected carriers (p<.024) and unaffected noncarriers (p<.027) reported significantly more frequent use of photoprotective clothing. Affected carriers maintained adherence to all sun-protection behaviors. Reported sunburns in the past 6 months decreased significantly (p<.018). Conclusion Members of high-risk families reported increased daily routine sun-protection and decreased sunburns 2 years following melanoma genetic testing, with no net decline in sun-protection following negative test results. Thus, genetic testing and counseling may motivate sustained improvements in prevention behaviors. PMID:24763292

  11. Effects of a 2-Year Supervised Exercise Program Upon the Body Composition and Muscular Performance of HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Lorena da Silva; Borges, Juliana Pereira; dos Santos, Fernanda Monteiro; de Oliveira, Taciana Pinto; Dupin, Jaciara Gomes; Harris, Elizabeth Assumpção; Farinatti, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background : There is a lack of research investigating long-term effects of exercise training upon the body composition and muscle function in HIV-infected patients (PHIV). The study investigated the influence of a 2-year supervised exercise program on body composition and strength of PHIV under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods : A training program including aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises was performed by 27 PHIV (17 men/ 10 women; age: 48.7±7.0 years; HAART: 150.7±65.3 months) during 1 year and 18 PHIV (10 men/ 8 women; age: 50.6±5.2 years; HAART: 176.6±53.1 months) during 2 years. Body composition and knee isokinetic strength were assessed at baseline and at the end of each year of intervention. Results : Body composition remained stable along the whole experiment vs baseline (1-year - total muscle mass: Δ men=1.1%, P=0.21; Δ women=1.4%, P=0.06; trunk fat: Δ men=-0.1%, P=0.65; Δ women=-1.5%, P=0.45; 2 years - total muscle mass: Δ men=2.7%, P=0.54; Δ women=-1.9%, P=0.71; trunk fat: Δ men=4.4%, P=0.96; Δ women=10.0%, P=0.30). After 1-year, peak torque increased in men (Δ extension=4.2%, P=0.01; Δ flexion=12.2%, P=0.04) and total work reduced in women (Δ extension=-15.4%, P=0.01, Δ flexion=-17.5%, P=0.05). All strength markers remained stable vs baseline after 2 years of intervention (P>0.05). Only men showed significant reduction in the risk of disability due to sarcopenia (P=0.05) after 1 year of intervention, which remained stable after 2 years. Conclusion : Long-term exercise training preserved strength and muscle mass in PHIV under HAART. Exercise programs should be part of HIV therapy to prevent sarcopenia of this population along the years. Trial Registration : ACTRN12610000683033; UTN U1111-1116-4416. PMID:26587076

  12. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  13. [Upper digestive system endoscopy in Gabon. Contribution of 2 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Flocard, F; Tibermont, G; Klotz, F; Lassalle, Y; Ozouaki, F; Frost, E; Fischer, P

    1987-01-01

    Reporting on 805 endoscopies of upper digestive tract performed in a rural area of Gaboon during a period of 28 months, the authors describe the indications and the results by analysing comparatively their findings with some other African ones. Their experience is deeply in favour of performing much more often fibreoptic endoscopy, even if the percentage of investigations revealing no anomaly is high, because its indisputable medical and economical interest. PMID:3431384

  14. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence. PMID:15161108

  15. Flat growth of 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 aluminum alloy plate in stress corrosion environments: 2-year marine atmosphere results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorward, R. C.; Hasse, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Marine atmospheric exposure of smooth and precracked specimens from 7075, 7475, 7050 and 7049 plates support the conclusion that for a given strength level, the short transverse stress corrosion resistance of 7050-T7X and 7049-T7X is superior to that of 7075-T7X. The threshold stress intensity (K sub Iscc) for these alloys is about 25 MPa square root m at a yield strength of about 460 MPa; the corresponding yield strength level for 7075-T7X at this SCR level is about 425 MPa. Additional tests on two lots of high-toughness 7475 plate indicate that this alloy is capable of achieving K sub Iscc values of about 35 MPa square root m at yield strengths of 400-450 MPa. Precracked specimens from all these 7XXX-series alloys are subject to self loading from corrosion product wedging. This effect causes stress corrosion cracks to continue growing at very low apparent stress intensities, and should therefore be considered a potential driving force for stress corrosion in design and materials selection.

  16. A Culturally Appropriate School Wellness Initiative: Results of a 2-Year Pilot Intervention in 2 Jewish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamins, Maureen R.; Whitman, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the…

  17. Effects of a school-based weight maintenance program for Mexican-American children: results at 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased significantly, with the highest rates noted among Mexican Americans. Many negative health outcomes are associated with overweight; thus, there is a need for effective weight-loss interventions tailored to this group. This study evaluated 24-month ...

  18. Public Disclosure to Improve Physical Education in an Urban School District: Results from a 2-year Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Hannah R.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Linchey, Jennifer K.; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many elementary schools have policies requiring a minimum amount of physical education (PE). However, few schools comply with local/state PE policy and little is known about how to improve adherence. We evaluated changes in PE among fifth-grade classes, following participatory action research efforts to improve PE quantity and policy…

  19. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  20. A Web Site to Improve Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders in the Emergency Department: Results at 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Annarita; Di Perna, Caterina; Biasoli, Chiara; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Quintavalle, Gabriele; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Barozzi, Marco; Benedettini, Laura; Pattacini, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of patients with inherited bleeding disorders (PWIBD) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. In 2010, a project was started involving all eight hemophilia centers (HC) and all 44 EDs of the Region of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) to improve emergency care for PWIBD. The project incorporates guidelines for emergency treatment, education for ED staff, and a dedicated Web site providing extensive information, proposing treatments, and sharing data with patients' electronic clinical records. A Web algorithm, accessible to PWIBD as well as ED and HC staff, suggests the first dose of concentrate for each type and severity of bleed or trauma. Following training courses in each ED, the network was activated. During 2012 and 2013, the site was visited 14,000 times, the EDs accessed the Web site 1,739 times, and used the algorithms 206 times. In two reference EDs, triage-assessment and triage-treatment times were reduced in 2013 and 2012 (27/20 and 110/71.5 minutes, respectively) and medical advice from the HC increased (54 vs. 24% cases). The main advantages of this system are better management of patients in ED (shorter triage-to-treatment times) and improved collaboration between HCs and EDs. The most critical point remaining is staff turnover in EDs, necessitating continual training. PMID:27071049

  1. Construction work practices and conditions improved after 2-years' participation in the HomeSafe pilot program.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, David P; Hautaluoma, Jacob E; Ahmed, Taslim P; Keefe, Thomas J; Herron, Robert E; Bigelow, Philip L

    2003-01-01

    This study reevaluated changes in job-site safety audit scores for a cohort of residential construction workers that had protracted exposure to the HomeSafe pilot program for 2(1/2) years. The investigation was a repeated measure of a cohort study underway in the six-county metro area of Denver, Colo. The larger study was a longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with a cohort of residential construction workers within the HomeSafe strategic partnership between Occupational Safety and Health Administration Region VIII and the Home Builders Association of Metropolitan Denver (HBA). Audits were conducted on residential construction sites. Study subjects were construction workers employed by partner or control companies within the study. Repeated measures of 41 companies showed significant improvement (p=.01) in audit scores, increasing from 71.8 to 76.8 after 2(1/2) years in the program. HomeSafe companies out-performed controls (p=.01) for both the retest group and previously unaudited HomeSafe companies. Prolonged exposure in the HomeSafe pilot program resulted in improved audit scores for companies within the program for at least 2 years. PMID:12809540

  2. Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Primary Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Hospitalized Children Under 2-Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Farhangi, H; Ghasemi, A; Banihashem, A; Badiei, Z; Jarahi, L; Eslami, G; Langaee, T

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most prevalent cause of thrombocytopenia in children. Despite the importance of ITP in children under 2-years old, only a few publications are available in the literature.ITP usually presents itself as isolated thrombocytopenia and mucocutaneous bleeding. Materials and Methods This study was conducted on 187 under 2-year-old children diagnosed with ITP and treated at Dr. Sheikh Hospital from 2004 to 2011.In this retrospective study, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, history of viral infections, vaccination history, and treatment efficacy in children under 2-years old with ITP were investigated.Patients were followed for one year after being discharged from the hospital. Results The risk of the disease developing into chronic form was higher in older children (0.001). ITP in children under 3-months old was significantly associated with vaccination (p=0.007). There was no significant differences between male and female patients in regards to newly diagnosed ITP, persistent, and chronic disease status (p = 0.21). No significant difference in bleeding symptoms was observed between patients under 3-months old and 3 to 24-months old (p=0.18). Conclusion Infantile ITP respond favorably to treatment. The risk of the disease developing into chronic form is higher in 3-to-24-month-old children compared to under-three-month olds. PMID:27222699

  3. Factors Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction 2 Years After Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Chinese Older Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lei; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aim to identify factors predicting patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in a Chinese older cohort. Preoperative and 2-year follow-up data for 843 patients were analyzed. After 2 years of discectomy, the patients rated their satisfaction by Patient Satisfaction Index (PSI), with response of 1 or 2 defining satisfaction and a PSI response of 3 or 4 defining dissatisfaction. Associations between perioperative variables and satisfaction with the results of surgery were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Six hundred fifty-seven patients had a PSI of 1 or 2 and were enrolled as satisfied group, 186 patients had a PSI of 3 or 4 and were enrolled as dissatisfied group. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, occupation, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg, and VAS-back. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group had a significantly higher BMI and a higher incidence of depression. Two years after discectomy, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in decrease of ODI, decrease of VAS-back, decrease of VAS-leg, surgery complications. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group experienced higher incidence of symptom recurrence and depression. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, pre- and postoperative depression, symptom recurrence were independently associated with patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy. In conclusion, more than 70% patients expressed satisfaction with discectomy for LDH. Two factors could predict patient dissatisfaction and be assessed before surgery: obesity and preoperative depression. Symptom recurrence and postoperative depression are also associated with diminished patient satisfaction. PMID:26448005

  4. Treatment costs associated with interventional cancer clinical trials conducted at a single UK institution over 2 years (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Liniker, E; Harrison, M; Weaver, J M J; Agrawal, N; Chhabra, A; Kingshott, V; Bailey, S; Eisen, T G G; Corrie, P G

    2013-01-01

    Background: The conduct of clinical trials should be an integral part of routine patient care. Treating patients in trials incurs additional costs over and above standard of care (SOC), but the extent of the cost burden is not known. We undertook a retrospective cost attribution analysis to quantitate the treatment costs associated with cancer clinical trial protocols conducted over a 2 year period. Methods: All patients entered into oncology (non-haematology) clinical trials involving investigational medicinal products in 2009 and 2010 in a single UK institution were identified. The trial protocols on which they were treated were analysed to identify the treatment costs for the experimental arm(s) of the trial and the equivalent SOC had the patient not been entered in the trial. The treatment cost difference was calculated by subtracting the experimental treatment cost from SOC cost. For randomised trials, an average treatment cost was estimated by taking into account the number of arms and randomisation ratio. An estimate of the annual treatment costs was calculated. Results: A total of 357 adult oncology patients were treated on 53 different trial protocols: 40 phase III, 2 randomised II/III and 11 phase II design. A total of 27 trials were academic, non-commercial sponsored trials and 26 were commercial sponsored trials. When compared with SOC, the average treatment cost per patient was an excess of £431 for a non-commercial trial (range £6393 excess to £6005 saving) and a saving of £9294 for a commercial trial (range £0 to £71 480). There was an overall treatment cost saving of £388 719 in 2009 and £496 556 in 2010, largely attributable to pharmaceutical company provision of free drug supplies. Conclusion: On an average, non-commercial trial protocols were associated with a small per patient excess treatment cost, whereas commercial trials were associated with a substantially higher cost saving. Taking into account the total number of patients

  5. Global calibration/validation of 2 years of SARAL/AltiKa data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharroo, Remko; Lillibridge, John; Leuliette, Eric; Bonekamp, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The AltiKa altimeter flying onboard the French/Indian SARAL satellite provides the first opportunity to examine Ka-band measurements of sea surface height, significant wave height and ocean surface wind speed. In this presentation we provide the results from our global calibration/validation analysis of the AltiKa measurements, with an emphasis on near real-time applications of interest to both EUMETSAT and NOAA. Traditional along-track SSHA, and single as well as dual-satellite crossover assessments of the AltiKa performance are be provided. Unique aspects of the AltiKa mission such as improved along-track resolution, reduced ionospheric path delay corrections, mission-specific wind speed and sea state bias corrections, and sensitivity to liquid moisture and rain are also explored. In February 2014, a major update to the ground processing was introduced. "Patch-2" improved the way wind speed was derived from altimeter backscatter, as suggested by Lillibridge et al. (1). The backscatter attenuation is now derived from the radiometer measurements via neural network algorithms, which also determine the wet tropospheric correction. We emphasize these improvements in our analysis. After 2 years in flight, SARAL/AltiKa is already providing a significant contribution to the constellation of operational radar altimetry missions, demonstrating the large benefits of high-rate Ka-band altimetry. (1) Lillibridge, John, Remko Scharroo, Saleh Abdalla, Doug Vandemark, 2014: One- and Two-Dimensional Wind Speed Models for Ka-Band Altimetry. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 630-638. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00167.1

  6. Dental treatment of a 2-year-old victim of a suicide bomb attack.

    PubMed

    Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Gozal, David; Ram, Diana

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the diagnosis and dental treatment of a 2-year-old girl that was involved in a suicide bomb attack. A 14-months-old infant was severely injured when a suicide bomber detonated an explosive device inside a crowded bus. Her injury was 'multi-system', mainly burns and fragments in her face, eyes and other parts of the body. Fifteen months later, she was brought to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of the Hadassah School of Dental Medicine and the clinical and radiographic examination showed that she was caries free but there were dental trauma injuries to many teeth. Due to her non-cooperative behavior and the extent of treatment the girl was scheduled for a one appointment treatment under deep sedation. Three days later, she was brought to the Emergency Room of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry complaining of pain on the lower left side of the mouth and a swollen vestibule and face could clinically be observed. The lower left first molar that apparently revealed only an enamel fracture and cracks at the time of treatment, actually revealed a necrotic pulp as a result of the blast. As this girl was caries free, and with no history of dental trauma due to any accident, the only explanation for the response of the pulp was the impact of the blast. In conclusion, the reaction of the dental pulp to the blast of an explosion is different than the reaction to other kind of insult and this should be taken in consideration when treating children after this kind of dental trauma. PMID:17803491

  7. Natural Course of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis After 2 Years in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Chung, Sochung; Hong, Seok-Chan; Kim, Jin Kook; Cho, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are very common disease for children, however, little is known about their natural courses in the general population. The purpose is to evaluate the natural course of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in children. Methods. We analyzed data from Snoring Child Cohort of 178 children (107 boys and 71 girls). All children entered the study at the age of 7 years (range, 6.5 to 7.4 years). Questionnaires regarding chronic rhinitis, a skin prick test (SPT) for 5 inhalent allergens, and specific IgE for 2 dust mites were administered. Children were classified into 4 groups: allergic rhinitis (rhinitis, positive SPT), nonallergic rhinitis (rhinitis, negative SPT), sensitization only (no rhinitis, positive SPT), and control (no rhinitis, negative SPT). We repeated follow them annually, and analyzed the data of first and third year for this study. Results. Finally, the data of 122 children were analyzed. Among 18 children with allergic rhinitis at 7 year, 13 (72%) became sensitization only after 2 years and 5 (28%) were remained having allergic rhinitis. Five out of 19 children (26%) with nonallergic rhinitis developed into allergic rhinitis and 7 (37%) into control at 9 years. Twenty-four out of 28 children (86%) with sensitization only at 7 years remained the same at 9 years. Among 57 control children at 7 year, 2 (4%) developed into allergic rhinitis, 7 (12%) with nonallergic rhinitis, and 16 (28%) with sensitization only at 9 years. Conclusion. The status of chronic rhinitis and allergen sensitization is ever-changing in children. PMID:27095517

  8. From Genesis to Infinity or from 0 to 50,000 Online Students in 2 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, April; Kennedy, Paul

    In 2 years, RMIT University (Melbourne, Australia) set up an online learning system for 50,000 students. The development of the RMIT Distributed Learning System has taken the University from a cottage industry model to a fully fledged enterprise system for flexible online learning, integrated with the University's student administration system and…

  9. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  10. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors among 2-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants: The purpose of this article is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods: During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and…

  11. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  12. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE PUBLIC 2-YEAR COLLEGE ON CERTAIN NONINTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PLANT, WALTER T.; TELFORD, CHARLES W.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE IF THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN SELECTED PERSONALITY TRAITS, IDEOLOGIES, AND VALUES OF STUDENTS WHO ATTEND A 2-YEAR PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE. A BATTERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS WAS ADMINISTERED TO ALL PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION AS COLLEGE FRESHMEN FOR THE FALL SEMESTER OF 1960 AT ONE OF SIX CALIFORNIA PUBLIC…

  13. Emotionally Focused Interventions for Couples with Chronically Ill Children: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Paula F.; Manion, Ian G.; Walker, Jan Gordon; Johnson, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Couples with chronically ill children are particularly at risk for experiencing marital distress. The study presented here is a 2-year follow-up of a randomized control trial that assessed the efficacy of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) in decreasing marital distress in a sample of couples with a chronically ill child. Thirteen couples with…

  14. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  15. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  16. AGU awarded grant to establish program on engaging 2-year-college students in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti; Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2012-03-01

    Students at 2-year colleges are a critical part of the future Earth and space science workforce, and undergraduate research experiences provide a hook to retain and ultimately to graduate students in the field. AGU was awarded a planning grant by the U.S. National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences award 1201578) to help launch a new initiative concerning these issues; education and public outreach staff are the principal investigators. This new initiative, titled Unique Research Experiences for Two-Year College Faculty and Students (URECAS), will begin with a planning workshop this summer (11-13 July). The workshop will bring together faculty from 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges and universities, and representatives from professional societies and federal organizations to learn more about how to support 2-year-college faculty and students engaged in Earth and space science research and to discuss the development of a program to strengthen the role of 2-year-college Earth and space science students in the future workforce

  17. Administration of high-dose interleukin-2 in a 2-year-old with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, M Brooke; Hicks, M John; Pappo, Alberto S

    2009-12-15

    Malignant melanoma is rare in pediatrics, and therapies for patients with disseminated disease have not been well studied. This report describes our experience with the use of high-dose interleukin 2 (aldesleukin, IL-2) in a 2-year-old child with metastatic melanoma and describes our approach for the administration of this agent to young patients. PMID:19731326

  18. Antecedents of Compliance in 2-Year-Olds From a High-Risk Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha Farrell; Crichton, Leslie

    In order to identify antecedents of infant's compliance with mothers' directions on how to solve four tasks (graded in terms of stressfulness to the infant), 194 high-risk mothers and their 2-year-old children were observed on videotape and assessed with a six-point rating scale. Data collected prenatally and postnatally at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months…

  19. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  20. How Joint Attention Relates to Cooperation in 1- and 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Pan, Jingtong; Su, Yanjie; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention has been suggested to contribute to children's development of cooperation; however, few empirical studies have directly tested this hypothesis. Children aged 1 and 2 years participated in two joint action activities to assess their cooperation with an adult partner, who stopped participating at a specific moment during the…

  1. Students with Disabilities at 2-Year Institutions in the United States: Factors Related to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Koch, Lynn C.

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the demographic and in-college characteristics of students with disabilities at 2-year institutions, identify the types of educational services available to them, and determine how students' disability conditions and their selected demographic and…

  2. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  3. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  4. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens in a 2 year old.

    PubMed

    Newton, Christopher L; deLEMOS, David; Abramo, Thomas J; Murrey, Allen; Noell, Courtney

    2002-12-01

    We report an unusual, life-threatening complication of producing fulminant cervical necrotizing fasciitis in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl. We reviewed the literature for necrotizing fasciitis in children and its morbidity, mortality, and treatment. This case illustrates the necessity of prompt recognition and aggressive management in patients presenting with cervical necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:12488837

  5. Generacion 1.5: A Cultural Historical Agenda for Research at the 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Portes, Pedro R.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we employ a cultural historical theoretical framework to extend understandings of how widespread 2-year college placement policies concerning English remediation potentially locate and retain U.S.-educated Latino adolescents at the margins of higher education through well-intentioned yet deficit-driven postsecondary cultural…

  6. Word Learning from Videos: More Evidence from 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebekah; Scofield, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Young children are frequently exposed to examples of screen media like videos. The current studies asked whether videos would support word learning and whether word learning from videos might resemble word learning from a live speaker. In Study 1, 2-year-olds saw a video of a target image being labelled with a novel word and were later asked to…

  7. Developmental Assessment of Preterm Infants at 2 Years: Validity of Parent Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Parental questionnaires are inexpensive alternatives to standardized testing for outcome measurement. The Parent Report of Children's Abilities has previously been revised (PARCA-R) and validated for use with very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. This study revalidated the PARCA-R for assessing cognition in a larger and more inclusive sample of…

  8. Intravenous injection of AAVrh10-GALC after the neonatal period in twitcher mice results in significant expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems and improvement of clinical features.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohammad A; Rao, Han Zhi; Luzi, Paola; Luddi, Alice; Curtis, Mark T; Wenger, David A

    2015-03-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD) or Krabbe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the defective lysosomal enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC). The lack of GALC enzyme leads to severe neurological symptoms. While most human patients are infants who do not survive beyond 2 years of age, older patients are also diagnosed. In addition to human patients, several naturally occurring animal models, including dog, mouse, and monkey, have also been identified. The mouse model of Krabbe disease, twitcher (twi) mouse has been used for many treatment trials including gene therapy. Using the combination of intracerebroventricular, intracerebellar, and intravenous (iv) injection of the adeno-associated virus serotype rh10 (AAVrh10) expressing mouse GALC in neonate twi mice we previously have demonstrated a significantly extended normal life and exhibition of normal behavior in treated mice. In spite of the prolonged healthy life of these treated mice and improved myelination, it is unlikely that using multiple injection sites for viral administration will be approved for treatment of human patients. In this study, we have explored the outcome of the single iv injection of viral vector at post-natal day 10 (PND10). This has resulted in increased GALC activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and high GALC activity in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). As we have shown previously, an iv injection of AAVrh10 at PND2 results in a small extension of life beyond the typical lifespan of the untreated twi mice (~40 days). In this study, we report that mice receiving a single iv injection at PND10 had no tremor and continued to gain weight until a few weeks before they died. On average, they lived 20-25 days longer than untreated mice. We anticipate that this strategy in combination with other therapeutic options may be beneficial and applicable to treatment of human patients. PMID:25533112

  9. Minimum 2-Year Outcomes after Resection Arthroplasty of the Sternoclavicular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Katthagen, Jan Christoph; Tahal, Dimitri S.; Menge, Travis; Horan, Marilee P.; Millett, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Injuries of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint are rare and are usually caused by high energy mechanisms, such as collision sports or motor vehicle accidents. The aims of this study were to assess functional outcomes and return to sport following resection arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the sternoclavicular joint. Methods: 20 SC joints (18 patients) had undergone resection arthroplasty of up to a maximum of 10 mm of the medial end of the clavicle for painful osteoarthritis, without instability, between November 2006 and November 2013. Patients at least two years out from surgery and living in the U.S. were included in the study. This was an IRB-approved retrospective outcomes study with prospectively collected data. Preoperative and postoperative function and pain levels were assessed with the ASES, SF-12 PCS, QuickDASH and SANE scores. Additionally, the level of sport intensity and the pain levels during activities of daily living, work and recreation were assessed pre- and postoperatively. The results of the functional outcome scores were normally distributed and were compared with the paired sample t-test. The results of pain level assessment were not normally distributed and were compared with the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: 19 SC joints in 17 patients (9 female, 8 male; mean age at time of surgery 39.5±17.1 years) met inclusion criteria. One patient refused participation in the study. Two patients (10.5%) were considered failures as they required additional SC joint surgery (one patient with revision resection of the medial clavicle for persistent symptoms and one patient with secondary figure-of-eight graft stabilization for instability). Minimum 2-year outcomes data were available for 14 of the remaining 16 SC joints (88%). The mean time to follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 2.0-8.8 years). The ASES score, QuickDASH, and pain levels demonstrated significant improvement postoperatively (p<0.05; Table 1). No significant differences

  10. Environmental NO2 Level is Associated with 2-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients. A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients’ living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis. A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013–1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116–1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0–0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778–114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143–12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality. PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher

  11. Environmental NO2 level is associated with 2-year mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients.A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis.A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013-1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116-1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0-0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778-114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143-12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality.PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher 2-year mortality rate

  12. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  13. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  14. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren M.; Safran, Marc R.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Huddleston, James I.; Bellino, Michael J.; Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin–aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  15. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  16. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  17. Adverse Events during 2 Years of Daily Wear of Silicone Hydrogels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Chen, Xiang; Naduvilath, Thomas; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Lin, Zhi; Li, Li; Smith, Earl L.; Ge, Jian; Holden, Brien A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Type and incidence of adverse events and rate of discontinuations for 2 years of daily wear with silicone hydrogel contact lenses in Chinese children with myopia. Methods Two hundred forty children aged 7 to 14 years were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial from November 2008 to April 2009. Children with myopia of up to −3.50 diopters (D) spherical equivalent with astigmatism less than or equal to −0.75 D were randomized to one commercial and three experimental lens designs of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel lenses (four groups) used bilaterally on a daily wear, monthly replacement schedule. The main outcome measures were incidence per 100 patient-years (incidence, in percentage) of adverse events and rate of discontinuations. Results There were no events of microbial keratitis. Fifty-five adverse events (incidence, 14.2%) were seen. There were also 12 recurrent events. The type and incidence percentage were contact lens papillary conjunctivitis (16 events, 4.1%), superior epithelial arcuate lesions (SEALs, six events, 1.5%), corneal erosions (eight events, 2.1%), infiltrative keratitis (five events, 1.3%), asymptomatic infiltrative keratitis (seven events, 1.8%), and asymptomatic infiltrates (13 events, 3.42%). There were differences in the incidence of SEALs between groups (p = 0.023), with the incidence of SEALs being greater with one of the experimental designs. No event resulted in any vision loss. Seventy participants (29.2%) discontinued, with one-third (26 participants, 10.8%) occurring in the first month of lens wear. Discomfort and non–lens-related reasons such as safety concern and disinterest were frequently cited reasons for discontinuations. Conclusions Adverse events with daily wear of silicone hydrogels in children were mainly mechanical in nature, and significant infiltrative events were few. The large number of dropouts in the early days of lens wear and their reasons for discontinuation suggest that adaptation and

  18. Effects of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program at 1- and 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objective A group-based eating disorder prevention program wherein young women explore the costs of pursuing the thin ideal reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms. However, it can be challenging to identify school clinicians to effectively deliver the intervention. The present study compares the effects of a new Internet-based version of this prevention program, which could facilitate dissemination, to the group-based program and to educational video and educational brochure control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method Female college students with body dissatisfaction (N = 107; M age = 21.6 SD = 6.6) were randomized to these four conditions. Results Internet participants showed reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .34 and .17 respectively), but the effects were smaller than parallel comparisons for the group participants (M d = .48 and .43 respectively). Yet the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .80 and .73 respectively), which were larger than the parallel effects for the group intervention (M d = .19 and .47 respectively). Conclusions Although the effects for the Internet versus group intervention were similar at posttest, results suggest that the effects faded more quickly for the Internet intervention. However, the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects, implying that it might be useful for simultaneously preventing eating disordered behavior and unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25020152

  19. Maternal Glucose at 28 Weeks of Gestation Is Not Associated With Obesity in 2-Year-Old Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pettitt, David J.; McKenna, Sonia; McLaughlin, Ciara; Patterson, Christopher C.; Hadden, David R.; McCance, David R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes during pregnancy is a strong risk factor for obesity in the offspring, but the age at which this association becomes apparent is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of glycemia during pregnancy with anthropometry in offspring of nondiabetic pregnant women from the Belfast U.K. center of the multinational Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Women from the HAPO Study were invited to participate in follow-up of their offspring aged 2 years. Measurements included height, weight, and thickness of triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds. RESULTS A total of 1,165 offspring (73% of eligible children; 598 boys and 567 girls) were seen from ages 22–30 completed months. The only association that reached statistical significance was between categories of maternal 1-h glucose and BMI Z score ≥85th percentile at 2 years (P = 0.017). Overall the correlations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and BMI Z score at age 2 years were weak (fasting glucose r = 0.05, P = 0.08; 1-h glucose r = 0.04, P = 0.22; 2-h glucose r = 0.03, P = 0.36; and area under the curve for glucose r = 0.04, P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS This study found little association between maternal glucose during pregnancy and obesity in the offspring at this young age. These findings are not unexpected given that study results for young offspring whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy were indistinguishable from those for normal offspring at this age. It will be interesting to see whether, as these children age, maternal glucose during pregnancy in the ranges included in the HAPO Study will be associated with obesity in their children. PMID:20215449

  20. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies. PMID:25955638

  1. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  2. Patient factors predict functional outcomes after cruciate retaining TKA: a 2-year follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Justin S; Buehler, Knute C; Shen, Jianhua; Naughton, Marybeth

    2013-09-01

    We analyzed preoperative patient characteristics and postoperative functional outcomes to identify the most predictive preoperative characteristics of postoperative functional outcome for Cruciate Retaining (CR) TKA. In a prospective, multicenter study, 307 knees with minimum 2-year follow-up were first divided into groups based on 2-year functional performance. Logistic regression then determined SF-36 General Health Score (GHS) to be the most predictive preoperative patient characteristic. Subsequently, a second analysis was performed using preoperative SF-36 GHS to stratify patients into groups. Statistical significance was achieved in both analyses by gender, BMI and hypertension. Statistical significance was achieved in a single analysis by age, preoperative narcotic use, preoperative metabolic medication usage, preoperative pulmonary disease and preoperative use of medication for anxiety or depression. PMID:23523205

  3. Language experiences and vocabulary development in Dominican and Mexican infants across the first 2 years.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-07-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews at infants' birth. Infants' language experiences were measured at ages 14 months and 2 years through mothers' reports of mothers' and fathers' engagement in English and Spanish literacy activities with infants and mothers' English and Spanish utterances during videotaped mother-infant interactions. Infants' vocabulary development at 14 months and 2 years was examined using standardized vocabulary checklists in English and Spanish. Both parental language context and infants' language experiences predicted infants' vocabularies in each language at both ages. Furthermore, language experiences mediated associations between parental language context and infants' vocabularies. However, the specific mediation mechanisms varied by language. PMID:22142187

  4. 30 CFR 72.100 - Periodic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a coal mine shall provide to each miner periodic examinations including chest x-rays, spirometry... follow-up examination no later than 2 years after the examinations in paragraph (c)(2) if the chest x-ray... develop and submit for approval to NIOSH a plan in accordance with 42 CFR part 37 for providing...

  5. A 2-Year-Old Child's Memory of Hospitalization during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solter, Aletha

    2008-01-01

    A child who had had surgery at 5 months of age, and who had been treated at the time for post-traumatic symptoms (reported in a previous paper by the author), was interviewed 2 years later and almost 3 years later to test for possible verbal recall of his hospitalization. He appeared to have some memories of the experience at 29 months of age, and…

  6. Complete paroxysmal atrioventricular block in a 2-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Holst, Line M; Dixen, Ulrik; Jeppesen, Dorthe L

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of atypical syncope in a 2-year-old, otherwise healthy girl. The patient presented with three episodes of syncope without any precipitating factors and no family history of sudden unexpected death. Holter monitoring revealed 24 events of complete atrioventricular block lasting up to 6 seconds. A normal 12-lead electrocardiogram does not necessarily exclude cardiac disease, and Holter monitoring is warranted in children with atypical syncope. PMID:25428604

  7. A Comparison of Retention Rates among America's 2-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tampa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was first to calculate the full-time and part-time retention rates for each category of 2-year institution and to examine the differences, if they existed, between and among the three types of colleges. Secondly, the study explored the differences in the full-time and part-time retention rates of first-time students within…

  8. Isolated Hepatic Basidiobolomycosis in a 2-Year-Old Girl: The First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Sanai Dashti, Anahita; Kadivar, Mohammad Rahim; Kord, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis is an emerging infection, with fewer than 80 cases reported in the English literature. Case Presentation: Also, a few cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis, accompanied by liver involvement as part of a disseminated disease, have been reported. Conclusions: This is the first case report of an isolated liver involvement of this fungal infection in a 2-year-old girl, who presented with a liver mass resembling a hepatic abscess. PMID:26322112

  9. Extrathoracic chronic heamatoma presenting as a chest wall tumor 2 years after a blunt thoracic injury.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vasileios K; Roussakis, Antonios G; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Bellenis, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Chronic expanding heamatomas may present as masses mimicking chest wall tumors. We report the case of a patient who was presented with a giant posterior extrathoracic chest wall tumor. The mass was proven to be a chronic heamatoma possibly developed after a blunt thoracic injury which took place 2 years before presentation and was growing thereafter. Clinicians should have high suspicion of rare entities which mimic tumors and consider any information reported by the patient's history in their diagnostic process. PMID:22112630

  10. Extrathoracic chronic heamatoma presenting as a chest wall tumor 2 years after a blunt thoracic injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chronic expanding heamatomas may present as masses mimicking chest wall tumors. We report the case of a patient who was presented with a giant posterior extrathoracic chest wall tumor. The mass was proven to be a chronic heamatoma possibly developed after a blunt thoracic injury which took place 2 years before presentation and was growing thereafter. Clinicians should have high suspicion of rare entities which mimic tumors and consider any information reported by the patient's history in their diagnostic process. PMID:22112630

  11. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  12. Spectroscopy of High-Redshift Supernovae from the ESSENCE Project: The First 2 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Thomas; Blondin, Stéphane; Foley, Ryan J.; Chornock, Ryan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Leibundgut, Bruno; Smith, R. Chris; Sollerman, Jesper; Spyromilio, Jason; Kirshner, Robert P.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Aguilera, Claudio; Barris, Brian; Becker, Andrew C.; Challis, Peter; Covarrubias, Ricardo; Garnavich, Peter; Hicken, Malcolm; Jha, Saurabh; Krisciunas, Kevin; Li, Weidong; Miceli, Anthony; Miknaitis, Gajus; Prieto, Jose Luis; Rest, Armin; Riess, Adam G.; Salvo, Maria Elena; Schmidt, Brian P.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tonry, John L.

    2005-05-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of targets discovered during the first 2 years of the ESSENCE project. The goal of ESSENCE is to use a sample of ~200 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at moderate redshifts (0.2<~z<~0.8) to place constraints on the equation of state of the universe. Spectroscopy not only provides the redshifts of the objects but also confirms that some of the discoveries are indeed SNe Ia. This confirmation is critical to the project, as techniques developed to determine luminosity distances to SNe Ia depend on the knowledge that the objects at high redshift have the same properties as the ones at low redshift. We describe the methods of target selection and prioritization, the telescopes and detectors, and the software used to identify objects. The redshifts deduced from spectral matching of high-redshift SNe Ia with low-redshift SNe Ia are consistent with those determined from host-galaxy spectra. We show that the high-redshift SNe Ia match well with low-redshift templates. We include all spectra obtained by the ESSENCE project, including 52 SNe Ia, five core-collapse SNe, 12 active galactic nuclei, 19 galaxies, four possibly variable stars, and 16 objects with uncertain identifications. Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF); the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programme 170.A-0519) the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership (the NSF [United States], the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council [United Kingdom], the National Research Council [Canada], CONICYT [Chile], the Australian Research Council [Australia], CNPq [Brazil], and CONICET [Argentina] [programs GN-2002B-Q-14, GN-2003B-Q-14, and GS-2003B-Q-11]) the

  13. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  14. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  15. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  16. Breastfeeding Knowledge and Practices among Mothers of Children under 2 Years of Age Living in a Military Barrack in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akinyinka, Modupe Rebekah; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Oluwole, Esther Oluwakemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human milk is uniquely superior as a source of nutrition for infants, and breastfeeding has many benefits. This study determined the breastfeeding knowledge and practices of women who have children aged 0-2 years living in a Naval Barracks. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 220 women in a Naval Barracks selected using systematic random sampling method. Pre tested questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers, and data was analyzed using Epi info 2000 and Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19. Results: There was generally fair knowledge about breastfeeding among the women. Most of the respondents (97.3%) had ever breastfed their babies, 56.5% of them initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery, 24.1% admitted that they gave pre lacteal feeds, 74.1% practiced exclusive breastfeeding for a mean period of 4.98 months and 30.7% engaged in bottle-feeding. Several factors were significantly associated with breastfeeding practices. Conclusions: Breastfeeding practices varied among the respondents despite the fair knowledge. Global Health Implications: This study reveals the need to educate women and communities worldwide particularly in low-income countries about good breastfeeding practices. Targeting these women will help to improve maternal and child health. PMID:27622007

  17. A randomised trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for neonatal sepsis: outcomes at 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Neil; Morris, Timothy; Brocklehurst, Peter; Carr, Robert; Cowan, Frances M; Patel, Nishma; Petrou, Stavros; Redshaw, Maggie E; Modi, Neena; Dore, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors performed a randomised trial in very preterm small-for-gestational age (SGA) babies to determine if prophylaxis with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves outcomes (the PROGRAMS trial). Despite increased neutrophil counts following GM-CSF, the authors reported no significant difference in neonatal sepsis-free survival. Patients and methods 280 babies born <31 weeks of gestation and SGA were entered into the trial. Outcome was determined at 2 years to determine neurodevelopmental and general health outcomes, including economic costs. Results The authors found no significant differences in health outcomes or health and social care costs between the trial groups. In the GM-CSF arm, 87 of 134 (65%) babies survived to 2 years without severe disability compared with 87 of 131 (66%) controls (RR: 1·0, 95% CI 0·8 to 1·2). Marginally, more children receiving GM-CSF were reported to have cough (RR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1 to 2·6) and had signs of chronic respiratory disease (Harrison's sulcus; RR 2·0, 95% CI 1·0 to 3·9) though this was not reflected in bronchodilator use or need for hospitalisation for respiratory disease. Overall, the rate of neurologic abnormality (7%–9%) was similar but mean overall developmental scores were lower than expected for gestational age. Conclusions The administration of GM-CSF to very preterm SGA babies is not associated with improved or more adverse outcomes at 2 years of age. The apparent excess of developmental impairment in the entire PROGRAMS cohort, without corresponding increase in neurological abnormality, may represent diffuse brain injury attributable to intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:22542709

  18. A 2-year clinical evaluation of a diphenylphosphorylazide-cross-linked collagen membrane for the treatment of buccal gingival recession.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, S; Bozon, C; Brunel, G

    1998-09-01

    To retard collagen membrane enzymatic degradation and to increase its mechanical strength, the diphenylphosphorylazide (DPPA) technique has been demonstrated to achieve natural cross-links between peptide chains of collagen without leaving any foreign product in the cross-linked molecule. In the present prospective clinical trial, the potential of a DPPA-cross-linked type I bovine collagen membrane was evaluated in the healing of 15 buccal soft tissue recessions in 15 patients according to the biological concept of guided tissue regeneration. The recession decreased from 3.7 mm (SD 1.4) at baseline to 0.8 mm (SD 1.2) at 2 years postsurgery, corresponding to a mean root coverage of 82.2% (P <0.0001). Concurrently, the clinical attachment level decreased from 5.4 mm (SD 1.6) at baseline to 1.9 mm (SD 1.2) 2 years postsurgery, corresponding to an average clinical attachment gain of 3.5 mm (SD 1.3) (P <0.0001). The 2-year postsurgical width of the keratinized tissue was not significantly different from baseline values. More than half (53%) of the treated sites showed complete root coverage and about two-thirds (73%) of the total cases showed a 75% to 100% disappearance of the mucogingival defect. The present investigation demonstrated that the use of DPPA-cross-linked collagen membranes in the treatment of human buccal soft tissue recessions results in predictable amounts of root coverage and clinical attachment gain. Long-term randomization controlled clinical trials of this material are needed to fully evaluate its potential for treating periodontal recession. PMID:9776025

  19. Visual function in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic insults: correlation with neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Haataja, L.; Guzzetta, A.; Anker, S.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Andrew, R.; Braddick, O.; Cioni, G.; Dubowitz, L.; Atkinson, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is any association between the findings of visual assessment performed at the age of 5 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years in children who have sustained hypoxic-ischaemic insults.
METHODS—Twenty nine term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and/or brain lesions on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively evaluated. At 5 months of age all the infants had their visual function assessed using the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision, which includes the assessments of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), acuity, visual fields, fixation shift and phase and orientation reversal visual evoked potentials. At 2 years of age the children had a structured neurological evaluation and a Griffiths developmental assessment.
RESULTS—There was good correlation between the extent of the early detected visual impairment and both neuromotor and global development. Children with more than three out of five abnormal visual tests at 5 months of age tended to have abnormal neurological examination results and abnormal developmental quotients. Children with three or fewer abnormalities tended to have developmental quotients in the normal range; the level of their performance, however, was still related to the number of visual tests passed.
CONCLUSIONS—Individual visual tests can provide important prognostic information. While abnormal OKN and acuity were always associated with abnormal outcome, normal results on visual evoked potentials and fixation shift tended to be associated with normal outcome.

 PMID:10325784

  20. Femoro Patella Vialla patellofemoral arthroplasty: An independent assessment of outcomes at minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Halai, Mansur; Ker, Andrew; Anthony, Iain; Holt, Graeme; Jones, Bryn; Blyth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine outcomes using the Femoro-Patella Vialla (FPV) arthroplasty and if there is an ideal patient for this implant. METHODS A total of 41 FPV patellofemoral joint replacements were performed in 31 patients (22 females, 9 males, mean age 65 years). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years (minimum 2 years). Radiographs were reviewed preoperatively and postoperatively. We assessed whether gender, age, previous surgery, patella atla or trochlear dysplasia influenced patient satisfaction or patient functional outcome. RESULTS The median Oxford Knee Score was 40 and the median Melbourne Patellofemoral Score was 21 postoperatively. Seventy-six percent of patients were satisfied, 10% unsure and 14% dissatisfied postoperatively. There was no radiological progression of tibiofemoral joint arthritis, using the Ahlback grading, in any patient. One patient, who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis postoperatively, underwent revision to total knee replacement. There were no intraoperative lateral releases and no implant failures. Gender, age, the presence of trochlear dysplasia, patella alta or bilateral surgery did not influence patient outcome. Previous surgery did not correlate with outcome. CONCLUSION In contrast to the current literature, the FPV shows promising early results. However, we cannot identify a subgroup of patients with superior outcomes.

  1. Prospective multicenter assessment of perioperative and minimum 2-year postoperative complication rates associated with adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin S; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Renaud; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory M; Errico, Thomas J; Kim, Han Jo; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Scheer, Justin K; Soroceanu, Alex; Kelly, Michael P; Line, Breton; Gupta, Munish; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Although multiple reports have documented significant benefit from surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD), these procedures can have high complication rates. Previously reported complications rates associated with ASD surgery are limited by retrospective design, single-surgeon or single-center cohorts, lack of rigorous data on complications, and/or limited follow-up. Accurate definition of complications associated with ASD surgery is important and may serve as a resource for patient counseling and efforts to improve the safety of patient care. The authors conducted a study to prospectively assess the rates of complications associated with ASD surgery with a minimum 2-year follow-up based on a multicenter study design that incorporated standardized data-collection forms, on-site study coordinators, and regular auditing of data to help ensure complete and accurate reporting of complications. In addition, they report age stratification of complication rates and provide a general assessment of factors that may be associated with the occurrence of complications. METHODS As part of a prospective, multicenter ASD database, standardized forms were used to collect data on surgery-related complications. On-site coordinators and central auditing helped ensure complete capture of complication data. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, ASD, and plan for operative treatment. Complications were classified as perioperative (within 6 weeks of surgery) or delayed (between 6 weeks after surgery and time of last follow-up), and as minor or major. The primary focus for analyses was on patients who reached a minimum follow-up of 2 years. RESULTS Of 346 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 291 (84%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 2.1 years); their mean age was 56.2 years. The vast majority (99%) had treatment including a posterior procedure, 25% had an anterior procedure, and 19% had a 3-column osteotomy. At least 1 revision was required in 82

  2. Outcomes for intra-substance free coracoid graft in patients with antero-inferior instability and glenoid bone loss in a population of high-risk athletes at a minimum follow-up of 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Arianjam, Afshin; Coghlan, Jennifer; Old, Jason; Sloan, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective case series study was to assess the outcomes of patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with antero-inferior glenoid bone loss treated with a specific open stabilization technique using intra-substance coracoid bone-grafting and Bankart repair. Methods Over a 4-year period, 34 shoulders in all male patients of mean age 21 years were stabilized with this technique. Pre- and postoperative function, motion and stability were assessed as part of Rowe stability scoring, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Oxford Instability were recorded, with at least 2 years of follow-up in all patients. Union of the graft was determined by post-operative computed tomography (CT) of the affected shoulder. Results For all cases, two redislocations (5.9%) and two subluxations occurred when continuing high-risk sport after 2 years. Post-operative scores [median, mean (SD): Rowe 77.5, 77.2 (19.5); ASES 94.2, 92 (7.7); Oxford 43, 41.2 (6)]. CT scans on 28 shoulders at a mean of 4.5 months after surgery showed non-union in three cases (10%). Conclusions These results demonstrate a high rate of success in cases of glenoid bone loss in the young contact athlete with recurrent instability treated with open stabilization and bone grafting.

  3. A retrospective study of radiographic abnormalities in the repositories of 2-year-old Thoroughbred in-training sales in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKOSHI, Daisuke; SENBA, Hiroyuki; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; MAEDA, Masaya; SHIBATA, Ryo; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age. PMID:27330400

  4. Association of chest pain versus dyspnea as presenting symptom for coronary angiography with demographics, coronary anatomy, and 2-year mortality

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Rajiv; Beridze, Natalia; Ahn, Chul; Sanaani, Abdallah; Agarwal, Pallak; Farell, Kim; Jain, Diwakar; Timmermans, Robert; Cooper, Howard A.; Panza, Julio A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association of chest pain versus dyspnea with demographics, coronary angiographic findings, and outcomes of patients undergoing coronary angiography is unknown. Material and methods We studied 1,053 patients who had coronary angiography to investigate the association of chest pain versus dyspnea with demographics, coronary angiographic findings, and outcomes. Results Of 1,053 patients, 654 (62%) had chest pain, 229 (22%) had dyspnea, and 117 (11%) had chest pain and dyspnea. Patients with dyspnea were older (p < 0.0001) and had higher serum creatinine (p = 0.0011), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p < 0.0001), more cardiogenic shock (p = 0.0004), less obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (p < 0.0001), less percutaneous coronary intervention (p < 0.0001), and similar 2-year mortality. Stepwise Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference in mortality between chest pain and dyspnea. Significant risk factors for time to death were age (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, p < 0.0001), serum creatinine (HR = 1.5, p < 0.0001), body mass index (HR = 0.93, p = 0.005), and obstructive CAD graft (HR = 3.2, p = 0.011). Conclusions Patients undergoing coronary angiography presenting with dyspnea were older and had higher serum creatinine, lower LVEF, more frequent cardiogenic shock, less obstructive CAD, and less percutaneous coronary intervention compared to patients presenting with chest pain but similar 2-year mortality. PMID:27478454

  5. Predicting performance and injury resilience from movement quality and fitness scores in a basketball team over 2 years.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance. PMID:22505125

  6. Prenatal Diagnosis of Atrial Restriction in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome is Associated with Decreased 2-Year Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lowenthal, Alexander; Kipps, Alaina K.; Brook, Michael M.; Meadows, Jeffery; Azakie, Anthony; Moon-Grady, Anita J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the course of HLHS patients diagnosed prenatally with any degree of atrial restriction with those without evidence of atrial restriction. Design Retrospective, cohort. Methods Prenatally diagnosed HLHS patients from 8/1999–1/2009 were categorized as non-restrictive versus restrictive, defined by left atrial hypertension on pulmonary venous Doppler and/or an interatrial septum. Results Of 73 total fetal patients identified, 49 were liveborn. Survival at 2 years was 29/35 (83% CI: 59.5%–88.9%) for the non-restrictive group and 6/14 (43% CI:17.7%–66.0%) for the restrictive group (p<0.0001). Of those who underwent stage 1 palliation (35 with nonrestrictive and 10 with restrictive atrial septa) both groups had a similar incidence of preoperative acidosis and need for ventilation and inotropic support. Postoperatively, there was no difference between groups in ventilator days, length of stay, or survival to discharge. There was decreased survival at 2 years in the restrictive group, 60% (CI: 26.2%–87.8%) versus 83% (CI: 66.4%–93.4%) in the non-restrictive group. Furthermore, a disproportionate number of interstage deaths was evident in the restrictive group. Conclusion Prenatal presence of any degree of atrial septal restriction in the setting of HLHS confers a significant survival disadvantage, with increases in both early and late mortality. PMID:22511219

  7. Preterm infant gut colonization in the neonatal ICU and complete restoration 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Moles, L; Gómez, M; Jiménez, E; Fernández, L; Bustos, G; Chaves, F; Cantón, R; Rodríguez, J M; Del Campo, R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to multidrug-resistant bacteria previously adapted to the hospital environment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial antibiotic-resistant high-risk lineages colonizing preterm infants during their NICU stay and their persistence in faeces after 2 years. A total of 26 preterm neonates were recruited between October 2009 and June 2010 and provided 144 faecal samples. Milk samples (86 mother's milk, 35 human donor milk and 15 formula milk) were collected at the same time as faecal samples. An additional faecal sample was recovered in 16 infants at the age of 2 years. Samples were plated onto different selective media, and one colony per morphology was selected. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility (agar dilution), genetic diversity (RAPD, PFGE and MLST) and virulence factors (only in enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates) were determined by PCR. A high proportion of antibiotic-resistant high-risk clones was detected in both faecal and milk samples during the NICU admittance. Almost all infants were colonized by Enterococcus faecalis ST64 and Enterococcus faecium ST18 clones, while a wider genetic diversity was observed for the Gram-negative isolates. Multidrug-resistant high-risk clones were not recovered from the faecal samples of the 2-year-olds. In conclusion, the gut of preterm infants admitted to the NICU might be initially colonized by antibiotic-resistant and virulent high-risk lineages, which are later replaced by antibiotic-susceptible community ones. PMID:26086569

  8. Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

  9. Survival in a 2-year-old boy with hemorrhage secondary to an aortoesophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Coates, Laura J; McNally, Janet; Caputo, Massimo; Cusick, Eleri

    2011-12-01

    Aortoesophageal fistula (AOF) in children with no history of cardiac disease or trauma is extremely rare, and survival is even rarer. We present a case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with massive hematemesis secondary to a primary aortoesophageal fistula and was found at endoscopy to have a submucosal hematoma. He then suffered a cardiac arrest with further catastrophic bleeding only controlled by a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube. Subsequent cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted and allowed direct repair of the fistula. He was discharged home 4 weeks later. The etiology of the fistula remains unknown. PMID:22152890

  10. Practical prediction model for the risk of 2-year mortality of individuals in the general population.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander; Gautam, Shiva; Brown, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to validate a prediction model and risk-stratification tool of 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population suitable for office practice use. A risk indicator (R) derived from data in the literature was based on only 6 variables: to calculate R for an individual, starting with 0, for each year of age above 60, add 0.14; for a male, add 0.9; for diabetes mellitus, add 0.7; for albuminuria >30 mg/g of creatinine, add 0.7; for stage ≥3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), add 0.9; for cardiovascular disease (CVD), add 1.4; or for both CKD and CVD, add 1.7. We developed a univariate logistic regression model predicting 2-year individual mortality rates. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set (1999-2004 with deaths through 2006) was used as the target for validation. These 12,515 subjects had a mean age of 48.9±18.1 years, 48% males, 9.5% diabetes, 11.7% albuminuria, 6.8% CVD, 5.4% CKD, and 2.8% both CKD and CVD. Using the risk indicator R alone to predict mortality demonstrated good performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.84. Dividing subjects into low-risk (R=0-1.0), low intermediate risk (R>1.0-3.0), high intermediate risk (R>3.0-5.0) or high-risk (R>5.0) categories predicted 2-year mortality rates of 0.52%, 1.44%, 5.19% and 15.24%, respectively, by the prediction model compared with actual mortality rates of 0.29%, 2.48%, 5.13% and 13.40%, respectively. We have validated a model of risk stratification using easily identified clinical characteristics to predict 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population. The model demonstrated performance adequate for its potential use for clinical practice and research decisions. PMID:26951378

  11. Non-word repetition in 2-year-olds: Replication of an adapted paradigm and a useful methodological extension.

    PubMed

    Torrington Eaton, Catherine; Newman, Rochelle S; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Rowe, Meredith L

    2015-07-01

    Accurate non-word repetition (NWR) has been largely attributed to phonological memory, although the task involves other processes including speech production, which may confound results in toddlers with developing speech production abilities. This study is based on Hoff, Core and Bridges' adapted NWR task, which includes a real-word repetition (RWR) condition. We tested 86 typically developing 2-year-olds and found relationships between NWR and both receptive and expressive vocabulary using a novel measure that controls for speech production by comparing contextually matched targets in RWR. Post hoc analyses demonstrated the influence of lexical and sublexical factors in repetition tasks. Overall, results illustrate the importance of controlling for speech production differences in young children and support a useful methodological approach for testing NWR. PMID:25894670

  12. A Multicenter, Single-Blind Randomized, Controlled Study of a Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Midface Volume Deficit: Patient-Reported Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Few, Julius; Cox, Sue Ellen; Paradkar-Mitragotri, Deepali; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvéderm Voluma XC is a volumizing hyaluronic acid filler used for correction of age-related midface volume deficit (MVD). Objectives The effectiveness of Juvéderm Voluma XC was examined from the patient perspective. Methods Patients with moderate to severe age-related MVD (N = 235) received Juvéderm Voluma XC. At quarterly follow-up visits for 2 years, patients rated treatment outcomes on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), overall satisfaction with facial appearance, satisfaction with midfacial regions, achievement of treatment goal, Look and Feel of the Midface (LAFM), and Self-Perception of Age (SPA). Patients recorded treatment-site responses in 30-day diaries. Results At 6 months and 2 years after treatment, 92.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively, rated their cheek volume as improved/much improved on the GAIS. Improvement in satisfaction with facial appearance was noted by 89.8% of patients at 6 months and 75.8% at 2 years. Increased satisfaction with outer and lower cheek areas and cheek-bone projection and clinically significant improvements in LAFM were noted through month 24. Treatment goals were achieved by 67.8% of patients at 6 months and 49.0% at 2 years. Patients reported looking, on average, 5 years younger at 6 months and 3 years younger at 2 years. The most common treatment site responses were tenderness, swelling, firmness, and lumps/bumps; most were mild to moderate in severity and lasted ≤2 weeks. Conclusions Juvéderm Voluma XC for age-related MVD is effective and well-tolerated from the patient perspective, with results lasting up to 2 years. Level of Evidence 4 Therapeutic PMID:25964628

  13. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  14. Group and Individual Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Using Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Plus Response Prevention: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Two Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Thordarson, Dana S.; McLean, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term durability of group treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and contemporary cognitive treatments. The current study investigated the 2-year follow-up results for participants who completed randomized trials of group or individual treatment and received either cognitive therapy (CT) or…

  15. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L

    1997-10-01

    Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502

  16. Vitamin D Status in Botswana Children Under 2 Years Old With and Without Active Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ludmir, Jonathan; Mazhani, Loeto; Cary, Mark S; Chakalisa, Unoda A; Pettifor, John M; Molefi, Mooketsi; Redwood, Abiona; Stallings, Virginia A; Gross, Robert; Steenhoff, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case-control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 80 children under 2 years old with and without active TB, seen at hospitals and clinics in the greater Gaborone area between September 2010 and November 2012, were enrolled. Of these, 39 cases did not differ from the 41 controls in median 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.84). The 25(OH)D was < 20 ng/mL in 8/39 (21%) cases and 7/41 (17%) controls (P = 0.69, χ(2)). Univariate analyses of subject clinical characteristics (other than 25(OH)D levels) showed that any degree of weight loss was associated with a diagnosis of TB (P = 0.047). Other clinical characteristics, including age (P = 0.08) or weight below third percentile (P = 0.58), showed no association with TB. There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between children under 2 years old with and without active TB. Lower vitamin D status did not appear to be a risk factor for TB in this small Gaborone cohort. PMID:26976889

  17. Sleep/wake patterns of breast-fed infants in the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Elias, M F; Nicolson, N A; Bora, C; Johnston, J

    1986-03-01

    Published norms for infant sleep/wake patterns during the first 2 years of life include an increase in length of maximum sleep bout from four to five to eight to ten hours by 4 months but little decrease in total sleep in 24 hours from 13 to 15 hours. Thirty-two breast-fed infants were followed for 2 years and data collected on 24-hour patterns of nursing and sleep. Infants who were breast-fed into the second year did not develop sleep/wake patterns in conformance with the norms. Instead of having long unbroken night sleep, they continued to sleep in short bouts with frequent wakings. Their total sleep in 24 hours was less than that of weaned infants. This pattern was most pronounced in infants who both nursed and shared a bed with the mother, common practices in many nonwestern cultures. The sleep/wake development accepted as the physiologic norm may be attributable to the early weaning and separated sleeping practiced in western culture. As prolonged breast-feeding becomes more popular in our society, the norms of sleep/wake patterns in infancy will have to be revised. PMID:3951913

  18. A model of Earth's magnetic field derived from 2 years of Swarm satellite constellation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Christopher C.; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    More than 2 years of magnetic field data taken by the three-satellite constellation mission Swarm are used to derive a model of Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. This model is called SIFMplus. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of Swarm by including East-West magnetic intensity and vector field gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences of the magnetic intensity as well as of the vector components provide further information concerning the North-South gradient. The SIFMplus model provides a description of the static lithospheric field that is very similar to models determined from CHAMP data, up to at least spherical harmonic degree n=75. Also the core field part of SIFMplus, with a quadratic time dependence for n ≤ 6 and a linear time dependence for n=7-15, demonstrates the possibility to determine high-quality field models from only 2 years of Swarm data, thanks to the unique constellation aspect of Swarm. To account for the magnetic signature caused by ionospheric electric currents at polar latitudes we co-estimate, together with the model of the core, lithospheric and large-scale magnetospheric fields, a magnetic potential that depends on quasi-dipole latitude and magnetic local time.

  19. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child. PMID:8856517

  20. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. PMID:22463762

  1. Correlates of malnutrition among children under 2 years of age admitted to hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Defo, B K; Young, T B

    1993-04-01

    A survey of health status, biodemographics, and use of health care services of all children under 2 years of age, consecutively admitted to the Baudeloque ward of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, was conducted over a 12-month period (1984). During the admission procedure, each child's mother or surrogate mother was interviewed and the child was weighted according to study protocol; additional data were collected by review of hospital records. A total of 669 children were recruited into the study sample; there were no refusals. Nutritional status was estimated by categories based on weight for age. Overall, 43 per cent of the sample were of normal weight-for-age, and 6 per cent, 19 per cent, and 32 per cent were categorized as having severe, moderate, and mild malnutrition, respectively. Multinomial logit modelling was used to identify independent correlates of mild, moderate, and severe PEM simultaneously. The study findings underscore the broad health benefits of immunizations. Furthermore, any prior contact of mother or child with the health care system appears to be associated with better nutritional status on hospital admission. Children with mothers employed outside the home may benefit particularly from health services outreach programmes. PMID:8492366

  2. Cervical Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone Cage versus Zero-Profile Anchored Spacer in Single-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : Minimum 2-Year Assessment of Radiographic and Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jun; Hur, Junseok W.; Han, Jin-Sol; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Park, Jung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Objective We compared the clinical and radiographic outcomes of stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and Zero-Profile anchored spacer (Zero-P) for single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients who underwent single level ACDF within 2 years (Jan 2011-Jan 2013) in a single institute. Total 50 patients were included for the analysis who were evaluated more than 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine patients were allocated to the cage group (m : f=19 : 10) and 21 for Zero-P group (m : f=12 : 9). Clinical (neck disability index, visual analogue scale arm and neck) and radiographic (Cobb angle-segmental and global cervical, disc height, vertebral height) assessments were followed at pre-operative, immediate post-operative, post-3, 6, 12, and 24 month periods. Results Demographic features and the clinical outcome showed no difference between two groups. The change between final follow-up (24 months) and immediate post-op of Cobb-segmental angle (p=0.027), disc height (p=0.002), vertebral body height (p=0.033) showed statistically better outcome for the Zero-P group than the cage group, respectively. Conclusion The Zero-Profile anchored spacer has some advantage after cage for maintaining segmental lordosis and lowering subsidence rate after single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. PMID:26361527

  3. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF WELLMAN-LORD/ALLIED CHEMICAL FGD TECHNOLOGY: DEMONSTRATION TEST SECOND YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the performance (over a 2-year period) of a full-scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit to demonstrate the Wellman-Lord/Allied Chemical process. The process is regenerable, employing sodium sulfite wet scrubbing, thermal regeneratio...

  5. [Mid-aortic syndrome in 2-year old boy presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kouichi; Shinohara, Gen; Nomura, Koji

    2014-08-01

    Mid aortic syndrome is uncommon acquired or congenital condition characterized by segmental narrowing of the abdominal or distal descending thoracic aorta. If left untreated, it result in life threatening complications. We described the case of 2-year-old boy admitted to our hospital for hypertension and heart failure. Diagnosis of mid aortic syndrome was made with severe stenosis in distal descending aorta. With consideration of growth, we avoided bypass grafting and implantation with prothesic graft. For severe adhesion, we performed patch aortoplasty with 0.4 mm expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) patch. Postoperative course was unevetful. His blood pressure and left ventricular function was normalized. He was discharged on the 20st day after the surgery. PMID:25135414

  6. Radical irradiation and misonidazole for T2 grade III and T3 bladder cancer: 2 year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Abratt, R.P.; Barnes, D.R.; Hammond, J.A.; Sarembok, L.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Williams, A.M.

    1984-09-01

    Patients with T2 grade III and T3 bladder cancer were treated in a Phase II trial of radical irradiation plus Misonidazole (MISO). Twenty-two patients were treated and the results compared with historical controls. The cystoscopic complete tumor response between 6 and 12 months post therapy were 73 and 43%, respectively. The patient two year survival was 81 and 51%, respectively, and the patient 2 year survival with bladder preservation was 61 and 48%, respectively - 4 patients in the MISO study having undergone salvage cystectomy. Complications that may be radiation related in the MISO study are would sepsis after salvage cystectomy in 2 patients, rectal stenosis requiriing colostomy 16 months after salvage cystecomy in 1 patient and the development of a contracted bladder in 1 patient with a history of prior extensive endoscopic therapy. No misonidazole neurotoxicity seen. These findings are being further evaluated in a prospective radomized trial.

  7. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for retrospective estimation of diet during the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Neufeld, Lynnette M.; García-Guerra, Armando; Quezada-Sanchez, Amado D.; Orjuela, Manuela A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to validate a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), specifically designed to retrospectively estimate dietary intake and supplement consumption during the first two years of life in children from resource poor households in semi-rural Mexico. Methods The FFQ querying about diet during the first 2 years of life was administered to mothers of children (N=84), who participated in a prospective study 3 to 5 years earlier, in which complementary feeding practice questionnaires and 24-hour recall (24hrR) were collected at several time points during the first 2 years of life to evaluate dietary and vitamin supplement intake. The resulting FFQ data were compared to intake data collected during the original study using Spearman correlations, deattenuated correlations and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results Total energy intake, as estimated by the retrospective and original instruments, did not differ in the second year (Yr2); correlations between the measures were significant (r=0.40, p<0.001). The 24hrR and FFQ-Yr2 were significantly correlated for dietary intake of vitamins B6, B12 (p<0.001) and folate (p<0.01); however, after including vitamin supplement intake, the two dietary instruments were correlated only for vitamins A and B12 (p<0.05). Conclusions The FFQ provides a reasonable estimate of a child’s dietary intake of energy and key micronutrients during the second year of life, and permits accurate ranking of intake 3 to 5 years after birth. PMID:23532627

  8. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  9. Restrictive Strabismus and Diplopia 2 Years After Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy With Medpor-Coated Tear Drain.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Lee, Chung-Hyun; Johnson, Owen N; Woo, Kyung In

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman who underwent conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with Medpor-Coated Tear Drain 2 years ago presented with diplopia on left gaze for 4 months. Limitation of extraocular movement of OS on left gaze was observed on duction test. The forced duction test revealed restriction of the left medial rectus muscle. Orbital MRI demonstrated an enhancing soft tissue lesion surrounding the tube in inferomedial aspect of left orbit. Removal of the tube and adhesiolysis were performed. Histologic findings were consistent with a chronic inflammation with fibrosis. After surgery, limitation of extraocular movement and diplopia were completely resolved. Jones tube coated with a thin layer of porous polyethylene allows the ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue into the coating, decreasing the probability of tube extrusion, but can also accelerate fibrotic changes around the tube causing restrictive strabismus. PMID:24914690

  10. A case with reversible neurotoxicity after 2 years of dementia secondary to maintenance lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Barceló, Juan; Alonso, María Tajes; Traba, María Begoña Portela; Vilar, Alberte Araúxo; Kahn, David A

    2015-03-01

    Chronic neurotoxicity caused by lithium salts can be reversible or irreversible and may appear after years of treatment, even at serum levels considered within the usual therapeutic range. The authors present the case of a patient with bipolar disorder who developed dementia at the age of 54 after being treated with lithium carbonate at therapeutic levels for 4 years. Nevertheless, lithium treatment was continued. At age 56, the patient presented with an acute encephalopathy caused by toxic lithium levels, which resolved only after lithium carbonate was discontinued. Full recovery from the dementia, which had started 2 years earlier, occurred only after cessation of lithium. The authors conclude that when patients treated with lithium develop subacute cognitive impairment, the possibility of lithium toxicity should be considered, even if the serum levels are considered within the therapeutic range. A long duration of neurotoxicity associated with lithium treatment does not necessarily indicate an irreversible prognosis. PMID:25782766

  11. Occlusal glass ionomer cermet, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations: a 2-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lidums, A; Wilkie, R; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer silver cermet (Ketac-Silver), a posterior resin composite (Visio-Molar) used with the "sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy) for restoring conventional Class I occlusal cavity preparations. Two dentists placed 116 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 35 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for bulk loss of material and occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Losses of material and surface voids were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing or cracking being present in 33% of the restorations. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material if the restorations are likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear. PMID:7803005

  12. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple representational techniques. This study examined the spontaneous gestures of sixty-four 2-year-old Italian children and English-speaking Canadian children, primarily from middle-class Caucasian families. The Italian children produced twice as many gestures as Canadian children in a picture-naming task but produced a similar range of representational techniques. Two-year-olds were equally likely to produce gestures depicting function as form. These data suggest young children's communicative skills are supported by a symbolic capacity that reflects contextual communicative demands. PMID:27079825

  13. Inaugural cerebral sinovenous thrombosis revealing homocystinuria in a 2-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saboul, Cécile; Darteyre, Stéphane; Ged, Cécile; Fichtner, Christine; Gay, Claire; Stephan, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis is unusual during childhood and requires early and accurate management because of its detrimental consequences. We report on the case of a 2-year-old boy with mild psychomotor delay, who presented with nonfebrile acute ataxia. A brain computed tomographic (CT) scan showed complete thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography and associated with a right frontal hemorrhagic infarction. Systematic screening for thrombophilia revealed homocystinuria linked to cystathionine β-synthase deficiency with underlying compound heterozygosity. The evolution was favorable after anticoagulant therapy, specific diet, and vitamin supplementation. This case is of interest because of the unusual clinical presentation as a pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Furthermore, homocystinuria is rarely revealed by cerebral sinovenous thrombosis at the onset of the disease and should systematically be ruled out in pediatric stroke. PMID:24598125

  14. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Ackland, T; Maslen, B; Morton, A; Prince, R

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the stress/strain relationship between exercise and bone is critical to understanding the potential benefit of exercise in preventing postmenopausal bone loss. This study examined the effect of a 2-year exercise intervention and calcium supplementation (600 mg) on bone mineral density (BMD) in 126 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60 +/- 5 years). Assignment was by block randomization to one of three groups: strength (S), fitness (F), or nonexercise control (C). The two exercise groups completed three sets of the same nine exercises, three times a week. The S group increased the loading, while the F group had additional stationary bicycle riding with minimal increase in loading. Retention at 2 years was 71% (59% in the S group, 69% in the F group, and 83% in the C group), while the exercise compliance did not differ between the exercise groups (S group, 74 +/- 13%; F group, 77 +/- 14%). BMD was measured at the hip, lumbar spine, and forearm sites every 6 months using a Hologic 4500. Whole body BMD also was measured every 6 months on a Hologic 2000. There was no difference between the groups at the forearm, lumbar spine, or whole body sites. There was a significant effect of the strength program at the total (0.9 +/- 2.6%; p < 0.05) and intertrochanter hip site (1.1 +/- 3.0%; p < 0.01). There was a significant time and group interaction (p < 0.05) at the intertrochanter site by repeated measures. This study shows the effectiveness of a progressive strength program in increasing bone density at the clinically important hip site. We concluded that a strength program could be recommended as an adjunct lifestyle approach to osteoporosis treatment or used in combination with other therapies. PMID:11149482

  15. Couple and Individual Adjustment for 2 Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H.; George, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Follow-up data across 2 years were obtained on 130 of 134 couples who were originally part of a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional versus integrative behavioral couple therapy (TBCT vs. IBCT; A. Christensen et al., 2004). Both treatments produced similar levels of clinically significant improvement at 2 years posttreatment (69% of…

  16. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Educational Attainment in Texas 2-Year Colleges: A Multi-Year Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas 2-year colleges from the 2000 through the 2011 academic years and to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students obtaining associate degrees from Texas 2-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic…

  17. Duration of untreated psychosis predicts functional and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fraguas, David; Del Rey-Mejías, Angel; Moreno, Carmen; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Graell, Montserrat; Otero, Soraya; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in adult patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been associated with poor clinical and social outcomes. We aimed to estimate the influence of DUP on outcome at 2-year follow-up in subjects with an early-onset (less than 18 years of age) FEP of less than 6 months' duration. A total of 80 subjects (31.3% females, mean age 16.0±1.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The influence of DUP on outcome was estimated using multiple regression models (two linear models for influence of DUP on the C-GAF at 2 years and C-GAF change through the follow-up period, and a logistic model for influence of DUP on 41 PANSS remission at 2 years in schizophrenia patients (n=47)). Mean DUP was 65.3±54.7 days. Median DUP was 49.5 days. For the whole sample (n=80), DUP was the only variable significantly related to C-GAF score at 2-year follow-up (Beta=-0.13, p<0.01), while DUP and premorbid adjustment (Beta=-0.01, p<0.01; and Beta=-0.09, p=0.04, respectively) were the only variables significantly related to C-GAF change. In schizophrenia patients, DUP predicted both C-GAF score at 2 years and C-GAF change, while in patients with affective psychosis (n=22), DUP was unrelated to outcome. Lower baseline C-GAF score (OR=0.91, p<0.01) and shorter DUP (OR=0.98, p=<0.01) were the only variables that significantly predicted clinical remission in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, longer DUP was associated with lower C-GAF at 2 years, less increase in C-GAF, and lower rates of clinical remission in early-onset FEP. Our findings support the importance of early detection programs, which help shorten DUP. PMID:24332406

  18. Predicting caries by measuring its activity using quantitative light-induced fluorescence in vivo: a 2-year caries increment analysis.

    PubMed

    Meller, C; Santamaria, R M; Connert, T; Splieth, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the predictive power of several clinical baseline parameters and the de-/remineralisation properties of in vivo etched sites measured with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) for subsequent 2-year caries increment. At baseline, in 44 children (8.23 ± 1.5 years) two areas (diameter 2 mm) of the buccal surface of a primary posterior tooth were etched with 36% phosphoric acid gel for 1 and 4 min, respectively. The etched sites were analysed immediately after etching (ΔQ1) and 24 h (ΔQ2) later by QLF. Additionally, caries status (deft/DMFT and initial caries), approximal plaque, bleeding on probing, and the patient's current use of fluorides were recorded. In the 2-year follow-up, 29 children were re-assessed. After clinical examination, the caries increment was calculated (ΔDMFT) and correlated with the baseline clinical variables and the QLF readings. Results showed a significant positive correlation between ΔQ(1 min) and the ΔDMFT (r = 0.44, p = 0.02). The ΔDMFT was significantly correlated with the baseline deft (r = 0.56, p = 0.002), cavitated active caries lesions (r = 0.52, p = 0.003), and filled teeth (r = 0.53, p = 0.003). In a regression analysis the use of fluoridated salt (SC = -0.10) and fluoride gel (SC = -0.14) were negatively associated with ΔDMFT. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the demineralisation properties of the etched sites and the outcome of the 24-hour measurements with QLF are significantly associated with caries increment. Previous caries experience strongly correlated with caries increment in this group of children. PMID:22614242

  19. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  20. Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Tantalum Augment in Patients with Paprosky III or IV Acetabular Bone Defects: A Minimum 2-year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the short-term outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using tantalum augments in patients with severe acetabular bone defects. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 15 revision THAs performed in 15 patients using tantalum augments between June 2010 and December 2013. Acetabular bone defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 7 hips, type IIIB in 7, and type IV in 1. The causes of revision surgery were aseptic loosening in 12 hips and deep infection in 3. Revisions were first in 1 hip, second in 3, and third in 11. Six patients were male and 9 female with a mean age of 59 years (range, 48-75 years). Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 24-48 months). Results Mean Harris hip score was improved from 34 points (range, 12-54 points) preoperatively to 84 points (range, 38-90 points) at final follow-up. On the final follow-up radiographs, there were 12 hips (80.0%) with stable fixation of the acetabular cup, 2 (13.3%) with secondary stability after mild acetabular protrusion, and 1 (6.7%) with radiolucency around the acetabular cup without mechanical symptoms. Complications included one patient with acute hematogenous infection managed by surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic therapy. There were no cases with nerve palsy or dislocation during the follow-up period. Conclusion The present study showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision THA using tantalum augments due to severe acetabular bone defects of Paprosky type III or IV at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. PMID:27536651

  1. Imaging of the dopamine transporter predicts pattern of disease progression and response to levodopa in patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism: a 2-year follow-up multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Matinella, Angela; Bovi, Tommaso; Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Luca, Antonina; Di Stefano, Angela; Morgante, Letterio; Pacchetti, Claudio; Minafra, Brigida; Sciarretta, Massimo; Dallocchio, Carlo; Rossi, Simone; Ulivelli, Monica; Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-02-01

    Similarly to subjects with degenerative parkinsonism, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT has been reported either normal or abnormal in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), challenging the notion that parkinsonism might be entirely due to post-synaptic D2-receptors blockade by antipsychotic drugs. In a previous multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, we identified 97 patients who developed parkinsonism with a similar bi-modal distribution of DAT-SPECT. In this longitudinal study, we reported clinical and imaging features associated with progression of motor disability over 2-year follow-up in 60 out of those 97 patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT at baseline evaluation (normal SPECT=33; abnormal SPECT=27). As second end-point, chronic response to levodopa over a 3-month period was tested in a subgroup of subjects. Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at follow-up significantly increased in patients with abnormal SPECT. Specifically, a 6-point worsening was demonstrated in 18.5% of the subjects with abnormal SPECT and in none of the subjects with normal SPECT. Levodopa treatment improved motor UPDRS only in the group with abnormal SPECT. After adjustment for possible confounders, linear regression analysis demonstrated that abnormal SPECT findings at baseline were the only predictor of motor disability progression and of better outcome of levodopa treatment. Our results support the notion that a degenerative disease might underlie parkinsonism in a minority of schizophrenic patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter can be helpful to select this patient sub-group that might benefit from levodopa therapy. PMID:24369987

  2. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  3. The integration of minimally invasive surgery in surgical practice in a Canadian setting: results from 2 consecutive province-wide practice surveys of general surgeons over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hallet, Julie; Mailloux, Olivier; Chhiv, Mony; Grégoire, Roger C.; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Although minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been quickly embraced, the introduction of advanced procedures appears more complex. We assessed the evolution of MIS in the province of Quebec over a 5-year period to identify areas for improvement in the modern surgical era. Methods We developed, test-piloted and conducted a self-administered questionnaire among Quebec general surgeons in 2007 and 2012 to examine stated MIS practice, MIS training and barriers and facilitators to the use of MIS. Results Response rates were 51.3% (251 of 489) in 2007 and 31.3% (153 of 491) in 2012. A significant increase was observed for performance of most advanced MIS procedures, especially for colectomy for benign (66.0% v. 84.3%, p < 0,001) and malignant diseases (43.3% v. 77.8%, p < 0,001) and for rectal surgery for malignancy (21.0% v. 54.6%, p < 0.001). More surgeons practised 3 or more advanced MIS procedures in 2012 than in 2007 (82.3% v. 64.3%, p < 0,001). At multivariate analysis, the 2007 survey administration was associated with fewer surgeons practising advanced MIS (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.29). In 2012, more respondents stated they gained their skills during residency (p = 0.028). Conclusion From 2007 to 2012 there was a significant increase in advanced MIS procedures practised by general surgeons in Québec. This technique appears well established in current surgical practice. The growing place of MIS in residency training seems to be a paramount part of this development. Results from this study could be used as a baseline for studies focusing on ways to further improve the MIS practice. PMID:25598180

  4. 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about third-party communicative actions.

    PubMed

    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B; Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Infants expect people to direct actions toward objects, and they respond to actions directed to themselves, but do they have expectations about actions directed to third parties? In two experiments, we used eye tracking to investigate 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about communicative actions addressed to a third party. Experiment 1 presented infants with videos where an adult (the Emitter) either uttered a sentence or produced non-speech sounds. The Emitter was either face-to-face with another adult (the Recipient) or the two were back-to-back. The Recipient did not respond to any of the sounds. We found that 2-, but not 1-year-olds looked quicker and longer at the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected her to respond to speech. These effects were specific to the face-to-face context. Experiment 2 presented 1-year-olds with similar face-to-face exchanges but modified to engage infants and minimize task demands. The infants looked quicker to the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected a response to speech. The study suggests that by 1 year of age infants expect communicative actions to be directed at a third-party listener. PMID:25766104

  5. Time and again: effects of repetition and retention interval on 2 year olds' event recall.

    PubMed

    Fivush, R; Hamond, N R

    1989-04-01

    How and what very young children remember is a central question for understanding the course of memory development. In this research, we examined the effects of two factors on 2-year-old children's ability to recall novel events: repetition of the experience and time since experience. Twenty 24-month-old and twenty 28-month-old children participated in unusual laboratory play events. Half of the children returned after a 2-week delay and again after a 3-month delay (repeated experience condition); the remaining children returned only after 3 months (single experience condition). Memory was assessed by asking children to reenact the events. Recall was generally accurate, and there were no significant effects of age. All children recalled more information about the activities associated with the event than about the objects. Surprisingly, children in the repeated experience condition recalled as much about the events at the 3-month retention interval as at the 2-week retention interval. Further, children in this condition recalled more information at the 3-month retention interval than children in the single experience condition, suggesting that reexperiencing an event may guard against long-term forgetting. PMID:2703807

  6. Caudal epidural anesthesia for a 2-year old child with congenital myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Calişkan, Esra; Koçum, Aysu; Sener, Mesut; Bozdoğan, Nesrin; Ariboğan, Aniş

    2008-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Anesthetists have a special interest in myasthenia gravis because of its interaction with various anesthetic agents. Unlike adult myasthenic patients; very little report has been written about the anesthetic management in children, other than in relation to thymectomy. Although the use of caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients is common, have not seen any report concerning its use in a myasthenic child. In this case report, we represented a 2 year-old boy was performed caudal anesthesia for orchiopexy operation. He had presented difficulty in breathing, generalized weakness and droopy eyes due to congenital myasthenia gravis. In the operating room, following the routine monitoring, the patient was sedated with intravenous 1mg midazolam and 10 mg ketamine. Then caudal block was performed. 17 minutes later from the local anesthetic injection; operation was started and lasted 45 minutes. The patient did not require intraoperative supplemental analgesia and postoperative course was uneventful. Specific attention should be paid to voluntary and respiratory muscle strength in myasthenia gravis patients. Caudal anesthesia allowed airway control of myasthenia gravis patients without endotracheal intubations and muscle relaxant. In conclusion, we think that caudal anesthetic technique may be considered as a safe and suitable for the myasthenic child and it may represent a valid alternative to general anesthesia for these patients. PMID:19117157

  7. Seismicity location from analysis of a 2 years passive seismological experiment around Ulaanbaatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkhuu, Battulga; Munkhuu, Ulziibat; Sebe, Olivier; Monfret, Tony; Deschamps, Anne; Gao, Mengtan; Wu, Qingju

    2014-05-01

    We analyse broadband seismological records from a 2 years temporary array deployed over a 400x600km2 region in central Mongolia, including Ulaanbaatar region, by a Sino-Mongolian cooperation. The dataset is completed with all available regional data, mostly recorded by Mongolian National Seismic Network (MNSN) operated by Research Center for Astronomy and Geophysics (RCAG). The seismic activity of the covered area is not very high, except SW of Ulaanbaatar. To obtain as good as possible image of this seismicity, we have first to determine a regional velocity model. The development of mining activity in Mongolia, allows us to record a large set of quarry blasts. Due to the very continental position of Mongolia, micro-seismic noise level is low and the signal of these human made sources are very often recorded at distances as far as 200km. Travel time information of direct, reflected and refracted waves are used to produce crustal information (Moho depth and mean crustal P wave velocity, and velocity below the Moho, Vp/Vs ratio) over the area of observation. We show that the crust of the studied area is relatively homogeneous which allows us to improve this very simple model, searching the best crustal model with Velest software. The experiment was supported by Sino-Mongolian joint project titled "The Geophysical Investigation and Deep Structure Modeling for Seismic Hazard Assessment in the Far East", Project code: 2011DFB20120.

  8. Longitudinal development of cortical and subcortical gray matter from birth to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John H; Shi, Feng; Woolson, Sandra L; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Short, Sarah J; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu; Hamer, Robert M; Styner, Martin; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-11-01

    Very little is known about cortical development in the first years of life, a time of rapid cognitive development and risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. We studied regional cortical and subcortical gray matter volume growth in a group of 72 children who underwent magnetic resonance scanning after birth and at ages 1 and 2 years using a novel longitudinal registration/parcellation approach. Overall, cortical gray matter volumes increased substantially (106%) in the first year of life and less so in the second year (18%). We found marked regional differences in developmental rates, with primary motor and sensory cortices growing slower in the first year of life with association cortices growing more rapidly. In the second year of life, primary sensory regions continued to grow more slowly, while frontal and parietal regions developed relatively more quickly. The hippocampus grew less than other subcortical structures such as the amygdala and thalamus in the first year of life. It is likely that these patterns of regional gray matter growth reflect maturation and development of underlying function, as they are consistent with cognitive and functional development in the first years of life. PMID:22109543

  9. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 2 years after pertrochanteric fracture surgery: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Deleanu, Bogdan; Prejbeanu, Radu; Vermesan, Dinu; Honcea, Lucian; Mioc, Mihail Lazar; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Predescu, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The avascular necrosis of the femoral head represents the death of bone tissue due to the lack of blood supply. The disease has a progressive evolution and left untreated leads to femoral head collapse and severe arthritis. Case presentation We present a case of a pertrochanteric fracture which has been successfully operated with a dynamic interlocking trochanteric gamma nail on the right hip. At 2 years after surgery the patient developed an incipient avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Despite the good positioning of the implant, we considered that the source of the pain was an intolerance of the implant, and thus we removed it. After implant removal, the patient was kept under observation and conservative treatment, to prevent further damage to the right hip and allow the healing to occur. At 6 months after the gamma nail was removed the X-rays revealed advanced avascular necrosis of the femoral head and secondary osteoarthritis on the right hip. The patient underwent surgery with an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. Discussion There are a few discussions regarding the avascular necrosis of the femoral head. These discussions may include the predisposing risk factors, the treatment of choice and the postoperative complications. Conclusion The avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a complication of pertrochanteric fractures that can not be foreseen or avoided. The optimal treatment in these cases is uncemented total hip arthroplasty. PMID:26900462

  10. Class II glass ionomer cermet tunnel, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, R; Lidums, A; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer (polyalkenoate) silver cermet, a posterior resin composite used with the "tunnel" technique, a posterior resin composite used with the "closed sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam for restoring small, proximal surface carious lesions. Two dentists placed 86 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 26 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for gingivitis adjacent to them, the tightness of proximal contacts, occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Small filling defects, surface voids and occlusal wear were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing and cracking present in 48% of the tunnel restorations. Two of the posterior resin composites, but none of the amalgam restorations, also failed. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material in situations where it is likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear. PMID:7803004

  11. Remediation by 2-PHASE {trademark} extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E.; Baxter, J.; Huber, S.

    1996-12-31

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE{trademark} Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE{trademark} causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE{trademark} improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE{trademark} to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE{trademark} system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE{trademark} remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  12. Remediation by 2-PHASE [trademark] extraction-A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, C.; Dee, P.E. ); Baxter, J. ); Huber, S. )

    1996-01-01

    Radian has used the Xerox 2-PHASE[trademark] Extraction technology at several facilities worldwide to remove VOCs and petroleum hydrocarbons from subsurface soils and groundwater. The use of high vacuum with 2-PHASE[trademark] causes greater forces to be applied to the subsurface than do other dual-phase methods. 2-PHASE[trademark] improves dewatering, increases vacuum and groundwater radii of influence, deepens vadose zone development, enhances vapor stripping of soil contamination, improves vaporflow, and expedites remediation timeframes. This paper describes the successful 2-year application of 2-PHASE[trademark] to, remediate soil and several groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred under a floor slab near a former solvent spray booth and several underground storage tanks. Contaminants were primarily chlorinated VOCs and mineral spirits ranging to 330 mg/kg in soil and 1,070 mg/L in groundwater. The 2-PHASE[trademark] system was installed in October 1993; business constraints necessitated the completion of remediation within two years. The system was modified and expanded to optimize the removal effectiveness and extend the area of influence. Subsurface soil data obtained 8 and 11 months into the remediation program were used with soil gas data to predict future soil concentrations. VOC concentrations in the soil and groundwater were reduced by over 95 percent, and remediation goals were met within 18 months following start of in situ 2-PHASE[trademark] remediation. The system has been decommissioned following agency and landowner approval.

  13. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  14. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  15. Basic Student Charges at Postsecondary Institutions: Academic Year 1992-93. Tuition and Required Fees and Room and Board Charges at 4-year, 2-year, and Public Less-than-2-year Institutions. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, Susan G.; Morgan, Frank B.

    This report lists the typical tuition and required fees and room and board charges for academic year 1992-93 at nearly 5,000 4-year, 2-year, and public less-than-2-year postsecondary institutions in the United States and its outlying areas. Included are tuition and fee charges to in-state and out-of-state students at the undergraduate and graduate…

  16. Effects of a single contraceptive Silastic implant containing nomegestrol acetate on ovarian function and cervical mucus production during 2 years.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, I; Coutinho, E; Hirsch, C; Ladipo, O; Olsson, S E; Ulmsten, U

    1996-04-01

    A total of 15 healthy women volunteers were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 23 +or- 1.2 years (range, 18-33 years), mean weight was 55.7 +or- 2.6 kg (range, 40-72 kg), and mean parity was 1.1 (range, 0-4). Venous blood samples were drawn every other day from day eight of the cycle until sonographic evidence of a 12-mm follicle, and then every day until sonographic evidence of follicular rupture and thereafter every other day until the next menstrual bleeding. The capsules were removed at the end of one year of Uniplant use, and a new capsule was inserted in 12 subjects. The blood samples for hormonal analyses were taken after 18 and 24 months of Uniplant use in the 12 women who continued in the study. Levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly lower than in the control cycles during the observation period (p .01, p .05). According to transvaginal sonography, four different patterns of follicular development were found: normal follicular growth and rupture, persistent follicle, follicular cysts, and no follicular growth. Follicular growth and rupture were observed in 20% of the treated cycles. Persistent follicles were present in approximately 15% of the treated cycles. Follicular cysts were observed in 29% of the cycles studied during 24 months of Uniplant use. All subjects had normal cervical cytology before starting treatment, after 12 months, and after 24 months of Uniplant use. The maximum cervical mucus score for pretreatment cycles was 12.8 +or- 0.4. Endometrial thickness was 8 mm in all cycles studied. 58% (7 of 12) of the women showed a normal menstrual cycle (26 to 32 days). 33% (4 of 12) of the women experienced one or two episodes of amenorrhea (90-134 days), whereas 8.3% of women (1 of 12) experienced episodes of spotting, six times in a period of 24 months of Uniplant use (10-30 days). Before Uniplant insertion, plasma concentration of sex hormone binding globulin was 72.3 nmol/L. After 24 months of Uniplant use, the concentration

  17. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  18. Trends in paediatric rheumatology referral times and disease activity indices over a ten-year period among children and young people with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from the childhood arthritis prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    McErlane, Flora; Foster, Helen E.; Carrasco, Roberto; Baildam, Eileen M.; Chieng, S. E. Alice; Davidson, Joyce E.; Ioannou, Yiannis; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The medical management of JIA has advanced significantly over the past 10 years. It is not known whether these changes have impacted on outcomes. The aim of this analysis was to identify and describe trends in referral times, treatment times and 1-year outcomes over a 10-year period among children with JIA enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study. Methods. The Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study is a prospective inception cohort of children with new-onset inflammatory arthritis. Analysis included all children recruited in 2001–11 with at least 1 year of follow-up, divided into four groups by year of diagnosis. Median referral time, baseline disease pattern (oligoarticular, polyarticular or systemic onset) and time to first definitive treatment were compared between groups. Where possible, clinical juvenile arthritis disease activity score (cJADAS) cut-offs were applied at 1 year. Results. One thousand and sixty-six children were included in the analysis. The median time from symptom onset and referral to first paediatric rheumatology appointment (22.7–24.7 and 3.4–4.7 weeks, respectively) did not vary significantly (∼20% seen within 10 weeks of onset and ∼50% within 4 weeks of referral). For oligoarticular and polyarticular disease, 33.8–47 and 25.4–34.9%, respectively, achieved inactive disease by 1 year, with ∼30% in high disease activity at 1 year. A positive trend towards earlier definitive treatment reached significance in oligoarticular and polyarticular pattern disease. Conclusion. Children with new-onset JIA have a persistent delay in access to paediatric rheumatology care, with one-third in high disease activity at 1 year and no significant improvement over the past 10 years. Contributing factors may include service pressures and poor awareness. Further research is necessary to gain a better understanding and improve important clinical outcomes. PMID:27016664

  19. Lung response to ultrafine Kevlar aramid synthetic fibrils following 2-year inhalation exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, K P; Kelly, D P; O'Neal, F O; Stadler, J C; Kennedy, G L

    1988-07-01

    Four groups of 100 male and 100 female rats were exposed to ultrafine Kevlar fibrils at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 25, and 100 fibrils/cc for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 years. One group was exposed to 400 fibrils/cc for 1 year and allowed to recover for 1 year. At 2.5 fibrils/cc, the lungs had normal alveolar architecture with a few dust-laden macrophages (dust cell response) in the alveolar airspaces. At 25 fibrils/cc, the lungs showed a dust cell response, slight Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar bronchiolarization, and a negligible amount of collagenized fibrosis in the alveolar duct region. At 100 fibrils/cc, the same pulmonary responses were seen as at 25 fibrils/cc. In addition, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (CKSCC) was found in 4 female rats, but not in male rats. Female rats had more prominent foamy alveolar macrophages, cholesterol granulomas, and alveolar bronchiolarization. These pulmonary lesions were related to the development of CKSCC. The lung tumors were derived from metaplastic squamous cells in areas of alveolar bronchiolarization. At 400 fibrils/cc following 1 year of recovery, the lung dust content, average fiber length, and the pulmonary lesions were markedly reduced, but slight centriacinar emphysema and minimal collagenized fibrosis were found in the alveolar duct region. One male and 6 female rats developed CKSCC. The lung tumors were a unique type of experimentally induced tumors in the rats and have not been seen as spontaneous tumors in man or animals. Therefore, the relevance of this type of lung tumor to the human situation is minimal. PMID:3209007

  20. Epidemiology of 577 pediatric firearm fatalities: a 2-year review of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Haider, Adil H; Obirieze, Augustine C; Fisher, Michael; Cornwell, Edward E; Qureshi, Faisal G; Abdullah, Fizan; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the epidemiology of pediatric firearm injuries, including ethno-demographic patterns with impact on years of potential life lost (YPLL). A 2-year review of the National Trauma Data Bank (2007 to 2008) was conducted. Firearm fatalities in records of patients younger than 18 years were identified. Data were analyzed by demographic and injury characteristics and YPLL was calculated by ethnicity. A total of 577 deaths were identified in the pediatric group. Blacks accounted for 49.7 per cent of the fatalities; Hispanics, 19.2 per cent; whites, 17.7 per cent, and other ethnicity, 13.4 per cent. Median Injury Severity Score was 25 with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. Traumatic brain injury was present in 84.2 per cent of the records. Assault accounted for 72.8 per cent, self-inflicted injury 12.7 per cent, and unintentional injuries were 8.2 per cent. Most firearm fatalities occurred at home (33.6%). By emergency department (ED) disposition, 29.3 per cent died in the ED, 32.9 per cent were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 30.0 per cent taken to the operating room. Blacks had a total of 17,446 YPLL, Hispanics 6,776 YPLL, and whites 6,718 YPLL. Pediatric firearm fatalities still remain an important public health concern. Inclusive gun control policies focused on primary prevention of accidental injuries may be more effective in mitigating its impact. PMID:24887667

  1. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  2. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  3. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  4. Work–family conflict and health in Swedish working women and men: a 2-year prospective analysis (the SLOSH study)

    PubMed Central

    Baltzer, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has suggested that gender is related to perceptions of work–family conflict (WFC) and an underlying assumption is that interference of paid work with family life will burden women more than men. There is, however, mixed evidence as to whether men and women report different levels of WFC. Even less studies investigate gender differences in health outcomes of WFC. Also the number of longitudinal studies in this field is low. Methods: Based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, we prospectively examined the effects of WFC on three different health measures representing a wide spectrum off ill health (i.e. self-rated health, emotional exhaustion and problem drinking). Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse multivariate associations between WFC in 2008 and health 2 years later. Results: The results show that WFC was associated with an increased risk of emotional exhaustion among both men and women. Gender differences are suggested as WFC was related to an increased risk for poor self-rated health among women and problem drinking among men. Interaction analyses revealed that the risk of poor self-rated health was substantially more influenced by WFC among women than among men. Conclusions: We conclude that, despite the fact that women experience conflict between work and family life slightly more often than men, both men’s and women’s health is negatively affected by this phenomenon. PMID:22683777

  5. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  6. Renal Function Following Three Distinct Weight Loss Dietary Strategies During 2 Years of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tirosh, Amir; Golan, Rachel; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Rudich, Assaf; Kovsan, Julia; Fiedler, Georg M.; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study addressed the long-term effect of various diets, particularly low-carbohydrate high-protein, on renal function on participants with or without type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the 2-year Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT), 318 participants (age, 51 years; 86% men; BMI, 31 kg/m2; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 70.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; mean urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio, 12:12) with serum creatinine <176 μmol/L (eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2) were randomized to low-fat, Mediterranean, or low-carbohydrate diets. The 2-year compliance was 85%, and the proportion of protein intake significantly increased to 22% of energy only in the low-carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05 vs. low-fat and Mediterranean). We examined changes in urinary microalbumin and eGFR, estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formulas. RESULTS Significant (P < 0.05 within groups) improvements in eGFR were achieved in low-carbohydrate (+5.3% [95% CI 2.1–8.5]), Mediterranean (+5.2% [3.0–7.4]), and low-fat diets (+4.0% [0.9–7.1]) with similar magnitude (P > 0.05) across diet groups. The increased eGFR was at least as prominent in participants with (+6.7%) or without (+4.5%) type 2 diabetes or those with lower baseline renal function of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (+7.1%) versus eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (+3.7%). In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, diet group, type 2 diabetes, use of ACE inhibitors, 2-year weight loss, and change in protein intake (confounders and univariate predictors), only a decrease in fasting insulin (β = −0.211; P = 0.004) and systolic blood pressure (β = −0.25; P < 0.001) were independently associated with increased eGFR. The urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio improved similarly across the diets, particularly among participants with baseline sex-adjusted microalbuminuria, with a mean change of −24.8 (P < 0

  7. Serum insulin profiles in consecutive children 2 years after the diagnosis of IDDM.

    PubMed

    Simell, T; Mäenpää, J; Kaprio, E A; Hakulinen, A; Hakalax, J; Sipilä, I; Akerblom, H K; Simell, O

    1995-01-01

    We studied associations of 24-h serum insulin profiles with insulin dose, age, gender, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and C-peptide values, as well as blood glucose profiles in 77 consecutive children-nine aged 2-4, 14 aged 5-8, 26 aged 9-12, and 28 aged 13-17 years--2 years after the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Mean weight-based insulin doses in the four age groups were similar (0.7 +/- 0.2 U.kg-1.day-1 in all); body surface-area-based doses differed. Insulin doses correlated significantly with the 24-h mean and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values, and with mean values at 03.00 hours of serum insulin in the children aged 5-8 and 13-17 years. The mean insulin concentrations of the age groups (95% confidence intervals) increased with age [6.1 (3.8, 9.7), 7.6 (5.9, 9.8), 10.4 (8.6, 12.4), and 14.0 (11.6, 16.8) mU/l; p < 0.0002]. The 24-h mean of serum insulin together with HbA1c concentration predicted 32% of the variation of mean blood glucose concentrations. Of children aged less than 9 years, 50% had insulin values less than 5 mU/l (healthy subjects' lower reference limit), and 14% were of less than 2 mU/l (detection limit of the assay) at 03.00 hours. At 07.00 hours, 82% had insulin values of less than 5 mU/l, and 36% were of less than 2 mU/l, respectively. Some young children had night-time hypoglycaemia with simultaneous hypoinsulinaemia. Insulin profiles correlated poorly with the HbA1c and peak C-peptide values.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7744234

  8. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    PubMed

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. PMID:24268905

  9. Substance use outcomes 51/2 years past baseline for partnership-based, family-school preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard L; Randall, G Kevin; Trudeau, Linda; Shin, Chungyeol; Redmond, Cleve

    2008-07-01

    This article reports adolescent substance use outcomes of universal family and school preventive interventions 5(1/2) years past baseline. Participants were 1677 7th grade students from schools (N=36) randomly assigned to the school-based Life Skills Training plus the Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (LST+SFP 10-14), LST-alone, or a control condition. Self-reports were collected at baseline, 6 months later following the interventions, then yearly through the 12th grade. Measures included initiation-alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and drunkenness, along with a Substance Initiation Index (SII)-and measures of more serious use-frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, drunkenness frequency, monthly poly-substance use, and advanced poly-substance use. Analyses ruled out differential attrition. For all substance initiation outcomes, one or both intervention groups showed significant, positive point-in-time differences at 12th grade and/or significant growth trajectory outcomes when compared with the control group. Although no main effects for the more serious substance use outcomes were observed, a higher-risk subsample demonstrated significant, positive 12th grade point-in-time and/or growth trajectory outcomes for one or both intervention groups on all measures. The observed pattern of results likely reflects a combination of predispositions of the higher-risk subsample, the timing of the interventions, and baseline differences between experimental conditions favoring the control group. PMID:18434045

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life 2 Years After Treatment With Radical Prostatectomy, Prostate Brachytherapy, or External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Montserrat Suarez, Jose Francisco; Guedea, Ferran; Fernandez, Pablo; Macias, Victor; Marino, Alfonso; Hervas, Asuncion; Herruzo, Ismael; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Villavicencio, Humberto; Craven-Bratle, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Aguilo, Ferran

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To compare treatment impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with localized prostate cancer, from before treatment to 2 years after the intervention. Methods and Materials: This was a longitudinal, prospective study of 614 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy (134), three-dimensional external conformal radiotherapy (205), and brachytherapy (275). The HRQL questionnaires administered before and after treatment (months 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24) were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Prostate Specific), the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), and the American Urological Association Symptom Index. Differences between groups were tested by analysis of variance and within-group changes by univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were constructed to assess between-group differences in HRQL at 2 years of follow-up after adjusting for clinical variables. Results: In each treatment group, HRQL initially deteriorated after treatment with subsequent partial recovery. However, some dimension scores were still significantly lower after 2 years of treatment. The GEE models showed that, compared with the brachytherapy group, radical prostatectomy patients had worse EPIC sexual summary and urinary incontinence scores (-20.4 and -14.1; p < 0.001), and external radiotherapy patients had worse EPIC bowel, sexual, and hormonal summary scores (-3.55, -5.24, and -1.94; p < 0.05). Prostatectomy patients had significantly better EPIC urinary irritation scores than brachytherapy patients (+4.16; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Relevant differences between treatment groups persisted after 2 years of follow-up. Radical prostatectomy had a considerable negative effect on sexual functioning and urinary continence. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy had a moderate negative impact on bowel

  11. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Effect of 2-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Physical Performance, Strength, and Falling: Additional Findings from the B-PROOF Study.

    PubMed

    Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Sohl, Evelien; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Zillikens, M Carola; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Brug, Johannes; Uitterlinden, André G; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Lips, Paul; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with a decline in physical function in elderly persons. Homocysteine-lowering therapy may slow down this decline. This study aimed to examine the effect of a 2-year intervention of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, handgrip strength, and risk of falling in elderly subjects in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants aged ≥65 years with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations [12-50 µmol/L (n = 2919)] were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of 500 µg vitamin B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D3, or to placebo with 600 IU vitamin D3. Physical performance (range 0-12) and handgrip strength (kg) were measured at baseline and after 2 years. Falls were reported prospectively on a research calendar. Intention-to-treat (primary) and per-protocol (secondary) analyses were performed. Physical performance level and handgrip strength significantly decreased during the follow-up period, but this decline did not differ between groups. Moreover, time to first fall was not significantly different (HR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.2). Secondary analyses on a per-protocol base identified an interaction effect with age on physical performance. In addition, the treatment was associated with higher follow-up scores on the walking test (cumulative OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Two-year supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid was neither effective in reducing the age-related decline in physical performance and handgrip strength, nor in the prevention of falling in elderly persons. Despite the overall null-effect, the results provide indications for a positive effect of the intervention on gait, as well as on physical performance among compliant persons >80 years. These effects should be further tested in future studies. PMID:26412463

  13. THE QUASI-BIENNIAL PERIODICITY AS A WINDOW ON THE SOLAR MAGNETIC DYNAMO CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simoniello, R.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Baldner, C.; Finsterle, W.

    2013-03-10

    Manifestations of the solar magnetic activity through periodicities of about 11 and 2 years are now clearly seen in all solar activity indices. In this paper, we add information about the mechanism driving the 2-year period by studying the time and latitudinal properties of acoustic modes that are sensitive probes of the subsurface layers. We use almost 17 years of high-quality resolved data provided by the Global Oscillation Network Group to investigate the solar cycle changes in p-mode frequencies for spherical degrees l from 0 to 120 and 1600 {mu}Hz {<=}{nu} {<=} 3500 {mu}Hz. For both periodic components of solar activity, we locate the origin of the frequency shift in the subsurface layers and find evidence that a sudden enhancement in amplitude occurs in just the last few hundred kilometers. We also show that, in both cases, the size of the shift increases toward equatorial latitudes and from minimum to maximum solar activity, but, in agreement with previous findings, the quasi-biennial periodicity (QBP) causes a weaker shift in mode frequencies and a slower enhancement than that caused by the 11-year cycle. We compare our observational findings with the features predicted by different models, that try to explain the origin of this QBP and conclude that the observed properties could result from the beating between a dipole and quadrupole magnetic configuration of the dynamo.

  14. Prognostic value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein in acute coronary syndrome: A 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lukin, Ajvor; Novak, Katarina; Polić, Stojan; Puljak, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study was to improve diagnostic and predictive value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), related to noninvasive clinical parameters, in order to improve and prolong patient life with low or no additional costs. Material/Methods A prospective, open clinical study was conducted at the University Hospital Split, Croatia with 112 patients with ACS and low or moderately elevated CRP (<3.0 mg/L). After diagnosing ACS, data on physical activity, alcohol consumption, and functional status were recorded. Anthropometric measurements were made. Blood and urine samples were taken for analyses. Electrocardiographic, ergometric, and echocardiographic testing was performed. A total of 72 parameters were monitored at the time of hospital admission in ACS patients to analyze which ones could predict disease outcome at the end of follow-up in patients with low or moderately elevated CRP. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results The variables that were predictive of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 2 years of ACS hospitalization were hemoglobin, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, cholesterol levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and microalbuminuria. ACS patients with CRP <3.0 mg/L had significantly higher risk of developing MACE within 2 years if ≥50% of the 8 key parameters were outside the reference values. Conclusions Major adverse cardiac events can be predicted in patients with acute coronary syndrome whose CRP values are low or moderately elevated. PMID:24051868

  15. Prediction of Drug Clearance in Premature and Mature Neonates, Infants, and Children ≤2 Years of Age: A Comparison of the Predictive Performance of 4 Allometric Models.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of 4 allometric models to predict clearance in pediatric ages ranging from premature neonates to children ≤2 years of age. Four allometric models were used to predict clearances of 28 drugs in children from preterm neonates to 2 years of age (n = 564). The 4 models are (1) basal metabolic rate-dependent model; (2) age-dependent exponent model; (3) an allometric model based on kidney and liver weights as well as kidney and liver blood flow; and (4) an allometric model based on a fixed exponent of 0.75. The predictive performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the predicted clearance of the studied drugs with the observed clearance in an individual child. The results of the study indicated that the 3 new proposed models predicted the mean clearance of the drugs with reasonable accuracy (≤50% prediction error). On the other hand, the exponent of 0.75 produced substantial prediction error. Predicted individual clearance values were ≥50% in approximately 30% of the children by the proposed 3 methods and 73% by exponent 0.75. The 3 new proposed allometric models can predict mean clearances of drugs in children from premature neonates to ≤2 years of age with reasonable accuracy and are of practical value during pediatric drug development. PMID:26437918

  16. Factors Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction 2 Years After Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Chinese Older Cohort: A Prospective Study of 843 Cases at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lei; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to identify factors predicting patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in a Chinese older cohort. Preoperative and 2-year follow-up data for 843 patients were analyzed. After 2 years of discectomy, the patients rated their satisfaction by Patient Satisfaction Index (PSI), with response of 1 or 2 defining satisfaction and a PSI response of 3 or 4 defining dissatisfaction. Associations between perioperative variables and satisfaction with the results of surgery were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Six hundred fifty-seven patients had a PSI of 1 or 2 and were enrolled as satisfied group, 186 patients had a PSI of 3 or 4 and were enrolled as dissatisfied group. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, occupation, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg, and VAS-back. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group had a significantly higher BMI and a higher incidence of depression. Two years after discectomy, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in decrease of ODI, decrease of VAS-back, decrease of VAS-leg, surgery complications. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group experienced higher incidence of symptom recurrence and depression. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, pre- and postoperative depression, symptom recurrence were independently associated with patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy.I n conclusion, more than 70% patients expressed satisfaction with discectomy for LDH. Two factors could predict patient dissatisfaction and be assessed before surgery: obesity and preoperative depression. Symptom recurrence and postoperative depression are also associated with diminished patient satisfaction. PMID:26448005

  17. SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at +2 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Morgan; Kotak, Rubina; Pastorello, Andrea; Jerkstrand, Anders; Smartt, Stephen J.; Chen, Ting-Wan; Childress, Michael; Gilmore, Gerard; Inserra, Cosimo; Kankare, Erkki; Margheim, Steve; Mattila, Seppo; Valenti, Stefano; Ashall, Christopher; Benetti, Stefano; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Bauer, Franz Erik; Campbell, Heather; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Fleury, Mathilde; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hachinger, Stephan; Howell, D. Andrew; Le Guillou, Laurent; Léget, Pierre-François; Morales-Garoffolo, Antonia; Polshaw, Joe; Spiro, Susanna; Sullivan, Mark; Taubenberger, Stefan; Turatto, Massimo; Walker, Emma S.; Young, David R.; Zhang, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterize the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely 56Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow (≲2000 km s- 1) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe II] λ7155 and [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October, respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km s- 1. The lines are not blueshifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 d after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.

  18. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbouZeid, Hass; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 88 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 9 fb-1 (as of June, 2012) of data have been collected at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with performances very close to the specifications.

  19. Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. Methods We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Results We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly

  20. Self-referral psychological treatment centre for young adults: a 2-year observational evaluation of routine practice before and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Halje, Karin; Timpka, Toomas; Tylestedt, Petra; Adler, Anna-Karin; Fröberg, Lena; Schyman, Tommy; Johansson, Kristoffer; Dahl, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine a self-referral psychological service provided to young adults with regard to effects on anxiety, depression and psychological distress and to explore client factors predicting non-adherence and non-response. Design Observational study over a 2-year period. Setting Young Adults Centre providing psychological services by self-referral (preprimary care) to Linköping, Åtvidaberg, and Kinda municipalities (combined population 145 000) in Östergötland county, Sweden. Participants 607 young adults (16–25 years of age); 71% females (n=429). Intervention Individually scheduled cognitive behavioural therapy delivered in up to six 45 min sessions structured according to an assessment of the client's mental health problems: anxiety, depression, anxiety and depression combined, or decreased distress without specific anxiety or depression. Primary outcome measures Pre–post intervention changes in psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12, GHQ-12), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Anxiety/Depression (HADS-A/D). Results 192 clients (32.5%) discontinued the intervention on their own initiative and 39 clients (6.6%) were referred to a psychiatric clinic during the course of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses including all clients showed a medium treatment effect size (d=0.64) with regard to psychological distress, and small effect sizes were observed with regard to anxiety (d=0.58) and depression (d=0.57). Restricting the analyses to clients who adhered to the agreed programme, a large effect size (d=1.26) was observed with regard to psychological distress, and medium effect sizes were observed with regard to anxiety (d=1.18) and depression (d=1.19). Lower age and a high initial HADS-A score were the strongest risk factors for non-adherence, and inability to concentrate and thinking of oneself as a worthless person increased the risk for discontinuation. Conclusions We conclude that provision of psychological

  1. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  2. Genetic and Environmental Molarity and Modularity of Cognitive Functioning in 2-Year-Old Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Saudino, Kimberly S.; Wilkerson, Bessie; Plomin, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Investigated genetic and environmental influences on the similarity and differences among five tests of cognitive abilities in 1,958 pairs of same-sex twins born in 1994 in the United Kingdom. Results suggest a developmental trend from modularity to molarity when considered in relation to multivariate genetic results later in life that show that…

  3. Growth hormone treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period: results of a survey among adult and paediatric endocrinologists from Italy. Endorsed by SIEDP/ISPED, AME, SIE, SIMA.

    PubMed

    Aimaretti, G; Attanasio, R; Cannavò, S; Nicoletti, M C; Castello, R; Di Somma, C; Garofalo, P; Iughetti, L; Loche, S; Maghnie, M; Mazzanti, L; Saggese, G; Salerno, M; Tonini, G; Toscano, V; Zucchini, S; Cappa, M

    2015-03-01

    Treatment of adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) during the transition period is a controversial issue. This paper is a contribution from the Italian community of paediatric and adult endocrinologists surveyed in a Delphi panel. The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method that relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. There was substantial agreement on the definition of the problems associated with the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with GHD in the transition period, as well as on the identification of the controversial issues which need further studies. There is general consensus on the need of re-testing all isolated idiopathic GHD after at least 30-day withdrawn from treatment, while in patients with multiple pituitary deficiency and low IGF-I levels there is generally no need to re-test. In patients with permanent or confirmed GHD, a starting low rhGH dose (0.01-0.03 mg per day) to be adjusted according to IGF-I concentrations is also widely accepted. For those continuing treatment, the optimal therapeutic schedule to obtain full somatic maturation, normalization of body composition and bone density, cardiovascular function and Quality of Life, need to be evaluated. PMID:25362629

  4. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites are potential sources of paleoenvironmental records because their characteristics respond to climate change. In this preliminary study we compare isotopic values resolvable at annual to bi-annual scale from two stalagmites from caves in Proterozoic dolomitic marbles, as a proxy for the past climate variability in Southern Africa. Stalagmite DP1 is from Dante Cave in the Otjozondjupa region of Namibia, and Stalagmite BC97-14 is from Bone Cave, in the Koanaka Hills of Northwest Botswana, ~125km west of the Okavango Delta. Dante and Bone Cave receive respectively ~532 and ~475mm annual rainfall with an annual average temperature of 21.0°C and 22.6°C. Both caves are in semi-arid areas with highly seasonal rainfall. Vegetation is distinctive for each location: deciduous woodland savanna with a relatively high diversity of scattered tall trees on the hill in which Dante is located and a sparser tree cover on the hillsite of Bone Cave area. The data from the two stalagmites are very different, reflecting the distinctive hydrological and vegetation settings of the caves where they formed. δ18O in BC97-14 is highly variable, ranging from -11.6 to -5.8 ‰, while δ13C is nearly constant (-10.5 to -8.5 ‰). In contrast, δ13C and δ18O are covariant in DP1, with much higher δ13C values (-10.8 to -5.1‰) and much lower δ18O (-11.7 to -6.5 ‰) compared to that of Bone Cave. The distance from the water vapor source (Indian Ocean) might explain the generally lower δ18O values from the Namibian stalagmite compared to that of Botswana; while the difference in vegetation cover reflects the difference between δ13C for the two areas. Regardless of this isotopic difference, the stalagmite data for Bone Cave show a marked 15- to 22-year periodicity that is much more subdued in the Namibia speleothem. This cycle matches with the 17- or 18-year periodicity in the Botswana historical rainfall record. The periodicity is very well pronounced between AD 1825 to 1925

  5. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network. Third periodic summary report, July 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network consists of eight collection sites in the northeastern United States. Precipitation event samples are collected by cooperating site operators, using specially developed sampling equipment. In this, the third periodic summary report, are listed field and concentration data for the period July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1979. Over three years' samples have been collected at most of the sites, which went into operation between September 1976 and October 1978. Samples are chemically analyzed at a central laboratory for 13 pollutant species. Weekly samples in addition to event samples were collected over a 1 1/2 year period at three sites. Analysis of one year's results indicates that there is little difference between the concentrations collected by the two methods in terms of seasonal precipitation-weighted means for all species except dissolved SO/sub 2/. Event samples tend to average about 25% higher in SO/sub 2/ than weekly samples.

  6. Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yuhai

    2011-06-01

    We use the database of University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio bands (4.8, 8 and 14.5 GHz) to analyse the long-term polarization variation in search of the possible periodicity. Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the Jurkevich method and the discrete correlation function (DCF) method, we find that there are 16 sources lying in periodicity. The results show the astrophysically meaningful periodicity covering 2.1 years to 16.2 years at 4.8 GHz, 2.8 years to 16.3 years at 8 GHz, and 1.8 years to 16.6 years at 14.5 GHz.

  7. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  8. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  9. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1-2 years postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-07-01

    Background and purpose - The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods - Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results - Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week). Interpretation - Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients. PMID:27299567

  10. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  11. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  12. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  13. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  14. The Use of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity in the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid

    2010-01-01

    Although there are sound theoretical reasons for the use of botulinum toxin (Btx) as early as possible in the management of severe childhood muscle spasticity, the experience with its safety in children younger than 2 years of age is limited and information about its possible effects on the development and maturation of the human motor system…

  15. Early infant diet is not a predictor of body mass index and macronutrient intake at 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many retrospective studies have suggested that breast feeding during the first year of life may provide protection against overweight and obesity during childhood and later in life. We compared body mass index (BMI) and macronutrient composition in 2-year-old children who were fed breast milk (BF, ...

  16. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  17. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  18. Outcomes of a New Residential Scheme for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y-C.; Pu, C.; Kroger, T.; Lee, W.; Chang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Taiwanese government launched a new programme in November 2004 to support adults with intellectual disabilities living in smaller facilities. This paper aims to evaluate the service outcomes of this new residential scheme over 2 years including those residents who moved from an institution and those who moved from their family.…

  19. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  20. 41 CFR 302-11.22 - May the 2-year time limitation be extended by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the 2-year time... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 11-ALLOWANCES FOR EXPENSES INCURRED IN CONNECTION WITH RESIDENCE TRANSACTIONS General Rules Time Limitations § 302-11.22...

  1. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  2. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  3. Latino Adolescents' Experiences of Discrimination across the First 2 Years of High School: Correlates and Influences on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Changes in perceptions of discrimination were examined with 668 Latino students (62% Mexican American; 56% female; M[subscript age] = 14.6 years). Adolescents' reports of discrimination increased across the first 2 years of high school. Perceptions of discrimination were higher for boys and for primary language brokers, as well as for adolescents…

  4. A FreeSurfer-compliant consistent manual segmentation of infant brains spanning the 0–2 year age range

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo Rodrigues, Katyucia; Ben-Avi, Emma; Sliva, Danielle D.; Choe, Myong-sun; Drottar, Marie; Wang, Ruopeng; Fischl, Bruce; Grant, Patricia E.; Zöllei, Lilla

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of a set of FreeSurfer compatible segmentation guidelines tailored to infant MRI scans, and a unique data set of manually segmented acquisitions, with subjects nearly evenly distributed between 0 and 2 years of age. We believe that these segmentation guidelines and this dataset will have a wide range of potential uses in medicine and neuroscience. PMID:25741260

  5. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  6. Decline in Serum Cholinesterase Activities Predicts 2-Year Major Adverse Cardiac Events

    PubMed Central

    Arbel, Yaron; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Waiskopf, Nir; Finkelstein, Ariel; Halkin, Amir; Revivo, Miri; Berliner, Shlomo; Herz, Itzhak; Shapira, Itzhak; Keren, Gad; Soreq, Hermona; Banai, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity influences long-term outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanism(s) linking parasympathetic activity and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) are incompletely understood. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between serum cholinesterase activities as parasympathetic biomarkers and the risk for the occurrence of MACEs. Cholinergic status was determined by measuring the cumulative capacity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) to hydrolyze the AChE substrate acetylthiocholine. Cholinergic status was evaluated in randomly selected patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. The patients were divided into two groups of 100 patients in each group, with or without occurrence of MACEs during a follow-up period of 40 months. Cox regression models adjusted for potential clinical, metabolic and inflammatory confounders served to evaluate association with clinical outcome. We found that patients with MACE presented lower cholinergic status and AChE values at catheterization (1,127 ± 422 and 359 ± 153 nmol substrate hydrolyzed per minute per milliliter, respectively) than no-MACE patients (1,760 ± 546 and 508 ± 183 nmol substrate hydrolyzed per minute per milliliter, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively), whose levels were comparable to those of matched healthy controls (1,622 ± 303 and 504 ± 126 nmol substrate hydrolyzed per minute per milliliter, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, patients with AChE or total cholinergic status values below median showed conspicuously elevated risk for MACE (hazard ratio 1.85 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–3.15, p = 0.02] and 2.21 [95% CI 1.22–4.00, p = 0.009]) compared with those above median, even after adjusting for potential confounders. We conclude that parasympathetic dysfunction expressed as reduced serum AChE and AChE activities in patients compared to healthy controls can

  7. Cervical compensatory alignment changes following correction of adult thoracic deformity: a multicenter experience in 57 patients with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taemin; Scheer, Justin K; Eastlack, Robert; Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Klineberg, Eric; Passias, Peter G; Deviren, Vedat; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Alignment changes in the cervical spine that occur following surgical correction for thoracic deformity remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate such changes in a cohort of adults with thoracic deformity treated surgically. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with thoracic deformity. Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: corrective osteotomy for thoracic deformity, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV) between T-1 and T-4, lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) at or above L-5 (LIV ≥ L-5) or at the ilium (LIV-ilium), and a minimum radiographic follow-up of 2 years. Sagittal radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively as well as at 3 months and 2 years postoperatively, including the C-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2-7 cervical lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, T-1 slope (T1S), T1S minus CL (T1S-CL), T2-12 thoracic kyphosis (TK), apical TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), PI-LL, pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). RESULTS Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.6 years met the study inclusion criteria. The preoperative prevalence of increased CL (CL > 15°) was 48.9%. Both 3-month and 2-year apical TK improved from baseline (p < 0.05, statistically significant). At the 2-year follow-up, only the C2-7 SVA increased significantly from baseline (p = 0.01), whereas LL decreased from baseline (p < 0.01). The prevalence of increased CL was 35.3% at 3 months and 47.8% at 2 years, which did not represent a significant change. Postoperative cervical alignment changes were not significantly different from preoperative values regardless of the LIV (LIV ≥ L-5 or LIV-ilium, p > 0.05 for both). In a subset of patients with a maximum TK ≥ 60° (35 patients) and 3-column osteotomy (38 patients), no significant postoperative cervical changes were seen. CONCLUSION Increased CL is common in adult spinal deformity patients with thoracic deformities

  8. AB142. Discontinuation of dapoxetine treatment in patients with premature ejaculation: a 2-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although dapoxetine is the only oral pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) and is very effective, its discontinuation rate is high compared to PDE5 inhibitors in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This study assessed the discontinuation rate of dapoxetine treatment in patients with PE and the reasons for discontinuation a clinical setting. Methods The study enrolled 182 consecutive patients [mean age, 38.2 (range, 19-63) years] between October 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013. The PE type (life-long or acquired), self-estimated intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF) questionnaire, and medical history were checked in all patients. The patients were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after initiating therapy regarding the treatment status and the reasons for treatment discontinuation in the case of discontinuation. We compared the discontinuation rates with various parameters and the time interval. Results Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2.7%, respectively. Cumulatively, 79.1% of the patients discontinued the treatment within 6 months. After 12 months, however, the discontinuation rate dropped sharply. The reasons for discontinuation were cost (29.9%), disappointment that PE is not a curable disease and dapoxetine was needed whenever he had sex (25%), side effects (11.6%), low efficacy (9.8%), to seek other treatment options (5.5%), and unknown (18.3%). Patients with acquired PE (vs. life-long), IELT >2 min before treatment, older than 50 years, taking PDE-5 inhibitors, and IIEF-EF <26 tended to discontinue early and had high drop-out rates. Conclusions Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2

  9. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD Inattention as Predictors of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Impairment Domains: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determine SCT's and ADHD-IN's unique longitudinal relationships with psychopathology, academic impairment, and social impairment over the 1- and 2-year intervals (i.e., first to third grade, second to third grade). For 1- and 2-year intervals using both mothers' and fathers' ratings, higher levels of SCT uniquely predicted higher levels of anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment whereas higher levels of ADHD-IN uniquely predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment. For 1- and 2-year intervals across different primary and secondary teachers (i.e., first/second and third grade ratings were provided by different teachers), higher scores on ADHD-IN uniquely predicted poorer outcomes across domains whereas higher scores on SCT uniquely predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD for both intervals in addition to higher levels of depression (for primary teachers only), academic impairment (for 1-year interval only), and peer rejection (2-year interval only for primary teachers). Overall, SCT was significantly associated with important outcomes independent of ADHD-IN over 1- and 2-year intervals and across four different raters. This study provides further evidence for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN in home and school settings. PMID:26278273

  10. Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome from 2-year extensions of phase 2 studies

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Christoph; Greenbaum, Larry A; Muus, Petra; Babu, Sunil; Bedrosian, Camille L; Cohen, David J; Delmas, Yahsou; Douglas, Kenneth; Furman, Richard R; Gaber, Osama A; Goodship, Timothy; Herthelius, Maria; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Legendre, Christophe M; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sheerin, Neil; Trivelli, Antonella; Loirat, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, possibly life-threatening disease characterized by platelet activation, hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leading to renal and other end-organ damage. We originally conducted two phase 2 studies (26 weeks and 1 year) evaluating eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with progressing TMA (trial 1) and those with long duration of aHUS and chronic kidney disease (trial 2). The current analysis assessed outcomes after 2 years (median eculizumab exposure 100 and 114 weeks, respectively). At all scheduled time points, eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved from baseline, and hematologic normalization was achieved in 13 patients at week 26, and in 15 patients at both 1 and 2 years. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly improved compared with baseline and year 1. In trial 2 with 20 patients, TMA event-free status was achieved by 16 patients at week 26, 17 patients at year 1, and 19 patients at year 2. Criteria for hematologic normalization were met by 18 patients at each time point. Improvement of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or more in eGFR was achieved by 1 patient at week 26, 3 patients at 1 year, and 8 patients at 2 years. The mean change in eGFR was not significant compared with baseline, week 26, or year 1. Eculizumab was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns or meningococcal infections. Thus, a 2-year analysis found that the earlier clinical benefits achieved by eculizumab treatment of aHUS were maintained at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25651368

  11. Grain, Feed, Seed, and Farm Supply Technology. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The increasing need for skilled agricultural technicians for the grain, feed, seed, and farm supply industry resulted in preparation of this suggested curriculum guide to aid in planning, developing, and evaluating post-high school programs. The guide includes: (1) suggested course outlines with examples of texts and references, (2) sequence of…

  12. The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo Dui Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, John M.; Morral, Andrew R.; Raymond, Barbara; Eibner, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This study reports results from an evaluation of the experimental Rio Hondo driving under the influence (DUI) court of Los Angeles County, California. Interviews and official record checks with 284 research participants who were randomly assigned to a DUI court or a traditional criminal court were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up.…

  13. Functional Play at 2 Years of Age: Effects of Prenatal Maternal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, David P.; Zelazo, Philip R.; Brunet, Alain; King, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Toddler toy play evolves in a predictable manner and provides a valid, nonverbal measure of cognitive function unbiased by social behaviors. Research on prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) indicates that exposure to stress in utero results in developmental deficits. We hypothesized that children exposed to high objective PNMS from a natural disaster…

  14. Impact of Nonvascular Thoracic MR Imaging on the Clinical Decision Making of Thoracic Surgeons: A 2-year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ackman, Jeanne B; Gaissert, Henning A; Lanuti, Michael; Digumarthy, Subba R; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Halpern, Elkan F; Wright, Cameron D

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of nonvascular thoracic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. Materials and Methods Seven thoracic surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary referral hospital, participated in this 2-year, prospective, institution review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant pre- and post-MR imaging survey study after completing a one-time demographic survey. Between July 16, 2013, and July 13, 2015, each time a thoracic surgeon ordered a nonvascular thoracic MR imaging study via radiology order entry, he or she was sent a link to the pre-test survey that ascertained the clinical rationale for MR imaging, the clinical management plan if MR imaging was not an option, and pre-test diagnostic certainty. Upon completion of the MR imaging report, the surgeon was sent a link to the post-test survey assessing if/how MR imaging changed clinical management, the surgeon's comfort with the clinical management plan, and post-test diagnostic certainty. Data were analyzed with Student t, Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests. Results A total of 99 pre- and post-test surveys were completed. Most MR imaging studies (64 of 99 [65%]) were requested because of indeterminate computed tomographic findings. The use of MR imaging significantly reduced the number of planned surgical interventions (P < .001), modified the surgical approach in 54% (14 of 26) of surgical cases, and increased surgeon comfort with the patient management plan in 95% (94 of 99) of cases. Increased diagnostic certainty as a result of MR imaging was highly significant (P < .0001). In 21% (21 of 99) of cases, definitive MR imaging results warranted no further follow-up or clinical care. Conclusion In appropriate cases, assessment with nonvascular thoracic MR imaging substantially affects the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available

  15. Effects of age and period of fattening on carcass and non-carcass characteristics of one-humped camels.

    PubMed

    Saghi, Davoud Ali; Shahdadi, Ali Reza; Mokhtarpour, Amir

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and quantity of carcass and non-carcass components of 2- and 3-year-old male camels fattened for either 3 or 6 months. Twelve 2-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 268.5 ± 21.4 kg and twelve 3-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 307.5 ± 29.9 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. For carcass analysis, three camels from each group were selected and slaughtered. The results showed that camel age and fattening period had no significant effect on average daily gain (ADG). Older camels and a longer fattening period resulted in heavier hot and cold carcass weights. Three-year-old camels had a higher dressing percentage compared to 2-year-old camels, regardless of the period of fattening. Analysis of non-carcass components showed that the heaviest component was the hide and 2-year-old camels fattened for 90 days had the greatest weight of hide as percentage of cold carcass weight. Total muscle weight was greater for the 3-year-old camels compared to the 2-year-old ones, regardless of the fattening period, and camels fattened for 180 days had heavier weight than those fattened for 90 days, regardless of age at fattening. However, the greatest weight of total muscle was detected in camels at 2 years of age fattened for 180 days when it was expressed as percentage of carcass weight. The highest and the lowest total fat content as kilogram or as percentage of cold carcass was observed in 3-year-old camels fattened for 180 days and 2-year-old camels fattened for 180 days, respectively. Our results suggested that the best age for slaughtering is 2 years old with the fattening period of 180 days. PMID:27256367

  16. The impact of different flooding periods on the dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V in a contaminated floodplain soil - results of a lysimeter study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph; Shaheen, Sabry; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements and arsenic (As) were transported with water during inundation in floodplain ecosystems, where they settled down and accumulated predominantly in depressions and low-lying terraces. Highly variable hydrological conditions in floodplains can affect the dynamics of pollutants. The impact of different flooding/drying periods on the temporal dynamics of pore water concentrations of As, Cr, Mo and V as a function of soil EH/pH changes and dynamics of DOC, Fe, Mn and SO42- was studied in a contaminated floodplain soil collected at the Elbe River (Germany). A specific groundwater lysimeter technique with two separate small lysimeter vessels served as replicates was used for this study. The groundwater level inside the lysimeters was controlled to simulate long term and short term flooding/drying. The long term (LT) flooding scenario consists of 94 days of flooding followed by similar drying term. The short term (ST) flooding/drying scenario comprises 21 days and was six times repeated. The entire experimental period (LT_ST) was about 450 days. Flooding of the soil caused a significant decrease of EH and pH. Concentrations of soluble As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo and DOC were higher under reducing conditions than under oxidizing conditions in LT. However, As and Cr tended to be mobilized under oxidizing conditions during ST, which might be due to slow kinetics of the redox reaction of As and Cr. Dynamics of Mo were more affected by changes of EH/pH as compared to As, Cr and V and governed mainly by Fe-Mn chemistry. Concentrations of V in ST were higher than in LT and were controlled particularly by pH and chemistry of Fe. The interactions between the elements and carriers studied were stronger during long flood-dry-cycles than during short cycles, which confirmed our hypothesis. We conclude that the dynamics of As, Cr, Mo and V are determined by the length of time soils are exposed to flooding, because drivers of element mobility need a certain time to provoke

  17. Integrated radwaste treatment system lessons learned from 2{1/2} years of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.N.; Fussner, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is a pretreatment scheme to reduce the amount of salts in the high-level radioactive waste (vitrification) stream. Following removal of cesium-137 (Cs-137) by ion-exchange in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS), the radioactive waste liquid is volume-reduced by evaporation. Trace amounts of Cs-137 in the resulting distillate are removed by ion-exchange, then the distillate is discharged to the existing plant water treatment system. The concentrated product, 37 to 41 percent solids by weight, is encapsulated in cement producing a stable, low-level waste form. The Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) operated in this mode from May 1988 through November 1990, decontaminating 450,000 gallons of high-level waste liquid; evaporating and encapsulating the resulting concentrates into 10,393 71-gallon square drums. A number of process changes and variations from the original operating plan were required to increase the system flow rate and minimize waste volumes. This report provides a summary of work performed to operate the IRTS, including system descriptions, process highlights, and lessons learned.

  18. Influence of cementless cup surface on stability and bone fixation 2 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Urbański, Wiktor; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon Ł; Kulej, Mirosław; Dragan, Szymon F

    2012-01-01

    Loss of fixation between bone and implant surface is one of the main treatment problems in total hip arthroplasty. It might lead to implant instability, bone loss and treatment failure resulting in revision surgery. Surface modification is a method for improving bone response to implant and increasing implant osseointegration. However, the currently applied modifications such as hydroxyapatite coatings do not meet expectation and do not provide good clinical result. The object of the study was to evaluate the influence of acetabular cup surface modification on fixation and bone remodelling in total hip arthroplasty. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated in patients two years after cementless total hip replacement. Two groups were compared: patients with acetabular component with uncoated titanium surface and patients with hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular surface. Hips X-rays were analysed for early signs of losing stability of acetabular cups. Two years after surgery the analysis of X-rays did not reveal any statistical differences in stability, migration of acetabular components of endoprosthesis between both groups. No differences were also observed in bone remodelling around implants. Particularly high percentage of cups, i.e. 17.64%, were classified into the group with high risk of early implant loosening, i.e., the group with HA coatings. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium cementless acetabular cups implanted by press-fit technique have no influence on their stability, bone-implant fixation and the remodelling of bone surrounding an implant two years after surgery. PMID:22793261

  19. Triangular Titanium Implants for Minimally Invasive Sacroiliac Joint Fusion: 2-Year Follow-Up from a Prospective Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bitan, Fabien; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Cher, Daniel; Hillen, Travis

    2016-01-01

    quality of life at 2 years. Imaging showed that bone apposition to implants was common but radiographic evidence of intraarticular fusion within the joint may take more than 1 year in many patients. This prospective multicenter clinical trial was approved by local or regional IRBs at each center prior to first patient enrollment. Informed consent with IRB-approved study-specific consent forms was obtained from all patients prior to participation. PMID:27162715

  20. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning in a 2 year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2014-11-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are most commonly used in printing, dyeing, plastics and rayon manufacturing. Poisoning in children by ammonium dichromate, an odorless and bright orange-red crystal, are rarely reported. Acute poisoning will result in death due to multi-organ failure. The target organs that are affected by this poison are the respiratory system, kidneys, liver, eyes and skin. On ingestion, initially there is a relative lack of severe symptoms and signs. Hence, the delay in seeking medical attention could lead to the increased rate of mortality. In this case study, we report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child. Despite appropriate management, such as hepatic supportive measures and plasma transfusion, the toxicity progressed to multi-organ failure and death. PMID:25425845

  1. [Evaluation of the vaccination campaign in Cantabria 2 years of epidemiological evolution].

    PubMed

    González de Aledo, A; García Merino, J

    2000-01-01

    The results of the meningococcal vaccination campaign carried out in Cantabria in February-March 1997 are presented. In the short term, the campaign reduced the rate of incidence in the risk group from 21.33/100,000 in the previous 12 months, to zero in the 12 months following the campaign. In the medium term (2 and a half years later), the rate of incidence was maintained 80% lower in the risk group and 77.3% lower in the population overall. The vaccinal efficacy in the third year following the campaign remained above 91% for all age groups, although some biases commented upon in the study have meant that this efficacy has been underestimated. Also, the vaccinal efficacy is much higher than the percentages of seroprotection measured by the rate of bactericidal antibodies, particularly in the younger age groups. The clinical cases in vaccinated individuals experienced a benign clinical course. PMID:11031850

  2. PCSK7 Genotype Modifies Effect of a Weight-Loss Diet on 2-Year Changes of Insulin Resistance: The POUNDS LOST Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Jinyan; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Bray, George A.; Rood, Jennifer; Sacks, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A common variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene has the strongest association with iron homeostasis and is related to insulin resistance. Dietary carbohydrate (CHO) modulates the genetic effect on insulin resistance. We examined whether 2-year weight-loss diets modify the effect of PCSK7 genetic variants on changes in fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance in a randomized, controlled trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were analyzed in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial, which is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial using diets that differed in macronutrient proportions. PCSK7 rs236918 was genotyped in 730 overweight or obese adults (80% whites) in this trial. We assessed the progression in fasting insulin and glucose levels, and insulin resistance by genotypes. RESULTS During the 6-month weight-loss phase, the PCSK7 rs236918 G allele was significantly associated with greater decreases in fasting insulin levels in the high–dietary CHO group (P for interaction = 0.04), while the interaction for changes in HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P for interaction = 0.06) did not reach significant levels in white subjects. The G allele was significantly associated with a greater decrease in fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in response to high dietary CHO levels (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). From 6 months to 2 years (weight-regain phase), the interactions became attenuated due to the regaining of weight (P for interactions = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively). In addition, we observed similar and even stronger results in the whole-study samples from the trial. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that PCSK7 genotypes may interact with dietary CHO intake on changes in insulin sensitivity in the white Americans. PMID:25504030

  3. Effectiveness Trial of an Indicated Cognitive-Behavioral Group Adolescent Depression Prevention Program versus Bibliotherapy and Brochure Control at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Gau, Jeff M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the longterm effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) adolescent depression indicated prevention program through 2-year follow-up, relative to CB bibliotherapy and brochure control, when high school personnel recruited students and delivered the program. Method 378 adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2; 68% female, 72% White) with elevated self-assessed depressive symptoms who were randomized to CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or educational brochure control were assessed at pre, post, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results By 2 years post-intervention, CB group participants showed significantly lower major depressive disorder (MDD) onset versus CB bibliotherapy (10% vs. 25%, respectively; HR = 2.48, p = .006), but the incidence difference relative to brochure controls (17%) was nonsignificant; MDD incidence for bibliotherapy and brochure controls did not differ. Although CB group participants showed lower depressive symptoms at post versus brochure controls, there were no effects for this outcome or for social adjustment or substance use over 2-year follow-up. Moderator analyses suggested that participants with higher baseline depressive symptoms showed greater longterm symptom reductions in the CB group intervention versus bibliotherapy. Conclusions The evidence that a brief CB group intervention delivered by real-world providers significantly reduced MDD onset versus CB bibliotherapy is potentially encouraging. However, the lack of MDD prevention effects relative to brochure control and lack of longterm symptom effects (though consistent with results from other depression prevention trials), suggest that the delivery of CB group should be refined to strengthen its effectiveness. PMID:25894666

  4. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC®) to Microfracture: Analysis of 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Data of 2 Centers

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Sven; Volz, Martin; Frick, Hubert; Gellissen, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Microfracture (MFx) is currently the recommended option for the treatment of small cartilage defects but is not regarded as suitable for the treatment of defects larger than 2.5 cm2. To extent its applicability to medium-sized defects MFx has been combined with a collagen type I/III matrix (Chondro-Gide®). This technique is called Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis (AMIC®) and meanwhile a clinically established treatment option for localized full-thickness small- to medium-sized cartilage defects. Despite its more spreading clinical use, clinical data published so far are limited to mainly case report series. In this study, we report the first results of a randomized, controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of AMIC® versus MFx. Patients enrolled in 2 centers were included in this analysis. 38 patients (aged 21-50 years, mean defect size 3.4 cm2) were randomized and treated either with MFx, with sutured AMIC® or glued AMIC®. Clinical outcomes (modified Cincinnati and ICRS score) could be assessed in 30 patients at 1-year and 27 patients at 2-years post-operation. Improvements in both scores were seen at 1-and 2-years post-operation, irrespective of the technique used. MRI assessment revealed a satisfactory and homogenous defect filling in the majority of patients. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. This interim analysis confirms the mid-term results for AMIC® reported in literature. It demonstrates clearly that clinical outcomes at 1-year post-operation are maintained at 2-years. Therefore we consider enhancing MFx with Chondro-Gide® is a valid and safe cartilage repair option for small- to medium-sized cartilage defects of the knee. PMID:23730377

  5. Tocilizumab in refractory rheumatoid arthritis: long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability beyond 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Ziad; Ali, Sabreen; Price-Kuehne, Fiona; Mackworth-Young, Charles G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in clinical patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refractory to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, and B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab (RTX). Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study of 22 patients with RA treated with TCZ. We collected data including demographics and medication histories. We recorded clinical parameters including tender joint counts and swollen joint counts, and laboratory parameters including inflammatory makers and lipid profiles over regular intervals of TCZ treatment. Results In all, 22 patients with RA were included, 20 of whom were female. The median age at the first dose of TCZ was 62 years (range: 35–75 years). The mean duration of the disease from diagnosis with RA to May 2015 was 15.7 years (range: 6–30 years). A total of 15 out of 22 patients remained on TCZ at the end of the study, and in all, there was an improvement in markers of disease activity following initiating TCZ. The effect was sustained for a mean of 35 months (SD±15.5 months, range: 9–72 months). Of the 17 patients who failed to respond to RTX previously, 12 patients remained on TCZ. In all, eight out of 22 patients developed adverse events, five of whom discontinued TCZ. In contrast to previously documented short-term data, TCZ did not result in a statistically significant (P<0.05) long-term deterioration in lipid profile for any of the lipid parameters measured in our cohort (mean ± SD at initiation of TCZ to most recent follow-up: total cholesterol 5.25±1.05 to 5.28±0.77 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein 1.72±0.54 to 1.67±0.43 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein 3.05±0.98 to 2.98±0.81 mmol/L, and cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio 3.41±1.23 to 3.40±1.22). Conclusion The efficacy of TCZ in patients with RA refractory to disease-modifying drugs, including anti-tumor necrosis factor blockade and RTX

  6. ERP evidence for on-line syntactic computations in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Brusini, Perrine; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Dutat, Michel; Goffinet, François; Christophe, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Syntax allows human beings to build an infinite number of sentences from a finite number of words. How this unique, productive power of human language unfolds over the course of language development is still hotly debated. When they listen to sentences comprising newly-learned words, do children generalize from their knowledge of the legal combinations of word categories or do they instead rely on strings of words stored in memory to detect syntactic errors? Using novel words taught in the lab, we recorded Evoked Response Potentials (ERPs) in two-year-olds and adults listening to grammatical and ungrammatical sentences containing syntactic contexts that had not been used during training. In toddlers, the ungrammatical use of words, even when they have been just learned, induced an early left anterior negativity (surfacing 100-400ms after target word onset) followed by a late posterior positivity (surfacing 700-900ms after target word onset) that was not observed in grammatical sentences. This late effect was remarkably similar to the P600 displayed by adults, suggesting that toddlers and adults perform similar syntactic computations. Our results thus show that toddlers build on-line expectations regarding the syntactic category of upcoming words in a sentence. PMID:27038839

  7. Neurodevelopment in new-onset juvenile myoclonic epilepsy over the first 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jack J.; Dabbs, Kevin; Riley, Jeffrey D.; Jones, Jana E.; Jackson, Daren C.; Hsu, David A.; Stafstrom, Carl E.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adults with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) have subtle brain structural abnormalities in the fronto-thalamic-cortical network, poorer cognitive function, and worse long-term social outcomes, even when their seizures are controlled and/or remitted. The natural history of JME and development of abnormalities in brain structure and cognition from epilepsy onset has not been studied. Methods The maturational trajectories of cognitive and brain development were prospectively compared between 19 children with new-onset JME in the first two years after diagnosis and 57 healthy controls. Results Cognitive abilities of children with JME were similar to or worse than healthy controls at baseline but failed to reach the competence level of healthy controls at follow-up across most of the tested cognitive abilities. Abnormal patterns of brain development, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging studies, were evident in children with JME and included attenuation of age-related decline in cortical volume, thickness, and surface area compared to typically developing children. The altered brain developmental trajectory in the JME group was evident in higher-association fronto-parietal-temporal brain regions (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Interpretation Children with JME have abnormal structural brain development and impaired cognitive development early in the course of their epilepsy. PMID:25087843

  8. Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries. Aims: The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar. PMID:24678471

  9. Dermoelectroporation, lipofilling, and pulsed light: a protocol after 2 years of experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacci, Pier A.; Mancini, Sergio

    2005-11-01

    The enourmus boost from adopting biomolecular startegies associated to a better understanding of genetic phenomena opened the way to new methodologies. Among those we can surely locate dermoelectroporation, a methodology that uses the transdermal absorption capacity by means of an apparatus that delivers controlled electrical pulses able to open some "electrical doors". This methodology allows us a protocol of treatment suitable in subjects exhibiting the effects of acne, initial stages of skin ageing without tissue yield. and upkeep of aesthetic surgery. With the term "Biolifting" we signifie a treatment procedure aimed at rejuvenating the face by non-surgical, "soft" and out-patient treatment means. This treatment requires bi-monthly or monthly sessions, a total of four to eight, of a procedure consisting first in superficial microdermabrasion performed with corundum crystals, intended for the removal of the corneus layer and for vascularization. Immediately afterwards, active substances are introduced by means of the Dermoelectroporation treatment, characterized by the possibility of creating the opening of "intercellular gates" that allow the passage of the molecules. The session can be concluded with the application of pulsating light which introduces energy and stimulates the regenerating properties of connective tissues. A home treatment with moisturizing and regenerating creams ends the treatment which is used, with interesting results, also for the aesthetic therapy of stretch marks or hypertrophic scars.

  10. In situ remediation by 2-PHASE{trademark} -- A 2-year success story

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, S.M.; Siegfried, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    As part of Xerox Corporation`s worldwide commitment to assess and remediate the environment of their facilities, 2-PHASE{trademark} Extraction was used to remove subsurface volatile organic constituents (VOCs) at one their manufacturing plants in Ontario. The 2-PHASE Extraction system, developed by Xerox as an alternative to conventional pump-and-treat technology, uses a high-vacuum source applied to an extraction tube within a recovery well to increase groundwater removal rates in low-permeability geologic settings. 2-PHASE Extraction removes both subsurface liquids and vapors, thus improving contaminant removal rates, and simplifies post-extraction groundwater treatment because as much as95% of the VOCs in the water phase are transferred to the vapor phase. Site investigations at the Ontario facility indicated that chemical releases from underground storage tanks and solvent spray booths had resulted in two distinct areas of localized soil and groundwater contamination. Contamination occurred inside the plant building under the floor slab of a manufacturing area at the location of a former solvent spray booth and underground storage tanks. Contamination also occurred outside the building at the location of two former underground 7,000 gallon solvent storage tanks. Contaminants present were primarily 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and their associated degradation products (trans-1,2-dichlorethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and 1,1-dichloroethane). Mineral spirits were also present.

  11. [Post-operative care for heart transplant patients. Review of the last 2 years].

    PubMed

    García Casado, N; Malumbres Chavarren, I; Torres Sancho, C; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the nursing care affects greatly the success of the heart transplant. This is the reason why we considered of great interest to review the care planning established in the ICU of the University Clinic for these patients and to assess the incidence of complications detected during the immediate post-operatory. On the whole, the care planning is similar to the one used with patients who undergo heart surgery under extracorporal circulation, emphasizing the surveillance and maintainance of heart function, administering of immunosuppression drugs, prophylaxis of the infection and psychological care. 29 patients with an average age of 58.6 years who underwent heart transplant were studied retrospectively. The collection of data was performed using nursing and clinical records, which allowed us to analyse the evolution of the different corporal functions such as respiratory, cardiovascular, etc., and those aspects related to rejection, infection, welfare and comfort. Observing the results obtained, the incidence of complications was low. Evolution of heart function was correct in 96% of cases, there were no clinical signs of pulmonar, urinal, or vascular catheters infection in any cases. Psychic alterations and sleeping disorders were recorded in 24% of patients. We conclude that the care planning, although it could be improved, can be considered adequate. PMID:9708130

  12. Thrice-Weekly Nocturnal In-Centre Haemodiafiltration: A 2-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Vishal; Hair, Mario; So, Beng; Spalding, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate control of plasma phosphate without phosphate binders is difficult to achieve on a thrice-weekly haemodialysis schedule. The use of quotidian nocturnal dialysis is effective but not practical in the in-centre setting. This quality improvement project was set up as an exercise allowing the evaluation of small-solute clearance by combining convection with extended-hour dialysis in a thrice-weekly hospital setting. Methods A single-centred, prospective analysis of patients' electronic records was performed from August 2012 to July 2014. The duration of haemodiafiltration was increased from a median of 4.5 to 8 h. Dialysis adequacy, biochemical parameters and medications were reviewed on a monthly basis. A reduction in plasma phosphate was anticipated, so all phosphate binders were stopped. Results Since inception, 14 patients have participated with over 2,000 sessions of dialysis. The pre-dialysis phosphate level fell from a mean of 1.52 ± 0.4 to 1.06 ± 0.1 mmol/l (p < 0.05). The average binder intake of 3.26 ± 2.6 tablets was eliminated. A normal plasma phosphate range has been maintained with increased dietary phosphate intake and no requirement for intradialytic phosphate supplementation. Conclusion Phosphate control can be achieved without the need for binders or supplementation on a thrice-weekly in-centre haemodiafiltration program. PMID:26557842

  13. The experience of fatigue in the first 2 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a well-recognized issue for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This prospective study examined the rate and types of fatigue that are experienced by a cohort of individuals with TBI within the first 2 years, using a multidimensional fatigue scale. The impact of factors such as demographics, injury severity indices, and concomitant psychosocial variables was also examined. Using 2 measures of overall fatigue, 16%-32% at Year 1 and 21%-34% at Year 2 reported significant levels of fatigue. Fatigue did not appear to change between 1 and 2 years post-TBI. Sleep quality was the most prevalent concomitant disturbance followed by depression and pain. PMID:18219231

  14. Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola: 2 years of remission with low-dose acitretin and topical calcipotriol therapy.

    PubMed

    Kartal Durmazlar, Selda Pelin; Eskioglu, Fatma; Bodur, Zeliha

    2008-01-01

    Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is a rare disorder characterized by verrucous thickening and brown pigmentation of the nipple and areola with unknown etiology. Although it is a generally asymptomatic disorder, cosmetic disfiguring creates a real psychological problem for young women. Moreover, treatment regimens are not satisfactory. Surgical treatment has been suggested as an initial treatment in resistant and recurrent cases because of the relapses seen after medical treatment. We report a case who responded satisfactorily to low-dose acitretin and topical calcipotriol treatment with no relapses during 2 years of follow-up. Among all reported medical treatments and interventional approaches, including surgery, this is the first patient reported with 2 years of remission. PMID:18608736

  15. Are immunoglobulin A anti-gliadin antibodies helpful in diagnosing coeliac disease in children younger than 2 years?

    PubMed

    Foucher, Barbara; Johanet, Catherine; Jégo-Desplat, Sophie; Sanmarco, Marielle; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Fily-Nalewajk, Sandrine; Olsson, Nils-Olivier; Lakomy, Daniela; Escande, Andrée; Chrétien, Pascale; Fortenfant, Françoise; Chevailler, Alain; André, Chantal; Goetz, Joëlle; Humbel, René-Louis; Monier, Jean-Claude; Sibilia, Jean; Taillefer, Marie-France; Abreu, Isabelle; Fabien, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of immumoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies to gliadin (AGA-IgA) in addition to IgA anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies was evaluated in 4122 children younger than 2 years with a suspicion of coeliac disease (CD). Eight percent (312/4122) displayed IgA anti-endomysium and/or IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase, whereas 2.1% (85/4122) displayed only AGA-IgA. Clinical data were obtained for 62 of 85 children with isolated AGA-IgA, and 33 children underwent a duodenal biopsy. Histologically proven CD was established for 5 patients, whereas 57 children were diagnosed to experience other diseases. The systematic detection of AGA-IgA using native gliadin conferred no additional diagnostic benefit for the diagnosis of CD in children younger than 2 years of age, except for rare cases. PMID:21857243

  16. Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later

  17. The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after 2 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, C.; Simpson, J.; Thiele, O.; Barnes, W.; Chang, A. T. C.; Stocker, E.; Adler, R. F.; Hou, A.; Kakar, R.; Wentz, F.

    1999-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on November 27, 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, in related modeling applications and in new datasets tailored specifically for these applications. This paper reports the latest results regarding the calibration of the TRMM Microwave Imager, (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR) and Visible and Infrared Sensor (VIRS). For the TMI, a new product is in place that corrects for a still unknown source of radiation leaking in to the TMI receiver. The PR calibration has been adjusted upward slightly (by 0.6 dBZ) to better match ground reference targets, while the VIRS calibration remains largely unchanged. In addition to the instrument calibration, great strides have been made with the rainfall algorithms as well, with the new rainfall products agreeing with each other to within less than 20% over monthly zonally averaged statistics. The TRMM Science Data and Information System (TSDIS) has responded equally well by making a number of new products, including real-time and fine resolution gridded rainfall fields available to the modeling community. The TRMM Ground Validation (GV) program is also responding with improved radar calibration techniques and rainfall algorithms to provide more accurate GV products which will be further enhanced with the new multiparameter 10 cm radar being developed for TRMM validation and precipitation studies. Progress in these various areas has, in turn, led to exciting new developments in the modeling area where Data Assimilation, and Weather Forecast models are showing dramatic improvements after the assimilation of observed rainfall fields.

  18. Echinococcus granulosus infection of the liver and lung in an 8 1/2-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, V; Morger, R; Müller, M

    1992-06-01

    We report on an 8 1/2-year-old boy with an echinococcus granulosus infection of the liver and lung, drawing particular attention to the therapy applied. This therapy consists on the one hand of medicinal treatment with Mebendazol and on the other hand of two subsequent operations with resection of the cysts. The course of the illness is illustrated by means of the most important laboratory parameters; an indication of the present serological diagnostic is also given. PMID:1498102

  19. Investigation of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Deaths Among US Children Aged <2 Years, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Prill, Mila M; Iwane, Marika K; Little, Delmar; Gerber, Susan I

    2016-09-01

    We validated the respiratory syncytial virus-coded deaths of children aged <2 years in 2004-2007 using national/state death data and medical records. There were 48 deaths in 4 states, and hospital records for 32 of them were available; 26 of those 32 (81%) had a laboratory finding of respiratory syncytial virus, and 21 of those 26 (81%) had a potential high-risk condition, most commonly preterm birth (35%). PMID:27534673