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Sample records for 2-year study period

  1. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  2. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP. PMID:25726022

  3. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  4. Typing of Clinical Mycobacterium avium Complex Strains Cultured during a 2-Year Period in Denmark by Using IS1245

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe; Giese, Sten B.; Larsen, Birger

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potential routes of transmission of these microorganisms. As a first step, the genetic diversity among isolates from AIDS patients and non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was described. In addition, a number of isolates from nonhuman sources cultured during the same period were analyzed and compared to the human isolates. A total of 203 isolates from AIDS patients (n = 90), non-HIV-infected patients (n = 91), and nonhuman sources (n = 22) were analyzed. The presence of IS1245 was restricted to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates. The majority of human isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while nonhuman isolates could be divided into a high-copy-number group and a low-copy-number group. Groups of identical strains were found to be geographically widespread, comprising strains from AIDS patients as well as strains from non-HIV-infected patients. Samples of peat (to be used as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M. avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans. PMID:9986819

  5. Clinical and etiological characteristics of enterovirus 71-related diseases during a recent 2-year period in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byounghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2010-07-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV 71) has caused large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in the Asian-Pacific region. In this study, we report a major outbreak of EV 71 infection in Korea and describe the clinical differences between EV 71 and non-EV 71 enterovirus infections. We prospectively enrolled patients with suspected viral infections during a recent 2-year period through a nationwide surveillance system. We identified 719 patients with suspected HFMD or herpangina using real-time PCR and genotyping based on VP1 sequence analysis. The major pathogen causing HFMD changed substantially from 2008 to 2009, with EV 71 becoming the most common cause of HFMD in Korea in 2009. We successfully identified the enteroviral genotypes for 218 of the 719 patients. Patients with EV 71 infections tended to be younger than those with non-EV 71 enteroviral infections and presented with HFMD and meningoencephalitis. In addition, the occurrence of fever, headache, and neck stiffness was significantly higher in patients with EV 71 infections. Multivariable analysis showed that for patients presenting with HFMD, fever, or a sore throat, each covariate was independently associated with EV 71 infection; the adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) for these variables were 31.86 (10.04 to 101.09), 4.76 (1.71 to 13.25), and 0.18 (0.04 to 0.77), respectively. Our results indicate that EV 71 was a major cause of HFMD in Korea during the study period. In addition, we found that clinical symptoms may be helpful in the early identification of patients with EV 71 infections. PMID:20463159

  6. Age-related light scattering in rat lenses observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    Normal light scattering in the eye is determined primarily by the size of alpha-crystalline molecules. Ageing effects appear as an increase in normal lens light scattering in distinct layers. Subliminal effects of toxins on lens transparency can also cause an increase in light scattering due to protein molecule aggregation before visible opacities appear. Scheimpflug photography of the anterior eye segment with subsequent densitometric image analysis is the method of choice to evaluate such effects. To gain more insight into normal ageing and the potential effects of complex aerosols, a subset of Wistar rats (both sexes) belonging to a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was documented at baseline and after 2 years with a Topcon SL-45 Scheimpflug camera on Kodak T(max) 400 ISO film. The recording procedure, film development, and microdensitometric image analysis were all performed according to standard protocol. A second group from the same study was documented at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke or diesel engine exhaust. Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. At the baseline examination, there were no relevant differences between groups with respect to corneal density or density of defined layers in the lens capsule (1), epithelium and superficial cortex (2), deep cortex (3), supranuclear layer (4) and nucleus (5). At the 2-year examination, mean corneal density was significantly lower in females than in males. This same trend, although not significant, was also found in most layers of the lens. The most prominent differences in density over time were measured in lens layers 3 and 4, but neither corneal density nor lenticular density showed any consistent treatment-related effects in any of the layers. The data

  7. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  8. Learning, Memory, and Executive Function in New MDMA Users: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Tkotz, Simon; Koester, Philip; Becker, Benjamin; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is associated with changes in neurocognitive performance. Recent studies in laboratory animals have provided additional support for the neurodegeneration hypothesis. However, results from animal research need to be applied to humans with caution. Moreover, several of the studies that examine MDMA users suffer from methodological shortcomings. Therefore, a prospective cohort study was designed in order to overcome these previous methodological shortcomings and to assess the relationship between the continuing use of MDMA and cognitive performance in incipient MDMA users. It was hypothesized that, depending on the amount of MDMA taken, the continued use of MDMA over a 2-year period would lead to further decreases in cognitive performance, especially in visual paired association learning tasks. Ninety-six subjects were assessed, at the second follow-up assessment: 31 of these were non-users, 55 moderate-users, and 10 heavy-users. Separate repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted for each cognitive domain, including attention and information processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functioning. Furthermore, possible confounders including age, general intelligence, cannabis use, alcohol use, use of other concomitant substances, recent medical treatment, participation in sports, level of nutrition, sleep patterns, and subjective well-being were assessed. The Repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) revealed that a marginally significant change in immediate and delayed recall test performances of visual paired associates learning had taken place within the follow-up period of 2 years. No further deterioration in continuing MDMA-users was observed in the second follow-up period. No significant differences with the other neuropsychological tests were noted. It seems that MDMA use can impair visual paired associates learning in new users. However, the groups differed in their use of concomitant use of

  9. A 2-year longitudinal study of prospective predictors of pathological Internet use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU. PMID:26526444

  10. Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157959.html Many Kidney Transplant Patients Land in ER Within 2 Years: Study Findings show need to coordinate care after organ transplant, researcher says To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  11. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  12. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  13. Ankle Sprain Injuries: A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Female Greek Professional Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2007-01-01

    Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995

  14. Frequency and nature of spontaneous age-related eye lesions observed in a 2-year inhalation toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Kaegler, M; Stinn, W

    2002-01-01

    A group of 160 Wistar rats (both sexes) from a larger chronic inhalation toxicity study was monitored at baseline and after 1 and 2 years with a photo-slitlamp microscope and a direct ophthalmoscope to record spontaneous age-related eye lesions and treatment-related eye lesions over a period of 24 months. A second group from the same study was monitored at the start and after 5 months of a 6-month posttreatment period immediately following the inhalation period. Rats were nose-only exposed for 6 h/day, 7 days/week, for 2 years to low (3 microg/l) or high (10 microg/l) total particulate matter concentrations of room-aged cigarette sidestream smoke (RASS) or diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Control animals were exposed to filtered fresh air. All ophthalmological examinations were performed in mydriasis, and relevant observations were documented on color slide film. At baseline, all animals with eye lesions were excluded from the study. After 1 year, only minor lesions were found: retrolental opacities (14%) and a few cases of corneal dryness with reddish lid margins. After 2 years, 23% of the animals had unilateral or bilateral retrolental opacities, but the most frequent eye lesions were posterior subcapsular cataracts (PSC, 32%). Water clefts and spokes were found in 11% of the lenses and mature cataracts in 6%. All other eye lesions observed were much less frequent. There were a few cases of glaucoma, corneal dryness and stromal neovascularization. The frequency and type of lesion in animals monitored from the start of the posttreatment period was comparable to what was seen after 2 years. Toward the end of this period the frequency of mature cataracts went up to 9% and that of (secondary) glaucomas to 5%. None of the eye lesions observed showed any association in frequency or severity of expression to the treatment, either RASS or DEE, or to the sex of the animals. In comparison to the (limited) literature data available, far fewer corneal lesions were found in this

  15. Natrelle 410 Extra-Full Projection Silicone Breast Implants: 2-Year Results from Two Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Patricia; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The safety and effectiveness of the Natrelle Style 410 highly cohesive silicone gel breast implant (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif.) in full or moderate height and projection have been shown in a 10-year study. Extra-full projection implants may be an appropriate option for some women undergoing breast reconstruction. Methods: A total of 2795 women received at least one Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant (X-style) for breast reconstruction in two similarly designed, prospective, multicenter studies. Data collected for 2 years after implantation in these studies were pooled to evaluate complication rates and subject and physician satisfaction. Results: Most subjects (76.0 percent) underwent bilateral reconstruction; a total of 4912 devices were implanted. Complication rates at 2 years were low. The most common complications were asymmetry (4.8 percent) and capsular contracture (3.3 percent). The cumulative risk of reoperation was 21.6 percent by subject and 16.6 percent by device; the most common reasons for reoperation were scarring (n = 97), asymmetry (n = 89), implant malposition (n = 78), and infection (n = 71). Subject and physician satisfaction rates exceeded 90 percent. At 2 years, 97 percent of physicians reported that the shape of the breast reflected the shape of the implant, and that the breast implant had maintained its original position. Conclusions: The safety profile of the Natrelle 410 extra-full projection implant mirrors that of its moderate projection and full projection counterparts. Both physicians and subjects were highly satisfied with the implants 2 years after surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:26090764

  16. 2-year outcomes in Initial survivors with Acute Liver failure: Results from a Prospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie E.; Rangnekar, Amol; Reddy, K. Rajender; Stravitz, Todd; McGuire, Brendan; Davern, Timothy; Reuben, Adrian; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Ganger, Daniel R; Chung, Raymond T.; Schilsky, Mike; Han, Steven; Hynan, Linda S.; Sanders, Corron; Lee, William M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The long-term clinical outcomes in initial survivors with acute liver failure (ALF) are not well known. AIMS The aim of the current study is to provide an overview of the 2 year clinical outcomes amongst initial survivors and liver transplant (LT) recipients that were alive 3 weeks after enrollment in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group (ALFSG). METHODS Outcomes in adult ALFSG patients that were enrolled between 1998 and 2010 were reviewed. RESULTS 2-year patient survival was significantly higher in the 262 LT recipients (92.4%) compared to the 306 acetaminophen (APAP) spontaneous survivors (SS) (89.5%) and 200 non-APAP SS (75.5%) (p < 0.0001). The causes of death were similar in the 3 groups but the time to death was significantly longer in the LT recipients (p< 0.0001). Independent predictors of 2-year mortality in the APAP group were a high serum phosphate level and patient age (c-statistic = 0.65 (0.54, 0.76)), patient age and days from jaundice to ALF onset in the non-APAP group (c-statistic =0.69 (0.60, 0.78)), and patient age, days from jaundice, and higher coma grade in the LT recipients (c-statistic=0.74 (0.61, 0.87)). The LT recipients were significantly more likely to be employed and have a higher educational level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Two-year outcomes in initial survivors of ALF are generally good but non-APAP patients have a significantly lower survival which may relate to pre-existing medical co-morbidities. Spontaneous survivors with APAP overdose experience substantial morbidity during follow-up from ongoing psychiatric and substance abuse issues. PMID:25039930

  17. Technical notes published in BJOMS over a 2-year period--should we be doing it differently?

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Shekar, K; Shelley, M; Mackenzie, N; Spencer, H; Kiani, H; Brennan, P A

    2009-06-01

    Between January 2007 and December 2008, 44 technical notes or related publications (such as letters) were published in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS). These covered most of the remit of the specialty and ranged from operative surgical techniques to the use of digital photographs to orientate surgical specimens. However, there would seem to be very little feedback on the value of these articles in everyday practice. We reviewed these technical notes and assessed readability, the value and use of illustrations, the possible expense and/or equipment required in their use, and finally the frequency that the techniques could be used. The anonymised publications were read and scored by a minimum of two dentally qualified senior house officers, two doubly qualified specialist registrars, an SAS grade and two consultants in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The six techniques that gained the highest mean average score are briefly discussed. Although we used a relatively small number of assessors who might not be representative of the whole BJOMS readership, this study would suggest that some sort of change in the way that these technical notes are published should be considered. Options might include inviting a commentary from the reviewers who have tried the technique and also encouraging colleagues to report their experiences of these techniques in the 'letters to the editor' section. PMID:19297058

  18. Effectiveness of a tinnitus management programme: a 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Gudex, Claire; Skellgaard, Preben H; West, Torben; Sørensen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Tinnitus impairs the possibility of leading a normal life in 0.5–1% of the population. While neither medical nor surgical treatment appears effective, counselling may offer some relief. An intervention combining counselling and hearing devices is offered to clients referred to the Centre for Help Aids and Communication (CHC) in southern Denmark. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine i) the characteristics of CHC's clients and their tinnitus, ii) the effectiveness of the treatment, and iii) whether particular client groups benefit more than others. Methods One hundred new clients presenting with tinnitus completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) three times – before their first consultation, after one month and after 1–2 years. The scores were tested for significant differences over time using tests for paired data. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with a clinically important difference (i.e. THI score improvement of at least 20 points). Results At final follow-up, total THI score was significantly lower than baseline, i.e. 29.8 (CI 25.5–34.2) vs. 37.2 (CI 33.1–37.2), p < 0.01. The programme achieved a clinically important difference for 27% and 24% of the clients one month and 1–2 years after the first consultation, respectively. It appeared that greater improvement in THI score was related to higher baseline THI score and possibly also to treatment by a particular CHC therapist. The absolute reduction in mean THI score after 1–2 years for clients with moderate and severe handicap was 14 and 20 points, respectively, i.e. similar to that previously reported for TRT (14–28 points). The cost of the current programme was approximately 200 EUR per client. Conclusion The tinnitus management programme appeared to provide significant benefit to many clients at a relatively low cost. It would be useful to conduct a randomised controlled study comparing the current programme with alternative forms of

  19. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  20. Stressful work, psychological job strain, and turnover: a 2-year prospective cohort study of truck drivers.

    PubMed

    de Croon, Einar M; Sluiter, Judith K; Blonk, Roland W B; Broersen, Jake P J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2004-06-01

    Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological strain (need for recovery after work and fatigue), and turnover were obtained from 820 drivers in 1998 and 2000. In agreement with the model, the results showed that strain mediates the influence of stressful work on voluntary turnover. Also in conformity with the model, job movement to any job outside the trucking industry (i.e., interoccupational turnover) resulted in a larger strain reduction as compared to job movement within the trucking industry (intraoccupational turnover). Finally, strain was found to stimulate interoccupational turnover more strongly than it stimulated intraoccupational turnover. These findings provide a thorough validation of existing turnover theory and give new insights into the turnover (decision) process. PMID:15161404

  1. Occlusal glass ionomer cermet, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations: a 2-year clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lidums, A; Wilkie, R; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer silver cermet (Ketac-Silver), a posterior resin composite (Visio-Molar) used with the "sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam (Dispersalloy) for restoring conventional Class I occlusal cavity preparations. Two dentists placed 116 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 35 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for bulk loss of material and occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Losses of material and surface voids were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing or cracking being present in 33% of the restorations. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material if the restorations are likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear. PMID:7803005

  2. [Influence of sport on isoinertial trunk muscle performance development: a 2 years prospective study].

    PubMed

    Rosset, E Bibbo; Mélot, C; Szpalski, M; Keller, T S; Balagué, F

    2013-07-17

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between either regular sports practice or a non sportive way of life, development of trunk muscle performance and occurrence of lower back pain between male schoolchildren. 93 schoolchildren were recruited, then stratified in 4 groups, according to sport practice or sedentary way of life. Participants were evaluated twice at an interval of 2 years with an interview, a physical examination and an evaluation of trunk muscle performance. We identified that basketball players have significantly better results and perfomance concerning isometric and isoinertial tests of trunk muscles than the other groups. Differences in trunk muscle performance exist following the practice of different types of sport. We can deduce that trunk muscle performance has some sport specificity. PMID:23971327

  3. Study of 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear

    PubMed Central

    Behnamfar, Fariba; Zafarbakhsh, Azam; Allameh, Taj-Alsadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Pap smear consists of premalignant or malignant cervical lesions. Many of premalignant cervical lesions will never progress to invasive malignancy, or even may regress over the time. Thus, there is always a risk of overtreatment of patients with an abnormal Pap smear. A long-term follow-up of these patients can reveal final events associated with each subtype of abnormal Pap smear, and, therefore, help us to prevent unnecessary interventions. The aim of our study was to present 2 years follow-up of referral patients with abnormal Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A total of 334 consecutive women aged more than 16 who were referred with an abnormal Pap smear were entered into the study. Patients were followed with biannual Pap smear and annual colposcopy and biopsy for 2 years. Results: At baseline, the majority of patients with abnormal Pap smear were normal on colposcopy and biopsy (68% and 86%, respectively). Six months after first abnormal Pap smear majority of patients in each group showed a significant regress to normal or less invasive lesion (P < 0.001). Twelve patients (4%) had no change in Pap smear, whereas 313 (94%) had at least one stage improvement. Only nine (3%) patients had deteriorated Pap smear after 6 months. All 308 patients who underwent colposcopy and biopsy had normal Pap smear 24 months after the first abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion: Pap smear is associated with a high rate of false-positive results. In addition, the majority of low-grade cervical lesions can spontaneously regress. A long-term follow-up of a patient with abnormal Pap smear can help us to avoid needless interventions. PMID:26958048

  4. Talent identification and early development of elite water-polo players: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Lidor, Ronnie; Lander, Yael; Lang, Benny

    2004-04-01

    The processes of talent detection and early development are critical in any sport programme. However, not much is known about the appropriate strategies to be implemented during these processes, and little scientific inquiry has been conducted in this area. The aim of this study was to identify variables of swimming, ball handling and physical ability, as well as game intelligence, which could assist in the selection process of young water-polo players. Twenty-four players aged 14-15 years underwent a battery of tests three times during a 2-year period, before selection to the junior national team. The tests included: freestyle swim for 50, 100, 200 and 400 m, 100-m breast-stroke, 100-m 'butterfly' (with breast-stroke leg motion), 50-m dribbling, throwing at the goal, throw for distance in the water, vertical 'jump' from the water, and evaluation of game intelligence by two coaches. A comparison of those players eventually selected to the team and those not selected demonstrated that, 2 years before selection, selected players were already superior on most of the swim tasks (with the exception of breast-stroke and 50-m freestyle), as well as dribbling and game intelligence. This superiority was maintained throughout the 2 years. Two-way tabulation revealed that, based on baseline scores, the prediction for 67% of the players was in agreement with the final selection to the junior national team. We recommend that fewer swim events be used in the process of selecting young water-polo players, and that greater emphasis should be placed on evaluation of game intelligence. PMID:15161108

  5. Progression of fibromyalgia: results from a 2-year observational fibromyalgia and chronic pain study in the US

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Edgar H; McElroy, Heather J; Udall, Margarita; Masters, Elizabeth T; Mann, Rachael M; Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Clair, Andrew G; Hopps, Markay; Daniel, Shoshana R; Mease, Philip; Silverman, Stuart L; Staud, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous fibromyalgia (FM) research reports that 20%–47% of diagnosed patients may not meet the study definition of FM 1–2 years after diagnosis. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the progression of FM in a geographically diverse cohort over a 2-year time period. Methods This cohort study followed 226 subjects recruited online to assess FM and chronic widespread pain (CWP) diagnosis stability over time. At enrollment (baseline), subjects provided informed consent, completed an online questionnaire consisting of the London Fibromyalgia Epidemiology Study Screening Questionnaire to screen for CWP (bilateral pain above/below waist lasting ≥1 week in the past 3 months), visited a site for physician evaluation for FM, and completed a questionnaire with validated patient-reported outcome instruments. Subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups: FM+CWP+ (screened positive for CWP and received physician diagnosis of FM), FM−CWP+ (screened positive for CWP but did not receive physician diagnosis of FM), and FM−CWP− (screened negative for CWP). Approximately 2 years later (follow-up), subjects were reassessed at the same study site and completed a questionnaire with the same patient-reported outcomes. Results Seventy-six FM+CWP+ subjects completed assessments at both time points; 56 (73.7%) met the FM study definition at follow-up. Twenty subjects no longer met the FM study definition (eleven became FM−CWP− and nine became FM−CWP+). Ten subjects (two from FM−CWP− and eight from FM−CWP+) transitioned into the FM+CWP+ group at follow-up; they reported more tender points and pain interference with sleep and worse physical function at baseline compared with subjects who did not transition to FM+CWP+. Most (76.7%) of the subjects who transitioned into/out of FM+CWP+ experienced changes in CWP, number of positive tender points, or both. Conclusion The results suggest that some FM+CWP+ patients experience

  6. Residue level and dissipation pattern of spiromesifen in cabbage and soil from 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2016-03-01

    Spiromesifen is a new class of insecticide used for the control of whiteflies and mites which have developed resistance to the more commonly used neonicotinoids. Dissipation pattern of spiromesifen on cabbage was evaluated over 2 years by conducting supervised field studies as per good agricultural practices. Cabbage and soil samples were extracted and purified using modified QuEChERS method and analyzed through gas chromatography (GC). Confirmatory studies were carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The recoveries of spiromesifen from cabbage and soil were between 85.44 and 103.37% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) between 3.2 and 9.4% (n = 6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003 μg mL(-1) and 0.01 mg kg(-1), respectively. The measurement uncertainties (MUs) were within 9.9-14.9%. Initial residues of spiromesifen on cabbage were 0.640 and 1.549 mg kg(-1) during 2013 and 0.723 and 1.438 mg kg(-1) during 2014 from treatments at standard and double doses of 125 and 250 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1), respectively. Spiromesifen residue dissipation followed first-order rate kinetics, and it degraded within the half-lives of 2.9 and 3.9 days during 2013 and 3.2 and 4.5 days during 2014. The residue levels reached below the maximum residue limit (MRL; 0.02 mg kg(-1)) within 15-17 days at the standard dose and 24-27 days at the double dose. The field soil analyzed at harvest (30 days) was free from spiromesifen residues. Metabolite spiromesifen-enol was not detected in any sample which was confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis. PMID:26869045

  7. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Walford, Roy L; Mock, Dennis; Verdery, Roy; MacCallum, Taber

    2002-06-01

    Four female and four male crew members, including two of the present authors (R. Walford and T. MacCallum)--seven of the crew being ages 27 to 42 years, and one aged 67 years--were sealed inside Biosphere 2 for two years. During seven eighths of that period they consumed a low-calorie (1750-2100 kcal/d) nutrient-dense diet of vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, and legumes, with small amounts of dairy, eggs, and meat (approximately 12% calories from protein, approximately 11% from fat, and approximately 77% from complex carbohydrates). They experienced a marked and sustained weight loss of 17 +/- 5%, mostly in the first 8 months. Blood was drawn before entry into Biosphere 2, at many time-points inside it, and four times during the 30 months following exit from it and return to an ad libitum diet. Longitudinal studies of 50 variables on each crew member compared outside and inside values by means of a Bayesian statistical analysis. The data show that physiologic (e.g., body mass index, with a decrease of 19% for men and 13% for women; blood pressure, with a systolic decrease of 25% and a diastolic decrease of 22%), hematologic (e.g., white blood cell count, decreased 31%), hormonal (e.g., insulin, decreased 42%; T3, decreased 19%), biochemical (e.g., blood sugar, decreased 21%; cholesterol, decreased 30%), and a number of additional changes, including values for rT3, cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, plus others, resembled those of rodents or monkeys maintained on a calorie-restricted regime. Significant variations in several substances not hitherto studied in calorie-restricted animals are also reported (e.g., androstenedione, thyroid binding globulin, renin, and transferrin). We conclude that healthy nonobese humans on a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet show physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical changes resembling those of rodents and monkeys on such diets. With regard to the health of humans on such a diet, we observed that despite the selective

  8. Quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with anti-estrogens, 2 years after acupuncture treatment: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hervik, Jill; Mjåland, Odd

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of breast cancer patients medicated with estrogen antagonists, 2 years after having acupuncture treatment for hot flashes. Methods and materials Our sample was taken from women who had recently participated in a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of acupuncture on hot flashes, a side effect of estrogen-antagonist treatment. Forty-one women from the true acupuncture treatment group and 41 women from the control group (sham acupuncture), who had 2 years previously received a course of 15 acupuncture treatments over a period of 10 weeks, were asked to answer an open question. The question, “Would you like to share your thoughts and experiences related to your breast cancer diagnosis, treatments or anything else?” was by being open, broad, and nonspecific, intended to stimulate subjective information, which was not included in the original, or future quantitative studies. Qualitative data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results Most women were troubled by two or more side effects due to anti-estrogen medication, negatively affecting their life quality. Symptoms included hot flashes, sleep problems, muscle and joint pain, arm edema, fatigue, weight gain, depression, and lack of sexual desire. Women previously treated with sham acupuncture complained that hot flashes were still problematic, whilst those previously treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture found them less of a problem and generally had a more positive outlook on life. These results compare favorably with the findings from our original study that measured quantitatively health related quality of life. Conclusion Side effects due to anti-estrogen treatment seriously affect the quality of life of breast cancer operated patients. Patients who had previously been treated with traditional Chinese acupuncture complained less of hot flashes, and had a more positive outlook on life, than women who had

  9. The improving outcomes in intermittent exotropia study: outcomes at 2 years after diagnosis in an observational cohort

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate current patterns of management and outcomes of intermittent distance exotropia [X(T)] in the UK. Methods This was an observational cohort study which recruited 460 children aged < 12 years with previously untreated X(T). Eligible subjects were enrolled from 26 UK hospital ophthalmology clinics between May 2005 and December 2006. Over a 2-year period of follow-up, clinical data were prospectively recorded at standard intervals from enrolment. Data collected included angle, near stereoacuity, visual acuity, control of X(T) measured with the Newcastle Control Score (NCS), and treatment. The main outcome measures were change in clinical outcomes (angle, stereoacuity, visual acuity and NCS) in treated and untreated X(T), 2 years from enrolment (or, where applicable, 6 months after surgery). Change over time was tested using the chi-square test for categorical, Wilcoxon test for non-parametric and paired-samples t-test for parametric data. Results At follow-up, data were available for 371 children (81% of the original cohort). Of these: 53% (195) had no treatment; 17% (63) had treatment for reduced visual acuity only (pure refractive error and amblyopia); 13% (50) had non surgical treatment for control (spectacle lenses, occlusion, prisms, exercises) and 17% (63) had surgery. Only 0.5% (2/371) children developed constant exotropia. The surgically treated group was the only group with clinically significant improvements in angle or NCS. However, 8% (5) of those treated surgically required second procedures for overcorrection within 6 months of the initial procedure and at 6-month follow-up 21% (13) were overcorrected. Conclusions Many children in the UK with X(T) receive active monitoring only. Deterioration to constant exotropia, with or without treatment, is rare. Surgery appears effective in improving angle of X(T) and NCS, but rates of overcorrection are high. PMID:22257496

  10. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures. PMID:26106507

  11. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  12. Prescription Disposal Practices: A 2-Year Ecological Study of Drug Drop Box Donations in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeier, Nicholas; Brooks, Billy; Alamian, Arsham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified controlled substance donations via permanent drug donation boxes over 2 years in a region with high prescription abuse, assessing medication characteristics, time between dispensing and donation, and weight of medications donated per capita. Methods. In partnership with Drug Enforcement Administration and local law enforcement, we analyzed permanent drug donation box collections in 8 Northeast Tennessee locations from June 2012 to April 2014. We recorded controlled substance dosage units along with the product dispensing date. Results. We collected 4841 pounds of pharmaceutical waste, 4.9% (238.5 pounds) of which were controlled substances, totaling 106 464 controlled substance doses. Analysis of dispensing dates for controlled substances indicated a median of 34 months lapsed from dispensing to donation (range = 1–484 months). The mean controlled substance donation rate was 1.39 pounds per 1000 residents. Communities with fewer than 10 000 residents had a statistically higher controlled substance donation rate (P = .002) compared with communities with 10 000 or more residents. Conclusions. Permanent drug donation boxes can be an effective mechanism to remove controlled substances from community settings. Rural and urban community residents should be provided convenient and timely access to drug disposal options. PMID:26180956

  13. Stability and Change among High-Functioning Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A 2-Year Outcome Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the 2-year outcomes of 68 children diagnosed with autism or Asperger syndrome at age 6-8 years in terms of symptoms from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. Significant differences were seen in the domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive activities, with the Asperger group demonstrating fewer and/or less…

  14. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  15. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  16. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD Inattention as Predictors of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Impairment Domains: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard

    2016-05-01

    Although sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), few studies have examined whether SCT longitudinally predicts other symptom or impairment dimensions. This study used 4 sources (mothers, fathers, primary teachers, and secondary teachers) and 3 occasions of measurement (first, second, and third grades) with 758 first grade (55 % boys), 718 second grade (54 % boys), and 585 third grade (53 % boys) children from Spain to determine SCT's and ADHD-IN's unique longitudinal relationships with psychopathology, academic impairment, and social impairment over the 1- and 2-year intervals (i.e., first to third grade, second to third grade). For 1- and 2-year intervals using both mothers' and fathers' ratings, higher levels of SCT uniquely predicted higher levels of anxiety, depression, academic impairment, and social impairment whereas higher levels of ADHD-IN uniquely predicted higher levels of ADHD-HI, ODD, and academic impairment. For 1- and 2-year intervals across different primary and secondary teachers (i.e., first/second and third grade ratings were provided by different teachers), higher scores on ADHD-IN uniquely predicted poorer outcomes across domains whereas higher scores on SCT uniquely predicted lower levels of ADHD-HI and ODD for both intervals in addition to higher levels of depression (for primary teachers only), academic impairment (for 1-year interval only), and peer rejection (2-year interval only for primary teachers). Overall, SCT was significantly associated with important outcomes independent of ADHD-IN over 1- and 2-year intervals and across four different raters. This study provides further evidence for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN in home and school settings. PMID:26278273

  17. Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome from 2-year extensions of phase 2 studies

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Christoph; Greenbaum, Larry A; Muus, Petra; Babu, Sunil; Bedrosian, Camille L; Cohen, David J; Delmas, Yahsou; Douglas, Kenneth; Furman, Richard R; Gaber, Osama A; Goodship, Timothy; Herthelius, Maria; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Legendre, Christophe M; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Sheerin, Neil; Trivelli, Antonella; Loirat, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, possibly life-threatening disease characterized by platelet activation, hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leading to renal and other end-organ damage. We originally conducted two phase 2 studies (26 weeks and 1 year) evaluating eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with progressing TMA (trial 1) and those with long duration of aHUS and chronic kidney disease (trial 2). The current analysis assessed outcomes after 2 years (median eculizumab exposure 100 and 114 weeks, respectively). At all scheduled time points, eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved from baseline, and hematologic normalization was achieved in 13 patients at week 26, and in 15 patients at both 1 and 2 years. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly improved compared with baseline and year 1. In trial 2 with 20 patients, TMA event-free status was achieved by 16 patients at week 26, 17 patients at year 1, and 19 patients at year 2. Criteria for hematologic normalization were met by 18 patients at each time point. Improvement of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or more in eGFR was achieved by 1 patient at week 26, 3 patients at 1 year, and 8 patients at 2 years. The mean change in eGFR was not significant compared with baseline, week 26, or year 1. Eculizumab was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns or meningococcal infections. Thus, a 2-year analysis found that the earlier clinical benefits achieved by eculizumab treatment of aHUS were maintained at 2 years of follow-up. PMID:25651368

  18. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  19. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2-Year-Olds: A Study of Community Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsello, Christina M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Stahmer, Aubyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal research studies have demonstrated that experienced clinicians using standardized assessment measures can make a reliable diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children under age 3. Limited data are available regarding the sensitivity and specificity of these measures in community settings. The aims of this…

  20. Development of Orthographic Knowledge in German-Speaking Children: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Arnoldi, Carolin Judith; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children develop orthographic knowledge from the very beginning of literacy acquisition. This study investigated the development of German-speaking children's orthographic knowledge with a nonword choice task. One nonword in each pair contained a frequent consonant doublet ("zommul") and the other…

  1. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  2. The Development of Falling Intonation in Young Children with Cochlear Implants: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, David P.; Ertmer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of intonation in 12 cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In a previously reported study of the first year of CI use, children who were implanted late (after 24 months) acquired intonation more rapidly than the younger participants. The older children's advantage is plausibly owing to their greater maturity.…

  3. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...

  4. Predicting Expressive Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandereet, Joke; Maes, Bea; Lembrechts, Dirk; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study's objectives were to describe expressive vocabulary acquisition in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to examine specific pre- and early linguistic behaviors used to request and comment, chronological age, cognitive skills, and vocabulary comprehension as predictors of expressive vocabulary. Method: This study…

  5. Re-defining one's occupational self 2 years after breast cancer: a case study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Robin M

    2013-01-01

    Margaret*, a 56 year-old Caucasian Stage III breast cancer survivor, participated in a 5 week occupational therapy pilot program, called Take Action. This program was designed for breast cancer survivors who self-reported changes in cognitive function following completion of chemotherapy. The goals of the program were to improve participants' knowledge and use of strategies to enhance occupational performance and to improve satisfaction and performance of meaningful daily activities or occupations. Through a client-centered and evidence-based approach, this case study highlights the importance of incorporating the survivors' sense of self into an occupation-based intervention. Occupational therapists play an important role in facilitating exploration of sense of self in the survivorship phase of care to support occupational performance in self care, productivity, work, leisure and social participation. This case study highlights the important work of redefining oneself in the survivorship phase of care. (*denotes name change). PMID:24004739

  6. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  7. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  8. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:23053774

  9. Prehospital versus Emergency Room Intubation of Trauma Patients in Qatar: A-2-year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-01-01

    Background: The impact of prehospital intubation (PHI) in improving outcome of trauma patients has not been adequately evaluated in the developing countries. Aims: The present study analyzed the outcome of PHI versus emergency room intubation (ERI) among trauma patients in Qatar. Materials and Methods: Data were retrospectively reviewed for all intubated trauma patients between 2010 and 2011. Patients were classified according to location of intubation (PHI: Group-1 versus ERI: Group-2). Data were analyzed and compared. Results: Out of 570 intubated patients; 482 patients (239 in group-1 and 243 in group-2) met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32 ΁ 14.6 years Head injury (P = 0.003) and multiple trauma (P = 0.004) were more prevalent in group-1, whereas solid organ injury predominated in group-2 (P = 0.02). Group-1 had significantly higher mean injury severity scoring (ISS), lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS), greater head abbreviated injury score and longer activation, response, scene and total emergency medical services times. The mortality was higher in group-1 (53% vs. 18.5%; P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GCS [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, P = 0.005) and ISS (OR 1.12, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: PHI is associated with high mortality when compared with ERI. However, selection bias cannot be ruled out and therefore, PHI needs further critical assessment in Qatar. PMID:24678471

  10. A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes. After centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate oocysts, specimens were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of the SSU-rDNA gene amplified by PCR were purified and PCR products were sequenced. All 30 calves shed Cryptosporidium oocysts at some time during the 24 months of the study. Of 990 specimens, 190 were Cryptosporidium-positive (19.2%). The highest prevalence of infection was at 2 weeks of age when 29 of the 30 calves were excreting oocysts. Prevalence was higher in pre-weaned calves (1-8 weeks of age) (45.8%) than in post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (18.5%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (2.2%). Sequence data for 190 PCR-positive specimens identified: C. parvum, C. bovis, the Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and C. andersoni, with cumulative prevalences of 100, 80, 60, and 3.3%, respectively. C. parvum constituted 97% of infections in pre-weaned calves but only 4% and 0% of infections in post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. All C. parvum GP60 nucleotide sequences were subtype IIaA15G2R1. PMID:18565677

  11. [Centipede stings notified by the "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém", over a 2-year period].

    PubMed

    Barroso, E; Hidaka, A S; dos Santos, A X; Matos França, J D; de Sousa, A M; Rodrigues Valente, J; Amoras Magalhães, A F; Oliveira Pardal, P P

    2001-01-01

    Centipedes are arthropods of the class Chilopoda. The objective of this work was to study the incidence of accidents involving centipedes at "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém" (CIT-Belém) over a two-year period. Seventy-six patients were studied from March 30, 1998 until March 30, 2000. Centipede accidents occurred in 16.8% of all accidents by venomous animals at Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém; compared to snake accidents, 44.4 % and scorpion accidents, 20.5%. The majority of cases occurred in the residence (86.8%). The most important age group was 20-49 years old (64.4%). The part of human body mostly affected was the superior members (47.4 %). Local pain and edema were found in 95.8% and 52.1% of the patients, respectively. Treatment was symptomatic. Healing occurred in 94.7%, although the outcome of 5.3% of cases was unknown. Centipede accidents are a benign accident, occurring within the residence and treatment consists of measures to decrease the pain. PMID:11813058

  12. Duration of untreated psychosis predicts functional and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fraguas, David; Del Rey-Mejías, Angel; Moreno, Carmen; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Graell, Montserrat; Otero, Soraya; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in adult patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) has been associated with poor clinical and social outcomes. We aimed to estimate the influence of DUP on outcome at 2-year follow-up in subjects with an early-onset (less than 18 years of age) FEP of less than 6 months' duration. A total of 80 subjects (31.3% females, mean age 16.0±1.8 years) were enrolled in the study. The influence of DUP on outcome was estimated using multiple regression models (two linear models for influence of DUP on the C-GAF at 2 years and C-GAF change through the follow-up period, and a logistic model for influence of DUP on 41 PANSS remission at 2 years in schizophrenia patients (n=47)). Mean DUP was 65.3±54.7 days. Median DUP was 49.5 days. For the whole sample (n=80), DUP was the only variable significantly related to C-GAF score at 2-year follow-up (Beta=-0.13, p<0.01), while DUP and premorbid adjustment (Beta=-0.01, p<0.01; and Beta=-0.09, p=0.04, respectively) were the only variables significantly related to C-GAF change. In schizophrenia patients, DUP predicted both C-GAF score at 2 years and C-GAF change, while in patients with affective psychosis (n=22), DUP was unrelated to outcome. Lower baseline C-GAF score (OR=0.91, p<0.01) and shorter DUP (OR=0.98, p=<0.01) were the only variables that significantly predicted clinical remission in schizophrenia patients. In conclusion, longer DUP was associated with lower C-GAF at 2 years, less increase in C-GAF, and lower rates of clinical remission in early-onset FEP. Our findings support the importance of early detection programs, which help shorten DUP. PMID:24332406

  13. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  14. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  15. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Sode, Miki; Fuerst, Thomas; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System). Methods Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex. Results WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee. Conclusion Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. PMID:25670891

  16. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents. PMID:19815475

  17. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L. )

    1989-05-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties.

  18. Lumbar total disc replacement using ProDisc II: a prospective study with a 2-year minimum follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Soo; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Chang Seok

    2006-08-01

    A lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) is believed to be a promising substitute in the surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative disc disease. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 36 consecutive patients who underwent lumbar TDR using ProDisc II, and the factors associated with a better clinical outcome after a 2-year minimum follow-up. At the time of the latest follow-up, the success rate was 94% of 36 patients according to the criteria of the US Food and Drug Administration. Of the 10 patients unable to work preoperatively, 7 patients returned to work. Moreover, mean score on the visual analog scale for low back and leg pain improved significantly from 7.5 and 4.7 to 3.0 and 1.2, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, mean Oswestry disability index scores improved significantly from 69.2 to 21.0 (P<0.001). Mean disc height at the operative level increased significantly from 9.0 to 17.6 mm, and mean range of motion increased significantly from 9.7 to 12.7 degrees (P<0.01). Statistical analysis showed that the factors associated with a better clinical outcome were single level, and a higher postoperative segmental ROM at the operative level. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the lumbar TDR using ProDisc II showed excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes without any significant complication. However, future efforts need to be directed toward the evaluation of a larger number of patients with longer follow-up. PMID:16891976

  19. Flare, Persistently Active Disease, and Serologically Active Clinically Quiescent Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Fabrizio; Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Miranda, Francesca; Truglia, Simona; Massaro, Laura; Pacucci, Viviana Antonella; Conti, Virginia; Bartosiewicz, Izabella; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Alessandri, Cristiano; Valesini, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several indices have been proposed to assess disease activity in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have showed a prevalence of flare between 28–35.3%, persistently active disease (PAD) between 46%–52% and serologically active clinically quiescent (SACQ) disease ranging from 6 to 15%. Our goal was to evaluate the flare, PAD and SACQ rate incidence in a cohort of SLE patients over a 2-year follow-up. Methods We evaluated 394 SLE patients. Flare was defined as an increase in SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4 from the previous visit; PAD was defined as a SLEDAI-2K score of ≥4, on >2 consecutive visits; SACQ was defined as at least a 2-year period without clinical activity and with persistent serologic activity. Results Among the 95 patients eligible for the analysis in 2009, 7 (7.3%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 9 (9.4%) had PAD. Similarly, among the 118 patients selected for the analysis in 2010, 6 (5%) had ≥1 flare episode, whereas 16 (13.5%) had PAD. Only 1/45 patient (2.2%) showed SACQ during the follow-up. Conclusion We showed a low incidence of flare, PAD and SACQ in Italian SLE patients compared with previous studies which could be partly explained by ethnic differences. PMID:23029327

  20. Work–family conflict and health in Swedish working women and men: a 2-year prospective analysis (the SLOSH study)

    PubMed Central

    Baltzer, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has suggested that gender is related to perceptions of work–family conflict (WFC) and an underlying assumption is that interference of paid work with family life will burden women more than men. There is, however, mixed evidence as to whether men and women report different levels of WFC. Even less studies investigate gender differences in health outcomes of WFC. Also the number of longitudinal studies in this field is low. Methods: Based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, we prospectively examined the effects of WFC on three different health measures representing a wide spectrum off ill health (i.e. self-rated health, emotional exhaustion and problem drinking). Logistic regression analyses were used to analyse multivariate associations between WFC in 2008 and health 2 years later. Results: The results show that WFC was associated with an increased risk of emotional exhaustion among both men and women. Gender differences are suggested as WFC was related to an increased risk for poor self-rated health among women and problem drinking among men. Interaction analyses revealed that the risk of poor self-rated health was substantially more influenced by WFC among women than among men. Conclusions: We conclude that, despite the fact that women experience conflict between work and family life slightly more often than men, both men’s and women’s health is negatively affected by this phenomenon. PMID:22683777

  1. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration. PMID:23640732

  2. Effects of galantamine in a 2-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Klaus; Baseman, Alan S; Nye, Jeffrey S; Brashear, H Robert; Han, John; Sano, Mary; Davis, Bonnie; Richards, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can produce mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients, but their influence on long-term survival is not well established. This study was designed to assess patient survival and drug efficacy following a 2-year galantamine treatment in patients with mild to moderately severe AD. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind study, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive galantamine or placebo. One primary end point was safety; mortality was assessed. An independent Data Safety Monitoring Board monitored mortality for the total deaths reaching prespecified numbers, using a time-to-event method and a Cox-regression model. The primary efficacy end point was cognitive change from baseline to month 24, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, analyzed using intent-to-treat analysis with the ‘last observation carried forward’ approach, in an analysis of covariance model. Results In all, 1,024 galantamine- and 1,021 placebo-treated patients received study drug, with mean age ~73 years, and mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline MMSE score of 19 (4.08). A total of 32% of patients (661/2,045) completed the study, 27% (554/2,045) withdrew, and 41% (830/2,045) did not complete the study and were discontinued due to a Data Safety Monitoring Board-recommended early study termination. The mortality rate was significantly lower in the galantamine group versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] =0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37; 0.89) (P=0.011). Cognitive impairment, based on the mean (SD) change in MMSE scores from baseline to month 24, significantly worsened in the placebo (−2.14 [4.34]) compared with the galantamine group (−1.41 [4.05]) (P<0.001). Functional impairment, based on mean (SD) change in the Disability Assessment in Dementia score (secondary end point), at month 24 significantly worsened in the placebo (−10.81 [18

  3. AB142. Discontinuation of dapoxetine treatment in patients with premature ejaculation: a 2-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although dapoxetine is the only oral pharmacological agent approved for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) and is very effective, its discontinuation rate is high compared to PDE5 inhibitors in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). This study assessed the discontinuation rate of dapoxetine treatment in patients with PE and the reasons for discontinuation a clinical setting. Methods The study enrolled 182 consecutive patients [mean age, 38.2 (range, 19-63) years] between October 1, 2011 and September 30, 2013. The PE type (life-long or acquired), self-estimated intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF) questionnaire, and medical history were checked in all patients. The patients were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after initiating therapy regarding the treatment status and the reasons for treatment discontinuation in the case of discontinuation. We compared the discontinuation rates with various parameters and the time interval. Results Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2.7%, respectively. Cumulatively, 79.1% of the patients discontinued the treatment within 6 months. After 12 months, however, the discontinuation rate dropped sharply. The reasons for discontinuation were cost (29.9%), disappointment that PE is not a curable disease and dapoxetine was needed whenever he had sex (25%), side effects (11.6%), low efficacy (9.8%), to seek other treatment options (5.5%), and unknown (18.3%). Patients with acquired PE (vs. life-long), IELT >2 min before treatment, older than 50 years, taking PDE-5 inhibitors, and IIEF-EF <26 tended to discontinue early and had high drop-out rates. Conclusions Of the patients, 9.9% were continuing treatment after 2 years. The discontinuation rate at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 26.4%, 35.2%, 17.6%, 8.2%, and 2

  4. Minimally Invasive Periodontal Treatment Using the Er,Cr: YSGG Laser. A 2-year Retrospective Preliminary Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Bret; Sung, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) using the erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase, Irvine, CA) to treat moderate to advanced periodontal disease is presented as an alternative to conventional therapies. To date, there are few short- or long-term studies to demonstrate the effects of this laser in treating and maintaining periodontal health. Electronic clinical records from 16 patients – total of 126 teeth, with pocket depths ranging from 4 mm to 9 mm – were treated with the same protocol using the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The mean baseline probing depths (PD) were 5 mm and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were 5 mm in the 4 - 6 mm pretreated laser group. The mean baseline probing depths were 7.5 and 7.6 mm for PD and CAL respectfully in the 7 – 9 mm pretreatment laser group. At the 2 year mark, the average PD was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm pocket group and the 7-9 mm pocket group had a mean PD of 3.7 ± 1.2 mm. mean CAL was 3.1 ± 1.1 mm for the 4-6 mm group and 3.6 ± 1.2 for the 7-9 mm group with an overall reduction of 1.9 mm and 4.0 mm respectively. At one and two years, both groups remained stable with PD comparable to the three-month gains. The CAL measurements at one and two years were also comparable to the three-month gains. PMID:22615717

  5. Impact of Nonvascular Thoracic MR Imaging on the Clinical Decision Making of Thoracic Surgeons: A 2-year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ackman, Jeanne B; Gaissert, Henning A; Lanuti, Michael; Digumarthy, Subba R; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Halpern, Elkan F; Wright, Cameron D

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of nonvascular thoracic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. Materials and Methods Seven thoracic surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary referral hospital, participated in this 2-year, prospective, institution review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant pre- and post-MR imaging survey study after completing a one-time demographic survey. Between July 16, 2013, and July 13, 2015, each time a thoracic surgeon ordered a nonvascular thoracic MR imaging study via radiology order entry, he or she was sent a link to the pre-test survey that ascertained the clinical rationale for MR imaging, the clinical management plan if MR imaging was not an option, and pre-test diagnostic certainty. Upon completion of the MR imaging report, the surgeon was sent a link to the post-test survey assessing if/how MR imaging changed clinical management, the surgeon's comfort with the clinical management plan, and post-test diagnostic certainty. Data were analyzed with Student t, Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests. Results A total of 99 pre- and post-test surveys were completed. Most MR imaging studies (64 of 99 [65%]) were requested because of indeterminate computed tomographic findings. The use of MR imaging significantly reduced the number of planned surgical interventions (P < .001), modified the surgical approach in 54% (14 of 26) of surgical cases, and increased surgeon comfort with the patient management plan in 95% (94 of 99) of cases. Increased diagnostic certainty as a result of MR imaging was highly significant (P < .0001). In 21% (21 of 99) of cases, definitive MR imaging results warranted no further follow-up or clinical care. Conclusion In appropriate cases, assessment with nonvascular thoracic MR imaging substantially affects the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available

  6. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a South China coastal city: comparison with East Asian cities

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Wai; P.A. Tanner; C.W.F. Tam

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from the collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +}. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO{sub 3}- and Ca{sup 2+}), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. 36 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. 2-year study of chemical composition of bulk deposition in a south China coastal city: comparison with east Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Wai, K M; Tanner, P A; Tam, C W F

    2005-09-01

    Using the emission strengths of the precursor gases, the nature of soil in China, the ventilation power and half value rainout region length, the nss-SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+ concentrations, and pH of rainwater at Hong Kong and other cities of China and Japan are compared and rationalized. The chemical composition of Hong Kong bulk deposition from 1998 to 2000 is taken from our collection and analysis of 156 daily samples. The volume-weighted average (VWA) pH is 4.2 over the whole study period. Nonsea salt- (nss-) sulfate is the most abundant species in the samples, and the pH mostly depended upon the concentrations of the major species nss-SO42, NO3-, Ca2+, and NH4+. All species concentrations show higher levels in the cold season (especially NO3- and Ca2+), which indicates the dominant dilution effects in the warm season due to heavy rainfall and the influence of the continental outflow of pollutants during the cold season. For Hong Kong bulk deposition, the VWA pH is slightly lower in the cold season, and there is a slight decrease in VWA pH over the period from 1994 to 2000. The impact of acid rain in Hong Kong is briefly discussed. PMID:16190210

  8. Changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in central information processing speed: a prospective 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ebus, S C M; IJff, D M; den Boer, J T; van Hall, M J H; Klinkenberg, S; van der Does, A; Boon, P J; Arends, J B A M; Aldenkamp, A P

    2015-02-01

    We prospectively examined whether changes in the frequency of benign focal spikes accompany changes in cognition. Twenty-six children with benign focal spikes (19 with Rolandic epilepsy) and learning difficulties were examined with repeated 24-hour EEG recordings, three cognitive tests on central information processing speed (CIPS), and questionnaires on cognition and behavior at baseline, 6months, and 2years. Antiepileptic drug changes were allowed when estimated necessary by the treating physician. At baseline, a lower CIPS was correlated with a higher frequency of diurnal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and with worse academic achievement. At follow-up, there was a significant correlation between changes in CIPS and EEG changes in wakefulness (in the same direction) when the EEG outcome was dichotomized in IED frequency "increased" or "not increased". Behavioral problems were more often observed in patients with higher frequency of IEDs in sleep at baseline and in those with ongoing IEDs compared with those with EEG remission (without or with sporadic IEDs in the recording) at the end of the study period. No changes were observed in the results of the questionnaires. A lower diurnal IED frequency at baseline, lack of serial IEDs, and occurrence of only unilateral IEDs were correlated with a higher chance of EEG remission at 2-year follow-up. Electroencephalography remission could not be predicted from other epilepsy variables except from seizure freedom in the last six months. Our results confirm the nonbenign character of 'benign' focal spikes. Whether an early and stable EEG remission can be achieved through antiepileptic treatment and whether this is of benefit for cognitive development should be examined in prospective placebo-controlled randomized trials. PMID:25546731

  9. Retrospective cohort study between selective and standard C3-7 laminoplasty. Minimum 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Asazuma, Takashi; Masuoka, Kazunori; Yasuoka, Hiroki; Motosuneya, Takao; Sakai, Tsubasa; Nemoto, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    A total of 64 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) were assessed in this study. Forty-two patients underwent selective expansive open-door laminoplasty (ELAP). Twenty-two patients who underwent conventional C3-7 ELAP served as controls. There were no significant differences in recovery rate of JOA scores, C2–C7 angle or cervical range of motion between two groups. Incidence of axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis in selective ELAP was significantly lower than those in the C3-7 ELAP. Size of anterior compression mass, postoperative spinal cord positions and decompression conditions were evaluated using preoperative or postoperative MRI in 50 of 64 patients. There was a positive correlation between number of expanded laminae and maximum anterior spaces of spinal cord. Incomplete decompression was developed in three of 37 patients in selective ELAP and in two of 13 patients in C3-7ELAP. Mean size of anterior compression mass at incomplete decompression levels was significantly greater than that at complete decompression levels. Since, there was less posterior movement of the spinal cord in selective ELAP than that in C3-7ELAP, minute concerns about size of anterior compression mass is necessary to decide the number of expanded laminae. Overall, selective ELAP was less invasive and useful in reducing axial symptoms and segmental motor paralysis. This new surgical strategy was effective in improving the surgical outcomes of CSM, and short-term results were satisfactory. PMID:17726618

  10. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still ...

  11. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still have ...

  12. Long-Term Outcomes of a Web-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: 2-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Peters, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    Background Digital therapeutics are evidence-based behavioral treatments delivered online that can increase accessibility and effectiveness of health care. However, few studies have examined long-term clinical outcomes of digital therapeutics. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct a 2-year follow-up on participants in the Internet-based Prevent diabetes prevention program pilot study, specifically examining the effects on body weight and A1c, which are risk factors for diabetes development. Methods A quasi-experimental research design was used, including a single-arm pre- and post-intervention assessment of outcomes. Participants underwent a 16-week weight loss intervention and an ongoing weight maintenance intervention. As part of the program, participants received a wireless scale, which was used to collect body weight data on an ongoing basis. Participants also received A1c test kits at baseline, 0.5 year, 1 year, and 2-year time points. Results Participants previously diagnosed with prediabetes (n=220) were originally enrolled in the pilot study. A subset of participants (n=187) met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for starting the program (starters), and a further subset (n=155) met CDC criteria for completing the program (completers) and were both included in analyses. Program starters lost an average of 4.7% (SD 0.4) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.2% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by mean 0.38% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.43% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. Program completers lost mean 4.9% (SD 0.5) of baseline body weight after 1 year and 4.3% (SD 0.8) after 2 years, and reduced A1c by 0.40% (SD 0.07) after 1 year and 0.46% (SD 0.08) after 2 years. For both groups, neither 2-year weight loss nor A1c results were significantly different from 1-year results. Conclusions Users of the Prevent program experienced significant reductions in body weight and A1c that are maintained after 2 years. Contrary to the

  13. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  14. Continuity, Comorbidity and Longitudinal Associations between Depression and Antisocial Behaviour in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…

  15. The Normative Development of Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Children and Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; King, Neville J.; Tonge, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion regulation involves intrinsic and extrinsic processes responsible for managing one's emotions toward goal accomplishment. Research on emotion regulation has predominantly focused on early developmental periods and the majority of emotion regulation research examining the pre-adult years has lacked a comprehensive theoretical…

  16. Comparison of olanzapine long-acting injection and oral olanzapine: a 2-year, randomized, open-label study in outpatients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Detke, Holland C; Weiden, Peter J; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Choukour, Moutaz; Watson, Susan B; Brunner, Elizabeth; Ascher-Svanum, Haya

    2014-08-01

    We compared long-term treatment effectiveness of monthly olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI) with that of oral olanzapine. Outpatients with 2 or more episodes of psychotic worsening in the past 24 months with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of lower than 70 were randomized to 405 mg/4 weeks of olanzapine LAI (n = 264) or 10 mg/d of oral olanzapine (n = 260) for 2 years of open-label treatment. Dosing thereafter was flexible (150-405 mg/4 weeks of LAI vs 5-20 mg/d of oral). Primary outcome was time to all-cause discontinuation. At baseline, patients were clinically stable (mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score of 57). Seventeen percent of patients had been psychiatrically hospitalized in the previous 6 months, and 4.6% were rated nonadherent in the month before study entry. The groups did not differ significantly in median time to all-cause discontinuation (645 days for LAI, 678 days for oral; P = 0.61), discontinuation rate (53.8% for LAI, 51.2% for oral; P = 0.60), or relapse rate (20.1% for LAI, 18.5% for oral; P = 0.66). Postbaseline psychiatric hospitalization rate was low for both groups (7.6% for LAI, 9.2% for oral), but mean hospitalization duration was significantly longer for oral patients (1.80 days [20 for those hospitalized] vs 0.43 days [6 for those hospitalized], P = 0.02). There were no clinically significant group differences in adverse events or safety measures. No post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome events occurred. In conclusion, olanzapine LAI and oral olanzapine were similarly effective and well tolerated for up to 2 years of treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Treatment discontinuation for olanzapine LAI was similar to that of oral olanzapine, despite the 3-hour post-injection observation period and other precautionary procedures related to risk of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome. PMID:24781441

  17. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  18. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as a Support Mechanism for Novel Word Learning: A Training Study with 2-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalková, Svetlana; Polišenská, Kamila; Süssová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    A training study examined novel word learning in 2-year-old children and assessed two nonverbal mechanisms, pictures and gestures, which are commonly used as communication support. The aim was to (1) compare these two support mechanisms and measure their effects on expressive word learning and (2) to investigate these effects on word production…

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Autistic-Like Traits and ADHD Behaviors in Early Childhood: Findings from a Community Twin Study of 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica; Edelson, Lisa R.; Asherson, Philip; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of autism and ADHD emerge in early childhood, yet research investigating their comorbidity has focused on older children. This study aimed to explore the nature of the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in a community sample of 2-year-olds. Twins from the Boston University Twin Project (N = 312…

  20. A retrospective study of radiographic abnormalities in the repositories of 2-year-old Thoroughbred in-training sales in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYAKOSHI, Daisuke; SENBA, Hiroyuki; SHIKICHI, Mitsumori; MAEDA, Masaya; SHIBATA, Ryo; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of radiographic abnormalities of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses that were listed at in-training sales in Japan, on whether they started to race or not at 2–3 years of age. Radiographs of 850 2-year-old Thoroughbreds in the in-training sales repository from 2007 to 2010 were reviewed, and 26 categories of radiographic abnormalities were found. Forty-three horses (5.1%, 43/850) did not start a race at 2–3 years of age. In accordance with the racing results for this age category, as determined by Fisher’s exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis, none of the radiographic abnormalities were significantly related to failure to start a race. At 2 years of age, 198 horses (23.3%, 198/850) did not start a race. Horses with enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones in the fore (9 of 19 horses) and hind limbs (5 of 9 horses) did not start a race at the age of 2 years, and fewer of these horses (fore, P=0.021; hind, P=0.030) started a race at the age of 2 years compared with the population of horses without these radiographic abnormalities. These results suggest that identification of radiographic enlargement of the proximal sesamoid bones during training sales could derail the racing debut of horses at the age of 2 years. However, this might not necessarily indicate a poor prognosis and resulting in retirement from racing at 2–3 years of age. PMID:27330400

  1. Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Tantalum Augment in Patients with Paprosky III or IV Acetabular Bone Defects: A Minimum 2-year Follow Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Min; Kim, Hyung-Joo; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the short-term outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) using tantalum augments in patients with severe acetabular bone defects. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 15 revision THAs performed in 15 patients using tantalum augments between June 2010 and December 2013. Acetabular bone defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 7 hips, type IIIB in 7, and type IV in 1. The causes of revision surgery were aseptic loosening in 12 hips and deep infection in 3. Revisions were first in 1 hip, second in 3, and third in 11. Six patients were male and 9 female with a mean age of 59 years (range, 48-75 years). Mean follow-up was 29 months (range, 24-48 months). Results Mean Harris hip score was improved from 34 points (range, 12-54 points) preoperatively to 84 points (range, 38-90 points) at final follow-up. On the final follow-up radiographs, there were 12 hips (80.0%) with stable fixation of the acetabular cup, 2 (13.3%) with secondary stability after mild acetabular protrusion, and 1 (6.7%) with radiolucency around the acetabular cup without mechanical symptoms. Complications included one patient with acute hematogenous infection managed by surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic therapy. There were no cases with nerve palsy or dislocation during the follow-up period. Conclusion The present study showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision THA using tantalum augments due to severe acetabular bone defects of Paprosky type III or IV at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. PMID:27536651

  2. Imaging of the dopamine transporter predicts pattern of disease progression and response to levodopa in patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism: a 2-year follow-up multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Matinella, Angela; Bovi, Tommaso; Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Zappia, Mario; Luca, Antonina; Di Stefano, Angela; Morgante, Letterio; Pacchetti, Claudio; Minafra, Brigida; Sciarretta, Massimo; Dallocchio, Carlo; Rossi, Simone; Ulivelli, Monica; Ceravolo, Roberto; Frosini, Daniela; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-02-01

    Similarly to subjects with degenerative parkinsonism, (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT has been reported either normal or abnormal in patients with drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP), challenging the notion that parkinsonism might be entirely due to post-synaptic D2-receptors blockade by antipsychotic drugs. In a previous multicenter cross-sectional study conducted on a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, we identified 97 patients who developed parkinsonism with a similar bi-modal distribution of DAT-SPECT. In this longitudinal study, we reported clinical and imaging features associated with progression of motor disability over 2-year follow-up in 60 out of those 97 patients with schizophrenia and parkinsonism who underwent (123)I-FP-CIT SPECT at baseline evaluation (normal SPECT=33; abnormal SPECT=27). As second end-point, chronic response to levodopa over a 3-month period was tested in a subgroup of subjects. Motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) at follow-up significantly increased in patients with abnormal SPECT. Specifically, a 6-point worsening was demonstrated in 18.5% of the subjects with abnormal SPECT and in none of the subjects with normal SPECT. Levodopa treatment improved motor UPDRS only in the group with abnormal SPECT. After adjustment for possible confounders, linear regression analysis demonstrated that abnormal SPECT findings at baseline were the only predictor of motor disability progression and of better outcome of levodopa treatment. Our results support the notion that a degenerative disease might underlie parkinsonism in a minority of schizophrenic patients chronically exposed to antipsychotics. Functional imaging of the dopamine transporter can be helpful to select this patient sub-group that might benefit from levodopa therapy. PMID:24369987

  3. Trait and State Attributes of Insight in First Episodes of Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756

  4. Diurnal Cortisol Secretion at Home and in Child Care: A Prospective Study of 2-Year-Old Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel; Meaney, Michael; Kramer, Michael; Cote, Sylvana M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that children may experience disrupted cortisol secretion in child care. The extent to which this is a transient or long-term disruption is not known, as most studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, and age-heterogeneous small sample sizes. This study aims to (a) compare cortisol secretion measured at…

  5. The clinical efficacy of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous chemical burns: a 2-year evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Zack-Williams, S.D.L.; Ahmad, Z.; Moiemen, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diphoterine® is an amphoteric irrigating agent for the treatment of chemical burns and rapidly neutralises both acids and alkalis faster than water alone. Diphoterine® is widely used as a first aid agent in a wide range of industries globally. This is a retrospective review of the clinical use of Diphoterine® on chemical burns in an adult tertiary referral burn centre, often with a delay of several hours after the injury. patients admitted with chemical burns within 24 hours of the incident with an abnormal wound pH or in pain, were treated with Diphoterine® spray. Over a 32-month period, 1,875 burn referrals were admitted of which 131 (7%) were chemical burns. Diphoterine® was used in 47 patients (36%). The male to female ratio for the 131 patients was 4:1. Alkaline burns were the commonest (55%). patients who received Diphoterine® were significantly younger (38 vs 43 years; p=0.05) and presented earlier (0.5 vs 2.55 days; p=0.004). There was a significant change in the wound pH pre- and post-application of Diphoterine®, compared to patients who were treated with water irrigation only, with a pH change of 1.076 vs 0.4 (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in the time to healing, the length of hospital stay, or need for surgery. in conclusion, based on our retrospective cohort, Diphoterine® could be a valuable tool for use in hospital settings to neutralise both alkaline and acid burns. PMID:26668556

  6. The clinical efficacy of Diphoterine® in the management of cutaneous chemical burns: a 2-year evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Zack-Williams, S D L; Ahmad, Z; Moiemen, N S

    2015-03-31

    Diphoterine(®) is an amphoteric irrigating agent for the treatment of chemical burns and rapidly neutralises both acids and alkalis faster than water alone. Diphoterine(®) is widely used as a first aid agent in a wide range of industries globally. This is a retrospective review of the clinical use of Diphoterine(®) on chemical burns in an adult tertiary referral burn centre, often with a delay of several hours after the injury. patients admitted with chemical burns within 24 hours of the incident with an abnormal wound pH or in pain, were treated with Diphoterine(®) spray. Over a 32-month period, 1,875 burn referrals were admitted of which 131 (7%) were chemical burns. Diphoterine(®) was used in 47 patients (36%). The male to female ratio for the 131 patients was 4:1. Alkaline burns were the commonest (55%). patients who received Diphoterine(®) were significantly younger (38 vs 43 years; p=0.05) and presented earlier (0.5 vs 2.55 days; p=0.004). There was a significant change in the wound pH pre- and post-application of Diphoterine(®), compared to patients who were treated with water irrigation only, with a pH change of 1.076 vs 0.4 (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in the time to healing, the length of hospital stay, or need for surgery. in conclusion, based on our retrospective cohort, Diphoterine(®) could be a valuable tool for use in hospital settings to neutralise both alkaline and acid burns. PMID:26668556

  7. The Role of Behavioral Self-Regulation in Learning to Read: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…

  8. The Predictive Relationship between Temperament, School Adjustment, and Academic Achievement: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Children At-Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hendawi, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in temperament can be a risk or a protective factor for a child, especially for children at-risk who possess single or multiple risk factors that may interfere with their educational success and affect their healthy development and their life-long outcomes. This research study examined the concurrent and longitudinal…

  9. Illness Uncertainty and Quality of Life of Patients with Small Renal Tumors Undergoing Watchful Waiting: A 2-year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A.; Alba, Frances; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana L.; Li, Yisheng; Karam, Jose A.; Tannir, Nizar; Jonasch, Eric; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) of patients with renal tumors. Illness uncertainty may influence QOL. Objective To prospectively examine the influence of uncertainty on general and cancer-specific QOL and distress in patients undergoing watchful waiting (WW) for a renal mass. Design, setting, and participants In 2006–2010, 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective WW registry. The decision for WW was based on patient, tumor, and renal function characteristics at the discretion of the urologist and medical oncologist in the context of the physician–patient interaction. Participants had suspected clinical stage T1–T2 disease, were aged ≥18 yr, and spoke and read English. The first 100 patients enrolled in the registry participated in this study. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Patients completed questionnaires on demographics, illness uncertainty (Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale), general QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey), cancer-specific QOL (Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System–Short Form), and distress (Impact of Events Scale) at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 mo. Age, gender, ethnicity, tumor size, estimated glomerular filtration rate, comorbidities, and assessment time point were controlled for in the models. Results and limitations Among the sample, 27 patients had biopsies, and 17 patients had proven renal cell carcinoma. Growth rate was an average of 0.02 cm/yr (standard deviation: 0.03). Mean age was 72.5 yr, 55% of the patients were male, and 84% of the patients were Caucasian. Greater illness uncertainty was associated with poorer general QOL scores in the physical domain (p = 0.008); worse cancer-related QOL in physical (p = 0.001), psychosocial (p < 0.001), and medical (p = 0.034) domains; and higher distress (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study is among the first to prospectively examine the QOL of patients with renal tumors undergoing WW and the

  10. Acoustic evidence for the development of gestural coordination in the speech of 2-year-olds: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Goodell, E W; Studdert-Kennedy, M

    1993-08-01

    Studies of child phonology have often assumed that young children first master a repertoire of phonemes and then build their lexicon by forming combinations of these abstract, contrastive units. However, evidence from children's systematic errors suggests that children first build a repertoire of words as integral sequences of gestures and then gradually differentiate these sequences into their gestural and segmental components. Recently, experimental support for this position has been found in the acoustic records of the speech of 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children, suggesting that even in older children some phonemes have not yet fully segregated as units of gestural organization and control. The present longitudinal study extends this work to younger children (22- and 32-month-olds). Results demonstrate clear differences in the duration and coordination of gestures between children and adults, and a clear shift toward the patterns of adult speakers during roughly the third year of life. Details of the child-adult differences and developmental changes vary from one aspect of an utterance to another. PMID:8377484

  11. Cardiovascular Effects of Dietary Salt Intake in Aged Healthy Cats: A 2-Year Prospective Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  12. Sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease in France: a 2-year national matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Che, D; Campese, C; Santa-Olalla, P; Jacquier, G; Bitar, D; Bernillon, P; Desenclos, J-C

    2008-12-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an aetiology of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adults, with a high case-fatality ratio (CFR). We conducted a matched case-control study to identify risk factors for sporadic, community-acquired LD. Cases of sporadic, community-acquired and biologically confirmed LD, in metropolitan France from 1 September 2002 to 31 September 2004, were matched with a control subject according to age, sex, underlying illness and location of residence within 5 km. We performed a conditional logistic regression on various host-related factors and exposures. Analysis was done on 546 matched pairs. The CFR was 3.5%. Age ranged from 18-93 years (mean 57 years), with a 3.6 male:female sex ratio. Cases were more likely to have smoked with the documentation of a dose-effect relation, to have travelled with a stay in a hotel (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.6-14.2), or to have used a wash-hand basin for personal hygiene (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.7) than controls. Tobacco and travel have been previously described as risk factors for LD, but this is the first time that such a dose-effect for tobacco has been documented among sporadic cases. These findings will provide helpful knowledge about LD and help practitioners in identifying patients at high risk. PMID:18211725

  13. Prognostic value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein in acute coronary syndrome: A 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lukin, Ajvor; Novak, Katarina; Polić, Stojan; Puljak, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Background The main goal of this study was to improve diagnostic and predictive value of low and moderately elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), related to noninvasive clinical parameters, in order to improve and prolong patient life with low or no additional costs. Material/Methods A prospective, open clinical study was conducted at the University Hospital Split, Croatia with 112 patients with ACS and low or moderately elevated CRP (<3.0 mg/L). After diagnosing ACS, data on physical activity, alcohol consumption, and functional status were recorded. Anthropometric measurements were made. Blood and urine samples were taken for analyses. Electrocardiographic, ergometric, and echocardiographic testing was performed. A total of 72 parameters were monitored at the time of hospital admission in ACS patients to analyze which ones could predict disease outcome at the end of follow-up in patients with low or moderately elevated CRP. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Results The variables that were predictive of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 2 years of ACS hospitalization were hemoglobin, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, cholesterol levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and microalbuminuria. ACS patients with CRP <3.0 mg/L had significantly higher risk of developing MACE within 2 years if ≥50% of the 8 key parameters were outside the reference values. Conclusions Major adverse cardiac events can be predicted in patients with acute coronary syndrome whose CRP values are low or moderately elevated. PMID:24051868

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative nonanginal pain after cardiac surgery: a 2-year prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, Manon; Watt-Watson, Judy; Victor, J. Charles; Baskett, Roger J.F.; Bussières, Jean S.; Carrier, Michel; Cogan, Jennifer; Costello, Judy; Feindel, Christopher; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Racine, Mélanie; Taillefer, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent postoperative pain continues to be an underrecognized complication. We examined the prevalence of and risk factors for this type of pain after cardiac surgery. Methods: We enrolled patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement, or both, from Feb. 8, 2005, to Sept. 1, 2009. Validated measures were used to assess (a) preoperative anxiety and depression, tendency to catastrophize in the face of pain, health-related quality of life and presence of persistent pain; (b) pain intensity and interference in the first postoperative week; and (c) presence and intensity of persistent postoperative pain at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the presence of persistent postoperative pain during 24 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 1247 patients completed the preoperative assessment. Follow-up retention rates at 3 and 24 months were 84% and 78%, respectively. The prevalence of persistent postoperative pain decreased significantly over time, from 40.1% at 3 months to 22.1% at 6 months, 16.5% at 12 months and 9.5% at 24 months; the pain was rated as moderate to severe in 3.6% at 24 months. Acute postoperative pain predicted both the presence and severity of persistent postoperative pain. The more intense the pain during the first week after surgery and the more it interfered with functioning, the more likely the patients were to report persistent postoperative pain. Pre-existing persistent pain and increased preoperative anxiety also predicted the presence of persistent postoperative pain. Interpretation: Persistent postoperative pain of nonanginal origin after cardiac surgery affected a substantial proportion of the study population. Future research is needed to determine whether interventions to modify certain risk factors, such as preoperative anxiety and the severity of pain before and immediately after surgery, may help to minimize or prevent persistent postoperative pain. PMID:24566643

  15. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-05-26

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in cattle of different ages. Fecal samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate cysts. Specimens were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR positive specimens were sequenced using the SSU-rRNA gene of Giardia. All 30 calves shed G. duodenalis cysts at some time during the study. Of 990 specimens, 312 were positive for G. duodenalis (31.5%). The highest prevalence of infection occurred at weeks 4 and 5 of age with 25 out of 30 calves shedding cysts at those sampling times. Overall, pre-weaned calves (<8 weeks of age) exhibited the highest prevalence (60.8%), followed by post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (32.1%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (11.4%). Sequence analysis of the 312 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of both Assemblages A and E, G. duodenalis, with cumulative prevalences of 70% and 100%, respectively. Assemblage A was not detected in pre-weaned calves, but was detected in 6.9% and 4.7% of post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. These data indicate not only that calves are infected with both Assemblages A and E simultaneously, but also that infections with zoonotic Assemblage A, G. duodenalis are more common than previously reported. Thus, calves appear to be a more significant reservoir of human infectious G. duodenalis than previous data have suggested. PMID:19264407

  16. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  17. Cementless anatomical prosthesis for the treatment of 3-part and 4-part proximal humerus fractures: cadaver study and prospective clinical study with minimum 2 years followup

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Saadnia, Rachid; Loisel, François; Uhring, Julien; Adam, Antoine; Rochet, Séverin; Clappaz, Pascal; Lascar, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcomes of a cementless, trauma-specific locked stem for 3- and 4-part proximal humeral fractures. Materials and methods: This study consisted of two parts: a cadaver study with 22 shoulders and a multicenter prospective clinical study of 23 fracture patients evaluated at least 2 years after treatment. In the cadaver study, the locked stem (HumelockTM, FX Solutions) and its instrumentation were evaluated. In the clinical study, five senior surgeons at four different hospitals performed the surgical procedures. An independent surgeon evaluated the patients using clinical (Constant score, QuickDASH) and radiological (X-rays, CT scans) outcome measures. Results: The cadaver study allowed us to validate the height landmarks relative to the pectoralis major tendon. In the clinical study, at the review, abduction was 95° (60–160), forward flexion was 108° (70–160), external rotation (elbow at body) was 34° (0–55), the QuickDASH was 31 (4.5–59), the overall Constant score was 54 (27–75), and the weighted Constant score was 76 (31.5–109). Discussion: This preliminary study of hemiarthroplasty (HA) with a locked stem found results that were at least equivalent to published series. As all patients had at least a 2-year follow-up, integration of the locked stem did not cause any specific complications. These results suggest that it is possible to avoid using cement when hemiarthroplasty is performed for the humeral stem. This implant makes height adjustment and transosseous suturing of the tuberosities more reproducible. PMID:27194107

  18. Parental Estimation of Their Child's Increased Type 1 Diabetes Risk During the First 2 Years of Participation in an International Observational Study: Results From the TEDDY study.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Ulrica; Lynch, Kristian; Smith, Laura; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed mothers' and fathers' perception of their child's risk of getting type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the first 2 years of their participation in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. TEDDY parents were informed of their child's increased genetic risk for T1D at study inception. Parent perception of the child's risk was assessed at 3, 6, 15, and 27 months of age. In families with no history of T1D, underestimation of the child's T1D risk was common in mothers (>38%) and more so in fathers (>50%). The analyses indicated that parental education, country of residence, family history of T1D, household crowding, ethnic minority status, and beliefs that the child's T1D risk can be reduced were factors associated with parental risk perception accuracy. Even when given extensive information about their child's T1D risk, parents often fail to accurately grasp the information provided. This is particularly true for fathers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and those with no family history of T1D. It is important to develop improved tools for risk communication tailored to individual family needs. PMID:27241873

  19. A study of the efficacy and safety of albendazole (Zentel) in the treatment of intestinal helmenthiasis in Kenyan children less than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pamba, H O; Bwibo, N O; Chunge, C N; Estambale, B B

    1989-03-01

    One hundred children comprising of 57 males and 43 females aged between 8 and 24 months entered the study. 46 children had single and 54 children had multiple helminth infections. All children received albendazole 200 mg (10 ml) suspension as a single dose. Albendazole proved very effective and safe in the treatment of single and multiple helminth infections in children under 2 years of age, achieving cure rates of 100% in both Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus respectively, 83% in Trichuris trichiura and 66% in Hymenolepis nana. Treatment of polyparasitism appears to be of benefit in improving nutritional status using haemoglobin concentrations as an index. PMID:2591328

  20. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%), 49 (8.83%), 22 (3.96%), and 63 (11.35%) subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices. PMID:24453922

  1. Impaired visual fixation at age 2 years in children born before the 28th week of gestation. Antecedents and correlates in the multi-center ELGAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Anuradha; Msall, Michael E; Droste, Patrick; Allred, Elizabeth N; O'Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns. Methods In the multi-center ELGAN Study sample of 1057 infants born before the 28th week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline. Results In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio = 3.2; 99% confidence interval =1.4, 7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (OR: 5.2; 99% CI: 2.2, 12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold ROP (OR: 4.1; 99% CI: 1.8, 9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (OR: 7.5; 99% CI: 2.2, 26) and have a Mental Development Index more than 3 standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (OR:3.6; 99% CI: 1.4, 8.2). Conclusion Risk factors for brain and retinal damage, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index PMID:24938138

  2. Efficacy and safety of finasteride therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia: results of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (the PROSPECT study). PROscar Safety Plus Efficacy Canadian Two year Study.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J C; Fradet, Y; Boake, R C; Pommerville, P J; Perreault, J P; Afridi, S K; Elhilali, M M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 years' treatment of moderate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with finasteride. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre, prospective randomized study. SETTING: Outpatient care in 28 centres across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 45 to 80, in good health, with moderate BPH and no evidence of prostate cancer. A total of 613 men were entered into the study; 472 completed the 2 years of treatment. INTERVENTION: After 1 month of receiving a placebo (run-in period), patients were given either finasteride (5 mg/d) or a placebo for 2 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy: changes from baseline in BPH symptom scores, maximum urinary flow rates and prostate volume. Safety: onset, course and resolution of all adverse events during the treatment period. RESULTS: In the efficacy analyses the mean BPH symptom scores decreased 2.1 points (from 15.8 to 13.7) in the finasteride group, as compared with a decrease of 0.7 points (from 16.6 to 15.9) in the placebo group (P < or = 0.01). The maximum urinary flow rate increased by a mean of 1.4 mL/s (from 11.1 to 12.5 mL/s) in the finasteride group, as compared with an increase of 0.3 mL/s (from 10.9 to 11.2 mL/s) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). The mean prostate volume decreased by 21% (from a mean volume of 44.1 cm3 at baseline) in the treatment group; it increased by 8.4% (from a mean volume of 45.8 cm3 at baseline) in the placebo group (p < or = 0.01). In the safety analysis, the proportion of patients who experienced any adverse event was similar in the two groups (81.0% in the treatment group and 81.2% in the placebo group). However, the incidence of adverse events related to sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in the finasteride group than in the placebo group (ejaculation disorder 7.7% v. 1.7% and impotence 15.8% v. 6.3%; p < or = 0.01 for both parameters). CONCLUSION: Finasteride is a well-tolerated and effective alternative to watchful

  3. CCL2, CCL18 and sIL-4R in renal, meningeal and pulmonary TB; a 2 year study of patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Armando; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Contreras, Salvador; Aguilar, Diana; Rook, Graham A W

    2011-03-01

    The role of Th2 cytokines and Th2-associated chemokines in tuberculosis (TB) remains controversial, though in Mexico a polymorphism causing increased production of CCL2 is a risk factor. We studied levels of the Th2-associated chemokines CCL2 and CCL18, circulating soluble IL-4 receptors (sIL-4R), IL-4 and the inhibitory splice variant of IL-4 (IL-4δ2) in a cohort of patients with pulmonary TB and their healthy contacts. These were followed for 2 years during which time 10 contacts developed pulmonary TB. Results were compared with measurements made in renal and meningeal TB, and in disease controls with bacterial pneumonias or Dengue fever that have large Th2 components. In these disease controls both chemokines were significantly raised. They were also very significantly raised in all forms of TB, irrespective of age or disease site. Levels of CCL18 were raised least in meningeal TB, and most in pulmonary patients with long histories, when levels were similar to those in disease controls. Levels of CCL2, although also raised in all three forms of TB, were negatively correlated with CCL18. We found that levels of sIL-4R were strikingly reduced in all forms of TB, particularly meningeal. Contacts who progressed could not be distinguished from contacts who remained healthy at 2 years in terms of IL-4, sIL-4R, CCL2 or CCL18. However contacts had raised expression of IL-4δ2 as previously found. These results indicate vigorous and previously unrecorded activity within the Th2 axis, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:21251883

  4. Determinants of “return to work in good health” among workers with back pain who consult in primary care settings: a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bourbonnais, Renée; Frémont, Pierre; Rossignol, Michel; Stock, Susan R.; Nouwen, Arie; Larocque, Isabelle; Demers, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Many factors have been linked to return to work after a back pain episode, but our understanding of this phenomenon is limited and cross-sectional dichotomous indices of return to work are not valid measures of this construct. To describe the course of “return to work in good health” (RWGH—a composite index of back pain outcome) among workers who consulted in primary care settings for back pain and identify its determinants, a 2-year prospective study was conducted. Subjects (n = 1,007, 68.4%) were workers who consulted in primary care settings of the Quebec City area for a nonspecific back pain. They completed five telephone interviews over 2 years (follow-up = 86%). Analyses linking baseline variables with 2-year outcome were conducted with polytomous logistic regression. The proportion of “success” in RWGH increased from 18% at 6 weeks to 57% at 2 years. In women, persistent pain, pain radiating to extremities, increasing job seniority, not having a unionized job, feeling that the physician did listen carefully and increasing fear-avoidance beliefs towards work and activity were determinants of “failure” in RWGH. In men, decreasing age, cigarette smoking, poor self-reported health status, pain in the thoracic area, previous back surgeries, a non-compensated injury, high pain levels, belief that job is below qualifications, likelihood of losing job, job status, satisfaction with health services and fear-avoidance beliefs towards work were all significant. RWGH among workers with back pain receives multiple influences, especially among men. In both genders, however, fear-avoidance beliefs about work are associated with failure and high self-efficacy is associated with success. PMID:16868783

  5. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  6. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  7. Plantar Pressure Changes and Correlating Risk Factors in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Preliminary 2-year Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuan; Tian, De-Hu; Han, Chang-Ling; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhan-Jian; Mu, Zhen-Yun; Liu, Kuan-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plantar pressure serves as a key factor for predicting ulceration in the feet of diabetes patients. We designed this study to analyze plantar pressure changes and correlating risk factors in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We recruited 65 patients with type 2 diabetes. They were invited to participate in the second wave 2 years later. The patients completed identical examinations at the baseline point and 2 years later. We obtained maximum force, maximum pressure, impulse, pressure-time integral, and loading rate values from 10 foot regions. We collected data on six history-based variables, six anthropometric variables, and four metabolic variables of the patients. Results: Over the course of the study, significant plantar pressure increases in some forefoot portions were identified (P < 0.05), especially in the second to forth metatarsal heads. Decreases in heel impulse and pressure-time integral levels were also found (P < 0.05). Plantar pressure parameters increased with body mass index (BMI) levels. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) changes were positively correlated with maximum force (β = 0.364, P = 0.001) and maximum pressure (β = 0.366, P = 0.002) changes in the first metatarsal head. Cholesterol changes were positively correlated with impulse changes in the lateral portion of the heel (β = 0.179, P = 0.072) and pressure-time integral changes in the second metatarsal head (β = 0.236, P = 0.020). Ankle-brachial index (ABI) changes were positively correlated with maximum force changes in the first metatarsal head (β = 0.137, P = 0.048). Neuropathy symptom score (NSS) and common peroneal nerve sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV) changes were positively correlated with some plantar pressure changes. In addition, plantar pressure changes had a correlation with the appearance of infections, blisters (β = 0.244, P = 0.014), and calluses over the course of the study. Conclusions: We should pay attention to the BMI, HbA1c, cholesterol, ABI

  8. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  9. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors. PMID:24903068

  10. Influence of Anti-TNF and Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Therapy on Pulmonary Forced Vital Capacity Associated to Ankylosing Spondylitis: A 2-Year Follow-Up Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Jiménez, José Clemente; De la Cerda-Trujillo, Liliana Faviola; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Norma Alejandra; Díaz-Rizo, Valeria; Díaz-González, Viviana; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto German; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Salazar-Paramo, Mario; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan; Nava-Zavala, Arnulfo Hernan; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of anti-TNF agents plus synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) versus DMARDs alone for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with reduced pulmonary function vital capacity (FVC%). Methods. In an observational study, we included AS who had FVC% <80% at baseline. Twenty patients were taking DMARDs and 16 received anti-TNF + DMARDs. Outcome measures: changes in FVC%, BASDAI, BASFI, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), Borg scale after 6MWT, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire at 24 months. Results. Both DMARDs and anti-TNF + DMARDs groups had similar baseline values in FVC%. Significant improvement was achieved with anti-TNF + DMARDs in FVC%, at 24 months, when compared to DMARDs alone (P = 0.04). Similarly, patients in anti-TNF + DMARDs group had greater improvement in BASDAI, BASFI, Borg scale, and 6MWT when compared to DMARDs alone. After 2 years of follow-up, 14/16 (87.5%) in the anti-TNF + DMARDs group achieved the primary outcome: FVC% ≥80%, compared with 11/20 (55%) in the DMARDs group (P = 0.04). Conclusions. Patients with anti-TNF + DMARDs had a greater improvement in FVC% and cardiopulmonary scales at 24 months compared with DMARDs. This preliminary study supports the fact that anti-TNF agents may offer additional benefits compared to DMARDs in patients with AS who have reduced FVC%. PMID:26078986

  11. Violent Reinjury and Mortality Among Youth Seeking Emergency Department Care for Assault-Related Injury A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Carter, Patrick M.; Ranney, Megan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Blow, Fred C.; Booth, Brenda M.; Goldstick, Jason; Walton, Maureen A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among youth, with more than 700 000 emergency department (ED) visits annually for assault-related injuries. The risk for violent reinjury among high-risk, assault-injured youth is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To compare recidivism for violent injury and mortality outcomes among drug-using, assault-injured youth (AI group) and drug-using, non–assault-injured control participants (non-AI group) presenting to an urban ED for care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Participants were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from December 2, 2009, through September 30, 2011, at an urban level I ED and followed up for 24 months. We administered validated measures of violence and substance use and mental health diagnostic interviews and reviewed medical records at baseline and at each point of follow-up (6, 12, 18, and 24 months). EXPOSURE Follow-up over 24 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of ED services for assault or mortality measured from medical record abstraction supplemented with self-report. RESULTS We followed 349 AI and 250 non-AI youth for 24 months. Youth in the AI group had almost twice the risk for a violent injury requiring ED care within 2 years compared with the non-AI group (36.7% vs 22.4%; relative risk [RR], 1.65 [95% CI, 1.25-2.14]; P < .001). Two-year mortality was 0.8%. Poisson regression modeling identified female sex (RR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.02-1.65]), assault-related injury (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.19-2.04), diagnosis of a drug use disorder (RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.65]), and posttraumatic stress disorder (RR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.09-1.97]) at the index visit as predictive of ED recidivism or death within 24 months. Parametric survival models demonstrated that assault-related injury (P < .001), diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (P = .008), and diagnosis of a drug use disorder (P = .03) significantly shortened the expected waiting time until the first ED return visit for violence

  12. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24604922

  13. Violence and Abuse Against Women Who Have Attempted Suicide by Deliberate Self-Poisoning: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh

    2016-04-01

    Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran. PMID:25550168

  14. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. PMID:21421258

  15. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  16. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Smit, Liesbeth A; Parker, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; Frazier, A Lindsay; Economos, Christina D; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    School cafeterias can play an important role in providing healthy meals. Although schools participating in the National School Lunch Program are required to meet minimum program standards, advocates recommend that innovations be sought to enhance menu dietary quality. This study evaluated the Chef Initiative, a 2-year pilot study in two Boston middle schools, designed to increase the availability and consumption of healthier school foods. Between 2007 and 2009, a professional chef trained cafeteria staff to prepare healthier school lunches (ie, more whole grains, fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables, and less sugar, salt, saturated fats, and trans fats). Meal nutrient compositions were monitored from 2007 to 2009, and a plate waste study conducted in the spring of 2009 compared food selection and consumption patterns among students at Chef Initiative schools, with students receiving standard school lunches at two matched control schools. Paired t tests and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in menus and mixed-model analysis of variance was used to analyze differences in students' food selection and consumption between Chef Initiative and control schools. Overall, the Chef Initiative schools provided healthier lunches and the percent of foods consumed at Chef Initiative and control schools were similar (61.6% vs 57.3%; P=0.63). Of the areas targeted, there was greater whole-grain selection and vegetable consumption; 51% more students selected whole grains (P=0.02) and students consumed 0.36 more vegetable servings/day (P=0.01) at Chef Initiative schools. The potential of chefs collaborating with cafeteria staff to improve the availability, selection, and consumption of healthier meals is promising. PMID:22504283

  17. The incidence and risk factors for shipping fever in horses transported by air to Hong Kong: Results from a 2-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M J; Riggs, C M; Cogger, N; Rosanowski, S M

    2016-08-01

    A 2 year prospective study was performed between February 2011 and January 2013 to determine the incidence and risk factors for shipping fever (SF) in horses transported by air to Hong Kong (HK). Using a questionnaire, data were collected from professional flying grooms regarding the journey to HK and horses in the shipment. Horses were monitored in quarantine for 2 weeks after arrival in HK, and clinical signs of SF recorded. Poisson and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for SF at the horse and shipment levels. The study analysed data from 869 horses on 81 flights arriving from Australia (n = 24), New Zealand (NZ; n = 18), the United Kingdom (UK; n = 33) and the United States of America (USA; n = 6). The incidence risk of SF was 10.8 per 100 horses and the proportion of shipments with at least one horse that developed SF was 49/81 (60%). The study identified that the rate per shipment of SF in shipments of horses originating from NZ, the USA and the UK was 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.71), 2.43 (95% CI 0.66-8.89) and 3.08 (95% CI 1.60-5.93) times the rate of SF compared to Australia. Shipments arriving in HK during March and May were 5.61 (95% CI 1.55-20.31) and 4.51 (95% CI 1.43-14.26) times more likely to contain horses that developed SF compared to shipments arriving in January. The identification of these risk factors and the recognition of at-risk shipments will help focus attention on preventative strategies. PMID:27387724

  18. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  19. A Multicenter, Single-Blind Randomized, Controlled Study of a Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Filler for Midface Volume Deficit: Patient-Reported Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Few, Julius; Cox, Sue Ellen; Paradkar-Mitragotri, Deepali; Murphy, Diane K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvéderm Voluma XC is a volumizing hyaluronic acid filler used for correction of age-related midface volume deficit (MVD). Objectives The effectiveness of Juvéderm Voluma XC was examined from the patient perspective. Methods Patients with moderate to severe age-related MVD (N = 235) received Juvéderm Voluma XC. At quarterly follow-up visits for 2 years, patients rated treatment outcomes on the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS), overall satisfaction with facial appearance, satisfaction with midfacial regions, achievement of treatment goal, Look and Feel of the Midface (LAFM), and Self-Perception of Age (SPA). Patients recorded treatment-site responses in 30-day diaries. Results At 6 months and 2 years after treatment, 92.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively, rated their cheek volume as improved/much improved on the GAIS. Improvement in satisfaction with facial appearance was noted by 89.8% of patients at 6 months and 75.8% at 2 years. Increased satisfaction with outer and lower cheek areas and cheek-bone projection and clinically significant improvements in LAFM were noted through month 24. Treatment goals were achieved by 67.8% of patients at 6 months and 49.0% at 2 years. Patients reported looking, on average, 5 years younger at 6 months and 3 years younger at 2 years. The most common treatment site responses were tenderness, swelling, firmness, and lumps/bumps; most were mild to moderate in severity and lasted ≤2 weeks. Conclusions Juvéderm Voluma XC for age-related MVD is effective and well-tolerated from the patient perspective, with results lasting up to 2 years. Level of Evidence 4 Therapeutic PMID:25964628

  20. Comparison of one-level microendoscopy laminoforaminotomy and cervical arthroplasty in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a minimum 2-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to compare the perioperative parameters and clinical results between microendoscopy laminoforaminotomy (MELF) and cervical arthroplasty (CA) in the treatment of one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a retrospective study. Methods From 2003 to 2007, a total of 97 patients with one-level cervical spondylotic radiculopathy were treated. Forty-five patients underwent CA. Fifty-two patients underwent MELF. Patient demographics and operative data were collected with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Perioperative parameters were compared. Clinical assessment in terms of neck disability index (NDI), short form (SF)-36, and visual analogue scale (VAS) of arm pain and neck pain was performed prior to surgery and at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Results Fluoroscopy time (CA, 60.3 s; MELF, 12.1 s; P < 0.01) and surgical time (CA, 95.1 min; MELF, 24.0 min; P < 0.01) were significantly longer in the CA cases. Shorter hospitalized days (CA, 1.1 days; MELF, 0.13 days; P < 0.01) and less estimated blood loss (EBL; CA, 75.8 ml; MELF, 31.9 ml; P < 0.01) were observed in the MELF group. Both CA and MELF groups showed significant improvement in NDI, VAS of neck pain and arm pain, and SF-36 (P < 0.05 for each) at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, but there was no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). Conclusions As alternatives of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), both CA and MELF can produce satisfactory clinical outcomes. MELF has the additional benefits of less blood loss, less surgical time, less X-ray time, and shorter hospital stay. PMID:24341633

  1. Increased Regulatory T-Cell Percentage Contributes to Poor CD4+ Lymphocytes Recovery: A 2-Year Prospective Study After Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saison, Julien; Maucort Boulch, Delphine; Chidiac, Christian; Demaret, Julie; Malcus, Christophe; Cotte, Laurent; Poitevin-Later, Francoise; Miailhes, Patrick; Venet, Fabienne; Trabaud, Mary Anne; Monneret, Guillaume; Ferry, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) percentage on immune recovery in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after antiretroviral therapy introduction. Methods. A 2-year prospective study was conducted in HIV-1 chronically infected naive patients with CD4 count <500 cells/mm3. Regulatory T cells were identified as CD4+CD25highCD127low cells among CD4+ lymphocytes. Effect of Treg percentage at inclusion on CD4 evolution overtime was analyzed using a mixed-effect Poisson regression for count data. Results. Fifty-eight patients were included (median CD4 = 293/mm3, median Treg percentage = 6.1%). Percentage of Treg at baseline and CD4 nadir were independently related to the evolution of CD4 absolute value according to time: (1) at any given nadir CD4 count, 1% increase of initial Treg was associated with a 1.9% lower CD4 absolute value at month 24; (2) at any given Treg percentage at baseline, 10 cell/mm3 increase of CD4 nadir was associated with a 2.4% increase of CD4 at month 24; and (3) both effects did not attenuate with time. The effect of Treg at baseline on CD4 evolution was as low as the CD4 nadir was high. Conclusions. Regulatory T-cell percentage at baseline is a strong independent prognostic factor of immune recovery, particularly among patients with low CD4 nadir. PMID:26110165

  2. Dasatinib in Imatinib-Resistant or Imatinib-Intolerant Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Blast Phase After 2 Years of Follow-Up in a Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Hochhaus, Andreas; Goh, Yeow Tee; Masszi, Tamas; Pasquini, Ricardo; Maloisel, Frederic; Erben, Philipp; Cortes, Jorge; Paquette, Ronald; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Zhu, Chao; Dombret, Herve

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a phase 3 study, the authors assessed the effects of dasatinib at doses of 140 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily in patients who had either chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in advanced phases or Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and were resistant or intolerant to imatinib. In the current report, the results for patients with CML in blast phase after 2 years of follow-up are reported. METHODS Patients were stratified according to whether they had CML in myeloid blast phase (MBP-CML) or in lymphoid blast phase (LBP-CML) and were randomized (1:1) within each stratum to receive either oral dasatinib 140 mg once daily or 70 mg twice daily. RESULTS In patients with MBP-CML, the major hematologic response rate was 28% for both regimens; and, in patients with LBP-CML, the major hematologic response rate was 42% for once-daily dasatinib and 32% for twice-daily dasatinib. The major cytogenetic response rates were 25% for once-daily dasatinib and 28% for twice-daily dasatinib in patients with MBP-CML, and the respective rates in patients with LBP-CML were 50% and 40%. The overall survival rate at 24 months was 24% for once-daily dasatinib and 28% for twice-daily dasatinib in patients with MBP-CML, and the respective values in patients with LBP-CML were 21% and 16%. Adverse events indicated a trend toward improved tolerability for the once-daily regimen. CONCLUSIONS The current results suggested that dasatinib 140 mg once daily had similar efficacy and improved tolerability relative to the 70-mg twice-daily regimen in patients with imatinib-resistant, blast phase CML. PMID:20564086

  3. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Effect of 2-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Physical Performance, Strength, and Falling: Additional Findings from the B-PROOF Study.

    PubMed

    Swart, Karin M A; Ham, Annelies C; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Enneman, Anke W; van Dijk, Suzanne C; Sohl, Evelien; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Zillikens, M Carola; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; van der Velde, Nathalie; Brug, Johannes; Uitterlinden, André G; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Lips, Paul; van Schoor, Natasja M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with a decline in physical function in elderly persons. Homocysteine-lowering therapy may slow down this decline. This study aimed to examine the effect of a 2-year intervention of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on physical performance, handgrip strength, and risk of falling in elderly subjects in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants aged ≥65 years with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations [12-50 µmol/L (n = 2919)] were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of 500 µg vitamin B12, 400 µg folic acid, and 600 IU vitamin D3, or to placebo with 600 IU vitamin D3. Physical performance (range 0-12) and handgrip strength (kg) were measured at baseline and after 2 years. Falls were reported prospectively on a research calendar. Intention-to-treat (primary) and per-protocol (secondary) analyses were performed. Physical performance level and handgrip strength significantly decreased during the follow-up period, but this decline did not differ between groups. Moreover, time to first fall was not significantly different (HR: 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.2). Secondary analyses on a per-protocol base identified an interaction effect with age on physical performance. In addition, the treatment was associated with higher follow-up scores on the walking test (cumulative OR: 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Two-year supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid was neither effective in reducing the age-related decline in physical performance and handgrip strength, nor in the prevention of falling in elderly persons. Despite the overall null-effect, the results provide indications for a positive effect of the intervention on gait, as well as on physical performance among compliant persons >80 years. These effects should be further tested in future studies. PMID:26412463

  5. Factors Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction 2 Years After Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Chinese Older Cohort: A Prospective Study of 843 Cases at a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lei; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-10-01

    We aim to identify factors predicting patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in a Chinese older cohort. Preoperative and 2-year follow-up data for 843 patients were analyzed. After 2 years of discectomy, the patients rated their satisfaction by Patient Satisfaction Index (PSI), with response of 1 or 2 defining satisfaction and a PSI response of 3 or 4 defining dissatisfaction. Associations between perioperative variables and satisfaction with the results of surgery were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Six hundred fifty-seven patients had a PSI of 1 or 2 and were enrolled as satisfied group, 186 patients had a PSI of 3 or 4 and were enrolled as dissatisfied group. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, occupation, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg, and VAS-back. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group had a significantly higher BMI and a higher incidence of depression. Two years after discectomy, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in decrease of ODI, decrease of VAS-back, decrease of VAS-leg, surgery complications. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group experienced higher incidence of symptom recurrence and depression. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, pre- and postoperative depression, symptom recurrence were independently associated with patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy.I n conclusion, more than 70% patients expressed satisfaction with discectomy for LDH. Two factors could predict patient dissatisfaction and be assessed before surgery: obesity and preoperative depression. Symptom recurrence and postoperative depression are also associated with diminished patient satisfaction. PMID:26448005

  6. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  7. A Periodical Use Study at Children's Hospital of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan M. B.

    A periodicals use study was conducted in the Medical Library of Children's Hospital, a pediatric teaching hospital, during the six month period from September 1, 1967 to February 29, 1968. Results of the study showed that the three kinds of periodical use--circulation, reading room use, and interlibrary loan--have similar but not identical…

  8. New Walking and Cycling Routes and Increased Physical Activity: One- and 2-Year Findings From the UK iConnect Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of providing new high-quality, traffic-free routes for walking and cycling on overall levels of walking, cycling, and physical activity. Methods. 1796 adult residents in 3 UK municipalities completed postal questionnaires at baseline (2010) and 1-year follow-up (2011), after the construction of the new infrastructure. 1465 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and 2-year follow-up (2012). Transport network distance from home to infrastructure defined intervention exposure and provided a basis for controlled comparisons. Results. Living nearer the infrastructure did not predict changes in activity levels at 1-year follow-up but did predict increases in activity at 2 years relative to those living farther away (15.3 additional minutes/week walking and cycling per km nearer; 12.5 additional minutes/week of total physical activity). The effects were larger among participants with no car. Conclusions. These new local routes may mainly have displaced walking or cycling trips in the short term but generated new trips in the longer term, particularly among those unable to access more distant destinations by car. These findings support the potential for walking and cycling infrastructure to promote physical activity. PMID:25033133

  9. A 2-Year, Phase IV, Multicentre, Observational Study of Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Routine Clinical Practice: The EPICOHORT Study

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Stephen; Perez-Salvador Garcia, Eduardo; Reynders, Stefaan; Si Bouazza, Abdelkader; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety profile of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in routine clinical practice. Methods. This 2-year, multicentre, observational study was conducted to capture real-world early practice and outcomes across Europe, shortly after European licensing of ranibizumab for nAMD. Being observational in nature, the study did not impose diagnostic/therapeutic interventions/visit schedule. Patients were to be treated as per the EU summary of product characteristics (SmPC) in effect during the study. Key outcome measures were incidence of selected adverse events (AEs), treatment exposure, bilateral treatment, compliance to the EU SmPC, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over 2 years. Results. 755 of 770 patients received treatment. Ranibizumab was generally well tolerated with low incidence of selected AEs (0%–1.9%). Patients received 6.2 (mean) injections and 133 patients received bilateral treatment over 2 years. Protocol deviation to treatment compliance was reported in majority of patients. The observed decline in mean BCVA (Month 12, +1.5; Month 24, –1.3 letters) may be associated with undertreatment as suggested by BCVA subgroup analysis. Conclusion. The EPICOHORT study conducted in routine clinical practice reinforces the well-established safety profile of ranibizumab in nAMD. In early European practice it appeared that the nAMD patients were undertreated. PMID:24868458

  10. Personal and demographic factors and change of subjective indoor air quality reported by school children in relation to exposure at Swedish schools: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Smedje, Greta; Nordquist, Tobias; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies changes in subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) among school children and relates these data to repeated exposure measurements during a two-year follow-up period. Data on SIAQ and demographic information were gathered by a questionnaire sent to 1476 primary and secondary school pupils in 39 randomly selected schools at baseline and after two years (follow-up). Exposure measurements were applied after questionnaire data were collected at baseline and follow-up in approximately 100 classrooms. The arithmetic mean values for baseline and follow-up were: for indoor air temperature 23.6°C and 21.8°C and for outdoor air flow rate 5.4 L/s and 7.9L/s. Older children, those with atopy at baseline, and those in larger schools reported impaired SIAQ during follow-up. Installation of new ventilation systems, higher personal air flow rate and air exchange rate, and better illumination were associated with improved SIAQ. Higher CO2 levels were associated with impaired SIAQ. In conclusion, sufficient ventilation and illumination in classrooms are essential for the perception of good indoor air quality. PMID:25486639

  11. In situ measured and simulated seasonal freeze-thaw cycle: A 2-year comparative study between layered and homogeneous field soil profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.; Sun, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Vasilyev, V. I.; Popov, V. V.; Wang, G.; Zheng, L.

    2014-11-01

    Annual freeze-thaw cycles of soil significantly impact agricultural and ecosystem services in cold regions. For advancing our understanding of freeze-thaw process, both improved measurements and simulations of coupled-heat-water-transfer (CHWT) phenomenon are needed under different field conditions. This paper focused on a comparative study between a CHWT-model simulation versus in situ measurements of liquid soil water content (LSWC) and soil temperature (ST) at two agricultural field sites. The first site consisted of a layered soil profile with sandy silt loam (0-60 cm) and clay loam (60-130 cm) layers, and the other site was a uniform sand profile (0-110 cm). Measurements were made over two winters between 2011 and 2013, i.e. the first winter is 2011-2012 (year 1) and the second winter is 2012-2013 (year 2), in the northeast of China employing an access-tube dielectric sensor combined with a temperature measurement array. During the freezing period of the year 1 winter, the soil freezing characteristic curves (SFCCs) were determined in situ in relation to the site-specific data of LSWC and ST and subsequently used for the model calibration. For the thawing process of year 1 and the freeze-thaw process of year 2, the resulting ST simulation time series were well-correlated with field measurements. In terms of the resulting LSWC, the numerical simulations also correlated well (R2 > 0.895, RMSE < 0.0381 cm3 cm-3) with the in situ observations of freezing and quasi-steady-state conditions at depths of 50- and 100-cm. The reasons for relatively reduced agreement between simulated and measured LSWC during the thawing stage (i.e., R2 > 0.702, RMSE < 0.0468 cm3 cm-3) are discussed. The resulting time series simulations confirm the model's capability for describing freeze- and thaw-front migration in layered and homogeneous freezing soils.

  12. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments. PMID:26499196

  13. Serum levels of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand in children with early juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a 2-year prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of observations of serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not clear. To elucidate the potential role of OPG and RANKL in JIA we determined serum levels of OPG and RANKL in patients with early JIA compared to healthy children, and prospectively explored changes in relation to radiographic score, bone and lean mass, severity of the disease, and treatment. Methods Ninety children with early oligoarticular or polyarticular JIA (ages 6-18 years; mean disease duration 19.4 months) and 90 healthy children individually matched for age, sex, race, and county of residence, were examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up. OPG and RANKL were quantified by enzyme-immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the use of t-tests, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses. Results Serum OPG was significantly lower in patients than controls at baseline, and there was a trend towards higher RANKL and a lower OPG/RANKL ratio. Patients with polyarthritis had significantly higher increments in RANKL from baseline to follow-up, compared to patients with oligoarthritis. RANKL was a significant negative predictor for increments in total body lean mass. Patients who were receiving corticosteroids (CS) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at follow-up had higher OPG/RANKL ratio compared with patients who did not receive this medication. Conclusions The data supports that levels of OPG are lower in patients with JIA compared to healthy children, and higher levels of RANKL is associated with more serious disease. RANKL was a significant negative predictor of lean mass in patients with JIA. The OPG/RANKL ratio was higher in patients on DMARDs or CS treatment. PMID:21134287

  14. The use of oxytocin in liquid semen doses to reduce seasonal fluctuations in the reproductive performance of sows and improve litter parameters--a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Duziński, Kamil; Knecht, Damian; Srodoń, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present research was to eliminate seasonal fluctuations in year-round reproductive performance of sows and to improve litter parameters by administration of oxytocin into liquid semen insemination doses. A 2-year experiment was performed on crossbreed sows, Polish Large White × Polish Landrace, which were partitioned into two groups: control, insemination without any modification with 100 mL semen doses and oxytocin, insemination with 100 mL semen doses to which 5 IU of oxytocin was added just before insemination. A total of 10,486 inseminations were made. The farrowing rate and obtained litter parameters, including the effect of season, were analyzed. For each litter, the following factors were defined: average litter size, percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets, average piglet birth weight, percentage of piglet mortality, fecundity index, average number of piglets weaned, weaned piglet weight, and daily gain. Sows presented a positive reaction to the experimental factor. A statistically higher farrowing rate for oxytocin group in summer and autumn seasons was confirmed (P ≤ 0.01). Regardless of the season, a higher average litter size was observed in the oxytocin group with the most evident differences for winter, spring (P ≤ 0.01), and summer (P ≤ 0.05). The effect of oxytocin on the percentage of fetal death and mummified piglets born was not confirmed statistically except for winter. Analyzing the fecundity index, higher values were obtained for the oxytocin group in all seasons (P ≤ 0.01), including the lowest difference between groups for winter (51.43) and the highest for summer (100.61). A higher average birth piglet weight and weaned piglet weight were recorded for the oxytocin group in all seasons. The highest differences in birth piglet weight between groups were noted for spring (0.22 kg; P ≤ 0.01) and winter (0.17 kg; P ≤ 0.05) and in weaned piglet weight for winter and spring (0.58 kg and 0.52 kg; for

  15. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  16. Predictors (0-10 Months) of Psychopathology at Age 1 1/2 Years--A General Population Study in the Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, A. M.; Olsen, E. M.; Christiansen, E.; Houmann, T.; Landorph, S. L.; Jorgensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life. Methods: A random general population sample of 210 children from the Copenhagen Child Birth Cohort CCC 2000 was investigated by data from National Danish…

  17. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  18. Prospective Analysis of a New Bone Graft in Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a 2- Year Prospective Clinical and Radiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raskin, Yannic

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy and safety of bone graft material ABM/P-15 (iFACTOR) for use in posterior lumbar interbody fusion. ABM/P-15 has been used safely for more than a decade in dental applications. Methods Forty patients underwent PLIF surgery, with each patient as control. Assessments up to 24 months included radiographs, CT scan, VAS, and ODI. Primary success criteria were fusion and safety. Results Intra-cage bridging bone occurred earlier with ABM/P-15 than autograft (97.73% vs. 59.09% at 6 months). On average pain decreased 29 points and function improved 43 points. Radio dense material outside the disk space occurred more frequently with ABM/P-15 than autograft, without clinical consequence. Conclusions This study suggests that ABM/P-15 has equal or greater efficacy at 6 and 12 months. Pain improvements exceeded success criteria at all time points. Functional improvement exceeded success criteria at all time points. Clinical Relevance This study explores the safety and efficacy of an osteobiologic peptide enhanced bone graft material as a viable alternative to autograft and its attendant risks. PMID:25709887

  19. Etiological Role and Repeated Infections of Sapovirus among Children Aged Less than 2 Years in a Cohort Study in a Peri-urban Community of Peru.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofang; Jahuira, Helena; Gilman, Robert H; Alva, Alicia; Cabrera, Lilia; Okamoto, Michiko; Xu, Hang; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot; Varela, Marco; Verastegui, Manuela; Calderon, Maritza; Sanchez, Gerardo; Sarabia, Vanessa; Ballard, Sarah B; Bern, Caryn; Mayta, Holger; Crabtree, Jean E; Cama, Vitaliano; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Human sapovirus has been shown to be one of the most important etiologies in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. However, very limited data are available about the causative roles and epidemiology of sapovirus in community settings. A nested matched case-control study within a birth cohort study of acute diarrhea in a peri-urban community in Peru from 2007 to 2010 was conducted to investigate the attributable fraction (AF) and genetic diversity of sapovirus. By quantitative reverse transcription-real-time PCR (qPCR) sapovirus was detected in 12.4% (37/299) of diarrheal and 5.7% (17/300) of nondiarrheal stools (P = 0.004). The sapovirus AF (7.1%) was higher in the second year (13.2%) than in the first year (1.4%) of life of children. Ten known genotypes and one novel cluster (n = 5) within four genogroups (GI, GII, GIV, and GV) were identified by phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene. Further sequence analysis of the full VP1 gene revealed a possible novel genotype, tentatively named GII.8. Notably, symptomatic reinfections with different genotypes within the same (n = 3) or different (n = 5) genogroups were observed in eight children. Sapovirus exhibited a high attributable burden for acute gastroenteritis, especially in the second year of life, of children in a Peruvian community. Further large-scale studies are needed to understand better the global burden, genetic diversity, and repeated infections of sapovirus. PMID:27076657

  20. Predicting the Timeline to the Final Menstrual Period: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shinya; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Predicting the final menstrual period (FMP) would help women know when their menopause transition will be completed. Additionally, biological changes, such as accelerated bone loss, precede the FMP by at least 1 year. Objective: Our objective was to assess whether FSH, estradiol, or urinary N-telopeptide predict where an individual is on her timeline to FMP. Methods: The sample was 554 women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. We modeled the probability of having crossed specified landmarks: 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP. We also modeled the probability of being in narrower intervals: 2 to1 year before FMP, 2 years before FMP and FMP, or 1 year before FMP and FMP. We determined the candidate markers that best predicted having crossed each landmark, with the optimum defined as the greatest area under the receiver-operator curve; created formulas for the probability of having crossed each landmark; and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Final models included current estradiol and FSH (each as a fraction of 1 previous reference measure), age, menopause transition stage, race/ethnicity, and whether serum was collected during the early follicular phase. Areas under the receiver-operator curves of final models that predicted the probability of a woman having crossed 2 years before, 1 year before, and the FMP itself were 0.902, 0.926, and 0.945, respectively. If we classified women as having crossed the 2 years before the FMP landmark when predicted probability exceeded 0.3, sensitivity was 85% and specificity 77%. Conclusion: This model could help patients and researchers estimate the time to FMP. PMID:23533245

  1. Predicting adolescent problematic online game use from teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and school engagement: a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Problematic online game use (POGU) has become a serious global public health concern among adolescents. However, its influencing factors and mediating mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study provides the first longitudinal design to test stage-environment fit theory empirically in POGU. A total of 356 Chinese students reported on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, and POGU in the autumn of their 7th-9th grade years. Path analyses supported the proposed pathway: 7th grade teacher autonomy support increased 8th grade basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn increased 9th grade school engagement, which ultimately decreased 9th grade POGU. Furthermore, 7th grade teacher autonomy support directly increased 9th grade school engagement, which in turn decreased 9th grade POGU. These findings suggest that teacher autonomy support is an important protective predictor of adolescent POGU, and basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement are the primary mediators in this association. PMID:25803769

  2. Serum antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in the first 2 years of life: results from an SE Asian longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Turner, P; Turner, C; Green, N; Ashton, L; Lwe, E; Jankhot, A; Day, N P; White, N J; Nosten, F; Goldblatt, D

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of antibody responses to pneumococcal colonization in early childhood may aid our understanding of protection and inform vaccine antigen selection. Serum samples were collected from mother-infant pairs during a longitudinal pneumococcal colonization study in Burmese refugees. Maternal and cord sera were collected at birth and infants were bled monthly (1–24 months of age). Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken monthly to detect colonization. Serum IgG titres to 27 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured in 2624 sera and IgG to dominant serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, 19A and 23F) were quantified in 864 infant sera. Antibodies to all protein antigens were detect ablein maternal sera. Titres to four proteins (LytB, PcpA, PhtD and PhtE) were significantly higher in mothers colonized by pneumococci at delivery. Maternally-derived antibodies to PiuA and Spr0096 were associated with delayed pneumococcal acquisition in infants in univariate,but not multivariate models. Controlling for infant age and previous homologous serotype exposure, nasopharyngeal acquisition of serotypes 19A, 23F, 14 or 19F was associated significantly with a ≥2-fold antibody response to the homologous capsule (OR 12.84, 7.52,6.52, 5.33; p <0.05). Acquisition of pneumococcal serotypes in the nasopharynx of infants was not significantly associated with a ≥2-fold rise in antibodies to any of the protein antigens studied. In conclusion, nasopharyngeal colonization in young children resulted in demonstrable serum IgG responses to pneumococcal capsules and surface/virulence proteins. However, the relationship between serum IgG and the prevention of, or response to, pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization remains complex. Mechanisms other than serum IgG are likely to have a role but are currently poorly understood. PMID:24255996

  3. The Prospective Intraoperative and Perioperative Ophthalmic ImagiNg with Optical CoherEncE TomogRaphy (PIONEER) Study: 2-year Results

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Justis P.; Dupps, William J.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Goshe, Jeff; Singh, Rishi P.; Petkovsek, Dan; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and utility of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for use during ophthalmic surgery. Design Prospective, consecutive, case series Methods A prospective, single-center, consecutive, case series was initiated to assess intraoperative OCT in ophthalmic surgery. Intraoperative scanning was performed with a microscope mounted spectral domain OCT system. Disease specific or procedure-specific imaging protocols (e.g., scan type, pattern, size, orientation, density) were utilized for anterior and posterior segment applications. A surgeon feedback form was recorded as part of the study protocol to answer specific questions regarding intraoperative OCT utility immediately after the surgical procedure was completed. Results During the first 24 months of the PIONEER study, 531 eyes were enrolled (275 anterior segment cases and 256 posterior segment surgical cases). Intraoperative OCT imaging was obtained in 518 of 531 eyes (98%). Surgeon feedback indicated that intraoperative OCT informed surgical decision-making and altered surgeon understanding of underlying tissue configurations in 69/144 (48%) lamellar keratoplasty cases and 63/146 (43%) membrane peeling procedures. The most common anterior segment surgical procedure was descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, n = 135). Vitrectomy with membrane peeling was the most common procedure for posterior segment surgery (n = 154). The median time that surgery was paused to perform intraoperative OCT was 4.9 minutes per scan session. No adverse events were specifically attributed to intraoperative OCT scanning during the procedure. Conclusions Intraoperative OCT is feasible for numerous anterior and posterior segment ophthalmic surgical procedures. A microscope mounted intraoperative OCT system provided efficient imaging during operative procedures. The information gained from intraoperative OCT may impact surgical decision-making in a high frequency

  4. The Role of Human Coronaviruses in Children Hospitalized for Acute Bronchiolitis, Acute Gastroenteritis, and Febrile Seizures: A 2-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jevšnik, Monika; Steyer, Andrej; Pokorn, Marko; Mrvič, Tatjana; Grosek, Štefan; Strle, Franc; Lusa, Lara; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a variety of clinical presentations in children, but their role in disease remains uncertain. The objective of our prospective study was to investigate HCoVs associations with various clinical presentations in hospitalized children up to 6 years of age. Children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis (AB), acute gastroenteritis (AGE), or febrile seizures (FS), and children admitted for elective surgical procedures (healthy controls) were included in the study. In patients with AB, AGE, and FS, a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and blood sample were obtained upon admission and the follow-up visit 14 days later, whereas in children with AGE a stool sample was also acquired upon admission; in healthy controls a NP swab and stool sample were taken upon admission. Amplification of polymerase 1b gene was used to detect HCoVs in the specimens. HCoVs-positive specimens were also examined for the presence of several other viruses. HCoVs were most often detected in children with FS (19/192, 9.9%, 95% CI: 6–15%), followed by children with AGE (19/218, 8.7%, 95% CI: 5.3–13.3%) and AB (20/308, 6.5%, 95% CI: 4.0–9.8%). The presence of other viruses was a common finding, most frequent in the group of children with AB (19/20, 95%, 95% CI: 75.1–99.8%), followed by FS (10/19, 52.6%, 95% CI: 28.9–75.6%) and AGE (7/19, 36.8%, 95% CI: 16.3–61.6%). In healthy control children HCoVs were detected in 3/156 (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.4–5.5%) NP swabs and 1/150 (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.02–3.3%) stool samples. It seems that an etiological role of HCoVs is most likely in children with FS, considering that they had a higher proportion of positive HCoVs results than patients with AB and those with AGE, and had the highest viral load; however, the co-detection of other viruses was 52.6%. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987519 PMID:27171141

  5. Decreased use of glucocorticoids in biological-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis who initiated intravenous abatacept: results from the 2-year ACTION study

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Rieke; Nüßlein, Hubert; Galeazzi, Mauro; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Bensen, William G; Burmester, Gerd R; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Pavelka, Karel; Chartier, Mélanie; Poncet, Coralie; Rauch, Christiane; Elbez, Yedid; Le Bars, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged glucocorticoid use may increase the risk of adverse safety outcomes, including cardiovascular events. The European League Against Rheumatism and the Canadian Rheumatology Association advise tapering glucocorticoid dose as rapidly as clinically feasible. There is a paucity of published data on RA that adequately describe concomitant treatment patterns. Methods ACTION (AbataCepT In rOutiNe clinical practice) is a non-interventional cohort study of patients from Europe and Canada that investigated the long-term retention of intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. We assessed concomitant glucocorticoids in patients with established RA who had participated in ACTION and received ≥1 biological agent prior to abatacept initiation. Results The analysis included 1009 patients. Glucocorticoids were prescribed at abatacept initiation in 734 (72.7%) patients at a median 7.5 mg/day dose (n=692). Of the patients who remained on abatacept at 24 months, 40.7% were able to decrease their dose of glucocorticoids, including 26.9% who decreased their dose from >5 mg/day to ≤5 mg/day. Conclusion Reduction and/or cessation of glucocorticoid therapy is possible with intravenous abatacept in clinical practice. PMID:26925253

  6. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vychytil, Andreas; Remón, César; Michel, Catherine; Williams, Paul; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Marrón, Belén; Vonesh, Ed; van der Heyden, Synke; Filho, Jose C. Divino

    2008-01-01

    Background. Icodextrin is a glucose polymer derived by hydrolysis of cornstarch. The different biocompatibility profile of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions may have a positive influence on peritoneal host defence. Furthermore, cases of sterile peritonitis potentially associated with icodextrin have been reported. Methods. The primary objective of this multicentre, longitudinal, observational, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, which included 722 PD patients, was to evaluate the incidence of overall peritonitis in patients treated with icodextrin-containing PD solutions (Extraneal™) used during one long-dwell exchange/day compared with those treated with non-icodextrin-containing PD solutions. The secondary objective was to determine if culture-negative peritonitis rates differed between patients treated with icodextrin from two independent manufacturers. All peritonitis episodes were assessed by a Steering Committee in a blind manner. Results. There was no significant difference between icodextrin-treated and control patients in the adjusted overall, culture-positive or culture-negative peritonitis rates. When stratified by the icodextrin supplier, there was no significant difference in the adjusted rate of culture-negative peritonitis episodes between groups. Conclusion. Subjects receiving icodextrin as part of their PD regimen experienced neither a higher rate of culture-negative peritonitis nor a lower rate of infectious peritonitis compared with non-icodextrin users. There was no significant influence of the icodextrin raw material supplier on peritonitis rates. PMID:18556747

  7. The MCT-ketogenic diet as a treatment option in refractory childhood epilepsy: A prospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Vles, Hans S H; de Louw, Anton J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Majoie, Marian J M

    2015-10-01

    The present study assessed the long-term (i.e., 24months) efficacy of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy, with focus on seizure frequency, seizure severity, and tolerability. Most patients were treated with the MCT-diet. At one and two years, 33% and 23%, respectively, of the 48 included patients were still on the KD. After three months, one year, and two years of treatment, 16.7% of the patients were responders. The highest responder rate (i.e., 22.9%) was seen at six and nine months of treatment. Of the fifteen patients with seizure clusters during baseline, 60% were responders after three months when looking at cluster reduction and most of them were not responders for the total seizure frequency. From three months of treatment onwards, most of the patients had a relevant decrease in seizure severity which was mainly related to the most severe seizure type. Gastrointestinal dysfunction was often reported, especially in the first six weeks of treatment. Growth deceleration was present in 30% of the patients, and weight reduction in 15%. Improved arousal was mentioned in 30% of patients. No patients developed ECG abnormalities or kidney stones. Increase in lipid profile was rare. The KD is an effective therapy for children with therapy-resistant epilepsy. Effectiveness is reflected in the reduction of seizure frequency as well as in the reduction of seizure severity. After 6months of treatment, it is obvious which patients are responders and tolerate the treatment well. Most of these patients will continue to benefit from the KD for a longer time. Long-term use of the diet was well tolerated. PMID:26301622

  8. Change in Care Dependency and Nursing Care Problems in Nursing Home Residents with and without Dementia: A 2-Year Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Over time, chronic conditions like dementia can lead to care dependency and nursing care problems, often necessitating nursing home admission. This panel study (2012–2014) aims to explore changes in care dependency and nursing care problems (incontinence, malnutrition, decubitus, falls and restraints) in residents with and without dementia over time. In total, nine Austrian nursing homes participated, including 258 residents (178 with, 80 without dementia) who completed all five measurements. Data were collected with the International Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems questionnaire, the Care Dependency Scale and the Mini-Mental State Examination-2. Repeated measures ANOVA and crosstabs were used to analyse changes. The results showed that care dependency in dementia residents increased significantly for all 15 items of the Care Dependency Scale, with the highest increase being residents’ day-/night pattern, contact with others, sense of rules/values and communication. In contrast, care dependency in residents without dementia increased for four of the 15 items, with the highest increase being for continence, followed by getting (un)dressed. With respect to the assessed nursing care problems, residents with dementia and those without only differed significantly in terms of an increase in urinary- (12.3% vs. 14.2%), fecal- (17.4% vs. 10%), and double incontinence (16.7% vs. 11.9%). The results indicated that residents with dementia experienced increased care dependency in different areas than residents without dementia. Furthermore, residents with dementia experienced a lower increase in urinary incontinence but a higher increase in fecal- and double incontinence. These results help professionals to identify areas for improvement in dementia care. PMID:26513358

  9. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy: 2-year prospective open-label study of 40 subjects with refractory epilepsy and low IQ who are living in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Huf, Roger L; Mamelak, Adam; Kneedy-Cayem, Kara

    2005-05-01

    Treating seizures among patients with mental retardation/developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is difficult owing in large part to the presence of additional comorbidities and the resulting need for polytherapy. Therefore, a nonpharmacological treatment option is needed for this population. This prospective, open-label study documented the long-term outcome of 40 low-IQ (<70) patients living in long-term care facilities who received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Subjects were seen every 1 to 3 months by their neurologist (R.H.). Seizure frequency, antiepileptic medication, and quality-of-life information were documented preimplantation and quarterly thereafter through 2 years. The surgery and therapy were well tolerated. Seizures were reduced by at least 50% for 11 subjects. Antiepileptic medications were reduced from 3.3 per subject at baseline to an average of 2.3 per subject after 2 years. According to caregiver reports, overall quality of life improved for the majority of subjects; also, using the Client Development Evaluation Report (CDER), statistically significant improvements were reported at both 1 and 2 years in attention span, word usage, clarity of speech, standing balance, washing dishes, and household chores. VNS is a viable treatment option for low-IQ patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy who are living in long-term care facilities. PMID:15820352

  10. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  11. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  12. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  13. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  14. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment... interval of the designation period. (b) The 2-year work plan shall be submitted to USDA 45 days prior...

  15. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  16. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  17. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  18. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly. PMID:25015666

  19. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  20. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  1. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  2. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients.

    PubMed

    Daas, M; Assaf, A; Dada, K; Makzoumé, J

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  3. Computer-Guided Implant Surgery in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Immediate Loading of a Full Arch Restoration: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study of 14 Consecutively Treated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Daas, M.; Assaf, A.; Dada, K.; Makzoumé, J.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem. Low scientific evidence is identified in the literature for combining implant placement in fresh extraction sockets with immediate function. Moreover, the few studies available on immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting immediate full-arch rehabilitation clearly lack comprehensive protocols. Purpose. The purpose of this study is to report outcomes of a comprehensive protocol using CAD-CAM technology for surgical planning and fabrication of a surgical template and to demonstrate that immediate function can be easily performed with immediate implants in postextraction sites supporting full-arch rehabilitation. Material and Methods. 14 subjects were consecutively rehabilitated (13 maxillae and 1 mandible) with 99 implants supporting full-arch fixed prostheses followed between 6 and 24 months (mean of 16 months). Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant success, biologic and prosthetic complications, pain, oedema evaluation, and radiographic marginal bone levels at surgery and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. The overall cumulative implant survival rate at mean follow-up time of 16 months was 97.97%. The average marginal bone loss was 0,9 mm. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the results validate this treatment modality for full-arch rehabilitations with predictable outcomes and high survival rate after 2 years. PMID:26064119

  4. Studies of the Lower Ionosphere using Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Egerev, Mikhael N.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Vyakhirev, Valeriy D.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) created in the ionosphere plasma are used for the iono-sphere diagnostics. We present a new applications of API technique for experimental studies of the electron density in the lower ionosphere, atmospheric waves and sporadic E-layers. The applications are based on the new so-called two-frequency method of the API creation. The main results of the ionosphere studies carried out in 2006-2009 by the API technique using SURA heating facility are presented. API are formed in the field of a powerful standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities-Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Λ or the one-half the powerful wavelength λ/2. Ionosphere diagnostics is carried out in the API relaxation (or decay) stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. The two frequency method bases upon the API creation and the scattering of the probe waves from API at two different frequencies i.e., having different spatial periods of the quasi periodic struc-ture. In the E -region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the ionosphere plasma in the field of the powerful wave. Relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The API relaxation time is τ = (K 2 Da )-1 where K = 2π/Λ and Da is the ambipolar diffusion rate. It means that API having different spatial scales destroys with different time scales τ . The API spatial scale depends on the refractive in-dex n that is determined by the electron density N. It is shown the ratio of API relaxation times θ at two frequencies f1 and f2 , measured at the same heights, is connected with the frequencies ratio and the

  5. Myopia Control with a Novel Peripheral Gradient Soft Lens and Orthokeratology: A 2-Year Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pauné, Jaime; Morales, Hari; Armengol, Jesús; Quevedo, Lluisa; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel; González-Méijome, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the degree of axial elongation with soft radial refractive gradient (SRRG) contact lenses, orthokeratology (OK), and single vision (SV) spectacle lenses (control) during a period of 1 year before treatment and 2 years after treatment. Methods. This was a prospective, longitudinal, nonrandomized study. The study groups consisted of 30, 29, and 41 children, respectively. The axial length (AL) was measured during 2 years after recruitment and lens fitting. Results. The baseline refractive sphere was correlated significantly (Spearman's Rho (ρ) correlation = 0.542; P < 0.0001) with the amount of myopia progression before baseline. After 2 years, the mean myopia progression values for the SRRG, OK, and SV groups were −0.56 ± 0.51, −0.32 ± 0.53, and −0.98 ± 0.58 diopter, respectively. The results represent reductions in myopic progression of 43% and 67% for the SRRG and OK groups, respectively, compared to the SV group. The AL increased 27% and 38% less in the SRRG and OK groups, respectively compared with the SV group at the 2-year visit (P < 0.05). Axial elongation was not significantly different between SRRG and OK (P = 0.430). Conclusion. The SRRG lens significantly decreased AL elongation compared to the SV control group. The SRRG lens was similarly effective to OK in preventing myopia progression in myopic children and adolescent. PMID:26605331

  6. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  7. [The paternal constellation: a pilot study in prenatal period.].

    PubMed

    Cupa, D; Riazuelo-Deschamps, H

    2001-01-01

    In a research where the authors had argued that some maternal prenatal representations concerning the infant had a decisive impact on precocious interactions (Cupa et al., 1992), they have asked in parallel, what was the weight on these very same interactions of paternal representations during pregnancy, knowing that in this specific period psychic reorganization of the father are profound (Bouchard-Godard, 1976; Cupa et al., 1997). If, in the intertwining of the two theoretical fields where the authors situate their work, being that of psychoanalysis and developmental psychology, there is a an important literature on the father, results and contribution allow to appreciate the impact of studies on the father during pregnancy and present theoretical points of reference of the authors' hypotheses. The presentation of the following study is that of a comparative longitudinal research carried out from the 7th month of pregnancy to 9 months after birth. It appeared indeed to the authors that in order to explore simultaneously the two representational universes and to observe the effects on the triadic interactions, this type of methodology was the most relevant. The results proposed in the last part, only concern the analysis of paternal representations. PMID:18253593

  8. Triadic Interaction among Newly Acquainted 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Fumiko; Hay, Dale F.

    2006-01-01

    Are children as young as 2 years old able to interact in groups of three? The study applied the family triad model first introduced by Parke, Power, and Gottman (1979) to the case of peer interaction. In Experiment 1, the model was refined for use in studies of peer interaction and applied to an existing dataset of 16 triads of newly acquainted…

  9. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials. PMID:24730675

  10. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  11. Decrease in self-esteem mediates the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression in middle adolescence in a sex-specific manner: a 2-year follow-up of a prospective population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social phobia and depression are common, highly comorbid disorders in middle adolescence. The mechanism underlying this comorbidity, however, is unclear. Decrease in self-esteem caused by the initial disorder might play a decisive role in the development of the subsequent disorder. The present study aimed to determine whether the association between symptoms of social phobia and depression is mediated by decrease in self-esteem in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods As a part of the prospective Adolescent Mental Health Cohort (AMCH), subjects of this study were 9th grade pupils (mean age, 15.5) responding to a survey conducted in 2002–2003 (T1) and to a 2-year follow-up survey in 2004–2005 (T2) (N = 2070, mean age 17.6 years, 54.5% girls). Results Symptoms of social phobia without symptoms of depression at age 15 and symptoms of depression at age 17 were associated only among boys, and this association was mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Symptoms of depression without symptoms of social phobia at age 15 and symptoms of social phobia at age 17 were associated only among girls, and this association was partially mediated by decrease in self-esteem. Conclusions Decrease in self-esteem plays a decisive role in the association between social phobia and depression. Self-esteem should be a key focus in interventions for adolescents suffering from social phobia or depression. Efficient intervention for the first disorder might help to prevent the decline in self-esteem and thus the incidence of the subsequent disorder. These findings are based on a sample of Finnish adolescents and should be confirmed in other jurisdictions or in more ethnically diverse samples. PMID:24641987

  12. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  13. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  14. Association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression, and the effect of depression on outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke in a 2-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian-Tong; Cheng, Chao; Ma, Ying-Jun; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-Chao; Jiang, Chen; Wang, Cheng; Shao, Jun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The association between inflammatory cytokines and the risk of post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association and the effect of PSD on the outcomes of ischemic stroke patients. A total of 355 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke participated in inflammatory cytokine detection by ELISA, in addition to depression, quality of life (QOL) and body performance testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate the associations between PSD risk, inflammatory cytokines and the outcomes of patients. Measurement data was evaluated using Student's t test, and counted data was measured by χ2 test. The incidence of PSD during the 2-year follow-up was 23.1%. The risk of PSD elevated with increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression levels [hazard ratio (HR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37–7.36] following the adjustment of confounders. However, no significant associations were identified between PSD and other inflammatory cytokines. QOL and body performance in the depressed group were significantly worse compared with those in the non-depressed group. The risk of stroke recurrence in patients with depression increased two-fold compared with patients without depression (HR=2.020; 95% CI, 1.123–3.635; Ptrend=0.019). No significant associations between PSD and the risk of mortality (HR=1.497; 95% CI, 0.547–4.098) were observed. In conclusion, depression is prevalent in patients following ischemic stroke. IL-6 is positively associated with the risk of PSD, and may predict its development in patients following ischemic stroke. PSD correlates with outcomes of patients, and the effective management of PSD may improve the prognosis of patients. PMID:27588080

  15. French multicenter phase III randomized study testing concurrent twice-a-day radiotherapy and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (BiRCF) in unresectable pharyngeal carcinoma: Results at 2 years (FNCLCC-GORTEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean . E-mail: rene-jean.bensadoun@nice.fnclcc.fr; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Magne, Nicolas; Poissonnet, Gilles; Ramaioli, Alain; Lemanski, Claire; Bourdin, Sylvain; Tortochaux, Jacques; Peyrade, Frederic; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar; Vallicioni, Jacques; Seng Hang; Alzieu, Claude; Gery, Bernard; Chauvel, Pierre; Schneider, Maurice; Santini, Jose; Demard, Francois; Calais, Gilles

    2006-03-15

    Background: Unresectable carcinomas of the oropharynx and hypopharynx still have a poor long-term prognosis. Following a previous phase II study, this phase III multicenter trial was conducted between November 1997 and March 2002. Methods: Nontreated, strictly unresectable cases were eligible. Twice-daily radiation: two fractions of 1.2 Gy/day, 5 days per week, with no split (D1{sup {yields}}D46). Total tumor doses: 80.4 Gy/46 day (oropharynx), 75.6 Gy/44 day (hypopharynx). Chemotherapy (arm B): Cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} (D1, D22, D43); 5FU, continuous infusion (D1{sup {yields}}D5), 750 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycle 1; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day cycles 2 and 3. Results: A total of 163 evaluable patients. Grade 3-4 acute mucositis 82.6% arm B/69.5% arm A (NS); Grade 3-4 neutropenia 33.3% arm B/2.4% arm A (p < 0.05). Enteral nutrition through gastrostomy tube was more frequent in arm B before treatment and at 6 months (p < 0.01). At 24 months, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and specific survival (SS) were significantly better in arm B. OS: 37.8% arm B vs. 20.1% arm A (p = 0.038); DFS: 48.2% vs. 25.2% (p = 0.002); SS: 44.5% vs. 30.2% (p 0.021). No significant difference between the two arms in the amount of side effects at 1 and 2 years. Conclusion: For these unresectable cases, chemoradiation provides better outcome than radiation alone, even with an 'aggressive' dose-intensity radiotherapy schedule.

  16. A minimum 2-year comparative study of autologous cancellous bone grafting versus beta-tricalcium phosphate in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Toru; Naito, Kentaro; Arima, Hironori; Yoshimura, Masaki; Ohata, Kenji; Takami, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Although titanium stand-alone cages are commonly used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there are several concerns such as cage subsidence after surgery. The efficacy of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules as a packing material in 1- or 2-level ACDF using a rectangular titanium stand-alone cage is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP. This retrospective study included 55 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with autologous iliac cancellous bone grafting and 45 consecutive patients with β-TCP grafting. All patients completed at least 2-year postoperative follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between study variables and nonunion after surgery. Significant neurological recovery after surgery was obtained in both groups. Cage subsidence was noted in 14 of 72 cages (19.4 %) in the autograft group and 12 of 64 cages (18.8 %) in the β-TCP group. A total of 66 cages (91.7 %) in the autograft group showed osseous or partial union, and 58 cages (90.6 %) in the β-TCP group showed osseous or partial union by 2 years after surgery. There were no significant differences in cage subsidence and the bony fusion rate between the two groups. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model showed that fusion level at C6/7, 2-level fusion, and cage subsidence of grades 2-3 were significantly associated with nonunion at 2 years after surgery. Although an acceptable surgical outcome with negligible complication appears to justify the use of rectangular titanium stand-alone cages in 1- and 2-level ACDF with β-TCP, cage subsidence after surgery needs to be avoided to achieve acceptable bony fusion at the fused segments. Fusion level at C6/7 or 2-level fusion may be another risk factor of nonunion. PMID:27098659

  17. a Comparative Study of Sfxts and Long-Period Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Super-giant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), composed of super-giant stars and highly magnetized neutron stars, are characterized by a rather low luminosity in quiescence and very drastic flares. However, these features are also observed, at least to some extent, from other types of HMXBs, including in particular binary pulsars with long pulse periods (>1000 sec). Through wide-band spectroscopy with Suzaku, we aim at a comparison between SFXTs and long-period pulsars, with particular emphasis on the possibility that both have strong magnetic fields. So far, several SFXTs were observed with Suzaku, including IGR J16195-4945 in particular. We re-analyze the archival Suzaku data of this object, obtained on 2006 September 20 for 39 ksec. As reported by Morris et al. (2009), a prominent flare lasting for 10 ksec was recorded in the XIS (1- 10 keV) and HXD (12 - 40 keV) data. We found that the absorbing column density remained the same within ~10 % during the flare. Moreover, the flare was accompanied by weakening or broadening of the fluorescent Fe-K line. These results are inconsistent with the popular SFXT scenario that clumpy stellar winds occur flares. Instead, they prefer an alternative scenario of ``magnetic gating", which assumes the neutron star like magnetars Using Suzaku, we also analyzed the long-period pulsar 4U0114+65 on 2011 July 11 for 100 ksec. The XIS and the HXD detected clear flaring behavior. the known period of ˜10,000 sec which is indicative of strong magnetic field like magnetars was observed. We obtained spectra, with a clear fluorescent Fe-K line, over a very broad (1-100 keV) band From these results, we compare properties of SFXTs and long period pulsars, and discuss their possible relations to magnetars.

  18. Optical Studies of 20 Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Peters, Christopher S.; Skinner, Julie N.

    2010-11-01

    We obtained time-series radial-velocity spectroscopy of 20 cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods Porb. All of the stars reported here prove to have Porb > 3.5 h. For 16 of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51), we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncrasies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 days) V344 Ori (0.234 days) VZ Sex (0.149 days) NSVS 1057 + 09 (0.376 days) V478 Her (0.629 days) V1059 Sgr (0.286 days) V1082 Sgr (0.868 days) FO Aql (0.217 days) V587 Lyr (0.275 days) V792 Cyg (0.297 days) V795 Cyg (0.181 days) V811 Cyg (0.157 days) V542 Cyg (0.182 days) PQ Aql (0.247 days) V516 Cyg (0.171 days) and VZ Aqr (0.161 days). Noteworthy results on individual stars are as follows. We see no indication of the underlying white dwarf star in V709 Cas, as has been previously claimed; based on the nondetection of the secondary star, we argue that the system is farther away that had been thought and the white dwarf contribution is probably negligible. V478 Her had been classified as an SU UMa-type dwarf nova, but this is incompatible with the long orbital period we find. We report the first secondary-star velocity curve for V1062 Tau. In V542 Cyg, we find a late-type contribution that remains stationary in radial velocity, yet the system is unresolved in a direct image, suggesting that it is a hierarchical triple system. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A single fiber electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, D; Fiaschi, A; Tomelleri, G; Orrico, D

    1978-06-01

    The neurophysiological findings obtained with standard electromyography (EMG) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG) in a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HoPP) are reported. During the period between paralytic attacks the only abnormalities consisted of scanty fibrillation potentials and, with SFEMG, a fiber density increase. In the first stage of an induced paralytic attack the most striking feature was decrease in fiber density, slight increase in jitter with several blocks. These results indicate a failure of the membrane surface to propagate an action potential. In some fibers the block is likely to be permanent, thus explaining the decrease in fiber density. The jitter increase is due to a slight abnormality at the synaptic site or to a variation in the propagation velocity of the muscle fiber. PMID:690662

  20. Mapping Longitudinal Development of Local Cortical Gyrification in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E.; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood. PMID:24647943

  1. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  2. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  3. Treatment of a Circadian Rhythm Disturbance in a 2-Year-Old Blind Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindell, J. A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of sleep scheduling and a daytime routine for the treatment of circadian rhythm disorder was found helpful in decreasing a blind 2-year old's nighttime wake periods and daytime sleepiness. (DB)

  4. Admission to psychiatric hospital in the early and late postpartum periods: Scottish national linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Langan Martin, Julie; McLean, Gary; Cantwell, Roch; Smith, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe weekly admission rates for affective and non-affective psychosis, major depression and other psychiatric disorders in the early and late postpartum periods. To assess the impact of socioeconomic status, age and parity on admission rates. Methods Scottish maternity records were linked to psychiatric hospital admissions. 3290 pregnancy-related psychiatric admissions were assessed. Weekly admission rates were calculated for the pregnancy period, early postpartum period (6 weeks after birth) and late postpartum period (up to 2 years after birth), and compared with pre-pregnancy rates (up to 2 years before pregnancy). Admission rates were generated by calculating the total number of admissions for each time period divided by the number of weeks in the period. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were generated for each time period, using deprivation, age, parity and record of previous psychiatric hospital care-adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Women from more deprived social quintiles accounted for the largest proportion of admissions across all time periods. Compared with pre-pregnancy period, admission rates fell during pregnancy, increased markedly during the early postpartum period, and remained elevated for 2 years after childbirth. Within the most affluent quintile, admission IRRs were higher in the early postpartum period (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.59) than in the late postpartum period (IRR=0.87, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98). For the late postpartum period, there was a positive association between higher maternal age and admission IRRs (ages 20–35 years, IRR=1.35, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54 and age>40 years IRR=1.72, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.09). Conclusions Rates of psychiatric admission fell during pregnancy and increased in the early postpartum period (particularly during the first 2 weeks after birth), and remained elevated above baseline during the 2-year late postpartum period. An understanding of how social deprivation, age and parity

  5. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  6. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  7. A Study of Periodical Literature Searching at an Urban Research Library: Problems and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    Patron use of periodical indexes at an urban academic research library was studied over a 7-week period in the summer of 1982. A total of 98 patrons were interviewed on a random basis as they used various periodical and newspaper indexes. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on citation elements, the methods patrons use to locate…

  8. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  9. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Nduati, Eunice W; Nkumama, Irene N; Gambo, Faith K; Muema, Daniel M; Knight, Miguel G; Hassan, Amin S; Jahangir, Margaret N; Etyang, Timothy J; Berkley, James A; Urban, Britta C

    2016-07-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected. PMID:27170641

  10. The association of maternal vitamin D status with infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity in the first 2 years of life in a multi-ethnic Asian population: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Yi Lin; Quah, Phaik Ling; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling Wei; van Dam, Rob M; Heppe, Denise; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Foong-Fong Chong, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with infant birth and postnatal growth outcomes, but reported findings have been inconsistent, especially in relation to postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes. In a mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, maternal plasma vitamin D was measured between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation, and anthropometric measurements were obtained from singleton offspring during the first 2 years of life with 3-month follow-up intervals to examine birth, growth and adiposity outcomes. Associations were analysed using multivariable linear regression. Of a total of 910 mothers, 13·2 % were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) and 26·5 % were insufficient (50-75 nmol/l). After adjustment for potential confounders and multiple testing, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal vitamin D status and any of the birth outcomes - small for gestational age (OR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·56, 1·79) and pre-term birth (OR 1·16; 95 % CI 0·64, 2·11) - growth outcomes - weight-for-age z-scores, length-for-age z-scores, circumferences of the head, abdomen and mid-arm at birth or postnatally - and adiposity outcomes - BMI, and skinfold thickness (triceps, biceps and subscapular) at birth or postnatally. Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy did not influence infant birth outcomes, postnatal growth and adiposity outcomes in this cohort, perhaps due to the low prevalence (1·6 % of the cohort) of severe maternal vitamin D deficiency (defined as of <30·0 nmol/l) in our population. PMID:27339329

  11. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants Show Robust Memory B-Cell Responses in Spite of a Delayed Accumulation of Memory B Cells: an Observational Study in the First 2 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Nkumama, Irene N.; Gambo, Faith K.; Muema, Daniel M.; Hassan, Amin S.; Jahangir, Margaret N.; Etyang, Timothy J.; Berkley, James A.; Urban, Britta C.

    2016-01-01

    Improved HIV care has led to an increase in the number of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected women. Although they are uninfected, these infants experience increased morbidity and mortality. One explanation may be that their developing immune system is altered by HIV exposure, predisposing them to increased postnatal infections. We explored the impact of HIV exposure on the B-cell compartment by determining the B-cell subset distribution, the frequency of common vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells (MBCs), and the levels of antibodies to the respective antigens in HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants born to uninfected mothers, using flow cytometry, a B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, during the first 2 years of life. For the majority of the B-cell subsets, there were no differences between HEU and HUU infants. However, HIV exposure was associated with a lower proportion of B cells in general and MBCs in particular, largely due to a lower proportion of unswitched memory B cells. This reduction was maintained even after correcting for age. These phenotypic differences in the MBC compartment did not affect the ability of HEU infants to generate recall responses to previously encountered antigens or reduce the antigen-specific antibody levels at 18 months of life. Although HIV exposure was associated with a transient reduction in the proportion of MBCs, we found that the ability of HEU infants to mount robust MBC and serological responses was unaffected. PMID:27170641

  12. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  13. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  14. Chief Student Affairs Officers in 2-Year Colleges: Their Demographics and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine demographics and educational backgrounds of chief student affairs officers (CSAOs) in public 2-year colleges. Using systematic sampling techniques, 300 2-year colleges were selected from the AACC Membership Directory for inclusion in the study. Each college's website was visited to determine the name of…

  15. Exenatide once weekly treatment maintained improvements in glycemic control and weight loss over 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    population. Nausea (predominantly mild in intensity) was the most common adverse event, although the frequency and intensity of nausea decreased over time. No severe hypoglycemia was observed. Conclusions Exenatide QW was well tolerated during the 2-year treatment period. This study demonstrated sustained glucose control and weight loss throughout 2 years of treatment with exenatide QW. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00308139 PMID:21529363

  16. Period Studies of 79 Eccentric Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K.; Kang, Y. W.; Lee, C.-U.

    2014-08-01

    We present period studies for seventy-nine eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud. New times of minimum light were derived from the data obtained by the EROS, OGLE-II and OGLE-III surveys. Nineteen stars of the seventy-nine stars show period variation were confirmed. All of the systems were studied by means of an O-C diagram analyses. Nine systems show apsidal motion, six systems show parabola, and four systems show sinusoidal period variations, respectively.

  17. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. PMID:26865423

  18. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  19. Reactions Following Completion of 1 and 2 Year Multidrug Therapy (MDT)

    PubMed Central

    Balagon, Ma. Victoria F.; Gelber, Robert H.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Cellona, Roland V.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence, severity, and duration of reactional states in 139 multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients in the first 2 years after the completion of the 1 year regimen of multidrug therapy (MDT) currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and compared those findings with 295 MB leprosy patients treated with the same regimen previously recommended for 2 years. During the first year after the completion of 1 year MDT, patients experienced 1 or more reactional states 27% of the time, the vast majority being lepra type 1 reactions (reversal reactions, RR), whereas patients who received 2 year MDT experienced a reactional state during that time period only 8% of the time (P < 0.001). Furthermore, during the first year after the completion of therapy, and during the first 2 years, both the number of reactional states and reversal reactions were significantly (P ≤ 0.004) more frequent, severe, of longer duration, and more commonly associated with neuritis. PMID:20810832

  20. Radiostereometric migration analysis of the Cerafit femoral stem: 28 patients followed for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Tschunko, Franz; Wagner, Benedikt; Hong, Yutong; Söder, Stephan; Wölfel, Rainer; Müller, Lutz A; Forst, Raimund; Sesselmann, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard evaluating micromovements after total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to investigate the migratory pattern of an uncemented femoral stem during the first 2 years after surgery. We followed 28 patients with a mean age of 57 (SD 13) years for the first two postoperative years. Radiostereometric analysis was used to measure the translation and rotation of the femoral component. The Harris hip score (HHS) was determined to evaluate the clinical outcome. No stem had to be revised. The mean HHS advanced from 35 (SD 11) preoperative to 89 (SD 10) 1 year after surgery. At the end of the observation period, mean subsidence of the stem was 0.26 mm (SD 0.82). Maximum total point motion (MTPM) was 1.23 mm (SD 1.22). The main distal migration took place up to 6 weeks after surgery with nearly no further subsidence up to 2 years postoperatively. All the measured migrations of the hip stem were very small. Results of the HHS demonstrate good clinical outcome. Long-term RSA is necessary to assess possible late migration of the Cerafit standard femoral stem. PMID:25996482

  1. Translating theory into practice: results of a 2-year trial for the LEAD programme.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents data for 2 years of a continuing study aimed to reduce the risk of first-time involvement by minority youth with the juvenile justice system. A quasi-experimental design was used to test a 14-week expressive art curriculum (LEAD: leadership, education, achievement and development) implemented in two rural communities. A total of 70 African American youth participated in the programme over a 2-year period. Pre- and post-test differences were examined for protective factors, behavioural self-control, self-esteem and resilience measures. When compared with the after-school programme (control group), youth in the LEAD programme in both communities had more dramatic increases in post-test scores following the intervention. The combined data from year 1 and year 2 provide positive findings in support of LEAD as a prevention programme for young offenders. The placement of the programme within an African American church in year 2 improved the processes of the LEAD programme and seemed to provide a better fit with the original design of the programme, highlighting the importance of the context, in which the programme was provided. PMID:18387150

  2. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  3. Rapid fast-mapping abilities in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Chad; Halberda, Justin

    2011-05-01

    Learning a new word consists of two primary tasks that have often been conflated into a single process: referent selection, in which a child must determine the correct referent of a novel label, and referent retention, which is the ability to store this newly formed label-object mapping in memory for later use. In addition, children must be capable of performing these tasks rapidly and repeatedly as they are frequently exposed to novel words during the course of natural conversation. Here we used a preferential pointing task to investigate 2-year-olds' (N=72) ability to infer the referent of a novel noun from a single ambiguous exposure and their ability to retain this mapping over time. Children were asked to identify the referent of a novel label on six critical trials distributed throughout the course of a 10-min study involving many familiar and novel objects. On these critical trials, images of a known object and a novel object (e.g., a ball and a nameless artifact constructed in the laboratory) appeared on two computer screens and a voice asked children to "point at the _____ [e.g., glark]." Following label onset, children were allowed only 3s during which to infer the correct referent, point at it, and potentially store this new word-object mapping. In a final posttest trial, all previously labeled novel objects appeared and children were asked to point to one of them (e.g., "Can you find the glark?"). To succeed, children needed to have initially mapped the novel labels correctly and retained these mappings over the course of the study. Despite the difficult demands of the current task, children successfully identified the target object on the retention trial. We conclude that 2-year-olds are able to fast map novel nouns during a brief single exposure under ambiguous labeling conditions. PMID:21145067

  4. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A A A Text Size ... Following simple instructions? Saying a few words? Combining two words by age 2? The doctor may ask ...

  5. The MAL-ED study: a multinational and multidisciplinary approach to understand the relationship between enteric pathogens, malnutrition, gut physiology, physical growth, cognitive development, and immune responses in infants and children up to 2 years of age in resource-poor environments.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Highly prevalent conditions with multiple and complex underlying etiologies are a challenge to public health. Undernutrition, for example, affects 20% of children in the developing world. The cause and consequence of poor nutrition are multifaceted. Undernutrition has been associated with half of all deaths worldwide in children aged <5 years; in addition, its pernicious long-term effects in early childhood have been associated with cognitive and physical growth deficits across multiple generations and have been thought to suppress immunity to further infections and to reduce the efficacy of childhood vaccines. The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study, led by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, has been established at sites in 8 countries with historically high incidence of diarrheal disease and undernutrition. Central to the study is the hypothesis that enteropathogen infection contributes to undernutrition by causing intestinal inflammation and/or by altering intestinal barrier and absorptive function. It is further postulated that this leads to growth faltering and deficits in cognitive development. The effects of repeated enteric infection and undernutrition on the immune response to childhood vaccines is also being examined in the study. MAL-ED uses a prospective longitudinal design that offers a unique opportunity to directly address a complex system of exposures and health outcomes in the community-rather than the relatively rarer circumstances that lead to hospitalization-during the critical period of development of the first 2 years of life. Among the factors being evaluated are enteric infections (with or without diarrhea) and other illness indicators, micronutrient levels, diet, socioeconomic status, gut function, and the environment. MAL-ED aims to describe these

  6. Efficacy and safety of dutasteride, tamsulosin and their combination in a subpopulation of the CombAT study: 2-year results in Asian men with moderate-to-severe BPH.

    PubMed

    Chung, B-H; Roehrborn, C G; Siami, P; Major-Walker, K; Morrill, B B; Wilson, T H; Montorsi, F

    2009-01-01

    Although ethnicity-based differences in prostate size and physiology have been reported, results of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment trials in predominantly Caucasian patients are assumed to be applicable to non-Caucasian populations. This post hoc analysis investigated whether an Asian subpopulation of men with moderate-to-severe BPH in the CombAT study achieves treatment responses in line with those of the overall study population. In this double-blind, randomized, parallel-group trial, 325 Asian men were assigned to treatment with 0.5 mg dutasteride once daily, 0.4 mg tamsulosin once daily or the combination. Decrease in international prostate symptom score (IPSS) at month 24 from baseline (the primary endpoint) was significantly greater with combination treatment compared with tamsulosin (P<0.05), and numerically, but not statistically significantly, greater compared with dutasteride. Mean IPSS was reduced from baseline by 7.5 (+/-0.84) in the combination group, by 6.3 (+/-0.86) in the dutasteride group and by 4.5 (+/-0.78) in the tamsulosin group, resulting in respective mean IPSS at months 24 of 11.4 (+/-0.60), 12.7 (+/-0.70) and 14.3 (+/-0.74). The adverse event profile was similar to that observed in the overall CombAT population, and drug-related adverse events were more common with combination therapy (26%) than with tamsulosin (15%) or dutasteride (9%). No unexpected adverse events emerged. In conclusion, in Asian men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms and an enlarged prostate, combination therapy achieved significantly greater improvements from baseline BPH symptoms, flow rate, quality of life, reduced prostate volume and improved treatment satisfaction compared with tamsulosin monotherapy. PMID:18813219

  7. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Tolerability of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Followed by 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Aged ≥2 Years: An Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Ljungman, Per; Juergens, Christine; Maertens, Johan; Selleslag, Dominik; Sundaraiyer, Vani; Giardina, Peter C.; Clarke, Keri; Gruber, William C.; Scott, Daniel A.; Schmoele-Thoma, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Life-threatening Streptococcus pneumoniae infections often occur after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); vaccination is important for prevention. Methods. In an open-label study, patients (n = 251) 3–6 months after allogeneic HSCT received 3 doses of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) at 1-month intervals, a fourth dose 6 months later, and 1 dose of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) 1 month later. Immunogenicity at prespecified time points and vaccine safety were assessed. Results. In the evaluable immunogenicity population (N = 216; mean age, 37.8 years), geometric mean fold rises (GMFRs) of immunoglobulin G geometric mean concentrations from baseline to postdose 3 showed significant increases in antibody levels across all PCV13 serotypes (GMFR range, 2.99–23.85; 95% confidence interval lower limit, >1); there were significant declines over the next 6 months, significant increases from predose 4 to postdose 4 (GMFR range, 3.00–6.97), and little change after PPSV23 (GMFR range, 0.86–1.12). Local and systemic reactions were more frequent after dose 4. Six patients experienced serious adverse events possibly related to PCV13 (facial diplegia, injection-site erythema and pyrexia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and suspected lack of vaccine efficacy after dose 3 leading to pneumococcal infection), PCV13 and PPSV23 (Guillain-Barré syndrome), or PPSV23 (cellulitis). There were 14 deaths, none related to study vaccines. Conclusions. A 3-dose PCV13 regimen followed by a booster dose may be required to protect against pneumococcal disease in HSCT recipients. Dose 4 was associated with increased local and systemic reactions, but the overall safety profile of a 4-dose regimen was considered acceptable. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00980655. PMID:25870329

  8. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  9. The content of family practice: a family medicine resident's 2 1/2-year experience with the E-book.

    PubMed

    Shank, J C

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the content of office family practice problems seen over a 2 1/2-year residency period and to afford comparison with the well-known Virginia Study. It illustrates the usefulness of the diagnostic E-Book, with which all the data were collected and preserved. Over a 2 1/2-year period, the author cared for 592 patients in the family practice office. The ratio of one physician to 592 patients compares to the Virginia Study's one physician to approximately 745 patients. A total of 1,640 problems were coded in the E-Book. In this study 55 problems/physician/month were seen, whereas in the Virginia Study approximately 177 problems/physician/month were noted. Respiratory illnesses were the most common diagnostic category in both studies. Among specific problems, obesity ranked first at Hershey, with afebrile colds second, hypertension and Beta streptococcal pharyngitis third, and smoking fourth. Obesity and smoking were ranked considerably lower in the Virginia Study, whereas "health maintenance examinations" were ranked number one. Finally, for age-sex practice profiles, the present data revealed two peak age groups for both sexes, whereas the Virginia work noted only one peak age range. PMID:903750

  10. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    PubMed Central

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential. PMID:26644677

  11. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  12. Pore-network study of the characteristic periods in the drying of porous materials.

    PubMed

    Yiotis, Andreas G; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Yortsos, Yannis C

    2006-05-15

    We study the periods that develop in the drying of capillary porous media, particularly the constant rate (CRP) and the falling rate (FRP) periods. Drying is simulated with a 3-D pore-network model that accounts for the effect of capillarity and buoyancy at the liquid-gas interface and for diffusion through the porous material and through a boundary layer over the external surface of the material. We focus on the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of gravity on the shape of the drying curve and the relative extent of the various drying periods. The extents of CRP and FRP are directly associated with various transition points of the percolation theory, such as the breakthrough point and the main liquid cluster disconnection point. Our study demonstrates that when an external diffusive layer is present, the constant rate period is longer. PMID:16359693

  13. Environmental Modifications and 2-Year Measured and Self-reported Stair-Use: A Worksite Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Cousins, Julie M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental modifications have been shown to increase short-term stair use, longer-term success is unclear. This study assessed the 2-year effectiveness of an environmental intervention promoting worksite stair use. We assessed stair use at work by means of self-reports and infrared beam counters (which send a safe and invisible beam of infrared light from one side of a stairwell to a reflector on the other side; when an individual uses the stairs, the infrared beam is disrupted and an instance of stair use is recorded) at six worksites (three intervention, three control) in a group randomized, controlled worksite weight-gain prevention trial in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. Intervention modifications were signs encouraging stair use, music, and art posters in stairwells. We collected data before environmental modifications (2006–2007) and at the end of the 2-year intervention (2008–2009). The intervention had a significant positive effect on stair use measured both objectively and via self-report, with greatest increases reported among those participants who used the stairs least at baseline. Following 2-years of continuously-maintained stairwell modifications, increases in both objectively-measured and self-reported stair use were significantly larger at intervention than control worksites. Study findings suggest that the positive impact of environmental modifications on stair use persist over a longer time period than has been previously demonstrated. Results also indicate that infrequent stair users may be most amenable to the behavior changes encouraged by these environmental enhancements. PMID:23979097

  14. Patterns of fatigue and its correlates over the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bushnik, Tamara; Englander, Jeffrey; Wright, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    This study used a prospective longitudinal design to quantify fatigue and associated factors during the first 2 years after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-one individuals were assessed at 3 time points: within the first 6, 12, and 18-24 months after TBI. Self-reported fatigue improved during the first year, as did pain, sleep quality, cognitive independence, and involvement in productive activity. Further changes up to 2 years after TBI were not observed. The subset of individuals who reported significant increases in fatigue over the first 2 years demonstrated poorer outcomes in cognition, motor symptoms, and general functioning than those with decreased or stable fatigue. PMID:18219232

  15. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  16. Complete Traumatic Separation of Proximal Femoral Epiphysis in A 2 Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Pulkesh; Gaurav, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hip fractures are very common in adults, but are rare in children, comprising less than 1% of all pediatric fractures. Separation of the proximal femoral epiphysis can occur in a child with a traumatic hip dislocation and an open epiphysis. Regardless of the mechanism of proximal femoral epiphyseal separation, the prognosis is poor secondary to the development of osteonecrosis. Case Report: Here we are reporting a case of complete separation of the proximal epiphysis of the femur in a 2 year old female child. She was treated by open reduction and internal fixation by a single k-wire of proximal femoral epiphysis. Regular follow up showed fusion of proximal femoral epiphysis at about 3 months of post operative period. After 8 months of follow up she can stand and walk without support. Long term outcome is awaited. Conclusion: Traumatic separation of the proximal femoral epiphysis is a rare but devastating injury because osteonecrosis occurs in most cases. In our study we found fusion of the proximal femoral epiphysis to the neck after 3 months of postoperative period. But to comment upon the final outcome a long follow up is awaited.

  17. Cost and Schedule Analytical Techniques Development: Option 2 Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the activities performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Option 2 Year from December 1, 1996 through November 30, 1997. The Final Report is in compliance with Paragraph 5 of Section F of the contract. This CSATD contract provides products and deliverable in the form of models, data bases, methodologies, studies and analyses for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Engineering Cost Office (PPO3) the Program Plans and Requirements Officer (PP02), and other user organizations. Detailed Monthly Progress reports were submitted to MSFC in accordance with the contract's Statement of Work, Section TV "Reporting and Documentation". These reports spelled out each month's specific work accomplishments, deliverables submitted, major meetings held, and other pertinent information. This Final Report will summarize these activities at higher level. During this contract Option Year, SAIC expended 29,830 man-hours in tile performance of tasks called out in the Statement of Work and reported oil in this yearly Final Report. This represents approximately 16 full-time EPs. Included are the basis Huntsville-based team, plus SAIC specialists in San Diego, Ames Research Center, Chicago, and Colorado Springs performing specific tasks for which they are uniquely qualified.

  18. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  19. [Arthroplasty of the cervical disks using artificial prodisc C(tm) in 54 patients with 2-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Sukhomel, P; Byval'tsev, V A

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study was to analyze results of arthroplasty using artificial discs Prodisc C(tm) ("Synthes, Inc., Paoli, PA) during a 2-year period. 54 patients with degenerative cervical disk disease were included in the study. 65 artificial disks Prodisc C(tm) were implanted. Results were assessed by neurological examination, neuroradiological techniques and Neck Disability Index (NDI). Significance of differences in parameters was evaluated using Student and Fischer tests (p < 0.05). Results of treatment were the following parameters: timing of surgery--82 minutes, blood loss--81 ml, hospital stay--4 days. Significant decrease of frequency and intensity of pain in cervical spine and upper extremities was observed after surgery (according to Visual Analog Scale (VAS) data). VAS assessment revealed discovered reduction of cervical pain severity from 4.5 to 2.8 points and its frequency from 6.1 to 3.2 points, and intensity of pain in arms decreased from 5.6 to 2.5 points while frequency changed from 7.0 to 2.7 points. 2-year of postoperative follow-up discovered decrease of NDI from 32 to 22. Full preservation of movement range in operated segments after 2 years was observed in 76.9% patients, stage 0, I and II limitation of movements--in 15.4%, absence of movements (stage IV)--in 7.7% (p < 0.05). Spontaneous heterotopy of bone tissue after implantation of artificial disks was encountered in 61.5% cases (stages I-IV) (p < 0.05). 2 intraoperative complications (splitting of vertebral body during insertion of implant) occurred. Arthroplasty using artificial disks Prodisc C(tm) is a perspective innovation of modem spinal surgery. Analysis of results of treatment during 2-year follow-up demonstrates necessity of further investigations in this area of neurosurgery. PMID:19062591

  20. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  1. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  2. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  3. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  5. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  6. Quasiperiodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Kozlovsky, A. E.; Pasmanik, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on 24 December 2011 during the VLF campaign in northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1-10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 h we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6-9 s for frequencies 1.2-4 kHz, respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers. In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with shorter periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and quasi-linear effects related to the modification of the energetic electron distribution function. It allows us to observe the transition from purely linear to quasi-linear regime of wave

  7. Spatial Patterns, Longitudinal Development, and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cortical Thickness in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-06-17

    Cortical thickness (CT) is related to normal development and neurodevelopmental disorders. It remains largely unclear how the characteristic patterns of CT evolve in the first 2 years. In this paper, we systematically characterized for the first time the detailed vertex-wise patterns of spatial distribution, longitudinal development, and hemispheric asymmetries of CT at 0, 1, and 2 years of age, via surface-based analysis of 219 longitudinal magnetic resonance images from 73 infants. Despite the dynamic increase of CT in the first year and the little change of CT in the second year, we found that the overall spatial distribution of thin and thick cortices was largely present at birth, and evolved only modestly during the first 2 years. Specifically, the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, occipital cortex, and superior parietal region had thin cortices, whereas the prefrontal, lateral temporal, insula, and inferior parietal regions had thick cortices. We revealed that in the first year thin cortices exhibited low growth rates of CT, whereas thick cortices exhibited high growth rates. We also found that gyri were thicker than sulci, and that the anterior bank of the central sulcus was thicker than the posterior bank. Moreover, we showed rightward hemispheric asymmetries of CT in the lateral temporal and posterior insula regions at birth, which shrank gradually in the first 2 years, and also leftward asymmetries in the medial prefrontal, paracentral, and anterior cingulate cortices, which expanded substantially during this period. This study provides the first comprehensive picture of early patterns and evolution of CT during infancy. PMID:26085637

  8. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  9. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  10. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  11. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  12. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K.; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Methods Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Results Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0–77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0–47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P < 0.001; during sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). Conclusion In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. PMID:25037838

  13. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    McKinlay, Christopher J.D.; Alsweiler, Jane M.; Ansell, Judith M.; Anstice, Nicola S.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D.; Harris, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Results Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, <47 mg per deciliter). Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P = 0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P = 0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. Conclusions In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  14. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years. PMID:22007002

  15. 75 FR 77958 - Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2010-30554, published on December 7, 2010, at 75 FR 76082, make the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Gravesite Reservation Survey (2 Year); Correction AGENCY: National Cemetery...

  16. Childhood Bereavement: Psychopathology in the 2 Years Postparental Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Fristad, Mary A.; Verducci, Joseph; Weller, Ronald A.; Weller, Elizabeth B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the death of a parent is one of the most significant stressors a child can experience, the psychiatric sequelae of parental death are not fully understood. Method: A total of 360 parent-bereaved children (ages 6-17) and their surviving parents were directly interviewed four times during the first 2 years following the death (at…

  17. Detection of Flare Stars in TAOS 2-year Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C.; Byun, Y.-I.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Wang, J.-H.; King, S.-K.; Wen, C. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Bianco, F. B.; Coehlo, N. K.; Mondal, S.; Axelrod, T.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S. Y.

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed 2 years of data from the Taiwan-American Occultation Survey (TAOS, Lehner et al. 2009), accumulated during 2005 and 2006, and found 3 flare stars. All of them are known x-ray sources. Among the detected flare stars, 1RXS J044712.8+203809 shows three recurrences of flare events within a month.

  18. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  19. Study of modeling aspects of long period fiber grating using three-layer fiber geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The author studied and demonstrated the various modeling aspects of long period fiber grating (LPFG) such as the core effective index, cladding effective index, coupling coefficient, coupled mode theory, and transmission spectrum of the LPFG using three-layer fiber geometry. Actually, there are two different techniques used for theoretical modeling of the long period fiber grating. The first technique was used by Vengsarkar et al who described the phenomenon of long-period fiber gratings, and the second technique was reported by Erdogan who revealed the inaccuracies and shortcomings of the original method, thereby providing an accurate and updated alternative. The main difference between these two different approaches lies in their fiber geometry. Venserkar et al used two-layer fiber geometry which is simple but employs weakly guided approximation, whereas Erdogan used three-layer fiber geometry which is complex but also the most accurate technique for theoretical study of the LPFG. The author further discussed about the behavior of the transmission spectrum by altering different grating parameters such as the grating length, ultraviolet (UV) induced-index change, and grating period to achieve the desired flexibility. The author simulated the various results with the help of MATLAB.

  20. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  1. FORGE Canada Consortium: outcomes of a 2-year national rare-disease gene-discovery project.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Chandree L; Majewski, Jacek; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Samuels, Mark E; Fernandez, Bridget A; Bernier, Francois P; Brudno, Michael; Knoppers, Bartha; Marcadier, Janet; Dyment, David; Adam, Shelin; Bulman, Dennis E; Jones, Steve J M; Avard, Denise; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Rousseau, Francois; Marshall, Christian; Wintle, Richard F; Shen, Yaoqing; Scherer, Stephen W; Friedman, Jan M; Michaud, Jacques L; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-06-01

    Inherited monogenic disease has an enormous impact on the well-being of children and their families. Over half of the children living with one of these conditions are without a molecular diagnosis because of the rarity of the disease, the marked clinical heterogeneity, and the reality that there are thousands of rare diseases for which causative mutations have yet to be identified. It is in this context that in 2010 a Canadian consortium was formed to rapidly identify mutations causing a wide spectrum of pediatric-onset rare diseases by using whole-exome sequencing. The FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium brought together clinicians and scientists from 21 genetics centers and three science and technology innovation centers from across Canada. From nation-wide requests for proposals, 264 disorders were selected for study from the 371 submitted; disease-causing variants (including in 67 genes not previously associated with human disease; 41 of these have been genetically or functionally validated, and 26 are currently under study) were identified for 146 disorders over a 2-year period. Here, we present our experience with four strategies employed for gene discovery and discuss FORGE's impact in a number of realms, from clinical diagnostics to the broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of many diseases to the biological insight gained into both disease states and normal human development. Lastly, on the basis of this experience, we discuss the way forward for rare-disease genetic discovery both in Canada and internationally. PMID:24906018

  2. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  3. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  4. A Study of the Shortest-period Planets Found with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; El Mellah, Ileyk

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R ⊕, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  5. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  6. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R. A.

    1995-09-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos.

  7. A study on characteristics of Methane emission from a periodically irrigated paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikuromaru, N.; Iwata, T.; Yagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in the anaerobic soil. Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia. It is said that about 10% of CH4sources is paddy fields (IPCC AR4, 2007). In this study, methane emission from a single-rice crop field was estimated by long-term micrometeorological measurements. Methane emission was calculated by the aerodynamic gradient technique from January 2011 to August 2014. Intermittent water management was carried out during cultivation period at the observational site, HCH, located in Okayama, Japan. 3-days flood and 4-days drained condition were regularly repeated from late-June to early October. Seasonal variations of CH4flux for irrigation term from 2011 to 2013 were shown in Fig.1. Remarkably large fluxes were shown at early stage of irrigation term in 2011.It seemed to be caused by the relatively longer flooded condition that the first flooded period was 20 days. Flux in 2012 was smaller than in other year through the entire irrigation period. Rapid rise in flux for early August and gradual decrease between late August and September were shown in 2013. Fluxes under drained condition showed larger emission than under flooded condition. Cumulative CH4 emissions during cultivated period from 2011 to 2013 were estimated 15.7, 8.6, and 12.9 gC/m2, respectively.

  8. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  9. Statistical study on magnetotail lobe waves with period 40 - 600 s observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in energy transport and dissipation in the magnetosphere. In this paper, 263 waves with period 40 - 150 s and 161 waves with period 150 - 600 s in the Earth's magnetotail lobe have been studied by using Cluster data from years 2001 to 2009. Our findings are as follows: (1) 90% of the wave amplitudes with period 40 - 150 s are below ~0.25 nT for transverse components, and ~0.16 nT for compressional component; The amplitudes of longer period waves are somewhat larger; For waves with period 150 - 600 s, 90% of the wave amplitudes are below ~0.36 nT and ~0.39 nT for transverse and compressional components, respectively. (2) Waves within 40 - 150 s prefer to occur in the lobe region close to the plasma sheet, while waves within 150 - 600 s can be observed throughout the lobe region; (3) The amplitudes of lobe waves and AE index are weakly correlated; However, we find that amplitudes tend to be larger when the AE index is larger; (4) Amplitudes also tend to be larger when the solar wind velocity, the solar wind dynamic pressure or its variations (∆PSW) is larger; The correlation coefficient between amplitudes of waves within 150 - 600 s and ∆PSW is up to ~0.58. We suggest that both dynamic pressure in the plasma sheet boundary layer or plasma sheet (inner source) and solar wind conditions (outer source) can contribute to the generation of lobe ULF waves; Waves within 40 - 150 s are effected more by inner source; ∆PSW is more associated with compressional waves within 150 - 600 s than that within 40 - 150 s.

  10. How many well-baby visits are necessary in the first 2 years of life?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J. R.; Feldman, W.; Siegel, L. S.; Mills, D. A.; Dunnett, C.; Stoddart, G.

    1984-01-01

    Since we could find no scientific basis for the 10 well-baby visits recommended in the first 2 years of life in Ontario, we carried out a randomized trial in 570 healthy, low-risk newborns to determine the efficacy and safety of decreasing the number of scheduled well-baby visits from 10 to 5. Among the 466 babies still in the trial at the end of the study period those in the 10-visit group had had a mean of 7.63 scheduled and 0.26 unscheduled well-baby visits and those in the 5-visit group a mean of 4.77 scheduled and 1.42 unscheduled well-baby visits. Reducing the recommended number of visits did not result in an increased incidence of illness or an increased prevalence of undetected abnormality, and the physical development of the babies in the two groups was almost identical. The mean scores of the two groups in assessments of mental development, maternal-child relations, maternal anxiety and parental satisfaction with health care were close. The results suggest that the recommended number of well-baby visits for healthy, low-risk newborns can be reduced to five for children of multiparas and six for children of primiparas. Any additional well-baby visits should be scheduled according to the needs and experience of the parents. PMID:6704838

  11. A Study of Heliospheric Modulation and Periodicities of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Kudela, K.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-02-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are energetic, charged particles coming from outside the solar system. These particles encounter an outward-moving turbulent solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuations when entering the heliosphere. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts detected by the ground-based neutron-monitor stations show intensity changes with a fluctuation of ˜ 11 years and are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with some time lags. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and are important components of space weather. The previous solar cycle, Cycle 23, has shown anomalous behavior with a prolonged deep minimum, which was characterized by a record-setting high Galactic cosmic-ray flux observed at Earth. Solar Cycle 24 started much later than expected and progressed sluggishly toward its maxima. In this paper, we study the heliospheric modulation and intermediate-term periodicities of GCRs during the ascending phase of Cycle 24. We utilize simultaneous solar, interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, and geomagnetic activity data including the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, and we study their relation with GCRs. The wavelet power spectrum of GCRs exhibits the presence of a variety of prominent short- and mid-term periodicities including the well-known Rieger and quasi-biennial periodicities. Possible explanations of the observed results are discussed in the light of numerical models.

  12. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  13. Study of Ocean Response to Periodic and Constant Volcanic Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, M.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that volcanic radiative impacts could produce long-term perturbations of the ocean heat content. In this study we systematically compare the effect of periodic volcanic forcing with an equivalent time-average radiative cooling. One could expect that a sporadic strong cooling should initiate more vigorous vertical mixing of the upper ocean layer and therefore cools the ocean more effectively than a uniform radiative forcing. However, the long-term simulations show that on average the ocean heat content responses to periodic and constant forcings are almost identical. To better understand this controversy we conducted two sets of parallel simulations, the first one with uniform volcanic forcing and the second one with periodic volcanic forcing with 10 and 50 years repeating cycle using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model CM2.1. We found that average perturbations of surface temperature, precipitation, ocean heat content, and sea level rise in both sets of simulations are similar but responses of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are significantly different, which explains the differences in the relaxation processes. These findings could be important for ocean initialization in long-tern climate studies and for geoengineering applications.

  14. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  15. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America. PMID:23856041

  17. Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumié, M.; Waksman, S. Y.; Nsouli, B.; Reynolds, P.; Lemaı̂tre, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis techniques were developed and utilized for applications in the domain of archeology at the accelerator laboratory of the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission. The characterization of Beirut kiln materials, mainly amphorae ceramics from the Roman period, was done using PIXE technique. In two runs with 1 and 3 MeV protons, we measured 20 major and trace elements. Consequently, a classification based on the elemental composition and on multivariate statistical techniques of some 70 ceramic objects was obtained providing the first step of a Lebanese database for future studies. Furthermore, the analysis of carrot amphorae found in Gaul (south of France) showed that some of them were of Beirut products and hence emphasized the role of Beirut city in the Mediterranean trade in the Roman period.

  18. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  19. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  20. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  1. Students with Disabilities at 2-Year Institutions in the United States: Factors Related to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan; Koch, Lynn C.

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the demographic and in-college characteristics of students with disabilities at 2-year institutions, identify the types of educational services available to them, and determine how students' disability conditions and their selected demographic and…

  2. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  3. Word Learning from Videos: More Evidence from 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rebekah; Scofield, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Young children are frequently exposed to examples of screen media like videos. The current studies asked whether videos would support word learning and whether word learning from videos might resemble word learning from a live speaker. In Study 1, 2-year-olds saw a video of a target image being labelled with a novel word and were later asked to…

  4. The transfer of comets from parabolic orbits to short-period orbits: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. A.; Gallardo, T.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer process of long-period (LP) comets from parabolic orbits to short-period (SP) orbits is studied numerically for small perihelion distances (q less than 2 AU) and for perihelia in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU). Two different numerical approaches are used. For q less than 2 AU, it is shown that the inclination distribution of a population of LP comets with initial random orientations of their orbital planes (i.e. a sinusoidal distribution of i) evolves toward a flatter distribution by the combination of two dynamical effects. When the number of passages is limited by physical causes, less comets in retrograde orbits are found to reach evolved states owing to their slower evolution. This can explain the depletion of retrograde comets among the observed old LP comets (200 less than P less than 1000 yr) and intermediate-period (IP) comets (20 less than P less than 200 yr) with q less than 2 AU, which suggests average physical lifetimes of about 300-500 revolutions for comets moving through the LP path. For q less than 2 AU the probability of capture of a LP comet into an IP orbit is found to be about 0.01 when an upper limit of 400 revolutions is considered. This gives a steady-state population of intermediate-period comets of the Halley type with q less than 2 AU of approximately equal 300 members. Long-period comets evolving in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU) from an initial population of randomly oriented, parabolic comets reach the intermediate-period stage with an inclination distribution already biased toward direct orbits without considering physical losses. This is due to the stronger dependence of the typical energy change on the inclination, which results in a much lower transfer probability for retrograde orbits. Randomly-oriented LP comets captured in SP orbits, either from the small-q zone or from the Jupiter's zone, show dynamical properties that do not match the observed ones. There are also serious

  5. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  6. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  7. Vector method for studying the second-harmonic-generation light derived from complex periodic ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihong; Yang, Xiangbo; Wang, Zhenyu

    2010-05-01

    In this Letter, in order to overcome the disadvantages of controlling the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light derived from the traditional one-dimensional (1D) periodic ferroelectric domains we propose a kind of so-called complex periodic ferroelectric structure (CPFS), which unit cell is composed of even layers of positive and negative domains arranged alternatively following aperiodic sequence. It is found that comparing with the traditional periodic structure, CPFS cannot offer more reciprocal vector compensations for the mismatching phase, but CPFS may provide larger effective nonlinear coefficients (ENCs) in high-order quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and possesses advantages of the amplitude modulation for SHG peaks. In this Letter we study CPFS by use of vector method (VM), where the contribution to ENC for each domain or each unit cell will be treated as a vector and the QPM condition for CPFS and the modulation effect of aperiodic unit cells have been obtained. Without any Fourier transformation VM treats the grating function in real space and will be very convenient and intuitive. Both VM and CPFS would possess potential applications in the field of SHG investigations.

  8. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  9. Impact of Living Environment on 2-Year Mortality in Elderly Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited. Methods A total of 256 elderly hemodialysis patients participated in this 2-year prospective observational study. The subjects were divided into 2 subgroups based on whether they were living in Taipei Basin (n = 63) or not (n = 193). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were obtained for cross-sectional analysis. Causes of death and mortality rates were also analyzed for each subgroup. Results Patients in the basin group had a higher incidence of combined protein-energy wasting and inflammation than those in the around basin group. At the end of the 2-year follow-up, 68 patients had died. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that a very advanced age, basin group, serum albumin levels, serum creatinine levels, non-anuria, and the complications of stroke and CAD were associated with 2-year mortality. Meanwhile, log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were not associated with 2-year mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that basin group, serum albumin levels, and the complications of stroke and CAD were significant risk factors for 2-year mortality in these patients. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that factors such as living in the Taipei Basin with higher air pollutant levels in elderly hemodialysis patients is associated with protein-energy wasting and inflammation, as well as 2-year mortality. These findings suggest that among this population, living environment is as important as comorbidities and nutrition. Furthermore, air pollution should be getting more attention especially in the overcrowding Basin topography. PMID:24058552

  10. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  11. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis that required 2 years for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Isoniazid (H) or rifampicin (R) mono-resistant disease can be treated easily and effectively with first-line drugs, while combined H and R resistance (ie, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB)) requires treatment with at least four agents, including a quinolone and an injectable agent. Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are reported to be extremely difficult to cultivate invitro. The authors report a case of MDRTB that required 2 years for diagnosis, and was detected only in sputum culture on solid medium. Physicians should consider MDRTB if TB is suspected but pathogens are not detected. PMID:22605803

  12. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

    1988-01-01

    A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

  13. A study of periodicities and recurrences in solar activity and cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attolini, M. R.; Cecchini, S.; Galli, M.

    1985-01-01

    The 154d periodicity was found in the cosmic ray intensity (RE) vs Flares, and some other peaks of coherency in the RC vs aa sub I, that when interpreted as aliased values, might correspond to recurring interplanetary magnetic field structures and solar wind streams. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of the correspondence with aa are of terrestrial origin. This study cannot be considered exhaustive due to the fact that other solar variables, such as polar hole size, are possibly correlated to cosmic ray intensities. However, the number of observations is small so that the interpretation of the results is very difficult.

  14. Studying Jupiter-Family Comets and Long Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, E. A.; Fernandez, Y.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A.; Walker, R. G.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Lisse, C.; Meech, K. J.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.

    2011-10-01

    The WISE mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011. By covering the entire sky, WISE serendipitously observed a large number of active comets. We will present preliminary results from the analysis of several Jupiter-family comets and long period comets (listed in Table 1). The analysis will characterize various properties of each body, including dust production rate, grain properties, nucleus size estimates, albedo constraints, and constraints of the CO/CO2 gas emission. Several of these objects were also observed as part of the Spitzer SEPPCoN program, allowing comparisons to be made between these two studies.

  15. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  16. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  17. Hispanic Student Enrollment and Educational Attainment in Texas 2-Year Colleges: A Multi-Year Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic college students enrolled in Texas 2-year colleges from the 2000 through the 2011 academic years and to examine the numbers and percentages of Hispanic students obtaining associate degrees from Texas 2-year colleges for the 2000 through the 2011 academic…

  18. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  19. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  20. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Sen, E Fatma; Verhamme, Katia M C; Felisi, Mariagrazia; 't Jong, Geert W; Giaquinto, Carlo; Picelli, Gino; Ceci, Adriana; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of children <2 years in Italy and the Netherlands was carried out. Age and country specific prescription prevalence rates were calculated for the period 2005–08. Comparisons of prescription rates in 2005 (pre) and 2008 (post) warnings were done by means of a chi-square test. RESULTS The cohort consisted of 99 176 children <2 years of age. After international warnings, overall prescription rates for CCMs decreased slightly from 83 to 77/1000 person years (P = 0.05) in Italy and increased in the Netherlands from 74 to 92/1000 children per year. Despite the international warnings, prescription rates for nasal sympathomimetics and opium alkaloids increased in the Netherlands (P < 0.01). In Italy a significant decrease in the prescription rates of opium alkaloids and other cough suppressants (P < 0.01) was observed, and also a significant reduction in use of combinations of nasal sympathomimetics. CONCLUSION Despite the international safety warnings and negative benefit-risk profiles, prescription rates of cough and cold medicines remain substantial and were hardly affected by the warnings, especially in the Netherlands where no warning was issued. The hazards of use of these medicines in young children should be explicitly stipulated by the European Medicines Agency and all national agencies, in order to increase awareness amongst physicians and caretakers and reduce heterogeneity across the EU. PMID:21564162

  1. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  2. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE PUBLIC 2-YEAR COLLEGE ON CERTAIN NONINTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PLANT, WALTER T.; TELFORD, CHARLES W.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DETERMINE IF THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN SELECTED PERSONALITY TRAITS, IDEOLOGIES, AND VALUES OF STUDENTS WHO ATTEND A 2-YEAR PUBLIC JUNIOR COLLEGE. A BATTERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS WAS ADMINISTERED TO ALL PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION AS COLLEGE FRESHMEN FOR THE FALL SEMESTER OF 1960 AT ONE OF SIX CALIFORNIA PUBLIC…

  3. Emotionally Focused Interventions for Couples with Chronically Ill Children: A 2-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloutier, Paula F.; Manion, Ian G.; Walker, Jan Gordon; Johnson, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Couples with chronically ill children are particularly at risk for experiencing marital distress. The study presented here is a 2-year follow-up of a randomized control trial that assessed the efficacy of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) in decreasing marital distress in a sample of couples with a chronically ill child. Thirteen couples with…

  4. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  5. Administration of high-dose interleukin-2 in a 2-year-old with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, M Brooke; Hicks, M John; Pappo, Alberto S

    2009-12-15

    Malignant melanoma is rare in pediatrics, and therapies for patients with disseminated disease have not been well studied. This report describes our experience with the use of high-dose interleukin 2 (aldesleukin, IL-2) in a 2-year-old child with metastatic melanoma and describes our approach for the administration of this agent to young patients. PMID:19731326

  6. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  7. How Joint Attention Relates to Cooperation in 1- and 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhen; Pan, Jingtong; Su, Yanjie; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Joint attention has been suggested to contribute to children's development of cooperation; however, few empirical studies have directly tested this hypothesis. Children aged 1 and 2 years participated in two joint action activities to assess their cooperation with an adult partner, who stopped participating at a specific moment during the…

  8. Attitudes of College Students Enrolled in 2-Year Health Care Programs towards Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulla, Dalya

    2012-01-01

    Colleges offering 2-year diplomas to high-school graduates were among the forefront leaders in online learning however studies illustrating appropriate course construction for such student populations are scarce. Pharmacy Math (MATH16532) is a core course for students enrolled in the Practical Nursing (PN) and Pharmacy Technician (PT) programs at…

  9. Developmental Assessment of Preterm Infants at 2 Years: Validity of Parent Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Parental questionnaires are inexpensive alternatives to standardized testing for outcome measurement. The Parent Report of Children's Abilities has previously been revised (PARCA-R) and validated for use with very-preterm infants at 2 years of age. This study revalidated the PARCA-R for assessing cognition in a larger and more inclusive sample of…

  10. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  11. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  12. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  13. Modeling the Canadian southern Atlantic region oxidants: A study of a Canadian EMEFS-1 hyperintensive period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wanmin; Lin, Xiude; MéNard, Sylvain; Pellerin, Pierre; Benoit, Robert

    1999-08-01

    The roles and mechanisms of transport and chemical transformation affecting surface ozone in the Canadian southern Atlantic region (SAR) are investigated using a three-dimensional Eulerian comprehensive modeling system. The investigation is focused a regional ozone episode over the eastern North America during the first week of August 1988. The model performance is evaluated with available observations during this period. The model is shown to reproduce the general features of this regional episode, with better performance for the sites with clear local photochemical activities than for those strongly influenced by complex coastal flow. It is shown from the reconstructed time history of various processes along the backward trajectories originating from a site in Nova Scotia that the elevated ground-level ozone in the SAR during the study period was associated with transport at low levels, under a strong southwesterly flow. The high ozone brought to the site was mostly produced within the stable marine boundary layer from precursors picked up earlier over the emission area on the east coast of the United States. A second transport situation was also simulated and shown to be associated with transport aloft that was never mixed to the surface. This study also shows that differential advection, due to stable stratification and vertical shear of horizontal wind, can deform surface-based plumes to produce elevated layers of pollutants over the Gulf of Maine.

  14. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  15. A comparative study of four significance measures for periodicity detection in astronomical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne P.; Eyer, Laurent; Cuypers, Jan; Holl, Berry; Lecoeur-Taïbi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Blanco, Diego Ordóñez; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Ruiz, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    We study the problem of periodicity detection in massive data sets of photometric or radial velocity time series, as presented by ESA's Gaia mission. Periodicity detection hinges on the estimation of the false alarm probability of the extremum of the periodogram of the time series. We consider the problem of its estimation with two main issues in mind. First, for a given number of observations and signal-to-noise ratio, the rate of correct periodicity detections should be constant for all realized cadences of observations regardless of the observational time patterns, in order to avoid sky biases that are difficult to assess. Secondly, the computational loads should be kept feasible even for millions of time series. Using the Gaia case, we compare the FM method of Paltani and Schwarzenberg-Czerny, the Baluev method and the GEV method of Süveges, as well as a method for the direct estimation of a threshold. Three methods involve some unknown parameters, which are obtained by fitting a regression-type predictive model using easily obtainable covariates derived from observational time series. We conclude that the GEV and the Baluev methods both provide good solutions to the issues posed by a large-scale processing. The first of these yields the best scientific quality at the price of some moderately costly pre-processing. When this pre-processing is impossible for some reason (e.g. the computational costs are prohibitive or good regression models cannot be constructed), the Baluev method provides a computationally inexpensive alternative with slight biases in regions where time samplings exhibit strong aliases.

  16. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Melannie; Burch, James B; Steck, Susan E; Chen, Chin-Fu; Hurley, Thomas G; Cavicchia, Philip; Ray, Meredith; Shivappa, Nitin; Guess, Jaclyn; Zhang, Hongmei; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Creek, Kim E; Lloyd, Stephen; Yang, Xiaoming; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the 'period' (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9-4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4-18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  17. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  18. A phonological system at 2 years after cochlear implantation

    PubMed Central

    CHIN, STEVEN B.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a description of a developing phonological system as manifested in the productions of a prelingually deafened child approximately 2 years after fitting with a Nucleus 22-Channel Multi-Electrode Cochlear Implant. A probe list consisting of 23 proper nouns familiar to the child was used to elicit samples of her speech; stimulus materials consisted of photographs of those persons (friends and family members) whose names were included in the probe list. Analysis of the child's productions addressed the composition of the phonetic inventory of consonants and vowels and the presence of syllable structure and other phonotactic constraints. Results indicated a rich inventory of speech sound segments (among both consonants and vowels) and a lack of stringent constraints on syllable structure and consonants permitted in specified word positions. A further comparative analysis of correspondences with the ambient language showed a number of patterns that are also common in the speech of children with normal hearing. PMID:22091697

  19. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  20. Orbital Period Variation and Morphological Light Curve Studies for the W UMa Binary BB Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Magdy A.; Awadalla, Nabil S.

    2011-06-01

    The photometric light curves of the W-type W UMa eclipsing contact binary system BB Pegasi have been found to be extremely asymmetric over all the observed 63 years in all wavelengths UBVR. The light curves have been characterized by occultation primary minima. So, the morphology of these light curves has been studied in view of these different asymmetric degrees. The system shows a distinct O'Connell effect as well as depth variation. A 22.96 years cycle, of dark spots group, has been determined for the system combined with about the same cycling for the depth variations (22.78 yr). Also, an analysis of the measurements of mid-eclipse times of BB Peg has been presented. The analysis indicates a period decrease of 5.62× 10-8 d/yr, which can be interpreted in terms of mass transfer of rate -4.38 × 10-8 M_⊙/yr, from the more to the less massive component. The O-C diagram shows a damping sine wave covering two different cycles of 17.0 yr and 12.87 yr with amplitudes equal to 0.0071 and 0.0013 day, respectively. These unequal durations show a non periodicity which may be explained as a result of magnetic activity cycling variations due to star spots. The obtained characteristics are consistent when applying Applegate's (1992) mechanism.

  1. Nanoscale periodic domain patterns in tetragonal ferroelectrics: A phase-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renuka Balakrishna, A.; Huber, J. E.; Münch, I.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectrics form domain patterns that minimize their energy subject to imposed boundary conditions. In a linear, constrained theory, that neglects domain-wall energy, periodic domain patterns in the form of multirank laminates can be identified as minimum-energy states. However, when these laminates (formed in a macroscopic crystal) comprise domains that are a few nanometers in size, the domain-wall energy becomes significant, and the behavior of laminate patterns at this scale is not known. Here, a phase-field model, which accounts for gradient energy and strain energy contributions, is employed to explore the stability and evolution of the nanoscale multirank laminates. The stress, electric field, and domain-wall energies in the laminates are computed. The effect of scaling is also discussed. In the absence of external loading, stripe domain patterns are found to be lower-energy states than the more complex, multirank laminates, which mostly collapse into simpler patterns. However, complex laminates can be stabilized by imposing external loads such as electric field, average strain, and polarization. The study provides insight into the domain patterns that may form on a macroscopic single crystal but comprising nanoscale periodic patterns, and on the effect of external loads on these patterns.

  2. Refractory period modulates the spatiotemporal evolution of cortical spreading depression: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Chen, Shangbin; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a pathophysiological phenomenon, which underlies some neurological disorders, such as migraine and stroke, but its mechanisms are still not completely understood. One of the striking facts is that the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD wave is varying. Observations in experiments reveal that a CSD wave may propagate through the entire cortex, or just bypass some areas of the cortex. In this paper, we have applied a 2D reaction-diffusion equation with recovery term to study the spatiotemporal evolution of CSD. By modulating the recovery rate from CSD in the modeled cortex, CSD waves with different spatiotemporal evolutions, either bypassing some areas or propagating slowly in these areas, were present. Moreover, spiral CSD waves could also be induced in case of the transiently altered recovery rate, i.e. block release from the absolute refractory period. These results suggest that the refractory period contributes to the different propagation patterns of CSD, which may help to interpret the mechanisms of CSD propagation. PMID:24400104

  3. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  4. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  5. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Sampatti Sambhaji; Gujarathi, Venktesh V; Tapare, Vinay S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting: Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%. PMID:20049292

  6. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  7. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  8. A Retrospective Study of Marjolin's Ulcer Over an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Ashwatha Reddy, Madhusudana Bommasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marjolin's ulcer is a rare aggressive cutaneous malignancy occurring in previously occurred wounds. The most common aetiology is a burn wound involving extremities and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analyses of medical records of patients treated in a single unit with a diagnosis of Marjolin's ulcer was performed. Results: During the study period, 14 patients were treated. Four patients had lymph node metastases and one had pulmonary metastases at the time of presentation. Seven patients underwent wide excision with reconstruction and seven underwent amputation or disarticulation because of advanced malignancy. During the follow up two patients developed local recurrence and one developed pulmonary metastases. Both the patients with pulmonary metastases had Marjolin's ulcer of trunk. Conclusion: Marjolin's ulcer occurs more commonly in the extremities. Distant metastases occur commonly in patients with ulcers on the of trunk. PMID:25538436

  9. Density functional periodic study of the dehydrogenation of methane on Pd (1 1 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Li, Lu; Xu, Jie; Fang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanism of CH4 on Pd (1 1 1) surface was studied using density functional theory (DFT) together with periodic slab models. According to the optimized structural and energetic properties, it was found that CH3 prefers to adsorb on the top sites of the Pd metal surface. Whereas CH2, CH, and H prefer to adsorb on the fcc sites, and C prefers to adsorb on the hcp sites. In addition, this work identified the optimum configurations for the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx and H. Finally, four transition states were found for analyzing the mechanism of dehydrogenation of CH4. The results show that the dehydrogenation of CH moiety is relatively difficult and the dehydrogenation of CH3 is the rate-determining step in the overall reaction.

  10. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies. PMID:25955638

  11. Increased Food Insecurity Among Mothers of 2 Year Olds with Special Health Care Needs.

    PubMed

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Hoffmann, Laurel M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Peters, Dawn; Pennise, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and food insecurity when the child is 2 years old. We studied women who had a live birth in 2004-2005 and responded to Oregon's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey 3 months postpartum (Time 1) and the follow-up survey (PRAMS-2), when the child was 2 years old (Time 2). Women answering affirmatively to the PRAMS-2 question, "In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there was not enough money for food?" were considered food insecure. CSHCN status was identified by affirmative responses to questions about needs for ongoing services (Time 2). PRAMS and PRAMS-2 responses were weighted for study design and non-response. Results report weighted analyses, unless noted. Among 1812 mothers completing PRAMS-2, 13.6 % (unweighted) had a 2-year-old CSHCN and 11.9 % (unweighted) were food insecure at Time 2. The estimated prevalence of food insecurity at 2-year follow-up was 20.7 % among families of CSHCN and 9.7 % for others. After adjustment for Time 2 marital status, education, lifetime U.S. residence, income and health conditions, multivariable logistic regression revealed that odds of food insecurity were more than two times as great for CSHCN mothers 2 years post-partum compared to non-CSHCN mothers (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.3, 4.6). Families of CSHCN face increased risk for food insecurity. Improved understanding of causal determinants of food insecurity among households of CSHCN is needed. PMID:25682114

  12. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  13. Environmental NO2 Level is Associated with 2-Year Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients. A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients’ living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis. A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013–1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116–1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0–0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778–114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143–12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality. PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher

  14. Environmental NO2 level is associated with 2-year mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing issue related to global urbanization is the association of air pollution with increased incidences of morbidity and mortality. However, no in-depth study has investigated this issue focusing on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of traffic-related air pollutants and other important mortality-associated factors on 2-year mortality in PD patients.A total of 160 PD patients were recruited in this 2-year retrospective observational study. Differences in air quality were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The PD patients were categorized into 2 groups according to high (n = 65) and low (n = 95) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure. Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, air pollutants, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used for 2-year mortality analysis.A total of 160 PD patients (38 men and 122 women) were enrolled. Fourteen patients (8.8%) died within 2 years; among them, the causes of death were infection (n = 10), malignancy (n = 1), and cardiovascular events (n = 3). Among the 10 patients who died from infection, 5, 4, and 1 died from pneumonia, PD-related peritonitis, and sepsis of unknown origin, respectively. All patients who died from pneumonia were living in high environmental NO2 exposure areas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.073, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.013-1.137]; P = 0.017), white blood cell count (HR 1.41, 95% CI [1.116-1.781]; P = 0.004), log normalized protein nitrogen appearance (HR 0.0001, 95% CI [0-0.073]; P = 0.005), high cardiothoracic ratio (HR 14.28, 95% CI [1.778-114.706]; P = 0.012), and high environmental NO2 exposure (HR 3.776, 95% CI [1.143-12.47]; P = 0.029) were significantly associated with 2-year mortality.PD patients with high environmental NO2 exposure had a higher 2-year mortality rate

  15. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  16. Is There a Critical Period for Amblyopia Therapy? Results of a Study on Older Anisometropic Amblyopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia, a common cause of low vision, is rarely treated in adults. Improvement in vision has been seen beyond the critical period at times. Hence, this study was taken up to study the effect of minimal occlusion therapy (2-4 hours/day) in anisometropic amblyopic patients in the age group of 12-30 years. Materials and Methods The study is a prospective, randomized case series of anisometropic amblyopia patients aged 12-30 years who reported in the outpatient department of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Thorough ocular examination and cycloplegic refraction was done to rule out other ocular disease. Anisometropic Amblyopia was diagnosed only after four weeks of spectacle wear. The selected patients were then advised occlusion therapy of 2-4 hours per day of better eye with stress on near visual task. Videogames, computers, mobile phone gaming and colouring in especially designed patterns were used as vision training aids. The outcome measure selected was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) achieved that remained stable for three consecutive months of occlusion. Results Sixty one patients of anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study (32 males and 29 females) aged 12-30 years (mean age 17 years). Mean BCVA at the start of treatment was 20/125 (0.8 log MAR units) and 20/32 (0.2 log MAR units) at the end of the treatment. Thirty three patients (54%) out of 61 had BCVA of 20/20, while 58 patients (95%) had ≥ 20/40 BCVA, 01(1.6%) had 20/50 and 02 (3.27%) had 20/80 BCVA at the end of therapy. The results were statistically significant (p- value <0.0001) with a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion This study clearly proves that there is no critical period for the treatment in older (12-30 years) anisometropic amblyope. Even 2-4 hours per day of occlusion of better eye with vision training thorough near visual task of amblyopic eye is effective. However, counseling and patient compliance is

  17. Hemodialysis does not impair ventricular functions over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Duran, Mustafa; Unal, Aydin; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Kocyigit, Ismail; Oguz, Fatih; Ocak, Ayse; Ozdogru, İbrahim; Kasapkara, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ekrem; Oymak, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV and RV) functions in patients with end-stage renal disease. The study population consisted of 22 patients with newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Before an arteriovenous fistula was surgically created for HD, the patients were evaluated by echocardiography for systolic and diastolic functions. After the first HD session (mean 24.22 ± 2.14 months), the second echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Left ventricular and RV functions before and after long-term HD treatment were compared. The mean age was 55 ± 13 years and 10 (45%) of the patients were female. After long-term HD treatment, the isovolumic relaxation time was significantly decreased; however, the peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic mitral inflow velocities, E/A ratio, and deceleration time of E wave were not significantly different from the baseline measurements. Also, there was no significantly change in the early diastolic velocity (Ea) of the lateral mitral anulus and the E/Ea ratio. Pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity, peak atrial reversal velocity, and peak atrial reversal velocity duration remained almost unchanged even though the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity and the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity/pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity ratio were significantly lower after long-term HD treatment. In addition, LV systolic functions, LV diameters, LV mass index, left atrium size, and RV diastolic functions were not statistically different after long-term HD treatment. The myocardium is exposed to hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuro-humoral abnormalities during HD treatment; however, the long-term effects of HD on ventricular functions are not clearly known. The present study showed that the long-term effects of HD on LV and RV functions were insignificant in patients with end-stage renal disease. We have demonstrated that the LV and RV functions did not change

  18. Efficacy of Salvage Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Postradical Prostatectomy Patients With PSA Relapse

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard; Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) as salvage treatment for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Seventy-five patients with PSA relapse after RP were treated with salvage RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. AS started within 1 month after completion of salvage RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate including freedom from PSA relapse was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. PSA relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Results: Median age of the cohort was 63 years at the time of salvage RT. Median follow-up from salvage RT was 6.4 years. All achieved initially complete PSA response (< 0.2) with the protocol treatment. Relapse-free rate including the freedom from PSA relapse was 91.5% at 5 years and 78.6% at 7 years. Overall survival rate was 93.2% at both 5 and 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, pT3 stage and PSA relapse less than 2 years after RP were significant prognostic factors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of salvage RT plus 2-year AS yielded an encouraging result for patients with PSA relapse after RP and needs a confirmatory study.

  19. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  20. Medical trainees’ experiences and perceptions towards elective period; a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nyongesa, Henry; Mokua, Winstar; Adegu, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical electives make significant contribution in the training of medical students on healthcare outside their affiliated academic institutions. During this period, learners get exposed to different healthcare systems, diagnostic, medical and surgical techniques as well as appreciate existing challenges. Objective To assess experiences encountered by medical students during their electives. Methods A cross sectional study was commissioned among level 5 medical students of University of Nairobi in July 2013. A random sample of 125 students was invited to fill in self structured questionnaires after obtaining informed consent. The questionnaire which had initially been pretested on 25 nursing students comprised bio data, place, duration, funding, experiences and challenges of electives. Data obtained was analyzed using SPSS 20 and computed in terms of frequencies and percentages. Results There were 76 (60.8% response rate) respondents with majority being males and staying in university hostel. Most of them had undertaken electives in Africa which were organized by themselves and funded mostly by their parents. There was overall positive attitude towards electives with majority (80.3%) claiming it to provide all rounded training. However, financial, transport and language barrier were identified as the main challenges (41.1%, 18.8% and 14.3%, respectively). There was a call by more than 80% of respondents for the university to collaborate with host institutions and provide stipend to cover living expenses mostly. Conclusion The acquisition of practical skills involved in the treatment of patients forms the basis for high expectation of electives among medical trainees. It is evident that most of the participants would desire the scaling up of entire elective period through institutional collaborations and logistical support. PMID:25328586

  1. A Comparison of Retention Rates among America's 2-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tampa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was first to calculate the full-time and part-time retention rates for each category of 2-year institution and to examine the differences, if they existed, between and among the three types of colleges. Secondly, the study explored the differences in the full-time and part-time retention rates of first-time students within…

  2. Assessment of effectiveness of percutaneous adhesiolysis and caudal epidural injections in managing post lumbar surgery syndrome: 2-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Singh, Vijay; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2012-01-01

    Background The literature is replete with evaluations of failed surgery, illustrating a 9.5%–25% reoperation rate. Speculated causes of post lumbar surgery syndrome include epidural fibrosis, acquired stenosis, recurrent disc herniation, sacroiliac joint pain, and facet joint pain among other causes. Methods Patients (n = 120) were randomly assigned to two groups with a 2-year follow-up. Group I (control group, n = 60) received caudal epidural injections with catheterization up to S3 with local anesthetic (lidocaine 2%, 5 mL), nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg, 1 mL), and 6 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Group II (intervention group, n = 60) received percutaneous adhesiolysis of the targeted area, with targeted delivery of lidocaine 2% (5 mL), 10% hypertonic sodium chloride solution (6 mL), and nonparticulate betamethasone (6 mg). The multiple outcome measures included the Numeric Rating Scale, the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0, employment status, and opioid intake with assessments at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months posttreatment. Primary outcome was defined as 50% improvement in pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores. Results Significant improvement with at least 50% relief with pain and improvement in functional status was illustrated in 82% of patients at the 2-year follow-up in the intervention group compared to 5% in the control group receiving caudal epidural injections. The average number of procedures over a period of 2 years in Group II was 6.4 ± 2.35 with overall total relief of approximately 78 weeks out of 104 weeks. Conclusion The results of this study show significant improvement in 82% of patients over a period of 2 years with an average of six to seven procedures of 1-day percutaneous adhesiolysis in patients with failed back surgery syndrome. PMID:23293536

  3. New geoscience teachers division for 2-year colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumm, Debra; Granshaw, Frank

    2011-11-01

    The role of 2-year colleges (2YCs) in geoscience education is growing as the number of students enrolled in Earth and space science courses increases and as these institutions—which include community colleges and junior colleges—provide more students majoring in geoscience at public universities. In recognition of the increasing role of 2YCs in geoscience education, the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) recently created a Geo2YC division for faculty, administrators, graduate students, and other geoscience professionals who share a professional interest in geoscience education at 2YCs. The mission of the new division, which is NAGT's first national division, is to serve as a forum for exchanging curricular ideas, concerns, and resources; establish a network of geoscience educators at 2YCs and other institutions with shared interests; sponsor NAGT 2YC activities and make recommendations to the NAGT Council in support of 2YC geoscience education; support and coordinate research on 2YC geoscience education; and advocate for 2YC geoscience education within NAGT and with other organizations.

  4. Interstitial Lung Disease in Children Younger Than 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Bush, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a highly heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of chILD remains limited, important advances have recently been made, the most important being probably the appreciation that disorders that present in early life are distinct from those occurring in older children and adults, albeit with some overlap. chILD manifests with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, making exclusion of common conditions presenting in a similar fashion an essential preliminary step. Subsequently, a systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history and physical examination, computed tomography of the chest, and some or all of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, genetic testing, and if diagnostic uncertainty persists, lung biopsy. This review focuses on chILD presenting in infants younger than 2 years of age and discusses recent advances in the classification, diagnostic approach, and management of chILD in this age range. We describe novel genetic entities, along with initiatives that aim at collecting clinical data and biologic samples from carefully characterized patients in a prospective and standardized fashion. Early referral to expert centers and timely diagnosis may have important implications for patient management and prognosis, but effective therapies are often lacking. Following massive efforts, international collaborations among the key stakeholders are finally starting to be in place. These have allowed the setting up and conducting of the first randomized controlled trial of therapeutic interventions in patients with chILD. PMID:27245831

  5. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  6. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  7. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  8. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  9. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  10. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. 3050.12 Section 3050.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.12 Obsolescence of...

  11. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D

    2016-08-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  12. Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren M.; Safran, Marc R.; Maloney, William J.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Huddleston, James I.; Bellino, Michael J.; Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin–aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:27583163

  13. Depression in Men in the Postnatal Period and Later Child Psychology: A Population Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Heron, Jon; Murray, Lynne; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The factors responsible for depression in men following childbirth and the association between their depression in the postnatal period and later psychiatric disorders in their children are assessed. Findings show that depression in fathers in their postnatal period is associated with later psychiatric disorders in their children, independent of…

  14. Periodical Usage in a Small Liberal Arts Library: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossi, Kathy J.

    The information needs of a small liberal arts library whose curriculum does not support a science or technology research program will differ from the information needs of a major research institution. Likewise, periodical usage will also differ with the two types of libraries. This investigation examines the patterns of periodical usage identified…

  15. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...

  16. [Observational study of black carbon aerosol during straw-burning period].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-xia; Wei, Qing-nong; Wei, Jian-li; Liu, Shi-sheng; Feng, Wei-wei

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon aerosol (BC) has been measured at three sites in Hefei City during May and June, 2007. Analyzing these real-time BC data, the concentration characters and the sources of black carbon aerosol can be found. The average concentrations of BC in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.85 microg/m3 and 8.38 microg/m3, respectively. The significant difference shows that the straw-burning is one of the main sources. The correlation coefficients between daily average concentration of BC and PM10 is 0.74, while the values of BC/PM10 in normal period and straw-burning period are 4.7% and 7.9%, respectively. Through comparing to the BC concentration during straw-burning period in 2004, the results indicated that pollution of BC has reduced after straw-burning was forbidden by the government. PMID:19256359

  17. Experimental study of periodic linear internal waves transform at the shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Litvin, Alexander; Vladimirova, Eleonora; Ivanov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Vladlen

    2010-05-01

    The report contains results of the experimental study of the fine structure of hydrophysical processes of internal waves transform in the shelf zone observed within a thin thermocline. A series of experiments was performed in the stratified tank with its overall dimensions L*B*H = 2.15*0.15*0.35 m where the model of the shelf has been installed. The shadowgraph IAB-455 as well as the multidot spatial system of 40 thermocouples were used for distance and contact measurements. Methods of a digital video fixation of shadow pictures of currents in the thermally stratified liquid, as well as methods of the statistical analysis of non-stationary hydrodynamic processes were applied. As a result of the series of experiments it was revealed that interaction of internal waves in the pycnocline with the shelf model leads to transformation of the internal waves, formation of currents of vortical and turbulent character and water mass mixture. The observations concern a case of creation of a package of five periodic internal waves made in the pycnocline by a submerged wave-maker. Acknowledgement: this work is supported through NWO-RFBR Project (Code: 047.017.2006.003).

  18. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  19. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation change during the Younger Dryas cold period: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renssen, Hans

    2016-04-01

    In Northwest Europe, proxy-based reconstructions have suggested that the Younger Dryas cold period may be sub-divided in a relatively cold and humid first part and a warmer and drier second part. In Scandinavia, the later part of the Younger Dryas climate was characterized by a notable increase in variability. These changes in climatic conditions during the Younger Dryas event have been linked to a northward shift of both the winter sea-ice margin in the North Atlantic Ocean and the main storm track. Recently, we performed transient simulations of the Younger Dryas climate, performed with a global climate model. In this study, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis of these model results to see to what extent our model has been capable to reproduce the reconstructed changes in precipitation. In our Younger Dryas simulation, the main storm track is located at 55°N, resulting in relatively high precipitation rates in mid-latitude Europe. In contrast, our model suggests dry conditions in Northern and Southern Europe.

  1. Particle-core study of halo dynamics in periodic-focusing channels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tai-Sen F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to investigate the dynamics of halo particles in mismatched charged-particle beams propagating through periodic-focusing channels using the particle-core model. The proposed method employs canonical transformations to minimize, in new phase-space variables, the flutter due to the periodic focusing to allow making stroboscopic plots. Applying this method, we find that in periodic-focusing systems, certain particles initially not in the halo region can be brought into resonance with the core oscillation to become halo particles. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test forpatients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy:a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Hitomi; Genno, Hirokazu; Shiba, Naoko; Nakamura, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify if a periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound could be used to evaluate physical endurance more precisely than the conventional 6-minute walk test. [Subjects] The subjects were healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Methods] The subjects initially walked for 1 minute to a long-interval metronome sound, and the walking distance was measured. The sound interval was then gradually shortened, and the subjects walked for 1 minute for each of the intervals. The best periodic sound was considered to be the periodic sound used when the subject walked the longest distance in 1 minute, and the process of determining it was referred to as the period shortening walk test. This study administered the 6-minute walk test with the best periodic sound to twenty healthy subjects and 6 ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and compared the walking distance. [Results] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test distances in both the healthy subjects and the patients were significantly longer than the conventional 6-minute walk test distances. [Conclusion] The periodic sound-based 6-minute walk test provided a better indication of ambulatory potential in an evaluation of physical endurance than the conventional 6-minute walk test. PMID:26696721

  3. [Comparative field study of litter moisture and footpad alterations during the rearing period of fattening turkeys].

    PubMed

    Hübel, Jens; Bergmann, Shana; Ziegler, Nina; Willig, Rainer; Truyen, Uwe; Erhard, Michael H; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a nationwide performed field study from 2010 to 2012, the footpad health of conventionally kept fattening turkeys and their rearing conditions were studied and compared to results from litter moisture measurements. In each case two rearing periods from 24 rearing farms were chosen and visited 3 to 5 days after delivery of the poults (examination 1) and again during the days 22 to 35 (examination 2). In the course of each flock inspection 60 randomly chosen turkeys were examined by adspection and palpation. Litter samples from drinking, feeding and resting areas were taken using the Darr procedure to measure moisture. Data regarding rearing conditions was collected from the farmer using standardized questionnaires. The litter moisture was 10% (6-20%) before the birds' entered the barn. At the time of examination 1 litter moisture of 43% (14-67%) in the drinking zone, 28% (12-66%) in the feeding zone, and 13% (8-31%) in the resting area were measured. At the time of examination 2 the litter moisture measurements showed 51% (32-72%) in the drinking zone, 27% (13-56% in the feeding zone and 28% (16-53%) in the resting area. At the time of examination 127.3% of the poults had footpad alterations, during examination 2 that number increased to 63.3% with 12.1% showing epithelial necrosis. The young turkeys on the three most commonly used litter substrates showed the following results at the time of examination 2: when held on straw pellets 58%, on wood shavings 29%, and on straw 17% showed unaltered footpads. Regarding the housing conditions the examinations showed specifically differences in stocking rate, drinking system and litter management. PMID:25080820

  4. A longitudinal study of skin barrier function in pregnancy and the postnatal period

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, Jonathan O’B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Khashan, Ali S

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether skin’s barrier function changes in pregnancy. Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) refers to the total amount of water loss through the skin and TEWL can be measured non-invasively as an index of skin barrier function. We measured TEWL during and after pregnancy to evaluate pregnancy-related skin barrier function. Methods This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of 52 low-risk, first-time pregnant women nested within the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) Ireland study. TEWL (gwater/m2/h) was measured three times during pregnancy: 19–21 weeks, 27–32 weeks and 36 weeks; and three times postnatally: 2–4 days, 2 months and 6 months post-delivery. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0 and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A rise in TEWL was seen between each visit with the highest readings, exceeding the normal range of 0–20 gwater/m2/h, recorded at two months post-delivery. Forty women attended at two months post-delivery of whom 22 women had an average reading between 0 and 20 gwater/m2/h; 10 women had an average reading between 21 and 40 gwater/m2/h and 8 women had an average reading between 41 and 75 gwater/m2/h. Readings had returned to an average of 0–20 gwater/m2/h at six months postnatally. Conclusion TEWL increases slightly in pregnancy and the postnatal period. The clinical significance of this is unclear and requires further investigation.

  5. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  6. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  7. Study of Quasi-Periodic Variations in Drag of Artificial Satellite during 23-24 Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendant, V. H.; Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. L.

    Apply of the method of time-frequency analysis allows to reveal the detailed structure of the manifestations of the influence of the state space weather on the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Sensitive indicators of such changes are low-orbit satellites. The dynamics of drag of nineteen low-orbit satellites was viewed. The study period includes phases of declining and a long minimum of 23rd solar cycle, phases of rise and maximum of 24th solar cycle. In dynamic of inhibition of all the analyzed satellite pronounced regular inhibition effects with extended periods of 2 - 6 years and short-period effects with periods less than one year. In the satellites: 00063, 00165, 25064, 00932 and 00746 - detected periods with trend from 25 - 28 days to 1 - 1.7 months.

  8. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  9. Patient factors predict functional outcomes after cruciate retaining TKA: a 2-year follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Justin S; Buehler, Knute C; Shen, Jianhua; Naughton, Marybeth

    2013-09-01

    We analyzed preoperative patient characteristics and postoperative functional outcomes to identify the most predictive preoperative characteristics of postoperative functional outcome for Cruciate Retaining (CR) TKA. In a prospective, multicenter study, 307 knees with minimum 2-year follow-up were first divided into groups based on 2-year functional performance. Logistic regression then determined SF-36 General Health Score (GHS) to be the most predictive preoperative patient characteristic. Subsequently, a second analysis was performed using preoperative SF-36 GHS to stratify patients into groups. Statistical significance was achieved in both analyses by gender, BMI and hypertension. Statistical significance was achieved in a single analysis by age, preoperative narcotic use, preoperative metabolic medication usage, preoperative pulmonary disease and preoperative use of medication for anxiety or depression. PMID:23523205

  10. Tooth stain during 2 years' use of chlorhexidine- and fluoride-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Dolles, O K; Eriksen, H M; Gjermo, P

    1979-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride upon the stain-inducing capacity of chlorhexidine. Ninety-one children, 13 years of age, volunteered for the experiment. Three test dentifrices were used, containing 0.1% NaF, 0.1% NaF + 2% chlorhexidine, and 2% chlorhexidine respectively. The experiment was carried out as a double-blind test, and the degree of staining was recorded after 1 and 2 years. Four methods were used for stain scoring. The results after 1 year showed that chlorhexidine induced less stain when applied together with fluoride than when applied alone. After 2 years this difference disappeared, indicating that fluoride only retarded chlorhexidine-induced staining of teeth. PMID:295486

  11. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  12. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1-2 h daily for 6-24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  13. Patient satisfaction and penile morphology changes with postoperative penile rehabilitation 2 years after Coloplast Titan prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Michael B; Carrion, Rafael; Wang, Run; Henry, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    A common complaint after inflatable penile prosthesis surgery is reduced penile length. We previously reported how using the Coloplast Titan inflatable penile prosthesis with aggressive new length measurement technique (NLMT) coupled with postoperative IPP rehabilitation of the implant for 1-year helped to improve patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements. This is a 2 years follow-up of a prospective, three-center, study of 40 patients who underwent Titan prosthesis placement, with new length measurement technique for erectile dysfunction. Patient instructions were to inflate daily for 6 months and then inflate maximally for 1–2 h daily for 6–24 months. Fifteen penile measurements were taken before and immediately after surgery and at follow-up visits. Measurement changes were improved at 24 months as compared to immediately postoperative and at 12 months. 67.8% of subjects were satisfied with their length at 2 years, and 77% had perceived penile length that was longer (30.8%) or the same (46.2%) as prior to the surgery. 64.3% and 17.9% of subjects had increased and unchanged satisfaction, respectively, with penile length as compared to prior to penile implant surgery. All but one subject (96.5%) was satisfied with the overall function of his implant. This study suggests using the Coloplast Titan with aggressive cylinder sizing, and a postoperative penile rehabilitation inflation protocol can optimize patient satisfaction and erectile penile measurements at 2 years postimplant. PMID:26459782

  14. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  15. Case studies of quasi-periodic VLF emissions and related ULF fluctuations of the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Nemec, F.; Parrot, M.

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-periodic (QP) VLF emissions are observed in the inner magnetosphere mostly on the day-side. These waves exhibit a periodic time modulation of the wave intensity that is possibly a result of the whistler-mode wave growth being periodically modulated by compressional ULF magnetic field pulsations. We have analyzed 50 QP events measured by the DEMETER satellite at altitudes of about 700 km to verify their generation mechanism. The analyzed events have a modulation period between 15 s and 80 s, and they were observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp<3). Magnetometers of the CARISMA system were used for monitoring the ULF magnetic field pulsations in a wide spatial range. We have found that ULF magnetic field pulsations in the Pc3 - Pc5 range are well correlated with the occurrence of the QP emissions with modulation periods between about 40 and 80 s. At the same time, increased fluxes of high-energy electrons (E > 30 keV) were observed by DEMETER and by the NOAA-17 satellite. We analyze possible links between these electrons, QP emissions, and ULF magnetic field pulsations.

  16. A comparative study of zone axis pattern maps from decagonal phases with varying periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganathan, S. . Dept of Materials Science and Metallurgy Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore . Dept. of Metallurgy); Singh, A. . Dept. of Metallurgy); Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Weatherly, G.C. . Dept. of Metallurgy)

    1994-02-01

    The discovery in 1985 of the decagonal phase with periodicity in one direction and quasiperiodicity in the other two directions has excited considerable interest. This was followed by the observation that the periodicity perpendicular to the quasiperiodicity plane can assume multiple values on n = [1,2,3,4]x0.4 nm. The mapping of reciprocal spaces of these phases, labelled t[sub 2n], by electron diffraction is important in the context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] context of atomic models for the decagonal phase. While partial determinations have been available for T[sub 4] [Al-Co], T[sub 6][Al-Mn] and T[sub 8] [Al-Fe], [Al-Pd], the recent complete determination of zone axis pattern maps [ZAPM] and Kikuchi maps of T[sub 6] [Al-Mn] with 1.24 nm periodicity and T[sub 4][Al-Cu-Co-Si] with 0.8 nm periodicity is a tour de force by Kelton and his co-workers. These papers coupled with the complete mapping of the HOLZ line and Kikuchi line patterns of the T[sub 2][Al-Co-Ni] with 0.4 nm periodicity permit the authors to put in perspective the ZAPM of all the four decagonal phases and in addition predict patterns for the T[sub 8] phase for which a complete experimental determination is still lacking.

  17. Orbital period variation study of massive Beta-Lyrae eclipsing binary IU Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilan, Erkan; Bulut, İbrahim

    2016-07-01

    The system IU Aur is a semi-detached close binary system with an orbital period of 1.81 days, containing a massive star. The O-C diagram of this binary was analyzed with the least-squares method by using all available times of minima. We have found a periodic change of orbital period of IU Aur. This change has been explained by the gravitational effects of a third companion on the binay star. The orbit Parameters of the third body have been derived from the analysis of the O-C curve. The analysis indicates that the eclipsing binary revolves around a third-body with a mass of about M_{3}>10M_{⊙} in a highly eccentric orbit.

  18. Studies of Extreme Carbon Stars. 2; Periods From Optical Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Hitchon, Keith; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rocket and satellite IR sky surveys have revealed vast populations of extreme AGB stars with substantial circumstellar dust shells. It is normally assumed that these shells permit essentially no light to escape. However, using the Lick 3 meter reflector we have been able to secure and analyze a large number of spectra of a well-defined sample of these extreme evolved stars. From this archive we have determined that these objects are all long period Mira variables and have estimated their periods, correlated these with IR photometric variations, and deduced distances to the stars. The data reveal a population of disk carbon-giants, typically of 1-2 yr periods, mostly within 2 kpc of the sun. We have also been able to quantify the thickness of their dust shells.

  19. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  20. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  1. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Long-Period Grating Refractive Index Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidhi; Kaler, R. S.; Kapur, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of the response of long-period gratings as a refractive index sensor. Cladding modes are calculated, and results are compared with Optigrating 4.2.2 (Optiwave Systems Inc., Ottawa, Canada). The response has been checked for refractive indices ranging from 1 to 1.458. Theoretically simulated results are in accordance with the experimental results. It was found that the software package calculated values correctly up to the seventh decimal point. The ambient refractive index response of a long-period grating over a much wider index range has been modeled for values both less and more than the cladding refractive index.

  3. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  4. A study of the light curve periodic behavior of quasar 3C 345.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Xie, Guangzhong; Bai, Jinming

    All the data for the B band of the quasar 3C 345, presented in twenty-one publications and dating back to 1896, have been compiled to be a light curve. Altogether 1642 values are available. Using Jurkevich's method, the authors have found a period of 10.1±0.8 years (or 21.8±1.5 years) for the outbursts in 3C 345. Based on this period, one can predict that the next outburst should be at its maximum around January 2002.

  5. The predictive value of 2-year posttreatment biopsy after prostate cancer radiotherapy for eventual biochemical outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Waseet; Tucker, Susan L.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Kuban, Deborah A.; Cheung, M. Rex . E-mail: mrcheung@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of a 2-year post-radiotherapy (RT) prostate biopsy for predicting eventual biochemical failure in patients who were treated for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This study comprised 164 patients who underwent a planned 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy. The independent prognostic value of the biopsy results for forecasting eventual biochemical outcome and overall survival was tested with other factors (the Gleason score, 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, risk group, and RT dose) in a multivariate analysis. The current nadir + 2 (CN + 2) definition of biochemical failure was used. Patients with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or suspicious digital rectal examination before the biopsy were excluded. Results: The biopsy results were normal in 78 patients, scant atypical and malignant cells in 30, carcinoma with treatment effect in 43, and carcinoma without treatment effect in 13. Using the CN + 2 definition, we found a significant association between biopsy results and eventual biochemical failure. We also found that the biopsy status provides predictive information independent of the PSA status at the time of biopsy. Conclusion: A 2-year post-RT prostate biopsy may be useful for forecasting CN + 2 biochemical failure. Posttreatment prostate biopsy may be useful for identifying patients for aggressive salvage therapy.

  6. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions. PMID:26350726

  7. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  8. Reexamining the Critical Period Hypothesis: A Case Study of Successful Adult SLA in a Naturalistic Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioup, Elizabeth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The nativelike linguistic competence of an adult second-language learner of Egyptian Arabic who was first exposed to the target language after the close of the critical period is examined to determine what factors differentiate her from less successful naturalistic adult acquirers. The role of internalized grammar is discussed. (Contains 43…

  9. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  10. PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE VERY SHORT PERIOD SHALLOW CONTACT BINARY DD COMAE BERENICES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Diethelm, R. E-mail: mikulas@physics.muni.c

    2010-07-15

    The first photometric solutions of the very short period (VSP) close binary DD Comae Berenices (P = 0fd26920811) based on our new complete (IR){sub C} light curves are derived by the 2003 version Wilson-Van Hamme code. They show that the system belongs to shallow contact W-type W UMa systems with a degree of overcontact of 8.7%. The observed light curve distortions are explained by employing the spots model due to the late-type nature of both components. We have collected all available photometric data about the system with emphasis on the individual observational data, which we treated simultaneously using our own method based on the usage of computed model light curves as templates. We recalculated published times of light minimum and added new ones of our own to construct an O - C diagram that spans over 70 years. Using a least squares method orthogonal quadratic model function, we found that the orbital period of DD Com is continuously increasing with P-dot =0.00401(22) s yr{sup -1}. The period increase may be caused by the mass transfer from the less-massive component to the more-massive one. With the period increase, the binary is evolving from the present shallow contact phase to the broken stage predicted by the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) theory. Compared with other VSP systems, DD Com is a rare system that lies on the expanding phase of the TRO cycle. Until now, only four such systems including DD Com are found in this stage. Thus, this target is another good observational proof of the TRO theory in a very short period region.

  11. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  12. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  13. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  14. Correlates of malnutrition among children under 2 years of age admitted to hospital in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Defo, B K; Young, T B

    1993-04-01

    A survey of health status, biodemographics, and use of health care services of all children under 2 years of age, consecutively admitted to the Baudeloque ward of the Central Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon, was conducted over a 12-month period (1984). During the admission procedure, each child's mother or surrogate mother was interviewed and the child was weighted according to study protocol; additional data were collected by review of hospital records. A total of 669 children were recruited into the study sample; there were no refusals. Nutritional status was estimated by categories based on weight for age. Overall, 43 per cent of the sample were of normal weight-for-age, and 6 per cent, 19 per cent, and 32 per cent were categorized as having severe, moderate, and mild malnutrition, respectively. Multinomial logit modelling was used to identify independent correlates of mild, moderate, and severe PEM simultaneously. The study findings underscore the broad health benefits of immunizations. Furthermore, any prior contact of mother or child with the health care system appears to be associated with better nutritional status on hospital admission. Children with mothers employed outside the home may benefit particularly from health services outreach programmes. PMID:8492366

  15. Field-induced periodic distortions in a nematic liquid crystal: deuterium NMR study and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V

    2011-08-01

    The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001

  16. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration. PMID:19632749

  17. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  18. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  19. Natural convection in an enclosure under time periodic heating: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antohe, B.V.; Lage, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the heating period on the heat transfer across a water filled rectangular enclosure is examined experimentally. The enclosure is designed such that periodic heat by Joule effect is delivered at one wall while the opposite wall is maintained at an approximately constant temperature. All other surfaces are insulated. Several heating power levels are chosen with equivalent time averaged heat-flux based Rayleigh number varying from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 8} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}. The heating period varies from 32 seconds to 1600 seconds. For the highest Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}, the oscillatory heating process leads to a cycle averaged heat transfer coefficient 20 percent higher than obtained with steady averaged-heat flux heating. Results, presented in terms of temperature time series, phase-plane portrait, and time evolution of cooling and heating wall temperatures, indicate that for low heating frequencies the heat transfer across the enclosure is hindered, with the time averaged heat transfer coefficient decreasing by as much as 13 percent of the equivalent steady heating value. A plausible explanation for the phenomenon is offered and discussed. The instantaneous and cycle averaged heat transfer coefficients, and the corresponding Nusselt numbers, are also presented for various heating frequencies.

  20. A period study and revised photometric model for the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuangui; Zhang, Liyun; Dai, Haifeng; Li, Huali

    2015-05-01

    We present new photometry of the eclipsing binary ZZ Cyg. From all accumulated eclipsing times, we constructed the (O-C) curve, which can be described by a downward parabola with a possible light-time orbit. The period decrease rate is dP / dt = - 5.73 (± 0.18) dyr-1 . The modulated period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity for the light-time orbit are Pmod = 71.4 (± 1.1)yr , A = 0.0071 (± 0.0005)day and e = 0.420 (± 0.053) , respectively. After removing effects of the magnetic activity, this kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to light-time effect via an additional companion. By using the W-D code, the photometric model was updated, which identified that ZZ Cyg is a near-contact binary. We find that a hot spot may occur on the primary that explains the asymmetric light curve. The secular period decrease may possibly cause the fill-out factor of the primary to increase. Finally it will finally fill its Roche lobe. This kind of binary, ZZ Cyg, may evolve into contact binary star.

  1. Period and light-curve study of the contact eclipsing binary V523 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Mahya; Abedi, Abbas; Riazi, Nematollah

    2016-04-01

    CCD photometry of the eclipsing W Uma binary system V523 Cas in U, B, V and RC filters was carried out during eight nights in 2012. The physical and geometrical parameters of this system are obtained. A possible pulsation period of one of the components is obtained by analyzing the residuals of the ephemeris light curve. Our observations contain 16 times of minimum light. We combined these with all available published times of minimum. By fitting a quadratic curve to the O-C values, a new ephemeris of the system is calculated. By attributing the period change to mass transfer, we find a mass transfer rate of 4 ×10-12 M⊙/yr. Also, Period (80.58 yr) and the minimum mass (0.3 M⊙) of a possible third body is estimated. In addition, the possible existence of a fourth body with a mass of order 0.15 M⊙ is discussed. These third and fourth bodies could be low-mass main-sequence stars (red dwarfs).

  2. Food Variety at 2 Years of Age is Related to Duration of Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Chih, Tsz Ying; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breastfeeding duration and food variety at 2 years of age. A secondary data analysis was undertaken of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Data collected from a single 24 h dietary recall of 1905, 2 year-old children were used to calculate two food variety scores; a core food variety score (CFVS) and a fruit and vegetable variety score (FVVS). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify those factors independently associated with the CFVS and FVVS. The mean CFVS was 7.52 (range 1–18) of a possible 34 food items or groups and the mean FVVS was 2.84 (range 0–10) of a possible 16 food items or groups. Breastfeeding duration was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p < 0.001). In addition, maternal age was independently directly associated with the CFVS (p < 0.001) and FVVS (p = 0.001) as was maternal education (CFVS p < 0.001 and FVVS p = 0.043). The presence of older siblings was independently inversely associated with the CFVS (p = 0.003) and FVVS (p = 0.001). This study demonstrated a direct modest association between breastfeeding duration and food variety in 2 year-old children, independent of maternal demographic characteristics known to predict food variety in children. This finding supports the hypothesis that flavours transferred in breast milk provide repeated early exposure to different tastes and positively shape children’s food preferences and food variety. PMID:23201765

  3. 2-Year-Olds' Speech Understanding in Multitalker Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Infants and toddlers are often spoken to in the presence of background sounds, including speech from other talkers. Prior work has suggested that infants 1 year of age and younger can only recognize speech when it is louder than any distracters in the environment. The present study tests 24-month-olds' ability to understand speech in a multitalker…

  4. 75 FR 76082 - Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection; Gravesite Reservation Survey (2- Year) Activity Under OMB Review... correspondence. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Title: Gravesite Reservation Survey (2-Year), VA Form 40-40....

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and binding protein-3 in a 2-year soya intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Takata, Yumie; Murphy, Suzanne P; Franke, Adrian A; Kaaks, Rudolph

    2005-09-01

    Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5-22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0.04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0.06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels. PMID:16176606

  6. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  7. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  8. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  9. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  10. Photoluminescence Studies of Lateral Composition Modulated Short-Period AlAs/InAs Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrenkiel, S.P.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Jones, E.D.; Lee, S.R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J.; Norman, A.G.; Reno, J.L.; Twesten, R.D.; Zhang, Y.

    1999-01-04

    We present low temperature photoluminescence data for a series of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in (AlAs){sub m}/(InAs){sub n} short period superlattices on InP with differing average lattice constants, i.e., varying global strain. The low temperature photoluminescence peak energies were found to be much lower than the corresponding energy expected for the equivalent In{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}As alloy. The bandgap energy reductions are found to approach 500 meV and this reduction is found to correlated with the strength of the composition modulation wave amplitude.

  11. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  12. Assessment of sensory and chemical characteristics of new University of Florida strawberry selections over a period of 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Festival, the main cultivar grown by the large commercial strawberry farms in Florida, can produce firm, attractive and sweet fruit with a strong aroma. However, 'Festival' has low yields in early December and the overall flavor of its fruit tends to be low in March. New selections are being evaluat...

  13. A numerical study of the pseudotime transformation for drawdown in the infinite-acting period

    SciTech Connect

    Yue-lu, Y.; Finjord, J.

    1989-06-01

    Drawdown with a constant-surface-conditions gas rate into a single well, starting at homogeneous pressure conditions in a cylindrical gas reservoir, is simulated numerically. For radii much larger than the wellbore radius, the pseudopressure solution in the infinite-acting period can be plotted uniquely as a function of a Boltzmann variable s=r/sup 2//sub D//4t/sub rhoD/, where r/sub D/ and t/sub rhoD/ are dimensionless radius and pseudotime. The nonlinear correction terms in the pseudotime diffusion equation, far from being negligible for drawdown, can become dominant in the infinite-acting period. This confirms an analytical result obtained previously. The correction terms are shown by simulation to be functions of s only for radii much larger than the wellbore radius. Plotted vs. In s, the pseudopressure shows an approximately linear behavior with a slope slightly larger than the usual constant-diffusivity slope. This was predicted by an explicit analytical solution.

  14. X-ray diffraction study of short-period AlN/GaN superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kyutt, R. N. Shcheglov, M. P.; Ratnikov, V. V.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Smirnov, A. N.; Rozhavskaya, M. M.; Zavarin, E. E.; Lundin, V. V.

    2013-12-15

    The structure of short-period hexagonal GaN/AlN superlattices (SLs) has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. The samples have been grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a horizontal reactor at a temperature of 1050°C on (0001)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates using GaN and AlN buffer layers. The SL period changes from 2 to 6 nm, and the thickness of the structure varies in a range from 0.3 to 1 μm. The complex of X-ray diffraction techniques includes a measurement of θ-2θ rocking curves of symmetric Bragg reflection, the construction of intensity maps for asymmetric reflections, a measurement and analysis of peak broadenings in different diffraction geometries, a precise measurement of lattice parameters, and the determination of radii of curvature. The thickness and strain of separate SL layers are determined by measuring the θ-2θ rocking curves subsequent simulation. It is shown that most SL samples are completely relaxed as a whole. At the same time, relaxation is absent between sublayers, which is why strains in the AlN and GaN sublayers (on the order of 1.2 × 10{sup −2}) have different signs. An analysis of diffraction peak half-widths allows us to determine the densities of individual sets of dislocations and observe their change from buffer layers to SLs.

  15. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  16. Theoretical study of InN/GaN short period superlattices to mimic disordered alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, M. Marques, M.

    2014-06-14

    We carried out ab initio calculations of the (InN){sub n}∕(GaN){sub m} short period superlattices using the LDA-1/2 method in order to obtain approximate quasiparticle electronic structures. We performed calculations for several short period superlattices respecting the concentrations of 33%, 50%, 66%, and 80% of InN, considering different straining possibilities due to lattice mismatches. For the majority of configurations, we find relevant changes on the valence and conduction profiles around bandgap with position plane-by-plane along the superlattices growth direction, with the presence of intrinsic electric fields in the materials, in the case, when strain is applied. Our results show that for small numbers n and m of layers, the band edge states extend over the entire superlattice. For larger n and/or m, the edge states tend to localise on particular subtype layers (InN or GaN). For the former cases, the bandgaps are very close to the random alloys with the same concentrations, providing potential good materials for optoelectronic devices based on nitrides.

  17. [A case of total intestinal aganglionosis. 2 years of survival].

    PubMed

    López Gútiérrez, J C; de Agustín, J C; Murcia, J; Carrero, C; Muguerza, R; Soto, C; Utrilla, J G; Lassaletta, L

    1991-10-01

    A two-year-old male is presented. Small bowel aganglionosis was proved to extend to 3 cm below ligament of Treitz. Gastrostomy and ileostomy was done. He received his caloric intake by cyclic home parenteral nutrition trough implantable venous system. At eighteen months of age, intestinal transplantation was refused and reoperation was done. The child underwent Ziegler's miotomymiectomy on 60 cm of aganglionic jejunum. Now at twenty seven months of age he receives cyclic parenteral nutrition, and enteral feedings are being increased slowly. The weight/height was at 91 per 100 standard, intestinal motility appears much better on contrast study and he is developmentally a normal child. PMID:1760266

  18. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology. PMID:25937563

  19. Chronic intermittent form of isovaleric aciduria in a 2-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Kim, Yoo-Mi; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Isovaleric aciduria (IVA) is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). IVA presents either in the neonatal period as an acute episode of fulminant metabolic acidosis, which may lead to coma or death, or later as a "chronic intermittent form" that is associated with developmental delays, with or without recurrent acidotic episodes during periods of stress, such as infections. Here, we report the case of a 2-year old boy with IVA who presented with the chronic intermittent form. He was admitted to Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital with recurrent vomiting. Metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, elevated serum lactate and isovalerylcarnitine levels, and markedly increased urine isovalerylglycine concentration were noted. Sequence analysis of the IVD gene in the patient revealed the novel compound mutations-a missense mutation, c.986T>C (p.Met329Thr) and a frameshift mutation, c.1083del (p.Ile361fs*11). Following stabilization during the acute phase, the patient has remained in a stable condition on a low-leucine diet. PMID:24019846

  20. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  1. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  2. Microscopy and microRaman study of periodically poled domains in deeply thinned lithium niobate wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, P. S.; Huang, H.-C.; Yang, H.; Dadap, J. I.; Kymissis, I.; Osgood, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    The domain structure of poled deeply thinned lithium niobate is investigated as a function of sample thickness. Free-standing samples of thickness from 25 to 500 μm are prepared by a multiple-cycle polish and annealing procedure and then periodically poled. Using these samples and employing micro-Raman scattering and scanning electron, atomic force, and optical microscopy together, the domain broadening and poling voltage are found to vary in a regular and significant manner. The poled domains show a reduction in width spreading of 38% as the sample thickness is reduced from 500 to 25 μm. Micro-Raman probe measurements verify the quality and the uniformity of the poled domains and provide insight into their thickness-dependent poling contrast.

  3. Photometric Study and Period Analysis of the Contact Binary XZ Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chang Qing; Zhang, Xiao Bin; Deng, Licai; Wang, Kun; Luo, Yangping

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-color CCD photometry of the neglected contact binary XZ Leo. Completely covered VRI band light curves and four times of minimum light were obtained. Combining the photometric and previously published radial-velocity data, a revised photometric analysis was carried out for the binary system by applying the Wilson-Devinney code. With a hot spot placed on the massive primary component near the neck region of the common envelope, the light curves were satisfactorily modeled. The photometric solution combined with the radial-velocity solution reveals that XZ Leo is an A-type contact binary with a degree of contact of 24(±1)%. The absolute parameters of the components were determined to be M1 = 1.74(±0.06)M⊙, M2 = 0.61(±0.02)M⊙, R1 = 1.69(±0.01)R⊙, R2 = 1.07(±0.01)R⊙, L1 = 6.73(±0.08) L⊙, and L2 = 2.40(±0.04)L⊙. Based on all the available data, the long-term orbital period behavior of the system was investigated. It indicates that the binary system was undergoing a continuous orbital period increase in the past three decades with a rate of {dP}/{dt} =+6.12× {10}-8 {days} {{yr}}-1, which suggests a probable mass transfer from the secondary to the primary component at a rate of {dM}/{dt}=3.92× {10}-8{M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The binary system is expected to evolve into the broken-contact stage in 1.56× {10}6 years. This could be evidence supporting the thermal relaxation oscillation theory.

  4. [Experimental study of the root supply system with periodic water return designed for space greenhouses].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Smolianina, S O; Krivobok, N M

    2000-01-01

    To improve reliability of plant's moistening and aeration control in microgravity, an original root supply system with a periodic return water flow has been designed and tested in laboratory. For 30 days crops of Pekinese cabbage (Brassica pekinesis (Lour Rupr), Khibini sort) were raised in the test bench which allowed adjustment of water potential in the root zone within a preset range. A three-step water potential control algorithm included water injection with a pump-dispenser, a pause, and water sucking back to a desired value of water potential. The following parameters of the control cycle were selected in a series of two experiments: time of water injection (2.5 hr) and return (1.5 hr), and a pause of 8 and 20 hr, respectively. Magnitude of water potential about the root module axis was controlled in the range from -1.3 kPa to -3.0 kPa in both experiments and maintained at -1.3 kPa in the control. The root modules consisted of porous metaloceramic tubes wrapped in fibrous ion exchanging cloth and a light-proof film with planting slots on top. In the first experiment, plant characteristics were comparable to the control. The developed procedure and technology can be used to provide favourable moisture-air conditions in the root zone. By and large, the system of root nutrition with a periodic water return has demonstrated high capacity during the ground-based cultivation of plants. To use this system in space greenhouse, it is necessary to specify operational parameters for the microgravity environment. PMID:10826063

  5. SMOS after 2 YEARS and a half in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Richaume, P.; Wigneron, J.-P.; Waldteufel, P.; Mecklenburg, S.; Cabot, F.; Boutin, J.; Font, J.; Reul, N.

    2012-04-01

    finely the characteristics of the complete system in terms of stability, drift etc. Some anomalies such as the ascending descending temperature differences, temporal drifts or land sea contamination were used to infer issues and improve data quality. The modeling has to account for several perturbing factors 'galactic reflection, sea state, atmospheric path and Faraday rotation etc…as the useful signal is quite small when compared to the perturbing factors impact as well as the instrument sensitivity. Over sea ice several studies showed that it was possible to infer thin ice (first year ice, 50 cm or less) from SMOS measurements. Other studies focused on the Antarctic plateau with also very interesting new results. This presentation will show in detail the SMOS in flight results. The retrieval schemes have been developed to reach science requirements, that is to derive the surface soil moisture over continental surface with an accuracy better than 0,04m3/m3. Over the ocean the goals are not yet satisfied but results are already getting close to the requirements.

  6. A 2-year longitudinal analysis of the relationships between violent assault and substance use in women.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, D G; Acierno, R; Resnick, H S; Saunders, B E; Best, C L

    1997-10-01

    Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use. PMID:9337502

  7. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  8. Effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmokinetics of zolpidem: a two-treatment period study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Popa, Adina; Neag, Maria; Muntean, Dana; Achim, Marcela; Leucuţa, Sorin Emilian

    2012-01-01

    1. Our objective was to evaluate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine in healthy volunteers. 2. The study consisted of two periods: Period 1 (reference), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem; and Period 2 (test), when each volunteer received a single dose of 5 mg zolpidem and 100 mg fluvoxamine. Between the two periods, the subjects were treated for 6 days with a single daily dose of 100 mg fluvoxamine. 3. Pharmacokinetic parameters of zolpidem given in each treatment period were calculated using non-compartmental analysis and the data from two periods were compared to determine statistically significant differences. 4. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) were 56.4 ± 25.6 ng/mL (zolpidem alone) and 67.3 ± 25.8 ng/mL (zolpidem after pretreatment with fluvoxamine). The t(max), times taken to reach C(max), were 0.83 ± 0.44 and 1.26 ± 0.74 h, respectively, and the total areas under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 200.9 ± 116.8 and 512.0 ± 354.6 ng h/mL, respectively. The half-life of zolpidem was 2.24 ± 0.81 h when given alone and 4.99 ± 2.92 h after pretreatment with fluvoxamine. 5. Fluvoxamine interacts with zolpidem in healthy volunteers and increases its exposure by approximately 150%. The experimental data showed the pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and fluvoxamine, and suggest that the observed interaction might be clinically significant, but its relevance has to be confirmed. PMID:21985609

  9. The associations between feeding difficulties and behaviours and dietary patterns at 2 years of age: the ALSPAC cohort.

    PubMed

    Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of toddlers. This period of life is important for forming good dietary habits later in life. Using dietary data collected via food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at 2 years of age, we examined the dietary patterns of children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Principal component analysis was performed for 9599 children and three patterns were extracted: 'family foods' associated with traditional British family foods such as meat, fish, puddings, potatoes and vegetables; 'sweet and easy' associated with foods high in sugar (sweets, chocolate, fizzy drinks, flavoured milks) and foods requiring little preparation (crisps, potatoes, baked beans, peas, soup); 'health conscious' associated with fruit, vegetables, eggs, nuts and juices. We found clear associations between dietary pattern scores and socio-demographic variables, with maternal education being the most important. Higher levels of education were associated with higher scores on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns, and decreased scores on the 'sweet and easy' pattern. Relationships were evident between dietary pattern scores and various feeding difficulties and behaviours. Notably, children who were introduced late to lumpy (chewy) solids (after 9 months) scored lower on both the 'family foods' and the 'health conscious' patterns. Further analyses are required to determine the temporal relationship between perceived feeding difficulties and behaviours, and it will be important to assess the contribution of the age of introduction to lumpy solids to these relationships. PMID:22463762

  10. Preterm infant gut colonization in the neonatal ICU and complete restoration 2 years later.

    PubMed

    Moles, L; Gómez, M; Jiménez, E; Fernández, L; Bustos, G; Chaves, F; Cantón, R; Rodríguez, J M; Del Campo, R

    2015-10-01

    Preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are exposed to multidrug-resistant bacteria previously adapted to the hospital environment. The aim of the present study was to characterize the bacterial antibiotic-resistant high-risk lineages colonizing preterm infants during their NICU stay and their persistence in faeces after 2 years. A total of 26 preterm neonates were recruited between October 2009 and June 2010 and provided 144 faecal samples. Milk samples (86 mother's milk, 35 human donor milk and 15 formula milk) were collected at the same time as faecal samples. An additional faecal sample was recovered in 16 infants at the age of 2 years. Samples were plated onto different selective media, and one colony per morphology was selected. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and MALDI-TOF. Antibiotic susceptibility (agar dilution), genetic diversity (RAPD, PFGE and MLST) and virulence factors (only in enterococcal and staphylococcal isolates) were determined by PCR. A high proportion of antibiotic-resistant high-risk clones was detected in both faecal and milk samples during the NICU admittance. Almost all infants were colonized by Enterococcus faecalis ST64 and Enterococcus faecium ST18 clones, while a wider genetic diversity was observed for the Gram-negative isolates. Multidrug-resistant high-risk clones were not recovered from the faecal samples of the 2-year-olds. In conclusion, the gut of preterm infants admitted to the NICU might be initially colonized by antibiotic-resistant and virulent high-risk lineages, which are later replaced by antibiotic-susceptible community ones. PMID:26086569

  11. Perceived outcomes and satisfaction of Saudi parents and their children following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents’ satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. Results: A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents’ perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Conclusion: Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA. PMID:25625072

  12. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: Cognitive Function Over a 4-Year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; Hadjulis, Michael; Vourdas, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Generalized cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia (EOS; defined as onset before the age of 17 years). The impact on cognition of potential interactions between disease pathology and brain maturation remains unclear. We therefore compared cognitive function between 20 EOS patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status at 2 time points, when aged 15.58 (2.27) and after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years when aged 19.46 (2.21) years. Repeated measures analyses revealed no differences between patients and controls in the degree of change over this time period in general intellectual function and planning ability as measured by the Tower of London. There was deterioration in the verbal memory and attentional control index scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised but relative improvement in Part A of the Trail Making Test. Patients’ level of symptomatology as well as the type and dose of medication were comparable at both time points. We conclude that most aspects of cognitive function remain relatively stable in EOS patients during adolescence; there is evidence for deterioration in immediate verbal memory and attention while speed of information processing may show improvement. PMID:18024468

  13. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  14. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  15. Analytic Study of Periodic Chaos. II ---Recursion Relations for the Power Spectra---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.

    1985-02-01

    On the basis of the analytic formulas for the correlation functions of nonperiodic orbits, the recursion relations are obtained which fully characterize the spectral structure of periodic chaos generated by continuous one-dimensional maps with a single maximum. The power spectrum at the mth band-splitting point consists of two parts, a line spectrum and a continuous spectrum, and each part is determined from the corresponding part at the (m-1)th band-splitting point through its own recursion relations, and thus the spectra near the chaotic critical point are completely determined. Moreover, it is shown that there exist the intrinsic relations between the intensities of the line and continuous spectra. The scaling law for the particlular orbits decisive of the correlation functions plays an essential role in deriving the recursion relations. The tent map has the exact recursion relations with the two rescaling factors dependent on m. The corresponding relations hold for the logistic map to an excellent approximation with the two rescaling factors replaced by α2 and -α, where α is Feigenbaum's rescaling factor. Universal aspects of the recursion relations are also discussed.

  16. An experimental and theoretical study of the mixing characteristics of a periodically reoriented irrotational flow.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Guy; Lester, Daniel; Ord, Alison; Kulkarni, Pandurang; Rudman, Murray; Trefry, Mike; Hobbs, Bruce; Regenaur-Lieb, Klaus; Morris, Jeffery

    2010-05-13

    The minimum-energy method to generate chaotic advection should be to use an irrotational flow. However, irrotational flows have no saddle connections to perturb in order to generate chaotic orbits. To the early work of Jones & Aref (Jones & Aref 1988 Phys. Fluids 31, 469-485 (doi:10.1063/1.866828)) on potential flow chaos, we add periodic reorientation to generate chaotic advection with irrotational experimental flows. Our experimental irrotational flow is a dipole potential flow in a disc-shaped Hele-Shaw cell called the rotated potential mixing flow; it leads to chaotic advection and transport in the disc. We derive an analytical map for the flow. This is a partially open flow, in which parts of the flow remain in the cell forever, and parts of it pass through with residence-time and exit-time distributions that have self-similar features in the control parameter space of the stirring. The theory compares well with the experiment. PMID:20368238

  17. Laboratory study of nitrification, denitrification and anammox processes in membrane bioreactors considering periodic aeration.

    PubMed

    Abbassi, Rouzbeh; Yadav, Asheesh Kumar; Huang, Shan; Jaffé, Peter R

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of using membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in simultaneous nitrification-anammox-denitrification (SNAD) by considering periodic aeration cycles was investigated. Two separate reactors were operated to investigate the effect of different anammox biomass in the presence of nitrifying and denitrifying biomass on the final nitrogen removal efficiency. The results illustrated that the reactor with higher anammox biomass was more robust to oxygen cycling. Around 98% Total Nitrogen (TN) and 83% Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were observed by applying one hour aeration over a four-hour cycle. Decreasing the aeration time to 30, 15, and 2 min during a four-hour cycle affected the final TN removal efficiencies. However, the effect of decreasing aeration on the TN removal efficiencies in the reactor with higher anammox biomass was much lower compared to the regular reactor. The nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was a function of aeration as well, and was lower in the reactor with higher anammox biomass. The results of q-PCR analysis confirmed the simultaneous co-existence of nitrifiers, anammox, and denitrifiers in both of the reactors. To simulate the TN removal in these reactors as a function of the aeration time, a new model, based on first order reaction kinetics for both denitrification and anammox was developed and yielded a good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24814548

  18. Patients With Isolated PCL Injuries Improve From Surgery as Much as Patients With ACL Injuries After 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Owesen, Christian; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas; Engebretsen, Lars; Granan, Lars-Petter; Årøen, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reports on outcome after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction often contain both isolated PCL and combined knee ligament injuries. This makes it difficult to conclude on the outcome after reconstruction of isolated PCL injuries. Purpose: To investigate the outcome after PCL reconstruction in patients with an isolated PCL injury and to compare this with the outcome of patients treated with reconstruction after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seventy-one patients with an isolated PCL injury that was reconstructed surgically and who had registered in the Norwegian Knee Ligament Registry between 2004 and 2010 were included in this study. Patients with isolated ACL reconstructions (n = 9661) who had registered in the same period were included for comparison. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the patient-reported outcome measure. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative KOOS scores were compared. Changes in KOOS score reported by the PCL patients were compared with changes reported by the ACL patients. Results: At the 2-year postoperative follow-up of the PCL-reconstructed patients, the patient-reported outcome was improved, measured by KOOS as follows: pain, 15.1 (95% CI, 8.5-21.8; P < .001); symptoms, 0.9 (95% CI, –6.6 to 8.3; P = .82); activities of daily living, 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6-13.9; P < .001); sports, 20.7 (95% CI, 11.8-29.4; P < .001); and quality of life, 26.6 (95% CI, 18.9-34.2; P < .001). According to the KOOS, the incremental improvements were similar for PCL and ACL patients. Time from injury to surgery was longer for the PCL patients compared with ACL patients (median, 21.5 vs 8.0 months; P < .001). Conclusion: Patients undergoing PCL reconstruction can expect the same improvements in KOOS score as patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. However, PCL patients start out with an inferior score on average and consequently end up

  19. High risk of peripheral arterial disease in the United Kingdom: 2-year results of a prospective registry.

    PubMed

    Stansby, Gerard; Mister, Rebecca; Fowkes, Gerry; Roughton, Michael; Nugara, Fiona; Brittenden, Julie; Bradbury, Andrew; Ashley, Simon; Shearman, Cliff; Hannon, Ray; Flather, Marcus

    2011-02-01

    We report a prospective 2-year, multicenter study of patients presenting with intermittent claudication (IC; ankle brachial blood pressure index, ABPI ≤ 0.9). Mean age of the 473 patients enrolled was 68 years, 20% were diabetics, 30% had prior symptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD), 7% had prior stroke, and 39% were current smokers. At baseline, 26.2% of patients had BP ≤ 140/85 mm Hg or lower and at 2 years this figure was 32.5% (P = .01). Current smokers had fallen to 27% (from 39%) at 2 years (P < .001). Use of antiplatelet agents, statins, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors increased significantly during the course of the study as did claudication distance. Death and the composite of death, stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), occurred in 8.4% and 11.6% of patients, respectively. Prognosis was worse in patients with prior history of CHD, older age, those with diabetes and a lower ABPI. PMID:21220371

  20. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  1. Practical prediction model for the risk of 2-year mortality of individuals in the general population.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb-Rumyantzev, Alexander; Gautam, Shiva; Brown, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to validate a prediction model and risk-stratification tool of 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population suitable for office practice use. A risk indicator (R) derived from data in the literature was based on only 6 variables: to calculate R for an individual, starting with 0, for each year of age above 60, add 0.14; for a male, add 0.9; for diabetes mellitus, add 0.7; for albuminuria >30 mg/g of creatinine, add 0.7; for stage ≥3 chronic kidney disease (CKD), add 0.9; for cardiovascular disease (CVD), add 1.4; or for both CKD and CVD, add 1.7. We developed a univariate logistic regression model predicting 2-year individual mortality rates. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data set (1999-2004 with deaths through 2006) was used as the target for validation. These 12,515 subjects had a mean age of 48.9±18.1 years, 48% males, 9.5% diabetes, 11.7% albuminuria, 6.8% CVD, 5.4% CKD, and 2.8% both CKD and CVD. Using the risk indicator R alone to predict mortality demonstrated good performance with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.84. Dividing subjects into low-risk (R=0-1.0), low intermediate risk (R>1.0-3.0), high intermediate risk (R>3.0-5.0) or high-risk (R>5.0) categories predicted 2-year mortality rates of 0.52%, 1.44%, 5.19% and 15.24%, respectively, by the prediction model compared with actual mortality rates of 0.29%, 2.48%, 5.13% and 13.40%, respectively. We have validated a model of risk stratification using easily identified clinical characteristics to predict 2-year mortality rates of individuals in the general population. The model demonstrated performance adequate for its potential use for clinical practice and research decisions. PMID:26951378

  2. Aerosol Indirect Effect Studies at Southern Great Plains During the May 2003 Intensive Operations Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Graham; Furrer, Reinhard; Pilewskie, Peter; Remer, Lorraine A.; Min, Qilong; Jonsson, Haflidi

    2006-01-01

    During May 2003 the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program conducted an Intensive Operations Period (IOP) to measure the radiative effects of aerosol and clouds. A suite of both in situ and remote sensing measurements were available to measure aerosol and cloud parameters. This paper has three main goals: First, it focuses on comparison between in situ retrievals of the radiatively important drop effective radius r(sub e) and various satellite, airborne, and surface remote sensing retrievals of the same parameter. On 17 May 2003, there was a fortuitous, near-simultaneous sampling of a stratus cloud by five different methods. The retrievals of r(sub e) agree with one another to within approx.20%, which is approximately the error estimate for most methods. Second, a methodology for deriving a best estimate of r(sub e) from these different instruments, with their different physical properties and sampling volumes, is proposed and applied to the 17 May event. Third, the paper examines the response of r(sub e) to changes in aerosol on 3 days during the experiment and examines the consistency of remote sensing and in situ measurements of the effect of aerosol on r(sub e). It is shown that in spite of the generally good agreement in derived r(sub e), the magnitude of the response of r(sub e), to changes in aerosol is quite sensitive to the method of retrieving r(sub e) and to the aerosol proxy for cloud condensation nuclei. Nonphysical responses are sometimes noted, and it is suggested that further work needs to be done to refine these techniques.

  3. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  4. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  5. Incidence of Second ACL Injuries 2 Years After Primary ACL Reconstruction and Return to Sport

    PubMed Central

    Paterno, Mark V.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the first 12 months after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) in a young, active population has been reported to be 15 times greater than that in a previously uninjured cohort. There are no reported estimates of whether this high relative rate of injury continues beyond the first year after RTS and ACLR. Hypothesis The incidence rate of a subsequent ACL injury in the 2 years after ACLR and RTS would be less than the incidence rate reported within the first 12 months after RTS but greater than the ACL injury incidence rate in an uninjured cohort of young athletes. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods Seventy-eight patients (mean age, 17.1 ± 3.1 years) who underwent ACLR and were ready to return to a pivoting/ cutting sport and 47 controls (mean age, 17.2 ± 2.6 years) who also participated in pivoting/cutting sports were prospectively enrolled. Each participant was followed for injury and athlete exposure (AE) data for a 24-month period after RTS. Twenty-three ACLR and 4 control participants suffered an ACL injury during this time. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the rates (per 1000 AEs) of ACL injury in athletes in the ACLR and control groups. For the ACLR group, similar comparisons were conducted for side of injury by sex. Results The overall incidence rate of a second ACL injury within 24 months after ACLR and RTS (1.39/1000 AEs) was nearly 6 times greater (IRR, 5.71; 95% CI, 2.0–22.7; P = .0003) than that in healthy control participants (0.24/1000 AEs). The rate of injury within 24 months of RTS for female athletes in the ACLR group was almost 5 times greater (IRR, 4.51; 95% CI, 1.5–18.2; P = .0004) than that for female controls. Although only a trend was observed, female patients within the ACLR group were twice as likely (IRR, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.8–8.6) to suffer a contralateral injury (1.13/1000 AEs) than an

  6. Attention to Multiple Events Helps 2 1/2-Year-Olds Extend New Verbs

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    An important question in verb learning is how children extend new verbs to new situational contexts. In Study 1, 2 1/2-year-old children were shown a complex event followed by new events that preserved only the action from the initial event, only the result, or no new events. Children seeing events that preserved either the action or the result produced appropriate verb extensions at test while children without this information did not. In a follow-up study, children hearing new verbs produced more extensions than did children hearing nonlabeling speech. These studies suggest that attention to related events is helpful to young verb learners, perhaps because they structurally align these events (e.g., Gentner, 1983; 1989) during verb learning. PMID:24324284

  7. Paleointensity during periods of rapid reversal: A Case Study from the Middle Jurassic Shamrock Batholith, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprain, C. J.; Feinberg, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Strauss, B.; Brown, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleointensity is one of the least determined parameters in geomagnetism, yet this information has the potential to address many fundamental geophysical problems that bear on the evolution of the Earth's core and lower mantle. Here we further test the inverse relationship between geomagnetic polarity reversal rate and paleointensity, as proposed by Tauxe and Staudigel (2004) and Tarduno & Cottrell (2005). We report paleointensity results determined using both the modified Coe method (Coe, 1967) and IZZI protocol (Tauxe and Staudigel, 2004) on medium grained, hornblende-biotite granite of the Shamrock batholith in the southern Singatse Range, near Yerington, Nevada. This batholith was emplaced at ca.165.8+/- 0.4 Ma (zircon U-Pb, Dilles & Wright, 1988) during a period of unusually high reversal frequency (~10/Myr) in the Middle Jurassic. Remanence in the Shamrock batholith is held primarily by exsolved submicron magnetite inclusions in plagioclase; the laboratory unblocking temperature range for the very well-defined TRM is narrow, between about 540 and 575°C. Two sets of quality control criteria were used to assess the data. The first set yielded a 87% success rate and required MAD <10°, β <15%, DRATS <22%, MD checks <15% and fvds >30%, while the second set was more stringent (20% success rate) with MAD <5°, β <10%, DRATS <10%, MD checks <10% and fvds >40%. Mean paleointensity values for the Shamrock batholith using the 'loose' and 'strict' quality criteria are 31.4 ± 4.2 μT (N = 13) and 29.7 ± 3.1 μT (N = 3), respectively. After correction for both remanence anisotropy and cooling rate the mean values are15.9 ± 1.7 μT and 14.8 ± 0.3 μT, respectively. The uncorrected and corrected paleointensity values for the 'strict' estimates yield mean virtual dipole moments of 56.1 ± 5.9 ZAm2 and 27.9 ± 0.6 ZAm2, respectively. The uncorrected value is consistent with the VDM results reported by Tarduno & Cottrell (2005) for plagioclase grains isolated from ca

  8. Vitamin D Status in Botswana Children Under 2 Years Old With and Without Active Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ludmir, Jonathan; Mazhani, Loeto; Cary, Mark S; Chakalisa, Unoda A; Pettifor, John M; Molefi, Mooketsi; Redwood, Abiona; Stallings, Virginia A; Gross, Robert; Steenhoff, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat tuberculosis (TB). Although vitamin D may have antimycobacterial effects, it is unknown whether low vitamin D status confers a risk for active TB in African children. This case-control study assessed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in children with and without active TB in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 80 children under 2 years old with and without active TB, seen at hospitals and clinics in the greater Gaborone area between September 2010 and November 2012, were enrolled. Of these, 39 cases did not differ from the 41 controls in median 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.84). The 25(OH)D was < 20 ng/mL in 8/39 (21%) cases and 7/41 (17%) controls (P = 0.69, χ(2)). Univariate analyses of subject clinical characteristics (other than 25(OH)D levels) showed that any degree of weight loss was associated with a diagnosis of TB (P = 0.047). Other clinical characteristics, including age (P = 0.08) or weight below third percentile (P = 0.58), showed no association with TB. There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between children under 2 years old with and without active TB. Lower vitamin D status did not appear to be a risk factor for TB in this small Gaborone cohort. PMID:26976889

  9. Live Pups from Evaporatively Dried Mouse Sperm Stored at Ambient Temperature for up to 2 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Gloria Y.; Lawitts, Joel A.; Toner, Mehmet; Biggers, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a mouse sperm preservation method based on evaporative drying. Mouse sperm were evaporatively dried and stored at 4°C and ambient temperature for 3 months to 2 years. Upon rehydration, a single sperm was injected into a mature oocyte to develop into a blastocyst after culture or a live birth after embryo transfer to a recipient female. For the samples stored at 4°C for 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the blastocyst formation rate was 61.5%, 49.1%, 31.5%, 32.2%, and 41.4%, respectively. The blastocyst rate for those stored at ambient temperature (∼22°C) for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months was 57.8%, 36.2%, 33.6%, and 34.4%, respectively. Fifteen, eight and three live pups were produced from sperm stored at room temperature for 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. This is the first report of live offspring produced from dried mouse sperm stored at ambient temperature for up to 2 years. Based on these results, we suggest that evaporative drying is a potentially useful method for the routine preservation of mouse sperm. PMID:24924588

  10. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child. PMID:8856517

  11. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1]. PMID:27054190

  12. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  13. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  14. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  15. Structure formation during the crystallization induction period of a short chain-molecule system: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hisao

    1998-10-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for a short chain-molecule system to study structure formation during the crystallization induction period. A model simulating n-alkane having 20 methylene units was used for the short-chain molecule. A model system containing either 250 or 2000 chains was quenched from a high temperature, and the structure formation was examined at constant temperature and pressure. The model system containing 250 chains eventually forms an ordered phase after the induction period, during which macroscopic quantities, such as volume, remain almost constant. In spite of these small changes in the macroscopic quantities, development of local parallel order is significant during the induction period. We also found that the development of local parallel order causes density fluctuations which appear as a weak small-angle peak in the structure factor. A characteristic length scale corresponding to the density fluctuations becomes larger as time elapses in the induction period. These features are qualitatively in accord with recent experimental findings on a different polymer system [M. Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 52, 12 696 (1995)].

  16. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  17. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  18. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of interacting…

  19. A Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies. Periodic Report: 1968-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.

    This report summarizes the role of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Environmental Communication and Education Studies (CECES) in helping to foster teaching, research, and public service programs. Included in the first section are program highlights (1968-1982), Center organization, and lists of Center personnel (executive…

  20. Studying Changes in Organizational Design and Effectiveness: Retrospective Event Histories and Periodic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, William H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes assumptions, rationale, and trade-offs involved in designing the research methodology used in a longitudinal study of organizational change. Data were obtained from over 100 organizations through 4 interviews spaced 6 months apart with top managers. (53 references) (MLF)

  1. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  2. A Study of Interaction in Distance Learning. Interim Technical Report for Period June-August 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Robert G.; Riise, Eric

    A more comprehensive definition of the variable "interaction" is needed to answer the numerous questions concerning interaction effects in distance learning. This study attempts to qualify the concept of interaction by applying various dimensions such as amount, timeliness, method, spontaneity, and quality. In turn, these dimensions of interaction…

  3. A periodic analysis of longitudinal binary responses: a case study of clinical mastitis in Norwegian Red cows

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-mei; Gianola, Daniel; Heringstad, Bjørg; Klemetsdal, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure for analyzing longitudinal binary responses using a periodic cosine function was developed. It was assumed that, after adjustment for "seasonal" effects, the oscillation of the underlying latent variables for longitudinal binary responses was a stationary series. Based on this assumption, a single dimension sinusoidal analysis of longitudinal binary responses using the Gibbs sampling and Metropolis algorithms was implemented in a study of clinical mastitis records of Norwegian Red cows taken over five lactations. PMID:17433240

  4. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  5. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  6. Comparison of wear and clinical performance between amalgam, composite and open sandwich restorations: 2-year results.

    PubMed

    Sachdeo, A; Gray, Gordon B; Sulieman, M A; Jagger, Daryll C

    2004-03-01

    There has been some disquiet over the use of mercury containing restorative materials. The most commonly used alternative is composite resin but this has the potential disadvantage associated with wear and marginal leakage, which in turn, has proven to result in secondary caries and sensitivity. To overcome the shortcomings of a directly placed composite restoration, the glass-ionomer/composite open sandwich technique was introduced followed by the subsequent introduction of compomer systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wear and clinical performance of a control group of amalgam restorations compared with that of a group of posterior composite resin restorations fillings and a group of compomer/composite open sandwich restorations placed by a single general dental practitioner. The duration of the study was 2 years. One hundred and thirty three (71.4%) patients were successfully recalled and the wear and clinical performance of each restoration after 6, 12 and 24 months was measured, indirectly. There was no statistically significant difference recorded between the groups at 6 months or 1 year (p > 0.05). However, at the end of the 2-year study, there was a significantly lower rate of wear recorded for the control amalgam restorations compared with other two groups (p = 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference in wear recorded between the two groups of tooth-coloured restorations (p > 0.05). With regards to clinical performance of the restorations, occlusal and proximal contacts in each group of restoration remained satisfactory throughout the study. PMID:15058177

  7. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials. Final report, period ending 31 August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, W.L.; Long, S.A.T.; Long, E.R. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  8. Letterer-Siwe disease: a study of thirteen cases over a 21 - year period.

    PubMed

    Bingham, E A; Bridges, J M; Kelly, A M; Burrows, D; Nevin, N C

    1982-02-01

    In Northern Ireland, with a population of 1.5 million, thirteen cases of Letterer-Siwe disease have been diagnosed over the past 21 years. The average age of onset was 10.5 months. There was a 69% mortality with an average survival time from diagnosis to death of 3.3 months. Four children survived with no morbidity. All deaths were from pulmonary complications, but two cases with pulmonary infiltration responded to treatment with quadruple chemotherapy. There were no familial cases in this study. PMID:7059511

  9. Early infant diet is not a predictor of body mass index and macronutrient intake at 2 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many retrospective studies have suggested that breast feeding during the first year of life may provide protection against overweight and obesity during childhood and later in life. We compared body mass index (BMI) and macronutrient composition in 2-year-old children who were fed breast milk (BF, ...

  10. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  11. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  12. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  13. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  14. A study of periodically driven stochastic systems using the method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneev, Mykhaylo

    A white-noise driven non-linear stochastic system subject to harmonic external forcing is considered. A general technique to compute the system's first- and higher-harmonic response to such a driving of arbitrary amplitude is elaborated, and its linear response version is derived. In addition, a novel method of computing the rate of escape of a stochastic system from a given region of its state space is proposed. These developments are applied to study the response of a stochastic oscillator in a bistable quartic potential V(x) = -(x2/2) + (x 4/4) to harmonic driving, as well as the rate of escape from one of its potential minima. Two cases are separately considered, namely, the overdamped (Smoluchowski) limit, and a more general case of arbitrary damping constant. Calculation of the probability of escape from a potential minimum per unit time as a function of noise intensity, T, and damping constant is performed. The results are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the Kramers-Arrhenius formula in the region of its validity, i.e., at low noise intensities. A subsequent increase of the escape rate with noise intensity in proportion to T is predicted. A detailed study of the susceptibility of the average coordinate to external forcing is carried out, and the effect of driving frequency, noise intensity, and damping on the system's driven probability distribution and response is investigated in the context of stochastic resonance (SR). In the overdamped limit, two types of processes contribute to the system's susceptibility, namely, intrawell and interwell relaxation. It is shown that even in the overdamped limit, both of these processes result in stochastic resonant enhancement of the system's sensitivity to driving with respect to noise strength. Other types of SR appear in the case of small damping, when noise can be used to tune the system to the interwell and/or intrawell vibrational state characterized by the frequency matching that of external

  15. Periodic Peritoneal Dialysis in End Stage Renal Disease: Is it Still Relevant? A Single Center Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, K; Prasad, D; Malhotra, V; Agrawal, D; Beniwal, P; Mathur, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: High cost of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) in India has made renal replacement therapy out of reach of many patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Repeated puncture PD although inferior to HD biochemically, is easily and freely available across Rajasthan, India, and is simple to perform, and does not require sophisticated machines, thus making it an attractive option for dialysis for ESRD. Aim: To analyze the outcomes of periodic PD in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis support. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study analyzing the data of patients who underwent PD between August 2010 and January 2013 in Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, India was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time period between first and second session of PD. Detailed demographic and clinical data during the study period were collected along with PD related complications. The main outcome studied was technique survival 1 year post initiation of PD. Results: 234 patients received an initial session of PD, of which 174 had a good response and were included in the study. 19 patients received the second PD within 7 days of first (Group 1), 45 patients within 8–14 days (Group 2) and 110 patients within 15–21 days (Group 3). The overall 1 year technique survival was 68.4% (91/133), with a rate of 50% (5/10), 56.8% (21/37), and 75.6% (65/86) for Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. The time duration between first and second PD proved to be reliable indicator of the subsequent response, with a technique survival rate significantly lower in Group 1 patients compared to Groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.04). Median dialysis free days were 11, 16 and 21 days in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Peritonitis rate observed was 2.1% (49/2261) during the study period. Conclusion: Periodic PD is a simple, safe and cheap procedure, which can be considered as used as a palliative measure in

  16. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, P.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond x-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the x-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform x-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. Significant progress was made over the past year.

  17. Maternal recall versus medical records of metabolic conditions from the prenatal period: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Methods Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73% to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57% to 77% and specificity from 93% to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC=0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κwt=0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κwt=0.85 and κwt=0.84, respectively; P=0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. Conclusions For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  18. Maternal Recall Versus Medical Records of Metabolic Conditions from the Prenatal Period: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Paula; Walker, Cheryl K; Tancredi, Daniel J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-09-01

    To assess validity of maternally-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders, and reliability of BMI measurements during periconception and pregnancy compared with medical records when mothers are interviewed 2-5 years after delivery. To investigate whether reporting accuracy differed by child's case status (autism, delays, typical development). Participants were mothers of 2-5 year old children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment) Study who had both prenatal/delivery records and telephone interviews. Sensitivity and specificity of self-report in telephone interview was assessed by comparison with medical records; agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. Deviations in reported BMI were evaluated with Bland-Altman plots and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Mothers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism or developmental delay) reported metabolic conditions slightly more accurately than control mothers. For diabetes, sensitivity ranged from 73 to 87% and specificity was ≥98% across groups. For hypertensive disorders, sensitivity ranged from 57 to 77% and specificity from 93 to 98%. Reliability of BMI was high (CCC = 0.930); when grouped into BMI categories, a higher proportion of mothers of delayed children were correctly classified (κ(wt) = 0.93) compared with the autism group and controls (κ(wt) = 0.85 and κ(wt) = 0.84, respectively; P = 0.05). Multiparity was associated with higher discrepancies in BMI and misreporting of hypertensive disorders. For purposes of etiologic studies, self-reported diabetes and hypertensive disorders during periconception and pregnancy show high validity among mothers irrespective of child's case status. Recall of pre-pregnancy BMI is reliable compared with self-reported values in medical records. PMID:25656730

  19. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  20. Periodicity and time trends in the prevalence of total births and conceptions with congenital malformations among Jews and Muslims in Israel, 1999-2006: a time series study of 823,966 births.

    PubMed

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital malformations (CMs) are a leading cause of infant disability. Geophysical patterns such as 2-year, yearly, half-year, 3-month, and lunar cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of all life on Earth and may affect birth and birth outcomes in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare trends and periodicity in total births and CM conceptions in two Israeli populations. METHODS Poisson nonlinear models (polynomial) were applied to study and compare trends and geophysical periodicity cycles of weekly births and weekly prevalence rate of CM (CMPR), in a time-series design of conception date within and between Jews and Muslims. The population included all live births and stillbirths (n = 823,966) and CM (three anatomic systems, eight CM groups [n = 2193]) in Israel during 2000 to 2006. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health. RESULTS We describe the trend and periodicity cycles for total birth conceptions. Of eight groups of CM, periodicity cycles were statistically significant in four CM groups for either Jews or Muslims. Lunar month and biennial periodicity cycles not previously investigated in the literature were found to be statistically significant. Biennial cycle was significant in total births (Jews and Muslims) and syndactyly (Muslims), whereas lunar month cycle was significant in total births (Muslims) and atresia of small intestine (Jews). CONCLUSION We encourage others to use the method we describe as an important tool to investigate the effects of different geophysical cycles on human health and pregnancy outcomes, especially CM, and to compare between populations. PMID:22535569

  1. Animal Welfare in Studies on Murine Tuberculosis: Assessing Progress over a 12-Year Period and the Need for Further Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  2. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species. PMID:26745511

  3. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  4. Predicting school readiness from neurodevelopmental assessments at age 2 years after respiratory distress syndrome in infants born preterm

    PubMed Central

    PATRIANAKOS-HOOBLER, ATHENA I; MSALL, MICHAEL E; HUO, DEZHENG; MARKS, JEREMY D; PLESHA-TROYKE, SUSAN; SCHREIBER, MICHAEL D

    2010-01-01

    AIM To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. METHOD Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory distress syndrome. Abnormal outcomes at the age of 2 years were defined as neurosensory disability (cerebral palsy, blindness, or bilateral hearing loss) or delay (no neurosensory disability but Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental or performance developmental index scores <70). School readiness (assessed at a mean age of 5y 6mo, SD 1y) was determined using neurodevelopmental assessments of motor, sensory, receptive vocabulary, perceptual, conceptual, and adaptive skills. RESULTS The mean birthweight of the cohort (57 males, 64 females) was 987g (SD 374), and the mean gestational age was 27.3 weeks (SD 2.6). At the age of 2 years, the neurodevelopmental classification was ‘disabled’ in 11% and ‘delayed’ in 23%. At the age of 5 years 6 months, intensive special education was required for 11% and some special education for 21%. Disability and delay at the age of 2 years were 92% and 50% predictive of lack of school readiness respectively, whereas only 15% of children who were normal at the age of 2 years were not school ready at the later assessment. Children with delay at 2 years were more likely to need special education if they were socially disadvantaged. INTERPRETATION Without preschool developmental supports, preterm survivors living in poverty will require more special education services. PMID:20002128

  5. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  6. A 2-year retrospective analysis of facial injuries in patients treated at department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, IGGDC, Jammu, India

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Parveen; Singh, Amrit Pal; Kour, Indumeet; Kumar, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial injuries is on the rise due to motor vehicle accidents and increased incidence of violence in recent times. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence, etiology, and the pattern of fractures in the maxillofacial region. Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the concerned authorities, a predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data from the department. A retrospective analysis of 787 patients, who suffered trauma and were managed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Indira Gandhi Government Dental College (IGGDC), Jammu over a period of 2 years was carried out. Results: Road traffic accident (RTA) was the common cause of maxillofacial injuries. Men sustained more injuries as compared to women. Injuries were most commonly sustained in the age group of 11-40 years, constituting about 76% of all injuries, mandibular fractures were the most common. Conclusion: RTAs were the commonest cause for the maxillofacial injuries. PMID:25937724

  7. Study on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having periodically corrugated enhancement structures with different duty cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Hao Ming; Wang, Huei Tsz; Huang, Chen Yang; Pan, Huang Wei; Chao, Shiuh

    2016-02-01

    The duty cycle effect on the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes having different periodically corrugated enhancement structures placed opposite to the emission surface was studied. The experimental results were compared with numerical simulation results. The numerical simulation was performed using a rigorous-coupled-wave-analysis method. In the case of common structures such as a patterned-sapphire structure, we found that, in general, extraction efficiency increased drastically when duty cycle was increased from zero, and then it varied relatively slowly as the duty cycle was increased further; after that, the extraction efficiency dropped drastically as the duty cycle approached 100%. However, for a structure that was composed of autocloned-photonic crystals super-imposing on the periodical corrugation, the efficiency increased monotonically with the duty cycle and reached 83.4% (corresponding to 589% enhancement efficiency) when the duty cycle approached 100%. A method for the fabrication of such high-efficiency structures was proposed.

  8. Low-altitude quasi-periodic echoes studied using a large database of Gadanki radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswara Rao, N.; Patra, A. K.; Rao, S. V. B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on low-altitude quasiperiodic (LQP) echoes based on a large database of Gadanki radar observations. LQP echoes have been observed 33% of the time during daytime and 39% during nighttime. Their occurrence is found to be maximum in the summer (daytime, 58% nighttime, 57%), followed by the September equinox (daytime, 32% nighttime, 48%), the March equinox (daytime, 26% nighttime, 36%), and minimum in the winter (daytime, 25% nighttime, 26%). Height-time occurrence of LQP echoes shows two local time maxima: one in the morning (0700-1100 LT) and another in the evening (1900-0000 LT). The most significant results not reported earlier are the large occurrence rate of LQP echoes and the height-time occurrence maps showing a descending pattern with close resemblance to tidal wind behavior. The Doppler velocities are upward-northward (downward-southward) for positive- (negative-) sloped LQP echoes. Also, we find the Doppler spread as high as 200 m s-1 at times underlining the presence of strong plasma turbulence in the collision-dominated lower E region. These results are discussed in the light of the current understanding of the LQP echoes.

  9. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Kaaret, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of accreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fields. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations of accreting compact objects. include imaging of X-ray jets from binaries and the study of extragalactic X-ray binaries. past year. Nine papers were accepted and/or published, as listed below. Seven of these are new since our previous annual report. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to Significant progress was made over the The presentation of several talks and posters at astronomical meetings were supported by this grant. The PI was the lead organizer of "X-Ray Timing 2003: Rossi and Beyond", a major conference held in Cambridge, MA, in November, 2003. A t the conference we reviewed the accomplishments of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and developed the scientific motivation for a future X-ray timing mission. This conference was well attended and generated a significant amount of interest.

  10. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays. PMID:25871502

  11. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  12. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  13. First multi-colour photometric study of the short period K-type contact binary NSVS 2701634

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignoni, M.; Acerbi, F.; Barani, C.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first CCD sets of complete light curves for the W Ursae Majoris W-type system NSVS 2701634. The observations were performed in the B, V and Ic bands using the 0.25 m telescope of the "Stazione Astronomica Betelgeuse" Italy, during 8 nights in April 2015. From our observations we were able to confirm and revise the short-period (0.24 days) variation found by Shaw and collaborators in their online list Using our 12 times of minimum light, the orbital period variations of NSVS 2701634 are studied for the first time. The general trend of the (O-C) curve reveals that its period is varying by a downward parabola that means that period is decreasing, this fact could be explained by a mass transfer between the components of the system. The light curves were modelled using the Wilson-Devinney code and the elements obtained from this analysis are used to compute the physical parameters of the system in order to study its evolutionary status. A reasonable fit of the synthetic light curves of the data indicated that NSVS 2701634 is an late-type (K3 -K4+K6) contact binary system of W-Subtype of the W Ursae Majoris systems, with a mass ratio of q = 2.60, a degree of contact factor f = 15.3% and inclination i = 72°. The light curves show asymmetries at the maxima that are fitted adding an hot spot on the surface of the more massive star, known as inverse O'Connell effect. From an estimation of the absolute dimensions of the system and from the logM-logL diagram, it is seen that both components of NSVS 2701634 follow the general pattern of the W subtype W Ursae Majoris systems.

  14. Effects of a single contraceptive Silastic implant containing nomegestrol acetate on ovarian function and cervical mucus production during 2 years.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, I; Coutinho, E; Hirsch, C; Ladipo, O; Olsson, S E; Ulmsten, U

    1996-04-01

    A total of 15 healthy women volunteers were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 23 +or- 1.2 years (range, 18-33 years), mean weight was 55.7 +or- 2.6 kg (range, 40-72 kg), and mean parity was 1.1 (range, 0-4). Venous blood samples were drawn every other day from day eight of the cycle until sonographic evidence of a 12-mm follicle, and then every day until sonographic evidence of follicular rupture and thereafter every other day until the next menstrual bleeding. The capsules were removed at the end of one year of Uniplant use, and a new capsule was inserted in 12 subjects. The blood samples for hormonal analyses were taken after 18 and 24 months of Uniplant use in the 12 women who continued in the study. Levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly lower than in the control cycles during the observation period (p .01, p .05). According to transvaginal sonography, four different patterns of follicular development were found: normal follicular growth and rupture, persistent follicle, follicular cysts, and no follicular growth. Follicular growth and rupture were observed in 20% of the treated cycles. Persistent follicles were present in approximately 15% of the treated cycles. Follicular cysts were observed in 29% of the cycles studied during 24 months of Uniplant use. All subjects had normal cervical cytology before starting treatment, after 12 months, and after 24 months of Uniplant use. The maximum cervical mucus score for pretreatment cycles was 12.8 +or- 0.4. Endometrial thickness was 8 mm in all cycles studied. 58% (7 of 12) of the women showed a normal menstrual cycle (26 to 32 days). 33% (4 of 12) of the women experienced one or two episodes of amenorrhea (90-134 days), whereas 8.3% of women (1 of 12) experienced episodes of spotting, six times in a period of 24 months of Uniplant use (10-30 days). Before Uniplant insertion, plasma concentration of sex hormone binding globulin was 72.3 nmol/L. After 24 months of Uniplant use, the concentration

  15. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis METHODS : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique RESULTS : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients CONCLUSION : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27057144

  16. Health-Engagement Control Strategies and 2-Year Changes in Older Adults’ Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between older adults’ daily physical symptoms (e.g., chest pain or difficulty breathing) and 2-year changes in chronic health problems (e.g., cardiovascular disease or cancer) and in functional problems (e.g., difficulty dressing or moving around at home). We reasoned that these associations depend on a person’s active control processes aimed at counteracting physical health problems (i.e., health-engagement control strategies, or HECS). In particular, we hypothesized that high levels of HECS buffer the adverse effect of daily physical symptoms on increases in chronic and functional health problems. We found that daily physical symptoms were associated with declines in chronic and functional health among older adults who were not engaged in addressing their health problems, but not among their counterparts who reported high levels of HECS. These findings suggest that active control strategies play an important role in the maintenance of older adults’ physical health. PMID:18578842

  17. Gesture and Symbolic Representation in Italian and English-Speaking Canadian 2-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Marentette, Paula; Pettenati, Paola; Bello, Arianna; Volterra, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of elicited pantomime, primarily of English-speaking children, show that preschool-aged children are more likely to symbolically represent an object with gestures depicting an object's form rather than its function. In contrast, anecdotal reports of spontaneous gesture production in younger children suggest that children use multiple representational techniques. This study examined the spontaneous gestures of sixty-four 2-year-old Italian children and English-speaking Canadian children, primarily from middle-class Caucasian families. The Italian children produced twice as many gestures as Canadian children in a picture-naming task but produced a similar range of representational techniques. Two-year-olds were equally likely to produce gestures depicting function as form. These data suggest young children's communicative skills are supported by a symbolic capacity that reflects contextual communicative demands. PMID:27079825

  18. Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors Among 2-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey G.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Jolynn K.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives and Participants The purpose of this paper is to describe weight indicators and weight-related behaviors of students enrolled in 2-year colleges, including sex differences. Methods During Fall 2011 and Spring 2012, 441 students from 3 Minnesota community colleges enrolled in the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings (CHOICES) Study and completed baseline assessments. Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating eating and activity patterns, sleep, and stress and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat. Results Participants were primarily female (68%), white (73%), with a mean age of 22.8 years and 66.2% reporting an annual income <$12,000. Almost half (47%) were overweight or obese. Young males appeared to engage the most in risky health behaviors and had higher levels of overweight or obesity, compared to young females. Conclusions Findings confirm the need for innovative interventions targeting this understudied and underserved young adult population. PMID:25692380

  19. Meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 Levels of Physical Activity: Agreement of 2 Measures across 2 years

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rod K.; Rooks, Cherie R.; Thom, Nathaniel J.; Motl, Robert W.; Nigg, Claudio R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measuring the way people vary across time in meeting recommended levels of physical activity should be a fundamental component of public health surveillance. However, we were unaware of prospective cohort studies that had examined this in a population base using convergent measures. Purpose We examined agreement between two validated measures used to estimate periodic change in the rate of meeting U.S. Healthy People 2010 guidelines for participation in moderate or vigorous physical activity. Methods A cohort (N=497) from a random, multi-ethnic sample of adults living in Hawaii was assessed every 6-months for 2 years starting spring 2004. Latent transition analysis classified people as meeting or not meeting the guidelines. Intra-class kappa statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate agreement. Results Agreement for classifying stable classes of people who met or did not meet the guideline each time was substantial for vigorous activity (kappa ∼ .65 - .70) but fair-to-moderate for moderate activity (kappa ∼ .38 - .48). Agreement was poorer for classifying people who transitioned between meeting and not meeting the vigorous guideline (kappa ∼ .45) or the moderate guideline (kappa ∼ .21 - .29). Conclusion Rates of meeting the guidelines varied across time and were estimated differently by the two measures, especially for moderate activity. This illustrates an understudied problem for public health promotion. Accurate classification of change within people is necessary for determining exposure in outcome studies, personal determinants of sufficient activity, and for evaluating whether interventions are successful in sustaining increases in rates of meeting physical activity guidelines. PMID:20538194

  20. Evolution of nonspecific duodenal lymphocytosis over 2 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piscitelli, Domenico; Giangaspero, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Buffelli, Francesca; Giorgio, Floriana; Montenegro, Lucia; Sorrentino, Claudia; Amoruso, Annacinzia; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the evolution of duodenal lymphocytosis (DL), a condition characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy/histology for abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, weakness or other extraintestinal features compatible with celiac disease (CD) were included. Evaluation of IELs infiltrate in duodenal biopsy samples was carried out by CD3-immunohistochemistry and expressed as number of positive cells/100 enterocytes. Diagnostic agreement on the IELs count was tested by calculating the weighted k coefficient. All patients underwent serological detection of autoantibodies associated with CD: IgG and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Each patient underwent further investigations to clarify the origin of DL at baseline and/or in the course of 2 years of follow-up every six months. Autoimmune thyroiditis, intestinal infections, parasitic diseases, bacterial intestinal overgrowth, hypolactasia and wheat allergy were detected. Colonoscopy and enteric magnetic resonance imaging were performed when necessary. Risk factors affecting the final diagnosis were detected by multinomial logistic regression and expressed as OR. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (16 males, 69 females, aged 34.1 ± 12.5 years) were followed up for a mean period of 21.7 ± 11.7 mo. At baseline, endoscopy/duodenal biopsy, CD3 immunohistochemistry revealed: > 25 IELs/100 enterocytes in 22 subjects, 15-25 IELs in 37 and < 15 IELs in 26. They all had negative serum anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium, whilst 5 showed IgG anti-gliadin positivity. In the course of follow-up, 23 developed CD seropositivity and gluten sensitivity (GS) was identified in 19. Other diagnoses were: 5 Helicobacter pylori infections, 4 jejunal Crohn’s disease, 1 lymphocytic colitis and 1 systemic sclerosis. The disease in the remaining 32 patients was classified as irritable bowel syndrome because of the lack

  1. Resistance training over 2 years increases bone mass in calcium-replete postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Ackland, T; Maslen, B; Morton, A; Prince, R

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the stress/strain relationship between exercise and bone is critical to understanding the potential benefit of exercise in preventing postmenopausal bone loss. This study examined the effect of a 2-year exercise intervention and calcium supplementation (600 mg) on bone mineral density (BMD) in 126 postmenopausal women (mean age, 60 +/- 5 years). Assignment was by block randomization to one of three groups: strength (S), fitness (F), or nonexercise control (C). The two exercise groups completed three sets of the same nine exercises, three times a week. The S group increased the loading, while the F group had additional stationary bicycle riding with minimal increase in loading. Retention at 2 years was 71% (59% in the S group, 69% in the F group, and 83% in the C group), while the exercise compliance did not differ between the exercise groups (S group, 74 +/- 13%; F group, 77 +/- 14%). BMD was measured at the hip, lumbar spine, and forearm sites every 6 months using a Hologic 4500. Whole body BMD also was measured every 6 months on a Hologic 2000. There was no difference between the groups at the forearm, lumbar spine, or whole body sites. There was a significant effect of the strength program at the total (0.9 +/- 2.6%; p < 0.05) and intertrochanter hip site (1.1 +/- 3.0%; p < 0.01). There was a significant time and group interaction (p < 0.05) at the intertrochanter site by repeated measures. This study shows the effectiveness of a progressive strength program in increasing bone density at the clinically important hip site. We concluded that a strength program could be recommended as an adjunct lifestyle approach to osteoporosis treatment or used in combination with other therapies. PMID:11149482

  2. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  3. The Role of 2-Year Colleges in the Improving Situation of Hispanic Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo; Hilmer, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past two decades 2-year colleges have become an increasingly important part of the American higher education system, especially for Hispanics who are disproportionately likely to start their careers in 2-year colleges. Given that today's economy rewards college attendance more than every before [Bound & Johnson (1992). "The…

  4. Study of the Correlations Between Long-Periodic Terrestrial Tides and Occurrence of Earthquakes in the Vrancea Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchay, J.; Stavinschi, M.

    1997-04-01

    Following studies already performed by various authors concerning specific tectonic faults we analyse statistically the possibility that earthquakes in the very active seismological zone of Vrancea (Roumania) may be triggered by the vertical luni-solar tidal oscillations when retaining only the components other than diurnal and semi-diurnal. Our conclusion is that for three of the four leading tides, with periods 18.6 y, 182.62 d, and 13.66 d, the earthquakes occur preferentially during the ascending part of each of the sine oscillation. This property is especially visible for the leading 13.66 d fortnightly wave, and for the 18.6 y wave, for which results are very similar to that of Kilston and Knopoff (1983), who analyzed data related to the San Andreas fault in Southern California. As a complement, we carried out an analysis of earthquake periodicities w.r.t. the variation rate of each of the tides above, given by the half-period sine oscillation, which also leads to interesting possible correlations.

  5. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  6. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  7. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  8. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  9. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  10. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  11. 5 CFR 536.204 - Period of grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... employee must continue to retain the previous retained grade for the remainder of the first 2-year period. At the end of the first 2-year period, the employee is entitled to retain the grade of the position... employee serving under an interim appointment made under 5 CFR 772.102 for the duration of the original...

  12. Study of light extraction efficiency of flip-chip GaN-based LEDs with different periodic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinlian; Kong, Fanmin; Li, Kang; Ding, Qingan; Zhang, Mingyu; Li, Wei

    2014-03-01

    To improve light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the GaN-based LEDs, it has become a practical technique to form 2D periodic micro/nanostructure arrays in an n- or p-GaN layer. However, the fabrication of micro/nanostructure arrays in the thinner p-GaN layer can deteriorate the electrical characteristics, sometimes even damage the QWs active region. In this study, numerical simulations based on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method were carried out to investigate the influence of the different periodic arrays in the thicker n-GaN layer on the LEE of the LEDs. To find the optimal structure, the study was divided into three parts. Firstly, the parametrical influence of the different periodic arrays on the LEE was numerically simulated. The results showed that micro-cone arrays can effectively enhance the LEE and the maximum LEE can be obtained as the bottom of each cone pattern was in contact with adjacent cones. Secondly, by comparing micro-cone arrays with micro-pyramid arrays, the micro-cone arrays were superior to micro-pyramid arrays in terms of enhancing LEE. Lastly, the truncated cone arrays and truncated cone hole arrays with different upper radius were studied. The results indicated that the truncated cone arrays in top radius of less than 0.4 µm showed a certain enhancement of the LEE and about 3 times LEE improvement was obtained as R=0.2μm and h=1.0μm, compared with the planar flip-chip LEDs. Our results will provide important theoretical implications in development of high-power and high-brightness LEDs.

  13. In Utero Pesticide Exposure and Leukemia in Brazilian Children < 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An association between pesticide exposure and cancer has been suggested. Infant leukemia is a rare neoplasm and its association with maternal pesticide exposure has been poorly explored. Objectives: We investigated the association between pesticide exposure during pregnancy and leukemia in children < 2 years of age. Methods: A hospital-based case–control study was carried out in 13 Brazilian states during 1999–2007. Mothers of 252 cases and those of 423 controls were interviewed. Information on pesticide exposures 3 months before pregnancy, throughout pregnancy, and during breastfeeding was obtained. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations between pesticide exposures and leukemia. Results: Associations with ever use of pesticides during pregnancy were observed for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) (aOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.86) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (aOR = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.97, 12.7) in children 0–11 months of age, and with ALL (aOR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 5.23) at 12–23 months of age. According to reported maternal exposure to permethrin, higher risk estimates were verified for children 0–11 months of age (aOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.17, 5.25 for ALL; and aOR = 7.28; 95% CI: 2.60, 20.38 for AML). Maternal pesticide exposure related to agricultural activities showed an aOR of 5.25 (95% CI: 1.83, 15.08) for ALL, and an aOR of 7.56 (95% CI: 1.83, 31.23) for AML. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that pesticide exposure during pregnancy may be involved in the etiology of acute leukemia in children < 2 years of age. PMID:23092909

  14. Multidisciplinary experiment on studying short-period variability of the sedimentary process in the northeastern part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Ostrovskii, A. G.; Novigatskii, A. N.; Lisitzin, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The principal aim of this work is to reveal the regularities of short-period synoptic variability of vertical flows and the composition of settling sedimentary material, to obtain information on the quantitative characteristics of the processes that influence sound-scattering layers in the water layer above the continental slope behind the shelf edge in the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The results were obtained due to improvement of the equipment and the procedures for performing sea experiments on studying physicogeological, biological, and hydrophysical processes in the upper illuminated layer of phytoplankton development.

  15. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  16. All-Cause Pneumonia Hospitalizations in Children <2 Years Old in Sweden, 1998 to 2012: Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Anders; Ekelund, Mats; Fletcher, Mark A.; Nyman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background In late 2007, some Swedish County Councils started 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) implementation for children, and PCV7 was included in the national immunization program in 2009. By 2010, both PCV10 and PCV13 were licensed, and the selection of vaccine was subject to County Councils tenders. This study investigated the impact of the order of PCV introduction into vaccination programs on the incidence of all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations in children <2 years-old. Methods Using population-based data from the publicly available National Inpatient Registry, the incidence of inpatient pneumonia (ICD-10 J12-J18) hospitalizations by County Councils among children <2 years old was identified between 1998 and 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRR; 95% CI) were calculated during the nationwide implementation of PCV7 and then between County Councils, as based on the higher-valent vaccine chosen for a program. Results There was a lower risk of all-cause pneumonia hospitalization among <2 year-old children following the introduction of PCV7, as compared to the pre-PCV7 period (0.77; 0.63–0.93). A decreased risk of all-cause pneumonia was also observed in the County Councils that followed the order PCV7 then PCV13 (0.82; 0.66–1.01), while no trend was observed in County Councils with a program in the order PCV7 then PCV10 (1.03; 0.82–1.30). When comparing the higher-valent vaccines, there was a 21% (0.79; 0.66–0.96) lower risk for childhood pneumonia hospitalization in County Councils finally using PCV13 as compared to the experience in County Councils that ultimately adopted PCV10. Conclusions Among children <2 years-old, all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations were significantly reduced by 23% one to two years after introduction of PCV7 vaccination in Sweden. In those County Councils that next introduced PCV13, a further decline in all-cause pneumonia hospitalization was observed, in contrast to those County Councils that followed with PCV10; this

  17. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  18. Long-period cosmic ray variations and their altitude dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belov, A. V.; Gushchina, R. T.; Dorman, L. I.; Sirotina, I. V.

    1985-01-01

    Long-period variations were studied from the data of ground-based cosmic ray (CR) observations. In spite of a large value of an 2-year variation, it is more difficult to obtain its spectrum than the spectrum of a solar diurnal variation. Serious obstacles are caused by changes in individual detectors and in the whole world wide network of CR detectors, by the absence of continuity and uniformity of data series, by various apparatus variations. In discrimination and investigation of long-period variations an important and determining point is preparation and preliminary analysis of data.

  19. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  20. A Pilot Study to Compare Oxidative Status between Organically and Conventionally Managed Dairy Cattle During the Transition Period.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the redox balance of organically managed dairy cattle (OMC; n = 40) during the transition period and to compare this with conventionally managed cattle (CMC; n = 22). Serum samples of dairy cows from two organic and one conventional farm were taken. Markers of oxidants production [reactive oxygen species] and total serum antioxidant capacity were measured in four different production stages: (i) far-off dry (2 to 1 months before calving; 44 samples in CMC and 48 in OMC); (ii) close-up dry (1 month until 3 days before calving; 44 CMC; 54 OMC); (iii) fresh (3 days to +1 month after calving; 44 CMC; 49 OMC); and (iv) peak of lactation (+1 to +3 months; 71 CMC; 78 OMC). Values were compared between production stages and against a metabolic baseline status (4th-5th month of pregnancy; 40 CMC; 30 OMC). Our results indicated that throughout the periparturient period, OMC had lower concentrations of reactive oxygen species, but also a lower antioxidant capacity than CMC. Indeed, when the two components of the redox balance were assessed together through the Oxidative Stress index, the values of this parameter were higher for OMC than for CMC, thereby implying a higher risk of oxidative stress. Therefore, further larger studies are needed to confirm the current observations, as organically reared animals might be exposed to a lack of antioxidants supply. PMID:25845278