Science.gov

Sample records for 20-29 30-39 40-49

  1. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98.30-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Portable Tanks § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire...

  2. 46 CFR 98.30-39 - Alternate fire extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate fire extinguishing system. 98.30-39 Section 98... Portable Tanks and Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-39 Alternate fire extinguishing system. An alternative to the fire extinguishing system required in § 98.30-37(c) may be approved in accordance...

  3. 29 CFR 20.29 - Notice of offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice of offset. 20.29 Section 20.29 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.29 Notice of offset. Prior to effecting an administrative offset, the agency holding funds of a debtor should advise the debtor of...

  4. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  5. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  6. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  7. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  8. 22 CFR 40.42-40.49 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 40.42-40.49 Section 40.42-40.49 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Public Charge §§ 40.42-40.49...

  9. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services. 30.39 Section 30.39 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  10. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services. 30.39 Section 30.39 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  11. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services. 30.39 Section 30.39 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  12. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services. 30.39 Section 30.39 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE...

  13. 21 CFR 20.29 - Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on withdrawal of records from Food and Drug Administration files. 20.29 Section 20.29 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.29 Prohibition...

  14. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  15. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  16. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  17. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  18. 49 CFR 40.49 - What materials are used to collect urine specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What materials are used to collect urine specimens? 40.49 Section 40.49 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... in DOT Urine Collections § 40.49 What materials are used to collect urine specimens? For each...

  19. Structural diversity of the soluble trimers of the human amylin(20-29) peptide revealed by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yuxiang; Lu, Yan; Wei, Guanghong; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2009-03-01

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) or amylin is a 37-residue hormone found as amyloid deposits in pancreatic extracts of nearly all type 2 diabetes patients. The fragment 20-29 of sequence SNNFGAILSS (hIAPP20-29) has been shown to be responsible for the amyloidogenic propensities of the full length protein. Various polymorphic forms of hIAPP20-29 fibrils were described by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state NMR experiments: unseeded hIAPP20-29 fibril with out-of-register antiparallel β-strands, and two forms of seeded hIAPP20-29 fibril, with in-register antiparallel or in-register parallel β-strands. As a first step toward understanding this polymorphism, we explore the equilibrium structures of the soluble hIAPP20-29 trimer, using multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the Optimized Potential for Efficient structure Prediction (OPEP) coarse-grained implicit solvent force field for a total length of 3.2 μs. Although, the trimer is found mainly random coil, consistent with the signal measured experimentally during the lag phase of hIAPP20-29 fibril formation, the central FGAIL residues have a relative high propensity to form interpeptide β-sheets and antiparallel β-strands are more probable than parallel β-strands. One MD-predicted out-of-register antiparallel three-stranded β-sheet matches exactly the FTIR-derived unseeded hIAPP20-29 fibril model. Our simulations, however, do not reveal any evidence of in-register parallel or in-register antiparallel β-sheets as reported for seeded hIAPP20-29 fibrils. All these results indicate that fibril polymorphism is partially encoded in a trimer.

  20. Structural diversity of the soluble trimers of the human amylin(20-29) peptide revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yuxiang; Lu, Yan; Wei, Guanghong; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2009-03-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) or amylin is a 37-residue hormone found as amyloid deposits in pancreatic extracts of nearly all type 2 diabetes patients. The fragment 20-29 of sequence SNNFGAILSS (hIAPP20-29) has been shown to be responsible for the amyloidogenic propensities of the full length protein. Various polymorphic forms of hIAPP20-29 fibrils were described by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state NMR experiments: unseeded hIAPP20-29 fibril with out-of-register antiparallel beta-strands, and two forms of seeded hIAPP20-29 fibril, with in-register antiparallel or in-register parallel beta-strands. As a first step toward understanding this polymorphism, we explore the equilibrium structures of the soluble hIAPP20-29 trimer, using multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the Optimized Potential for Efficient structure Prediction (OPEP) coarse-grained implicit solvent force field for a total length of 3.2 micros. Although, the trimer is found mainly random coil, consistent with the signal measured experimentally during the lag phase of hIAPP20-29 fibril formation, the central FGAIL residues have a relative high propensity to form interpeptide beta-sheets and antiparallel beta-strands are more probable than parallel beta-strands. One MD-predicted out-of-register antiparallel three-stranded beta-sheet matches exactly the FTIR-derived unseeded hIAPP20-29 fibril model. Our simulations, however, do not reveal any evidence of in-register parallel or in-register antiparallel beta-sheets as reported for seeded hIAPP20-29 fibrils. All these results indicate that fibril polymorphism is partially encoded in a trimer.

  1. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  2. The Prevalence, Types and Perceived Outcomes of Crisis Episodes in Early Adulthood and Midlife: A Structured Retrospective-Autobiographical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Oliver C.; Wright, Gordon R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to gain data on the prevalence, types and perceived outcomes of crisis episodes in three age decades of adult life: 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49. A further aim was to explore the relationship between crisis occurrence and empathy. A retrospective-autobiographical survey instrument and an empathy questionnaire were…

  3. Evaluation of Noise Effects in Auditory Function in Spanish Military Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    various aspects ( 4 ). Consequently limited effectiveness of speech communication and eventually hearing impairment or loss can be produced. OBJECTIVES...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Noise Effects in Auditory Function in Spanish Military Pilots 5a...the audiometry performed to each pilot, we have divided the sample in 4 age groups: • 20-29 yo • 30-39 yo • 40-49 yo, and • 50-59 yo Evaluation

  4. The Effects of Age on Divergent Thinking and Creative Objects Production: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massimiliano, Palmiero

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in divergent thinking and creative objects production were investigated in 150 native Italian speakers, divided into six age groups, each one comprised 25 participants: young (20-29), young adult (30-39), middle aged (40-49), adult-old (50-59), old (60-69), and old-old (70-80). Two tasks were used: the alternative uses task,…

  5. Coexistence of ribbon and helical fibrils originating from hIAPP(20-29) revealed by quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Andreasen, Maria; Nielsen, Jakob T; Liu, Lei; Nielsen, Erik H; Song, Jie; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei; Skrydstrup, Troels; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nielsen, Niels C; Otzen, Daniel E; Dong, Mingdong

    2013-02-19

    Uncontrolled misfolding of proteins leading to the formation of amyloid deposits is associated with more than 40 types of diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and type-2 diabetes. These irreversible amyloid fibrils typically assemble in distinct stages. Transitions among the various intermediate stages are the subject of many studies but are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we combine high-resolution atomic force microscopy and quantitative nanomechanical mapping to determine the self-assembled structures of the decapeptide hIAPP(20-29), which is considered to be the fibrillating core fragment of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) involved in type-2 diabetes. We successfully follow the evolution of hIAPP(20-29) nanostructures over time, calculate the average thickening speed of small ribbon-like structures, and provide evidence of the coexistence of ribbon and helical fibrils, highlighting a key step within the self-assembly model. In addition, the mutations of individual side chains of wide-type hIAPP(20-29) shift this balance and destabilize the helical fibrils sufficiently relative to the twisted ribbons to lead to their complete elimination. We combine atomic force microscopy structures, mechanical properties, and solid-state NMR structural information to build a molecular model containing β sheets in cross-β motifs as the basis of self-assembled amyloids.

  6. Effect of D-amino acids at Asp{sup 23} and Ser{sup 26} residues on the conformational preference of A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Polavarapu, Prasad L. . E-mail: Prasad.L.Polavarapu@Vanderbilt.edu; Hallgas, Balazs; Majer, Zsuzsa

    2005-09-30

    The effects of D-amino acids at Asp{sup 23} and Ser{sup 26} residues on the conformational preference of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptide fragment (A{beta}{sub 20-29}) have been studied using different spectroscopic techniques, namely vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), vibrational absorption, and electronic circular dichroism. To study the structure of the A{beta}{sub 20-29}, [D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}, and [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides under different conditions, the spectra were measured in 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 3) and in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). The spectroscopic results indicated that at pH 3, A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptide takes random coil with {beta}-turn structure, while [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptide adopts significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) type structure along with {beta}-turn contribution and D-Asp-substituted peptide ([D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}) adopts predominantly PPII type structure. The increased propensity for PPII conformation upon D-amino acid substitution, in acidic medium, has important biological implications. In TFE, A{beta}{sub 20-29}, [D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}, and [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides adopt 3{sub 10}-helix, {alpha}-helix, and random coil with some {beta}-turn structures, respectively. The VCD data obtained for the A{beta} peptide films suggested that the secondary structures for the peptide films are not the same as those for corresponding solution and are also different among the A{beta} peptides studied here. This observation suggests that dehydration can have a significant influence on the structural preferences of these peptides.

  7. A novel triterpene from the roots of Paullinia pinnata: 6α-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxybenzoyl)-lup-20(29)-ene-3-one.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nora; Annan, Kofi; Mensah, Abraham Y; Ekuadzi, Edmund; Mensah, Merlin L K; Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-04-01

    Paullinia pinnata L. (Sapindaceae) is an endemic West African plant that is extensively used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previous phytochemical analysis by various groups led to the isolation of several novel lupene-based triterpenene derivatives along with other classes of compounds. As part of our continued phytochemical studies on the roots of this plant, we have now identified yet another novel triterpene, 6a-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxybenzoyl)-lup-20(29)-ene-3-one. The identification of the compound through comprehensive spectroscopic studies is discussed.

  8. The triterpenes 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-ol and 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate and the carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-O-acetyl-dulcitol as photosynthesis light reactions inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Menezes-de-Oliveira, Djalma; Aguilar, Maria-Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Vieira-Filho, Sidney Augusto; Pains-Duarte, Lucinier; Silva, Grácia-Divina de Fátima; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2011-12-01

    Three compounds were isolated from Maytenus acanthophylla Reissek (Celastraceae): the pentacyclic triterpenes lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (lupeol, 1) and 3β-lup-20(29)-en-3-yl acetate (2) and the carbohydrate 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-O-acetyldulcitol (3); lupeol was also isolated from Xylosma flexuosa. The compounds' structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 1 acts as an energy transfer inhibitor, interacting with isolated CF₁ bound to thylakoid membrane, and dulcitol hexaacetate 3 behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor and as an uncoupler, as determined by polarography. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence induction kinetics from the minimum yield F₀ to the maximum yield F(M )provides information of the filling up from electrons coming from water to plastoquinone pool with reducing equivalents. In this paper we have examined the effects of compounds 1 and 3 on spinach leaf discs. Compound 1 induces the appearance of a K-band, which indicates that it inhibits the water splitting enzyme. In vivo assays measuring the fluorescence of chl a in P. ixocarpa leaves sprayed with compound 1, showed the appearance of the K-band and the PSII reaction centers was transformed to "heat sinks" or silent reaction centers unable to reduce Q(A). However, 3 also induced the appearance of a K band and a new band I appears in P. ixocarpa plants, therefore it inhibits at the water splitting enzyme complex and at the PQH₂ site on b₆f complex. Compounds 1 and 3 did not affect chlorophyll a fluorescence of L. perenne plants.

  9. Randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of ultrasonography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49 (J-START): research design.

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishida, Takanori; Kawai, Masaaki; Narikawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-02-01

    In cancer screening, it is essential to undertake effective screening with appropriate methodology, which should be supported by evidence of a reduced mortality rate. At present, mammography is the only method for breast cancer screening with such evidence. However, mammography does not achieve sufficient accuracy in breasts with high density at ages below 50. Although ultrasonography achieves better accuracy in Breast Cancer detection even in dense breasts, the effectiveness has not been verified. We have planned a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of ultrasonography in women aged 40-49, with a design to study 50,000 women with mammography and ultrasonography (intervention group), and 50,000 controls with mammography only (control group). The participants are scheduled to take second round screening with the same modality 2 years on. The primary endpoints are sensitivity and specificity, and the secondary endpoint is the rate of advanced breast cancers.

  10. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate.

  11. Undiagnosed Small Fiber Polyneuropathy: Is It a Component of Gulf War Illness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    2-hour fasting glucose-tolerance test (GTT) to rule out diabetic neuropathy . Skin biopsies are performed in our JCAHO-accredited laboratory...the initial screening, or once it was demonstrated by 2-hour fasting glucose tolerance test that they had impaired glucose tolerance (pre- diabetes ...as defined by criteria of the American Diabetes Age Range No. 18-19 18 20-29 47 30-39 31 40-49 28 50-59 24 60-69 25 70-79 8 80-89 6 Total 187 Table

  12. Crystal structure and DFT calculations of 3,4- seco-lup-20(29)-en-3-oic acid isolated from Wrightia tinctoria: Stacking of supramolecular dimers in the crystal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anindita; Sarkar, Ananda; Mitra, Partha; Banerji, Avijit; Banerji, Julie; Mandal, Suvra; Das, Manosi

    2010-09-01

    3,4- Seco-lup-20(29)-en-3-oic acid ( 1), a rare triterpene, was isolated from Wrightia tinctoria R.Br (Family: Apocyanaceae). It appeared promising to study the structural chemistry of this compound because of its unique bio activity. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that this compound consists of three six membered rings and one five membered ring. The first six membered ring (A) is in the twist boat form while the remaining two six membered rings (B, C) are in the chair form. The crystal of this compound belongs - to the monoclinic crystal system and space group P2 1. Lattice constituents are as follows: a = 13.074(6) Å, b = 11.972(5) Å, c = 17.394(7) Å; α = 90.00°, β = 98.20(13)°, γ = 90.00°; V = 2695(2) Å 3, d = 1.094 Mg/m 3, Z = 4. The optimized geometry of the reported molecule has been calculated with the DFT/B3LYP theory using 6-31G(d,p) basis set.

  13. [Tuberculosis annual report 2008--series 2. TB in foreigners].

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Statistics on tuberculosis (TB) in foreigners have been obtained since 1998 in Japan. The number of foreign TB patients increased from 739 in 1998 to 945 in 2008. In contrast, the number of Japanese TB patients decreased during this period and hence the proportion of foreign TB patients increased from 2.1% in 1998 to 3.9% in 2008, excluding those of unknown nationality. Especially, the proportion of those aged 20-29 years increased greatly from 9.1% in 1998 to 26.3% in 2008. Although the number of nationalities was 47, the majority of patients were from China (27.7%), the Philippines (24.8%) and Korea (10.2%) in 2008. The number of foreign TB patients aged 20-29 years was 468, accounting for 49.5% of all foreign TB patients in 2008. Seventy-seven percent of foreign patients aged 20-29 years had developed TB within 5 years of entering Japan. The equivalent proportion was 49% of those aged 30-39 years and 32% of those aged 40-49 years. Regarding occupation, 39.7% of foreign patients aged 20-29 years were full-time workers, 28.6% were students and 13.7% were part-time workers.

  14. No gender difference in peak performance in ultra-endurance swimming performance - analysis of the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' from 1996 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, Evelyn; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Christoph, Alexander Rüst; Knechtle, Patrizia; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-10-31

    The aims of the study were to [1] investigate the performance trends at the 'Zurich 12-h Swim' in Switzerland from 1996 to 2010; and [2] determine the gender difference in peak performance in ultraendurance swimming. In total, 113 male and 53 female swimmers competed in this indoor ultraendurance event while swimming in a heated pool. The number of male participants significantly increased (r² = 0.36, P = 0.04) over time while the participation of females remained unchanged (r² = 0.12, P = 0.26). In the age group < 19 years, the male swimmers achieved a significantly greater distance than the females (32.7 km vs. 21.9 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the older age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and 50-59 years, respectively) was no gender difference in swimming performances (P < 0.05). The best performance was achieved in the age groups 30-39 years and 40-49 years for both genders, respectively. The athletes in the age groups < 19 years, 20-29 years and 50-59 years in females were significantly slower than the athletes in the age group 30-39 years and 40-49 years (P < 0.05). For the males, the athletes in the age group 30-39 years were significantly faster than the athletes in the age group < 19 years. The annual best performance was not significantly different between males and females (38.3 ± 2.9 km vs. 34.4 ± 8.2 km, respectively) (P < 0.05). The best male and female swim performances remained unchanged across the years. Females are able to achieve a similar swim performance in an indoor ultra-endurance swim event of ~40 km. Further studies are needed to investigate whether females are able to achieve similar or even better performances than males in openwater ultra-swimming events such as 'Channel Swimming'.

  15. 15 CFR 30.39 - Special exemptions for shipments to the U.S. Armed Services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... apply to articles that are on the USML and thus controlled by the ITAR and shipments that are not... exemption does not apply to articles that are on the USML and thus controlled by the ITAR and/or...

  16. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    PubMed

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  17. Multi-directional Reach Test: An Investigation of the Limits of Stability of People Aged between 20-79 Years.

    PubMed

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The multi-directional reach test (MDRT) is a simple, inexpensive, reliable and valid screening tool for assessing the limits of stability in the anterorposterior and mediolateral directions. The aim of this study was to quantify the limits of stability of people aged between 20 and 79 years using the MDRT. [Subjects] One hundred and eighty subjects were divided into the following 6 age groups: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years (n=30 per group). [Methods] The MDRT was used to measure the limits of stability in four directions: forward, backward, leftward and rightward. Subjects performed maximal outstretched arm reach in each direction with their feet flat on the floor. [Results] All age groups performed the greatest values of the limit of stability in the forward direction. The 60-79 year group demonstrated significantly lower limits of stability in the forward, leftward and rightward directions compared to the 20-39 year group. [Conclusion] The limits of stability declined with age mainly in the forward, leftward and rightward directions. The MDRT appears to be a useful assessment tool for postural control and balance of those aged 60 years and over.

  18. Individual and joint prevalence of three non-motor symptoms in the US general population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglei; Huang, Xuemei; Guo, Xuguang; Peddada, Shyamal

    2014-01-01

    Background Some non-motor symptoms may precede the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) by years. Methods We examined the individual and joint prevalence of depression, daytime sleepiness, and infrequent bowel movement among 10,477 participants of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2008. Results For all symptoms, the prevalence was higher in women than in men. Importantly, few participants had two or more symptoms: 1.3% at ages 20-29, 1.0% at 30-39, 1.2% at 40-49, 3.5% at 50-59, 1.7% at 60-69, 1.1% at 70-79, and 1.2% at ages ≥80 in men; the corresponding prevalence in women was 3.1%, 5.2%, 5.7%, 4.1%, 3.1%, 2.3%, and 1.2% respectively. In both men and women, depression was correlated with infrequent bowel movement and daytime sleepiness, but the latter two were mutually independent. Conclusion The presence of multiple nonmotor symptoms was uncommon in the general population and the prevalence was higher in women than in men. PMID:24985078

  19. The effects of aging on the brain activation pattern during a speech perception task: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Manan, Hanani Abdul; Franz, Elizabeth A; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, brain activation associated with speech perception processing was examined across four groups of adult participants with age ranges between 20 and 65 years, using functional MRI (fMRI). Cognitive performance demonstrates that performance accuracy declines with age. fMRI results reveal that all four groups of participants activated the same brain areas. The same brain activation pattern was found in all activated areas (except for the right superior temporal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus); brain activity was increased from group 1 (20-29 years) to group 2 (30-39 years). However, it decreased in group 3 (40-49 years) with further decreases in group 4 participants (50-65 years). Result also reveals that three brain areas (superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus and cerebellum) showed changes in brain laterality in the older participants, akin to a shift from left-lateralized to right-lateralized activity. The onset of this change was different across brain areas. Based on these findings we suggest that, whereas all four groups of participants used the same areas in processing, the engagement and recruitment of those areas differ with age as the brain grows older. Findings are discussed in the context of corroborating evidence of neural changes with age.

  20. Macular pigment optical density in a South Indian population.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajiv; Rajan, Rajni; Biswas, Sayantan; Vaitheeswaran, Kulothungan; Sharma, Tarun

    2011-10-07

    PURPOSE. To estimate the normal value of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in an adult south Indian sample. METHODS. Three hundred eyes of 161 healthy volunteers (30 men and 30 women in each of the age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ≥60 years) underwent MPOD measurement with a macular densitometer. Thirty-two eyes were also checked for intersession variability. RESULTS. The mean MPODs in the Indian sample were 0.64 ± 0.23 log unit at 0.25° eccentricity, 0.50 ± 0.21 log unit at 0.5°, 0.37 ± 0.19 log unit at 1.00°, and 0.21 ± 0.16 log unit at 1.75°. At all the foveal eccentricities, the MPOD showed an increase from 20 to 29 to 30 to 39 years of age and thereby showed a decrease with age. The men aged 40 to 49 years had significantly higher MPOD than did the women (0.75 vs. 0.62 log unit, P = 0.039), and the women aged 50 to 59 years had higher MPOD than did the men (0.71 vs. 0.57 log unit, P = 0.019). There was no significant intersession or interocular variation. CONCLUSIONS. This study establishes the MPOD normogram in an adult Indian sample.

  1. Investigation of the age trends in patients with breast cancer and different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mehdi; Dehkordi, Zahra Fazeli; Babazadeh, Shadi; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Rezaei, Parisa; Faghihi, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women in the age range of 35-55 years. Each year, one or two cases of breast cancer per 1000 women are diagnosed as new cases. Despite the serious prognosis and high rate of morbidity, mortality, and pathogenicity, in the case of early diagnoses, the prognosis will be better. The aim of this study was to investigate the age trends in breast cancer patients with different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010. Materials and Methods: The information in radiotherapy and oncology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Milad Hospital from 2001 to 2010 were coded and analyzed. Frequency of patients’ age groups, tumor sizes and the year of cancer diagnosis were calculated. Correlation test was used for data analysis in statistical analysis in social science (SPSS) software version 18. Findings: Among the 3722 patients with breast cancer, the highest relative frequency distribution, respectively was observed in the age of 40-49 years (34.4%), 50-59 years (26.6%), 30-39 years (17.7%), 60-69 years (13.2%), 20-29 years (2.5%), 70 years and older (5.2%) and less than 20 years. Relative frequency distribution of tumor sizes in a variety of 5 cm (T2) was with the frequency of 59.8%, and then 26% at 5 cm (T3), 10.5% at 2 cm (T1), 3.1% at T4 and 0.6 at In-situ, respectively. Conclusion: The investigation of age trends showed that diagnosis rate of breast cancer increased from 2001 to 2004. It reached its highest value in 2006 at the age range of 30-39 years. Then, the trend has been downward, and it has continued to decline until 2010, which could be the result of the equipping screening system and recording the malignant cases. 85.8% of the examined tumors in T2 and T3 group were visible and may be disturbing. Comparing the frequency distribution of the infected population showed that the highest incidence of breast cancer diagnosis were in the

  2. Comparing contrast-enhanced color flow imaging and pathological measures of breast lesion vascularity.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Flemming; Kuruvilla, Babita; Pascua, Mark B; Chaudhari, Manisha H; Merton, Daniel A; Palazzo, Juan P; Goldberg, Barry B

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted to compare quantifiable measures of vascularity obtained from contrast-enhanced color flow images of breast lesions to pathologic vascularity measurements. Nineteen patients with solid breast masses received Levovist Injection (10 mL at 300 mg/mL; Berlex Laboratories, Montville, NJ, USA). Color flow images of the mass pre and post contrast were obtained using an HDI 3000 scanner (Philips Medical Systems, Bothell, WA, USA) optimized for clinical scanning on an individual basis. After surgical removal, specimens were sectioned in the same planes as the ultrasound images and stained with an endothelial cell marker (CD31). Microvessel area (MVA) and intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) were determined for vessels 10-19 microm, 20-29 microm, 30-39 microm, 40-49 microm and > or =50 microm in diameter using a microscope and image processing software. From the ultrasound images, the number of color pixels before and after contrast administration relative to the total area of the breast mass was calculated as a first-order measure of fractional tumor vascularity. Vascularity measures were compared using reverse stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. In total, 58 pathology slides (with 8,106 frames) and 185 ultrasound images were analyzed. There was a significant increase in flow visualization pre to post Levovist injection (p = 0.001), but no differences were found between the 11 benign and the eight malignant lesions (p > 0.35). Ultrasound vascularity measurements post contrast correlated significantly with pathology (0.15 < or = r2 < or = 0.46; p < 0.03). The 30-39 microm vessel range contributed most significantly to the MVD relationship (p < 0.001), whereas the MVA was mainly influenced by vessels 20-29 microm (p < 0.004). Precontrast ultrasound only correlated with pathology for relative MVA (r2 = 0.16; p = 0.01). In conclusion, contrast-enhanced color flow imaging provides a noninvasive measure of breast tumor neovascularity

  3. [Frequency of previous tuberculosis history in patients with and without active tuberculosis admitted to our hospital in 1980-83 and in 1997-99].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Naohiro; Baba, Motoo; Hori, Akihiro; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Nagai, Hideaki; Akagawa, Shinobu; Kawabe, Yoshiko; Machida, Kazuko; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Yotsumoto, Hideki; Mouri, Masashi

    2002-07-01

    To study recurrence rate over a long period after recovery from previous tuberculosis history, we examined the frequency of previous tuberculosis history in patients who were admitted to our hospital in 1980-83 and in 1997-99 and the comparison was made between cases with and without culture-positive tuberculosis. The tuberculosis groups comprised of 297 patients in 1980-83 and 688 patients in 1997-99. The non-tuberculosis groups (control groups) comprised of 373 patients in 1980-83 and 1092 patients in 1997-99 with non-tuberculosis diseases other than the tuberculosis-related diseases such as non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis, pulmonary aspergillosis, bronchiectasis, chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis sequelae. The patients with viral chronic hepatitis previously operated and transfused were also excluded as they might be operated because of pulmonary tuberculosis in the era of surgical treatment for tuberculosis. In both tuberculosis and control groups, they had previous tuberculosis history most frequently when they were twenties. In the control groups, the frequency of previous tuberculosis history among cases admitted in 1980-83 and were born in 1910-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 were 15/84 (17.9%), 22/93 (23.7%), 11/77 (14.3%) and 3/43 (7.0%), respectively, and those admitted in 1997-99 were 11/70 (15.7%), 30/231 (13.0%), 28/288 (9.7%), and 10/230 (4.3%), respectively. In these 4 birth year groups, frequency of previous tuberculosis history among cases admitted in 1997-99 were significantly lower than that admitted in 1980-83 (p < 0.05, one-sided paired t-test), and the fact suggests that persons with tuberculosis history died earlier than those without it. In the tuberculosis groups, the frequencies of previous tuberculosis history among cases admitted in 1980-83 and were born in 1910-19, 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 were 20/35 (57.1%), 31/58 (53.4%), 19/48 (39.6%), and 11/53 (20.8%), respectively, and those among cases admitted in 1997-99 were 30/99 (30.3%), 58/125 (46

  4. Mental Imagery and Idiom Understanding in Adults: Examining Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Pei-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined idiom understanding in 120 neurologically healthy adults, ages 20-29 (20s Group), 40-49 (40s Group), 60-69 (60s Group), and 80-89 (80s Group) years old. Each participant was administered a familiarity task, definition explanation task, mental imagery task, and forced-choice comprehension task. Twenty idioms, 10 transparent and…

  5. Interactions of age and leg muscle fatigue on unobstructed walking and obstacle crossing.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; dos Santos, Paulo Cezar Rocha; Simieli, Lucas; Orcioli-Silva, Diego; van Dieën, Jaap H; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2014-03-01

    Older adults commonly report muscle fatigue, which may be associated with reduced walking ability. Elderly may have insufficient awareness of the balance threat caused by muscle fatigue. The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction effects of aging and leg muscle fatigue on gait parameters in walking and obstacle crossing. One hundred and twenty men, who were divided in six groups according to their age (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, above 70 years), participated in this study. Participants performed three trials of unobstructed level ground walking and obstacle crossing during walking before and after quadriceps muscle fatigue. To induce fatigue, participants performed a repeated sit-to-stand task from a chair with arms across the chest to a pre-determined cadence (30 cycles/min) using a metronome. Spatial-temporal gait parameters (stride length, duration, and speed, step width, and trailing and leading heel-clearance) were analyzed, and compared by two-way ANOVA (group and fatigue). The results confirmed our hypothesis, showing age-related effects of leg muscles fatigue in both gait conditions. From 40 years old, participants modulated spatial-temporal and vertical impulses in both tasks more in response to fatigue than younger participants, apparently to improve balance and safety. Leg muscle fatigue caused age-dependent changes in both unobstructed level ground walking and obstacle crossing during walking, which appeared to reflect an attempt to maintain balance and safety, probably to counteract adverse fatigue effects.

  6. Estimation of radiographic angles and distances in coronal part of mandibular molars: A study of panoramic radiographs using EMAGO software

    PubMed Central

    Tsatsoulis, Ioannis N.; Filippatos, Christos G.; Floratos, Spyros G.; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate radiographically the effects of age and external irritating stimuli on the morphology and thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 panoramic radiographs were recruited and 494 mandibular molars were examined in this study. The sample was divided into six age groups: Group 1, <20 years; Group 2, 20-29 years; Group 3, 30-39 years; Group 4, 40-49 years; Group 5, 50-59 years and Group 6, >60 years. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups with regard to the tooth condition (intact or non-intact teeth). Four distances, two angles and two ratios were measured, in order to estimate the dimensions of the pulp chamber and the thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor. Results: The thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling and floor increased significantly from Group 1 to 6. The pulp chamber floor angle presented progressive sharpness from Group 1 to 6 whereas the pulp chamber ceiling angle presented progressive bluntness from Group 1 to 5 and sharpness from Group 5 to 6. Significant differences were identified in the thickness of the pulp chamber ceiling, the thickness of the pulp chamber floor and the ceiling-floor distance between intact and non-intact teeth. Conclusion: Based on those results, there are differences in the location of secondary dentin formation between the two pulp chamber walls. Age is related to diminished pulp chamber size. The increase rate of the pulp chamber ceiling thickness is similar to that of the pulp chamber floor thickness. Furthermore, external irritating stimuli have an effect on the pulp chamber dimensional changes. PMID:24966753

  7. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  8. A dynamic analysis of the display of the dentition during speech.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Allen; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to quantify the display of the dentition through the soft tissue frame during speech using videography for different age groups. Two hundred and sixty-one subjects were initially screened and were divided into five groups: group 1 (G1) (15-19 years), G2 (20-29 years), G3 (30-39 years), G4 (40-49 years), and G5 (≥ 50 years). Groups were also made on the basis of gender and history of orthodontic treatment. Video equipment was used to capture video and each frame was analysed out of which two frames that best represented the maximal display of maxillary incisors (MDMI) during speech and the widest transverse display of dentition (WTDD) during speech were selected. The data obtained was analysed using one-way analyses of variance with Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test. MDMI and WTDD were found to be highly significant during speech across all age groups (P < 0.05). G1-G3 displayed approximately similar levels of maxillary incisor (P > 0.05) but was greater (P < 0.05) than G4 and G5. The buccal corridor showed significant differences as a function of age (P < 0.05). Orthodontic treatment had a significant impact on the display of the maxillary incisors (P < 0.05) but not on the buccal corridors (P > 0.05). Mandibular incisor display was relatively stable across G1-G3, increasing only for G4 and G5. It appears that the maximum display of maxillary incisors decreases with age and the decline is particularly rapid with increasing age. Females tend to display more teeth both in the transverse and vertical directions.

  9. [Gyneco-obstetrical morbidity in the population of Santiago].

    PubMed

    Salinas, H; Kaempffer, A M; Walton, R; Bocaz, J; Hernández, E; Ramírez, R; Villaroel, R; Báez, M; Carmona, M; Castillo, P

    1988-01-01

    1607 women were interviewed about their gyneco-obstetrical health in a survey of 469 randomly selected households in the province of Santiago, Chile. The dependent variables correspond to the frequency of gynecologic or obstetrical morbidity and demand for medical attention in 2 weeks of April, 1987. Independent variables were age, educational status, and health insurance coverage. 125 of the households were headed by uninsured persons. The average woman was 34.4 years old. 43.1% had 8 years or less of education, 42.6% had 9.12 years, and 14.2% had 13 or more years. 21 new cases of acute obstetrical or gynecological disorders were reported, including 15 of vulvovaginitis, 3 abortions, 1 bartholinitis, 1 intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and 1 urinary tract infection. There were 55 cases of chronic disorders, including 12 benign ovarian lesions, 8 dysmenorrheas, 8 uterine dystropias, 10 cases of menstrual disturbances, 1 of infertility, 4 benign cervical lesions, 5 benign uterine lesions, 2 pelvic inflammations, 2 cervical cancers, 2 breast cancers, and 1 ovarian cancer. Among the 1607 women, 11 had consulted for family planning in the 2 weeks, 25 for pregnancy, 22 for gynecological conditions, and 9 for postpartum care. 58.3% of the women aged 15-49 used a contraceptive method. The proportions of users of oral contraceptives and IUDs respectively were 62.5% and 37.5% for women under 20, 60% and 40% for women 20-29, 27% and 61% for women 30-39, and 15.1% and 60.6% for women 40-49. 28.2% of women over 15 had had a Pap test in the past year. The proportions of different age groups having Pap tests ranged from 2.0% for women under 20 to 46.7% for women aged 30-39. 3 women in the sample households had died in the past year of gyneco-obstetric causes, 1 of complications of childbirth and 2 of cervical cancer.

  10. Autism Symptoms across Adulthood in Men with Fragile X Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Raspa, Melissa; Mihaila, Iulia; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine age-related differences in ASD symptoms and corresponding differences in disruptive behavior and social skills in 281 adult men with fragile X syndrome. Four age groups were created: 18-21, 22-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years. The 18-21 year-old group was reported to have more impairments in verbal…

  11. Relationship between performance, dry-land power and kinematics in master swimmers.

    PubMed

    Espada, Mario C; Costa, Mario J; Costa, Aldo M; Silva, Antonio J; Barbosa, Tiago M; Pereira, Ana F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships between sprint swimming performance, dry-land power, and kinematics in master swimmers. Twenty-two male master swimmers were separated in two groups based on their chronological age: (i) 30-39 years and; (ii) 40-49 years. Maximum dry-land power was determined through counter movement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throwing (Hmax and Tmax, respectively). Kinematic determinants of performance were measured during a maximal bout of 15, 25 and 50 m front crawl (T15, T25, T50). Stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were calculated as kinematical aspects of the stroke. In the 30-39 group, SI25 was correlated to T25 (r = -0.76, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96), the same was observed between SI50 and T50 (r = -0.83, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96). Only SI50 was significantly correlated to T50 (r = 0.86, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97) in the 40-49 years age cohort. In dryland power variables, Hmax and Tmax were only correlated in the younger master swimmers group (r = -0.87, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97). There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between younger (30-39 years) and older (40-49 years) swimmers groups in dry-land tests (Hmax 28.5 ± 5.9 vs. 26.5 ± 3.9 cm and Tmax 4.2 ± 1.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 m). Our results suggest that swimming performance in younger master swimmers (30-39 years) seem more dependent on kinematic swimming variables than on strength parameters, which were most related to swimming performance in the older master swimmers (40-49 years).

  12. Online Activity and Participation in Treatment Affects the Perceived Efficacy of Social Health Networks Among Patients With Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Yoav S; Grosberg, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of online health-related social networks for support, peer-to-peer connections, and obtaining health information has increased dramatically. Participation in an online health-related social network can enhance patients’ self-efficacy and empowerment, as they are given knowledge and tools to manage their chronic health condition more effectively. Thus, we can deduce that patient activation, the extent to which individuals are able to manage their own health care, also increases. However, little is known about the effects of participation in online health-related social networks and patient activation on the perceived usefulness of a website across disease groups. Objective The intent of the study was to evaluate the effects and benefits of participation in an online health-related social network and to determine which variables predict perceived site usefulness, while examining patient activation. Methods Data were collected from “Camoni”, the first health-related social network in the Hebrew language. It offers medical advice, including blogs, forums, support groups, internal mail, chats, and an opportunity to consult with experts. This study focused on the site’s five largest and most active communities: diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, spinal injury, and depression/anxiety. Recruitment was conducted during a three-month period in which a link to the study questionnaire was displayed on the Camoni home page. Three questionnaires were used: a 13-item measure of perceived usefulness (Cronbach alpha=.93) to estimate the extent to which an individual found the website helpful and informative, a 9-item measure of active involvement in the website (Cronbach alpha=.84), and The Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13, Cronbach alpha=.86), which assesses a patient’s level of active participation in his or her health care. Results There were 296 participants. Men 30-39 years of age scored higher in active involvement than those 40-49 years

  13. Age-Specific Anti-Hepatitis A Virus Seroepidemiology in Italian Travelers: Indications for Anti-Hepatitis A Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Castelli; Carosi; Tebaldi; Pizzocolo; Pisani; Rossitto; Boffelli; Crevatin; Pettoello; Fausti; Messino; Brunelli; Costa; Ronca

    1996-12-01

    Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) circulation in the environment is decreasing in most industrialized Western countries. This decrease has lead to low seroprevalence rates in adults. As a consequence, many nonimmune unprotected travelers from areas of low prevalence are considered at risk of acquiring HAV infection when traveling to high HAV endemic areas in developing countries. The recent HAV inactivated vaccine has proved safe and effective, and its use in different geographic areas should be guided by local age-specific HAV seroprevalence rates. The aim of this paper is to describe the age-specific sero-epidemiology of HAV infection in travelers from a highly industrialized region in Northern Italy (Lombardy). Methods: Seven hundred and forty-four consecutive travelers aged from 20 to 59 years, subdivided in 10-year age groups, gave blood samples in the collaborative Health Centers in the Lombardy region and sera were tested for HAV IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was given to travelers that investigated alimentary habits and a history of previous travel. Results: Anti-HAV seroprevalence was 18.0%, 58.0%, 75.8%, and 89.5% in the 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and 50-59 age groups, respectively. Age was the single most important determinant of anti-HAV seroprevalence. The influence of previous travels, eating shellfish, or ingestion of self-cultivated vegetables was ruled out by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: In the Lombardy region (Northern Italy), age specific anti-HAV seroprevalence rates are much higher than those reported in other Western European countries. The cost-benefit analysis suggested that travelers born after 1960 do not need serologic screening before vaccination. Whenever possible, however, HAV serologic screening is advisable for travelers born before 1960. However, the severity of the disease in older subjects, and the proved safety of HAV vaccination in immune subjects, may advise d'emblée HAV vaccination without prior screening, when serologic

  14. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Pal, Rameshwar; Tomer, Omveer S; Saha, Mantu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physiological benefits of yoga on volunteers of a particular age group are available. However, reports on efficacy of a specific yoga package on the populace of different age groups from similar occupational background is still very limited. Therefore, the present study was conducted to appraise the effect of a specific Hatha yoga package on anthropometric characteristics, flexibility and muscular strength of healthy individuals of different age groups from similar occupational trade. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 participants (Group All) from Indian Air Force ground personnel volunteered and age wise divided into 3 groups - (i) Group I (Gr. - I) (n1 = 27, 20-29 years), (ii) Group II (Gr. - II) (n2 = 21, 30-39 years) and (iii) Group III (Gr. - III) (n3 = 23, 40-49 years). All the participants undergone selected Hatha yoga training for 1 h daily for a period of 12 weeks. Parameters were recorded before and after the training. Pre and post training differences were assessed by Student's t-test. Results: Body weight (All, Gr. - II and Gr. - III [all P < 0.05]), body mass index (Gr. - II and Gr. - III [both P < 0.01]) and fat% (Gr. - II and III [both P < 0.05]) were decreased significantly. Neck circumference was increased significantly in Gr. - I (P < 0.05) but decreased significantly in Gr. - III (P < 0.05). Chest circumference (All (P < 0.001), in Gr. - I and II [both P < 0.05]), grip strength (All [left: P < 0.01 and right: P < 0.05], in Gr. - I [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01], in Gr. - II [right: P < 0.05] and in Gr. - III [left: P < 0.05 and right: P < 0.01]), back leg strength (group wise P < 0.001, P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and flexibility (all P < 0.001) were increased significantly. Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of

  15. Using Social Media to Improve Continuing Medical Education: A Survey of Course Participants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Amy T.; Sandhu, Nicole P.; Wittich, Christopher M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants' use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward SM. Participants and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey and validation study of 539 participants at a Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine CME course in November 2011. The Social Media Use and Perception Instrument (SMUPI) consisted of 10 items (5-point Likert scales) and categorical response options. The main outcome measures were psychometric characteristics of the SMUPI scale, course participants' use of SM, and their attitudes regarding the importance of SM for enhancing CME. Results Of 539 CME course participants, 327 (61%) responded to the SMUPI survey. Most respondents (291 [89%]) reported using SM, with the most common types being YouTube (189 of the 327 participants [58%]) and Facebook (163 of 327 [50%]). Factor analysis revealed a 2-dimensional assessment of course participants' attitudes. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α) was excellent for factor 1 (0.94), factor 2 (0.89), and overall (0.94). The CME course participants' favorable attitudes toward SM were associated with younger age (20-29 years, mean score 3.13; 30-39 years, 3.40; 40-49 years, 3.39; 50-59 years, 3.18; 60-69 years, 2.93; and ≥70 years, 2.92; P=.02), using SM frequently (never, mean score 2.49; less than once monthly, 2.75; once monthly, 3.21; weekly, 3.31; and daily, 3.81; P<.0001), and professional degree (PhD, mean score 3.00; MD, 3.05; DO, 3.35; PA, 3.42; and NP, 3.50; P=.01). Conclusion We describe the first validated measure of CME course participants' use of and attitudes toward SM. Our results suggest that CME course directors should guide SM strategies toward more youthful, technology-savvy CME participants and that SM will become increasingly worthwhile in CME as younger learners continue to enter the

  16. Nightmares associated with the eveningness chronotype.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tore

    2010-02-01

    Relations between common nightmares and chronobiological factors remain poorly understood. The possibility that nightmare frequency and distress are associated with chronotype ("morningness-eveningness") was investigated in a sample of respondents to an Internet questionnaire. Over a 4(1/2)-year period, a total of 3978 subjects (mean age = 26.5 +/- 11.6 yrs; age range = 10-69; 2933 female, 1045 male) submitted responses to single items about chronotype and nightmares as well as to other demographic variables. Analyses of chronotype and nightmares items by age and gender replicated most previous findings for these measures-validating their further assessment-and uncovered abrupt increases in nightmare distress between ages 10-19 and 20-29 for females and ages 30-39 and 40-49 for males. Most important, there was a strong association between nightmares and eveningness for female subjects. The latter was expressed as a linear association between nightmare frequency and increasing eveningness and a cubic association between nightmare distress and increasing eveningness; the definite evening types displayed the most severe nightmares. The effect for nightmare frequency was independent of age and sleep duration but was eliminated when nightmare distress was covaried. For females, the nightmare/eveningness association appeared at ages 20 to 29 for the definite evening type and only later, at ages 30 to 39, for the moderate evening type. Findings are consistent with the possibility that nightmares are the expression of a more general pathological factor that is characteristic of eveningness and that is responsible for affective symptoms such as neuroticism and depression. This pathological factor appears to be expressed in late adolescence/ early adulthood, and relative morningness may be a protective factor delaying its onset. The well-established circadian modulations of cognitive, social, and affective tasks that are influenced by chronotype may extend to the memory and

  17. [Ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops of machinery construction industry in Armenia].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, G T; Barkhudarov, M S; Kogan, V Iu

    2004-01-01

    Studies of biologic age formation and ageing rate in workers of mechanic workshops revealed that able-bodied population grew old demographically. That is proved by absent age group of 20-29 years and increased share of able-bodied workers older than 50. Young workers aged 30-39 appeared the most vulnerable for occupational hazards--they demonstrated increased ageing rate and maximal excess of biologic age over chronological age and due biologic age.

  18. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  19. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (<30 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, and >50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p < .001). Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  20. [Understanding the risk factors for infectious diseases, their prevention, and control, among residents of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y S; Wu, Q Q; Xu, S Y; Wang, L; Liu, H; Yao, D M; Di, Z Q; Tian, X Y

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To investigate the understanding of infectious diseases, their prevention, and control, and the factors influencing this literacy among urban and rural residents of Zhejiang Province. Methods: In November- December 2014, a multistage stratified cluster sampling questionnaire was administered at study sites in eight districts of Zhejiang province: Hangzhou city Gongshu district, Hangzhou city Chun'an county, Wenzhou city Cangnan county, Dongyang city, Jiaxing city Jiashan county, Zhoushan city Putuo district, Linhai city, Lishui city Jinyun county. The inclusion criteria were: 15-60 years old, living locally for more than six continuous months, and no mental illness. The exclusion criteria were: foreigner residing locally, resident of Hong Kong, Macau, or Taiwan, or unable to communicate through speech or writing. In this study, 4 091 questionnaires were distributed, and 4 020 valid questionnaires were returned(98.26%). Health literacy regarding infectious diseases was measured at five levels: knowledge, skills, behaviors, access to information, and understanding of the prevention of infectious diseases. A total score was calculated for each questionnaire, and a total score of ≥80 was deemed to indicate an understanding of the prevention of infectious diseases. A χ(2) test was used to compare the levels of health literacy in different populations with single-factor analyses, and a multivariate unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting infectious diseases prevention and treatment literacy levels. Results: Of the 4 020 respondents(aged(43.84 ± 10.28)years), 1 964 were male(48.86%)and 2 056 were female(51.14%). In the total surveyed population, 15.17%(n=610)understood the prevention of infectious diseases, 294 were male(14.97%)and 316 were female(15.37%)(χ(2)=2.48, P=0.115). When the participants in the different age groups were analyzed, 23.11%, 20.29%, 13.27%, and 11.04% of those aged 18- 29(n=116), 30- 39(n

  1. Practical Method for Preparation of Neo-Literate Materials. Final Report. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (4th, Jayagiri, Bandung, Indonesia, October 20-29, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia).

    Activities related to the preparation of literacy follow-up materials in Asia and the Pacific are described in this final report of a regional workshop. Following a summary of the proceedings of the workshop, chapter 1 reviews preparation and field testing of printed book materials, printed nonbook materials, electronic media materials, and games…

  2. Retraction notice to 'Does ovarian stimulation for IVF increase gynaecological cancer risk? A systematic review and meta-analysis' [Reproductive BioMedicine Online 31 (2015) 20-29].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Yanping; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-10-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Hum. Reprod. Update, Volume 19 (2013) 105-123http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dms051. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  3. Breast cancer racial differences before age 40--implications for screening.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most authorities advocate mammogram screening for breast cancer beginning at age 40 based on the age-specific distribution and incidence of breast cancer in the general population. This policy has been bolstered by studies that demonstrate that, for the general population, mammography in the 40-49 age bracket reduces mortality. However, it also has been reported that African-American breast cancer patients are diagnosed more often than white patients below the age of 40. Young African-American women are also more likely to have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis with predictably higher mortality. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the question, whether a subset of African-American women, age 30-39, by virtue of increased vulnerability, would benefit from early mammogram screening. STUDY DESIGN: The age-specific distribution (age 30-84) of African-American and white breast cancer patients in five State cancer registries were compared. Prognostic indicators (tumor size and nodal status) in two of the five registries in African-American and white breast cancer cases below the age of 40 were compared. Age-specific incidence in the 30-39 age group and the relative populations of black and white women in the United States were noted in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Report (SEER) (1994-1998) and The U.S. Census 2000. RESULTS: The differences of age-specific distribution and age-specific incidence of African-American and white breast cancer patients were found to be significant. More than 10% of African-American women with breast cancer were diagnosed before age 40 compared to 5% of white patients. The incidence of breast cancer (SEER Report 1994-1998) in the 30-39-age bracket for African-American and white women was 48.9 and 40.2 at the 95% confidence level, while the proportion of African-American and white women reported by the Census Bureau was not too dissimilar, 15.8% and 14.6% respectively. Prognostic indicators (tumor size

  4. Allergic Diseases and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Inchul; Kim, Inah; Park, Hye Jung; Roh, Jaehoon; Park, Jung-Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a clinical syndrome representing multi-organ and psychological symptoms caused by chronic exposure to various chemicals in low concentrations. We evaluated the prevalence and related factors of MCS targeting Korean adults using the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI©). Methods A total of 446 participants were recruited from Severance Hospital. Participants underwent a questionnaire interview including questions on sociodemographic factors, occupational and environmental factors, allergic diseases, and the QEESI©. Among them, 379 participants completed the questionnaire and the QEESI©. According to the QEESI© interpretation results, participants were divided into very suggestive (VS) group and less suggestive (LS) group. Results The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher in allergic patients than non-allergic participants (19.7% and 11.3%, respectively, P=0.04). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, ages of 30-39 (OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.25-6.95) and those of 40-49 (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.02-6.21) were significantly related to MCS compared to those aged less than 30 years. Female sex (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.18), experience of dwelling in a new house (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03), and atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.04-3.69) were also significantly related to MCS. However, only age of 30-39 in the allergic group was significant in the stratified analysis. Conclusions The estimated prevalence of MCS was higher among allergic patients than non-allergic participants. People with experience of dwelling in a new house and atopic dermatitis were more at risk of being intolerant to chemicals. Further studies to provide the nationally representative prevalence data and clarify risk factors and mechanisms of MCS are required. PMID:25228997

  5. Normative equations for central augmentation index: assessment of inter-population applicability and how it could be improved.

    PubMed

    Jeroncic, Ana; Gunjaca, Grgo; Mrsic, Danijela Budimir; Mudnic, Ivana; Brizic, Ivica; Polasek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen

    2016-05-27

    Common reference values of arterial stiffness indices could be effective screening tool in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk. However, populations of the same ethnicity may differ in vascular phenotype due to different environmental pressure. We examined applicability of normative equations for central augmentation index (cAIx) derived from Danish population with low cardiovascular risk on the corresponding Croatian population from the Mediterranean area. Disagreement between measured and predicted cAIx was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Both, cAIx-age distribution and normative equation fitted on Croatian data were highly comparable to Danish low-risk sample. Contrarily, Bland-Altman analysis of cAIx disagreement revealed a curvilinear deviation from the line of full agreement indicating that the equations were not equally applicable across age ranges. Stratification of individual data into age decades eliminated curvilinearity in all but the 30-39 (men) and 40-49 (women) decades. In other decades, linear disagreement independent of age persisted indicating that cAIx determinants other than age were not envisaged/compensated for by proposed equations. Therefore, established normative equations are equally applicable to both Nordic and Mediterranean populations but are of limited use. If designed for narrower age ranges, the equations' sensitivity in detecting vascular phenotypes at risk and applicability to different populations could be improved.

  6. Government employees' perception of urban air pollution and willingness to pay for improved quality: a cross-sectional survey study in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yanyan; Hu, Yongxin; Liu, Denglai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-11-01

    To improve the public's awareness of urban air pollution and promote establishment of more efficient policy toward urban air pollution, we investigated the government employees' perceptions of current urban air pollution and their willingness to pay (WTP) taxes for improved quality in Nanchang, China. Stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to distribute 629 questionnaires, and 608 were completed anonymously, yielding a 96.7 % response rate. Descriptive statistics frequencies and proportions were used to summarize the sample characteristics, and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of perception of urban air quality and WTP versus demographic variables. We found low awareness of urban air pollution (34.5 %) as well as low WTP (44.9 %), especially among the middle aged people (age 30-39 and age 40-49). Our study shows that female employees have better awareness of urban air pollution but much less willingness to pay for air quality improvement. Majority of the government employees showed their support to the government for more effective policies toward environmental protection, indicating more enhanced public education and environmental protection campaigns to improve the public's awareness of air pollution and work with every citizen to improve air quality. This study also obtained baseline information useful to the local regional and even national government in developing nations in their attempt to control urban air pollution in future.

  7. High seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in veterinarians associated with cattle obstetrics, Bavaria, 2009.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Helen; Brockmann, Stefan O; Kleinkauf, Niels; Klinc, Christina; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Stark, Klaus; Jansen, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Infection can result in severe disease. However, little is known about the risk of infection in veterinarians. In a cross-sectional study among German veterinarians, participants provided sera and completed an exposure questionnaire. We investigated predictors for seropositivity using multivariable logistic regression modelling. The 424 participants' median age was 40 (18-74) years, and 276 (65%) were female. Sera of 162 (38%) were positive for Coxiella burnetii phase II IgG antibodies (by ELISA and IFAT). Predictors for seropositivity were occupational exposure to cattle (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.64-4.87), occupational exposure to sheep (2.09, 1.22-3.58), male sex (1.9, 1.15-3.13), and increasing age (30-39 years: 4.91, 2.00-12.04; 40-49 years: 5.32, 2.12-13.33; >50 years: 6.70, 2.60-17.25; compared with <30 years). When investigating occupational exposure to cattle and sheep in detail in a separate model, the seroprevalence increased with increasing numbers of cattle obstetrics procedures performed per month, and with increasing numbers of individual cattle treated per week. The high antibody prevalence implies a high lifetime-risk of Q fever in veterinarians. Cattle veterinarians, especially those frequently performing obstetrics, should be counseled early in their career on the clinical picture of Q fever, and on specific risks.

  8. Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Seider, Benjamin H; Shiota, Michelle N; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-06-01

    When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive.

  9. Reductions in self-reported stress and anticipatory heart rate with the use of a semi-automated parallel parking system.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    Drivers' reactions to a semi-autonomous technology for assisted parallel parking system were evaluated in a field experiment. A sample of 42 drivers balanced by gender and across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, 60-69) were given a comprehensive briefing, saw the technology demonstrated, practiced parallel parking 3 times each with and without the assistive technology, and then were assessed on an additional 3 parking events each with and without the technology. Anticipatory stress, as measured by heart rate, was significantly lower when drivers approached a parking space knowing that they would be using the assistive technology as opposed to manually parking. Self-reported stress levels following assisted parks were also lower. Thus, both subjective and objective data support the position that the assistive technology reduced stress levels in drivers who were given detailed training. It was observed that drivers decreased their use of turn signals when using the semi-autonomous technology, raising a caution concerning unintended lapses in safe driving behaviors that may occur when assistive technologies are used.

  10. Psychotropic Drug Consumption and Employment Status in Time of Economic Crisis (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Beghi, Massimiliano; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ronzoni, Gloria; Vittadini, Giorgio; Maffenini, Walter

    2016-07-06

    Psychiatric disorders and in particular depression have increased during the "Great Recession". The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of psychotropic drugs in people who lost their permanent employment, using administrative data. The study considered all of the subjects domiciled in Lombardy, Northern Italy, who lost a permanent employment between 2008 and 2010, not assuming psychotropic drugs and who did not find a new job within the following 12 months. The control group included people who did not lose permanent job in the study period, matched to the cases for gender, age, nationality, skill level, education and economic sector, using propensity score matching. The subjects who lost their permanent employment were 17 % more likely to receive one or more drug prescriptions than the controls, but the difference was significant only for males. Females, subjects aged >50 years, low skill level workers and Italians were more likely to have received a prescription for psychotropic drugs than respectively males, subjects aged 20-29 years or aged 30-39 years, low skill level workers and non-Italians. The average number of drugs prescribed for those who lost their job and those who continued working was respectively 2.9 and 3.1. In conclusion, losing a permanent job increases significantly psychotropic drugs consumption in males but not in females.

  11. [Intoxication due to pesticides in the central northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil - 2002 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Neves, Pedro Dias Mangolini; Bellini, Marcella

    2013-11-01

    This research is based on epidemiological records of toxicological occurrences in individual records of investigation into pesticide poisoning at the Maringá Intoxication Control Center at the Regional University Hospital of Maringá. The intoxications in patients poisoned from 2002 to 2011, in towns that comprise the Central Northern Paraná Geographic Mesoregion where Maringá is located, were taken into consideration in this study. As a result, it was established that approximately 67.12% of those poisoned were males, the age groups most affected are 20-29 years old and 30-39 years old. Suicide attempts appear as the main motivation for hospitalization (possibly disguising the chronic intoxication), and mainly insecticides and herbicides are involved in the poisonings, with 62.60% and 26%, respectively. Lastly, the urgent need for public health policies in to reduce this statistic immediately is self-evident, as these poisonings are the ones recorded, as those resulting from food poisoning are not being computed.

  12. [Occupational accidents in Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, 1979-1990. Determination of the frequency and risk factors which play a role in their production].

    PubMed

    Fernández-D'Pool, J; Montero-Proaño, G

    1993-01-01

    During the period of 1979-1990 job-related injuries were studied in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in order to analyze frequencies and causes. This information was obtained from annual reports on job-related injuries Form Number 15-411 of the Venezuelan Institute of Social Security (IVSS) which has been implemented nationally since 1982. Accidents that caused loss of man-hours were considered; variables considered were: age, risk category, day of the week, work shift, month, type of accident, agent, type of lesion, mechanical cause, body part affected and type of the activity in which the company is involved. The results were expressed as absolute values (mean +/- SE) and relative values. The mean accidents/year was 1651 +/- 177.97, most of them occurring in the age groups of 20-29 years (368.8) and 30-39 years (359.8). The triannual mean rate was higher for the group of the non-serious accidents (50%). Tuesday was the day of higher accidental incidence (22%) in addition to the morning shift between 9 and 11 hours (55%). Manufacturing was the economic activity most affected (43%). The most common causative agents were materials, substances and radiations (35%). The use of defective tools were the most frequent causes of mechanical accidents (31%). Upper limbs (46%) and between the type of lesion contusions or/and bruises (53%). It was concluded that, although the number of workers and accidents slowly diminished, the accidents rate slightly increased.

  13. Assessment of auditory evoked potential in long-term mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Sevi, E Chandra; Kumar, P Sai; Mariam, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones emit strong electromagnetic wave which causes structural and functional changes in the cell membrane within the central nervous system especially auditory system. The effect of duration of mobile phone use on auditory function was examined One hundred and seventy three long-term mobile phone users aged around 17-39 yrs (both male and female) were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their age Group I (17-19 yrs), Group II (20-29 yrs), Group III (30-39 yrs). After getting informed consent the subjects were instructed to fill the questionnaire for the history related to our study, conduction deafness auditory brainstem response in both the ears were assessed. Significant difference was observed among three groups in their duration of mobile phone use. Latency of Waves in three groups showed significant difference. The average latency (both right and left ear) of waves I-V was found to be prolonged in Group II when compared to Group I and Group III. Interpeak latencies I-V and I-III showed differences among three groups. The findings of present study showed abnormalities in the conduction of electrical signals in different levels of auditory pathway.

  14. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  15. Quality control in QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube for screening latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers.

    PubMed

    Igari, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Ichimura, Yasunori; Sakurai, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2017-04-01

    QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube has been used for screening latent tuberculosis infection in newly employed health care workers in Japan. There have been a few studies concerning quality control. We retrospectively analysed QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube results in a hospital in Japan. Interferon-γ values in three blood collection tubes for QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube were analysed in association with the positivity rate. The data set consisted of health care workers aged 20-29 years during the 7 years between 2010 and 2016. The yearly QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube positivity rate was 0.9%, 16.4%, 3.0%, 39.3%, 2.8%, 0.9% and 1.5%, and was extremely high in 2011 and 2013. The interferon-γ values in the tuberculosis antigen tube were elevated in these two years, as indicated by higher median and wider interquartile range. The interferon-γ value in the negative control tube was also higher in 2011. The higher interferon-γ values in collection tubes (tuberculosis antigen tube and/or negative control tube) resulted in higher QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube positivity rate. The distribution of interferon-γ in tuberculosis antigen tube and negative control tube, as evaluated by median and interquartile range, proved to be an effective index for the quality control of QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube.

  16. Prevalence of hand eczema in an adult Swedish population and the relationship to risk occupation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Montnémery, Peter; Nihlén, Ulf; Löfdahl, Claes Göran; Nyberg, Per; Svensson, Ake

    2005-01-01

    Using a postal questionnaire the prevalence of hand eczema was determined in a general population of 11,798 individuals aged 20-77 years who were randomly drawn from the population records. The response rate was 78.1%. One-year prevalence of hand eczema among women varied between 1.9% and 10.8%, with the highest figure among those aged 30-39 years. The corresponding figures for men were 2.3% and 5.6%, with the highest figure among those aged 20-29 years. Lifetime prevalence varied between 5.7% and 16.7% among women and between 5.2% and 9.5% among men. Using multiple logistic regression analysis female sex (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.47-2.47) and smoking (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.75) were independent risk factors for reporting 1-year prevalence of hand eczema, whereas age (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) was inversely related to the 1-year prevalence of hand eczema. Aggregated risk occupation or categorized occupation such as medical and nursing work, production or service were not significantly associated with 1-year prevalence of hand eczema.

  17. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for the 18-29 and the 30-39-year age groups, while it significantly (P < 0.01) increased for the 40-49 and the 50-59-year age groups over the studied period. From 1998 to 2010, the mean age of the top ten finishers increased by 0.4 years per annum for both females (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.003). The running time for the top ten finishers remained stable for females, while it significantly (P = 0.001) increased by 2.4 min per annum for males. There was a significant (P < 0.001) age effect on running times for both sexes. The best 100-km running times was observed for the age comprised between 30 and 49 years for males, and between 30 and 54 years for females, respectively. The age-related decline in running performance was similar until 60-64 years between males and females, but was greater for females compared to males after 65 years. Future studies should investigate the lifespan from 65 to 75 years to better understand the performance difference between male and female master ultra-marathoners.

  18. Very severely obese patients have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Federica; Baratta, Roberto; Farina, Maria Grazia; Tita, Patrizia; Padova, Giuseppa; Vigneri, Riccardo; Frittitta, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of very severe obesity has increased progressively and faster than other classes of obesity over the last years. It is unclear whether the prevalence of obesity-related complications and health risks increases progressively or reaches a plateau above a certain degree of obesity. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the severity of obesity was correlated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), metabolic syndrome (MS), and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in a large cohort of patients with different degrees of obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 938 obese patients without a previous diagnosis of diabetes. Patients were assigned to different categories of obesity: mild-moderate obesity (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)), morbid obesity (BMI 40-49.9 kg/m(2)), and super-obesity (SO, BMI ≥50 kg/m(2)). The prevalence of IGF, IGT, screen-detected T2DM, MS, and CVD was higher in SO patients than in the other groups. Interestingly, the association between SO and either MS or CVD was independent of glucose tolerance status, indicating that factors other than glucose metabolism also favor cardio-metabolic complications in obese patients. In patients without screen-detected T2DM (n = 807), insulin sensitivity and secretion OGTT-derived indexes indicated that SO patients had the worst glucose homeostasis relative to the other categories of obesity, which was indicated by the most reduced disposition index in these patients, a predictor of future T2DM. In conclusion, SO patients have an extremely high prevalence of glucose metabolism deterioration, and cardio-metabolic complications are more prevalent in these patients compared to less obese patients.

  19. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  20. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  1. Are 30 minutes of rest between two incremental shuttle walking tests enough for cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Laís R. G.; Mesquita, Rafael B.; Vidotto, Laís S.; Merli, Myriam F.; Carvalho, Débora R.; de Castro, Larissa A.; Probst, Vanessa S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To verify whether 30 minutes of rest between two incremental shuttle walking tests (ISWT) are enough for cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values in healthy subjects in a broad age range. Method: The maximal exercise capacity of 334 apparently healthy subjects (age ≥18) was evaluated using the ISWT. The test was performed twice with 30 minutes of rest in between. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), dyspnea, and leg fatigue were evaluated before and after each test. Subjects were allocated to 6 groups according to their age: G1: 18-29 years; G2: 30-39 years; G3: 40-49 years; G4: 50-59 years; G5: 60-69 years and G6: ≥70 years. Results: All groups had a good performance in the ISWT (median >90% of the predicted distance). The initial HR (HRi) of the second ISWT was higher than the first ISWT in the total sample (p<0.0001), as well as in all groups (p<0.0001). No difference was observed in the behavior of ABP (systolic and diastolic) and dyspnea between the two tests, but this difference occurred for leg fatigue (greater before the second ISWT) in G1 (p<0.05). Most subjects (58%) performed better in the second test. Conclusion: 30 minutes of rest between two ISWTs are not enough for all cardiovascular variables and perceived exertion to return to baseline values. However, this period appears to be sufficient for blood pressure and performance to recover in most subjects. PMID:25789556

  2. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  3. Impact of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and changing under actual highway conditions.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Bryan; Donmez, Birsen; Lavallière, Martin; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F; Teasdale, Normand

    2013-03-01

    Previous research suggests that drivers change lanes less frequently during periods of heightened cognitive load. However, lane changing behavior of different age groups under varying levels of cognitive demand is not well understood. The majority of studies which have evaluated lane changing behavior under cognitive workload have been conducted in driving simulators. Consequently, it is unclear if the patterns observed in these simulation studies carry over to actual driving. This paper evaluates data from an on-road study to determine the effects of age and cognitive demand on lane choice and lane changing behavior. Three age groups (20-29, 40-49, and 60-69) were monitored in an instrumented vehicle. The 40's age group had 147% higher odds of exhibiting a lane change than the 60's group. In addition, drivers in their 60's were less likely to drive on the leftmost lane compared to drivers in their 20's and 40's. These results could be interpreted as evidence that older adults adopt a more conservative driving style as reflected in being less likely to choose the leftmost lane than the younger groups and less likely to change lanes than drivers in their 40's. Regardless of demand level, cognitive workload reduced the frequency of lane changes for all age groups. This suggests that in general drivers of all ages attempt to regulate their behavior in a risk reducing direction when under added cognitive demand. The extent to which such self-regulation fully compensates for the impact of added cognitive demand remains an open question.

  4. Lymphatic filariasis in a rural community in Nigeria: a challenge ahead.

    PubMed

    Ojurongbe, O; Akinbo, J A; Ogiogwa, I J; Bolaji, O S; Adeyeba, O A

    2010-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) represents a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following the admission of a 65 year old man from Sowo village Abeokuta Ogun State with a case of LF at the Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta, a cross-sectional based survey was carried out to determine the occurrence and prevalence of LF in this village. Identification of the LF parasite was carried out with blood stained with Giemsa and examined under low power magnification for the presence of sheathed microfilaria. Out of 317 persons examined 54 (17%) were microfilaraemic and their ages varied from 10 to 70 years. The age group 40-49 has the highest prevalence of 36.5% and highest mean microfilaria count of 4.8mf/mL. In the age group 20-29, females (12.8%) were more infected than males (9.3%) and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0042). In all more males (17.8%) were affected than females (16.9%) (P=0.9481) and the mean MF count in males (22.8mf/ML) was higher than females (21.7mf/ML). The prevalent rate of elephantiasis and hydrecoele observed in the community was 2.2% respectively. The result of this study confirms and observed a high prevalence rate of LF in this community. This finding establishes the need for Ministry of Health (MOH) and Global Alliance to Eliminate LF (GAELF) to carry out disease control activities through Annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in this community.

  5. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  6. Nationwide seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in South Korea in 2009 emphasizes the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Seok; Cho, Yong Kyun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Lee, Don; Park, Neung Hwa; Ki, Moran

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Korea. This study investigated the seroprevalence of HBV infection with an emphasis on the coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody (anti-HBs). In all, 290,212 people undergoing health check-up examinations in 29 institutions during 2009 were recruited. The crude seroprevalences of HBsAg and anti-HBs was adjusted by age, sex, and geographic area using the 2009 estimated population of Korea. The adjusted seroprevalences of HBsAg and anti-HBs was 4.0% and 73.5%, respectively. Males showed higher HBsAg positivity and lower anti-HBs positivity than females (P<0.001). HBsAg positivity increased with age from 3.5% in people 20-29 years old to 4.8% in people 40-49 years old, followed by a decrease in people ≥ 50 years old. HBsAg positivity in Southern provinces (4.5%) including Jeju (5.9%), was significantly higher than that in Central provinces (3.6%; P<0.001). Interestingly, HBsAg and anti-HBs coexisted in 0.1% of the total subjects and in 2.9% of the HBsAg-positive group, showing distinct age distribution and higher alanine aminotransferase levels than those of the group positive for only HBsAg. In conclusion, the seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs in Korea varies significantly by age, sex and geographical location and coexisted in 2.9% of HBsAg-positive subjects. Continuous monitoring of seroepidemiology may facilitate the eventual eradication of HBV infection.

  7. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  8. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Mohammed Abdel Motaal; Elmagd, Manal Hassan Abo; Elbadry, Mohammed Mohammed; Kader, Rafeek Mohammed Abdel

    2014-08-01

    The study was proposed to evaluate co-morbid depression, anxiety and stress associated with tinnitus patients. The study was done on 196 subjects: 100 patients suffering from subjective tinnitus associated with hearing loss (tinnitus group), 45 patients suffering from hearing loss only (hearing loss group) and 50 healthy subjects not suffering from tinnitus or hearing loss (control group); the age ranges from 20 to 60 years old. The studied sample was subjected to full ear, nose and throat examinations and audiological evaluation. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was developed by Levibond H and Levibond F to assess three self-report scales designed to measure the negative emotional status of depression, anxiety and stress. All patients and control group were evaluated by DASS. (1) Depression: males were affected more than females. All patients over 60 years were affected by depression. The duration of tinnitus seems correlating with the severity of depression. Only 2 patients (4.3 %) of the hearing loss group suffer from depression. (2) Anxiety: 90 % of males suffer from anxiety as compared to 83.3 % females. The age group 20-29 years old suffers more than other age groups. Only 4 patients (8.7 %) of hearing loss group suffer from anxiety. (3) Stress: females seem to be affected by the stress (76.7 %) more than males (67.5). Patients in age group 30-39 suffer the most from the disease. There is a direct correlation between duration of tinnitus and severity of stress. No one of the hearing loss group suffers from stress. In conclusion, depression, anxiety and stress should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients suffering from tinnitus.

  9. Quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphics in male children with central nervous system lesion by quantification of clinical parameters of locomotor disorder.

    PubMed

    Cvjeticanin, M; Polovina, A

    1999-01-01

    Palmar and fingerprints of 122 male children with central nervous system lesion were analyzed for possible prevention of cerebral palsy. Eighteen variables of epidermal ridge count were examined: ten on either hand fingers, and four on either palm, and on a-b, b-c and c-d triradii, with atd angle. Patients were divided into two groups: 61 patients with severe lesion (score range 20-29) and 61 patients with moderate lesion (score range 30-39). Fingerprints of 200 male subjects from the Zagreb area served as controls. Statistically significant differences were found for five variables in the group of patients with severe lesion, i.e. on the second finger of the right hand, between a-b and b-c triradii of the right palm, and between a-b and c-d triradii of the left palm. Accordingly, a clinically severe lesion to the central nervous system was quite probably accompanied by certain deviation in the metric traits of the patients' digitopalmar dermatoglyphics, which might prove useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease, thus also for timely and more successful treatment. In children with the presence of risk factors, palmar and fingerprints should be taken in the immediate postnatal period in order to prevent the development of risk symptoms. In those with risk findings, the treatment with intensive medical exercise should be introduced to minimize clinical manifestation of the central nervous system lesion. It should be emphasized that, due to brain plasticity, the best results are obtained if the treatment is performed within nine months after birth, whereafter considerably poorer results are achieved.

  10. Malignant breast tumors among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-74.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, M; Norman, J E; Asano, M; Tokuoka, S; Ezaki, H; Nishimori, I; Tsuji, Y

    1979-06-01

    For 1950-74, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche.

  11. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Age Range of 20-39 Years Old Individuals in Lome

    PubMed Central

    Kolou, Malewe; Katawa, Gnatoulma; Salou, Mounerou; Gozo-Akakpo, Komlan Selom; Dossim, Sika; Kwarteng, Alexander; Prince-David, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo. Method: The present study is a cross-sectional study about the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage from 2009 to 2011. All study participants were screened for HBsAg at the Immunology laboratory of CHU Campus of Lome. Results: One thousand two hundred individuals were screened for HBsAg from 2009-2011. The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 19.08%. This prevalence was significantly higher in men (25.00%) than women (14.80%). The highest prevalence of HBV was observed in age range of 20-29 years and 30-39 years with respectively 26.33% and 21.67%. The lowest prevalence was 6.08%, found in people over 50 years. Concerning the clinical indication of the test, the prevalence during the clinical abnormalities related to liver (CARL) was the highest (26.21%), followed by the systematic screening (SS) with 20.25% while the pre-operative assessment (POA) showed the lowest prevalence with 5.56%. Conclusion: The study shows the high prevalence of HBsAg carriage in young people. This could be used to enhance prevention and treatment of HBV infection in Togo. PMID:28217218

  12. Illicit substance use among persons admitted to probation polyclinic of a regional mental hospital in the Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Telo, Selda; Kaman, Dilara; Korkmaz, Sevda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the illicit substance use trends by gender and year in Eastern Turkey, Elazığ. Methods: This is a retrospective study designed to assess the drug use prevalence in persons who admitted to the Probation Policlinic of Elazig Mental Health Hospital between January 2011 and December 2014 in Eastern Turkey, Elazığ. Laboratory screening tests for drugs were studied using the cloned enzyme donor immunoassay technique in urine. Results: The study consisted of 10267 males (95.3%) and 510 females (4.7%), with a mean age of 30.42±10.83 years. Overall prevalence was 32.1% for cannabis, 3.8% for opiate, 0.35% for cocaine and 1.2% for polydrug usage. The prevalence of cannabis was significantly higher in males (32.7%, p=0.000). The prevalence of cannabis use was the lowest in the age group of 50-59 while it was significantly higher in the age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 (p=0.000). The prevalence of opiate use showed a significant difference among the years (p=0.000). There was a significant difference in the prevalence of cocaine use among the years (p=0.02). The prevalence of polysubstance use showed a significant difference among years (p=0.000). Conclusion: Cannabis was the most common illicit drug in the east of the Turkey. Further studies are required for comparing the results of various regions of the country and developing early interventions and treatment facilities. PMID:27381538

  13. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Methods: Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Results: Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (P<0.001), and disorders of adult personality and behavior (F60-69) (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that suicide attempts were associated with young age (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.06-1.39; P=0.003), female gender (OR=2.98, 95% CI: 1.55-5.73; P=0.001), urban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; P<0.001). Conclusions: We report the association of suicide attempts with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics in psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients. PMID:24711751

  14. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Han, Jun Hee; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Enhi; Kim, Bongyoung

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea.

  15. Legal abortion mortality.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P

    1978-04-01

    Statistics on legal abortion in Britain between 1968-1974 are presented. There was a mortality rate of 10+ or -2 per 100,000 abortions: 27+ or -11 in 1968-1969, 12+ or -4 in 1970-1972, and 6+ or -3 in 1973-1974. Legal abortion mortality increased from 4+ or -3 when performed at gestation under 9 weeks to 5+ or -2 at 9-12 weeks, 13+ or -7 at 13-16 weeks, and 62+ or -33 at 17 weeks and over. The ratio was 11+ or -6 for women under 20 years of age, increasing to 5+ or -3 at age 20-29, 10+ or -6 at age 30-39, and 23+ or -19 at age 40 and over. The parity had little influence on abortion mortality, but the technique used had a great influence. Hysterotomy, hypertonic saline, and abortifacient paste were the most dangerous, in increasing order, with mortality rates of 39+ or -30, 106+ or -75, and 152+ or -89, respectively. The rates for aspiration and curretage were 4+ or -2 and 4+ or -3, respectively. There was a higher mortality risk with abortion with sterilization. The main causes of legal abortion mortality were infection, pulmonary embolism, and complications of general anesthesia. The high incidence of mortality associated with legal abortion in Britain is partially caused by: 1) high incidence of concurrent sterilization, 2) former use of dangerous techniques, 3) significant incidence of second trimester abortion, 4) routine use of general anesthesia, and 5) previous ill health of some of the women.

  16. Alternative Locales for the Health Promotion of African American Men: A Survey of African American Men in Chicago Barbershops.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A B; Moore, N J; Wright, M; Gipson, J; Keeter, M; Cornelious, T; Reed, D; Russell, J; Watson, K S; Murray, M

    2017-02-01

    African American men (AA) carry unequal burdens of several conditions including cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV. Engagement of diverse populations including AA men in research and health promotion practice is vital to examining the health disparities that continue to plague many racially and ethnically diverse communities. To date, there is little research on best practices that indicate locations, community areas and settings to engage AA men in research and health promotion. Traditionally, the AA church has been a key area to engage AA men and women. However, changing tides in attendance of AA parishioners require additional information to identify areas where AAs, particularly, AA men congregate. The AA barbershop has been identified as a place of social cohesion, cultural immersion and solidarity for AA men but specific sub-populations of AA men may be underrepresented. To further investigate additional locales where AA men congregate, this study engaged AA barbers and clients in several urban community barbershops in Chicago, Illinois. 127 AA men over age 18y/o receiving grooming services in 25 Chicago area barbershops across 14 predominantly AA communities were consented and recruited for a quantitative survey study. The self-administered surveys were completed in ~15 min and $10 compensation was provided to men. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographic variables and for frequency of responses for locations to find AA men of specific age ranges for health promotion and screening activities. Outside of the traditionally used churches or barbershops, the top recommended recruitment sites by age were: 18-29y/o- city park or a recreational center; 30-39y/o- gym, bars or the street; 40-49y/o- various stores, especially home improvement stores, and the mall; and 50y/o+- fast food restaurants in the mornings, such as McDonalds, and individual's homes. The study participants also reported that locations where AA men congregate vary by age

  17. Diabetes in a primary care center among Spaniards and immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Vilalta, Montserrat Roca; Castaño Pérez, Águeda; López Moya, Charo; López Olivares, Mercedes

    Diabetes is a disease with different prevalence in different populations. Objectives The aim of the present study is to describe diabetic patients in a primary care center with regard to their geographic origin, and to determine the status of their disease. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study, with data available from clinical records in South Tarrasa primary care center (Barcelona, Spain) in 2004. Results A total of 1215 diabetic patients with an average age of 65 years, 51% female, were included in the study. Regarding their origin, 97% were from Spain, 2% from Morocco, 0.8% from Latin America, and 0.2% from the rest of Europe. The average Hb1AC was 6.9%. In type 2 diabetic patients, treatment consisted of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) for 46.6%, only dietetic restrictions for 36.5%, OHA + insulin for 7.9%, and only insulin for 9%. In the age group 30-39 years, 0.7% of Moroccans suffer from diabetes versus 0.5% of Spaniards. The values in the 40-49 year group are 3.9% of Moroccans, 3% of Spaniards, and 2.1% of Latin Americans. The values in the 50-59 year group are 13.5% of Moroccans, 10.6% of Spaniards, and 7.7% of Latin Americans. The values in the 60-69 year group are 40% of Moroccans, 18.8% of Spaniards, and 44.5% of Latin Americans. The values in the 70-79 year group are 67% of Moroccans, 26% of Spaniards, and 50% of Latin Americans. The average Hb1AC was 6.3% in Latin Americans, 6.9% in Spaniards, and 8.1% in Moroccans. In type 1 diabetic patients, the average Hb1AC was 10.2% in Moroccans and 8% in Spaniards; while in type 2 diabetes, the average Hb1AC was 7.8% in Moroccans and 6.9% in Spaniards. Gestational diabetes was observed in 6.1% of the Spanish, 10.9% of the Moroccan and 4.2% of the Latin American women. Conclusions A higher prevalence of diabetes was detected in Moroccans than in patients from other countries. These patients present poor control of the disease. PMID:25247004

  18. Cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation, shiftwork, and heat exposure for underground miners.

    PubMed

    Legault, Glenn; Clement, Alexandra; Kenny, Glen P; Hardcastle, Stephen; Keller, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation, abnormal sleep patterns arising from working rotating shifts, and exposure to high ambient temperatures contribute to physical and cognitive dysfunction. We examined the effects of these on 19 (41.5 ± 5.1 years) male underground miners. Data were collected for 28 to 30 consecutive days such that the participants experienced their full rotating shift schedule, including days off. Objective measures of sleep quality (actigraphy), attentional capacity (psychomotor vigilance task), core body temperature (visceral pill), executive function (BRIEF-A) and subjective measures of fatigue (Karolinska and Epworth Sleepiness scales) were obtained over the 28-30 day period. Non-parametric analyses (χ(2), Wilcoxen Signed ranks) were used to determine differences between shift types and days off. Z-tests were used to compare sample data to population norms. These revealed that the participants experienced poor quality of sleep relative to age-matched norms irrespective of the shift being worked or if the participant was on a scheduled day off [30-39 year olds: z = -14.62, p < 0.001; 40-49 year olds: z = -4.44, p < 0.001]. Participants when working day shift experienced less sleep prior to beginning work compared to their days off or night shift; however, no differences in total sleep time between when participants worked day or night shifts were observed [χ(2) (2, n = 18) = 13.44, p < 0.01]. When measured subjectively, the only time participants reported excessive sleepiness was after a night shift. Objective measures of attentional capacity showed best performance at the beginning of night shifts in contrast to any other time that the task was completed; however, performance degraded dramatically over the course of the night shift [χ(2) (2, n = 12) = 6.50, p < 0.05]. We show that underground miners reported for work sleep deprived. The cognitive consequences of this poor sleep were most pronounced during night shift when their

  19. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non

  20. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    that mainly occurred in association with landslides and avalanches. The average age of victims of natural hazards was 35.9 years and, accordingly, the age groups with the largest number of victims were the 20-29 and 30-39 year-old groups, which in combination represented 34 % of all fatalities. It appears that the overall natural hazard mortality rate in Switzerland over the past 70 years has been relatively low in comparison to rates in other countries or rates of other types of fatal accidents in Switzerland. However, a large variability in mortality rates was observed within the country with considerably higher rates in Alpine environments.

  1. 7 CFR 305.8 - Sulfuryl fluoride treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Exposure period (hours) T310-d NAP 1 70 or above 2 24 50-69 2.5 24 40-49 3 24 DT404-b-2 NAP 70 or above 4 16 60-69 4 24 50-59 5 24 40-49 6.5 24 5 32 T404-c-2 NAP 70 or above 1 16 60-69 1.5 24 50-59 2.5 24...

  2. [The background of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients on the basis of the annual report database for 2007-2009 in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Masako; Shimouchi, Akira; Ito, Kunihiko; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    obtained. They were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.5-2.9) in 0-29 years, 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.0) in 30-39 years, 2.2 (95% CI: 1.7-3.0) in 40-49 years, 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.8) in 50-59 years, 1.9 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) in 60-69 years, and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2-1.8) in 70-79 years. With respect to the background of high MDR among TB patients who underwent retreatment and foreigners who have recently entered Japan, the usage of RFP and poor adherence to drugs and entry from high-prevalence countries with high MDR risk were suspected. Regarding the background of generational differences in resistance to one or more drugs, it was suspected that most people over 80 years of age had been infected with TB bacilli in the distant past, before anti-TB drugs were available, when drug-resistant bacilli had not yet emerged. However, the younger generations have become more susceptible to drug-resistant TB bacilli because anti-TB drugs were being widely used when they were born, and drug-resistant bacilli were prevalent in the world.

  3. Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and choline esterase in overseas and Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S

    1985-04-01

    Serum lipids were studied in 97 overseas and 282 Japanese university students. As compared with Japanese, serum total cholesterol levels were low and high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was high in the overseas students, especially in Chinese and Korean students. 30-39-year-old Chinese students, moreover, showed elevated high density lipoprotein levels. Choline esterase levels were significantly lower in 30-39-year-old Chinese and Korean students than in Japanese and Taiwanese.

  4. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. Objective The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Methods Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. Results The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who

  5. Online Health Information (OHI) Utilization among Selected Worksite Employees in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Su-I; Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Hou, Peng-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared Internet and online health information (OHI) utilization among selected employees age 40-49 and 50-64 years, and examined the influence of age, gender, education, and worksite. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to participants from two worksites in Taiwan. Results: A total of 527 employees completed the survey…

  6. 47 CFR 15.712 - Interference protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following facilities: Observatory Latitude(deg/min/sec) Longitude(deg/min/sec) Allen Telescope Array 40 49 04 N 121 28 24 W Arecibo Observatory 18 20 37 N 066 45 11 W Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 38 25 59 N...

  7. 47 CFR 15.712 - Interference protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following facilities: Observatory Latitude(deg/min/sec) Longitude(deg/min/sec) Allen Telescope Array 40 49 04 N 121 28 24 W Arecibo Observatory 18 20 37 N 066 45 11 W Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 38 25 59 N...

  8. 47 CFR 15.712 - Interference protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following facilities: Observatory Latitude(deg/min/sec) Longitude(deg/min/sec) Allen Telescope Array 40 49 04 N 121 28 24 W Arecibo Observatory 18 20 37 N 066 45 11 W Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 38 25 59 N...

  9. Aging Phenomena among People with Mental Retardation in Community Residence in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba

    2001-01-01

    A survey investigated aging in 37 men and 28 women with mental retardation in three age groups: 40-49, 50-59, and 60+ living in group homes and apartments in Israel. Results indicate declines as early as age 40 in physical health. The most common ailment is diabetes, followed by weight problems. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  10. SSA 03-3 DIETARY SALT INTAKE AND HYPERTENSION IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    Oh, Vernon Min Sen

    2016-09-01

    According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22.2% in 1992 to 27.3% in 1998, but declined to 24.9% (2004) and to 23.5% in 2010.The NHS of 2010 demonstrated that 18.9% of residents aged 18 to 69 years (an age band of 52 years) had hypertension. Its data show that the age-specific prevalence of HTn rises in a pronounced way from the age of 40 years (16.7%) onwards. The age-specific prevalence of the disorder was 53.4% in persons aged 60-69 years, compared with 7.6% in those aged 30-39 years.The 2010 NHS showed, as have surveys in many other industrial nations, that more men (prevalence = 26.4%) than women (20.7%) have HTn. A disproportionate number of Malays and Indians have HTn, compared with Chinese persons.A breakdown of the crude prevalence data from the 2010 NHS shows that the greatest prevalence of hypertension among persons aged 30-69 years occurred in Malay women (29.8%), Chinese men (27.2%), and Malay men (26.0%).Information from a National Nutrition Survey (NNS) in 2010 conducted by the Health Promotion Board, a unit of the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Singapore, showed that the overall dietary intake of sodium chloride (common salt) was 8500 mg (8.5 grams) per day in residents aged 30-69 years (Table 1).The dietary intake of sodium chloride was estimated by measuring the total amount of sodium in a 24-hour collection of urine. The urinary concentration of sodium was measured using a sodium-ion selective electrode. Men consumed significantly more salt than women. There was a noticeable

  11. Age and Workers' Perceptions of Workplace Safety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and I) safety perception; ii) job satisfaction; iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety…

  12. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  13. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  14. New triterpenoids from Morus alba L. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Two lupeol-type pentacyclic triterpenoids characterised as lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol-27-oic acid (moruslupenoic acid A) and lup-12, 20(29)-dien-3β-ol-26-oic acid (moruslupenoic acid B) and lanst-5, 24-dien-3β-yl acetate (moruslanosteryl acetate) along with the known triterpenoidal phytoconstituents α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin-β-D-glucopyranoside and betulinic acid have been isolated from the stem bark of Morus alba L. (Moraceae). The structures of the isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical means.

  15. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3621 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.3621 Section 29.3621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except the fourth and fifth qualities of the B, C, and X groups in green color. Any lot containing...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1126 - Rule 20.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rule 20. 29.1126 Section 29.1126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... except green, green red, green variegated, gray green, or the combination symbols “GL,” or “GF” in...

  5. The Effect of Neighborhood Racial Composition on the Relationship Between Minority Group Status and Current Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, John P.

    Focusing on blacks, the study examined the effect of neighborhood racial composition on the relationship between socioeconomic status and current fertility. The sample of 611 black and 5,027 white once-married women aged 20-29 living with their husbands was drawn from the neighborhood characteristics files of the 1970 Public Use Samples of the…

  6. 47 CFR 0.406 - The rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Parts 20-29 and 80-109 of this chapter have been reserved for provisions pertaining to the wireless... contain rules applicable to applications for licenses in the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau services... devices which radiate radio frequency energy, and provides for the certification of radio receivers....

  7. 47 CFR 0.406 - The rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Parts 20-29 and 80-109 of this chapter have been reserved for provisions pertaining to the wireless... contain rules applicable to applications for licenses in the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau services... power transmitters and for the operation of certificated transmitters without a license. (7) Part...

  8. 47 CFR 0.406 - The rules and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Parts 20-29 and 80-109 of this chapter have been reserved for provisions pertaining to the wireless... contain rules applicable to applications for licenses in the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau services... power transmitters and for the operation of certificated transmitters without a license. (7) Part...

  9. The Effects of Abortion on the Self-Concept of Unwed Pregnant Teenage Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Teresa B.

    This research study compared the self-concept of women who had chosen first trimester abortion to those who were sexually active but had never experienced pregnancy. Subjects were stratified according to age groups: 13-19, 20-29, and 30 years of age and over. The sample was selected from clients of an intercity abortion agency and students of an…

  10. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  11. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  12. The Teaching of Food Guide Pyramid Concepts by Nebraska Elementary School Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, H. Darlene; Driskell, Judy A.

    2001-01-01

    In an analysis of food selection education using the Food Guide Pyramid for students in grades 1-4, over two-thirds of teachers (n=464) responded that nutrition should be a high priority in the elementary curriculum. Fewer than half teach pyramid concepts consistently or frequently, younger teachers (20-29) more rarely than older teachers.…

  13. Antifungal metabolites from the roots of Diospyros virginiana by overpressure layer chromatography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preparative overpressure layer chromatography (OPLC) method was successfully used for the separation of two new natural compounds, 4-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (1) and (Delta)12,13-20,29-dihydrobetulin (2) together with nine known compounds including 7-methyl-juglone (3), diospyrin (4)...

  14. Word Reading Fluency: Role of Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Developmental Stability and Correlations with Print Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The genetic effects on individual differences in reading development were examined using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in a twin sample. In unrelated individuals (one twin per pair, n = 2,942), the GCTA-based heritability of reading fluency was ~20%-29% at ages 7 and 12. GCTA bivariate results showed that the phenotypic stability of…

  15. Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Risk Reduction HIV Prevention Program for Rural Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Genberg, Becky; Riel, Rosemary; Cole, Matthew; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Minh, Tuong Tan

    2005-01-01

    As of April 2003, 64,801 HIV cases have been documented in Vietnam (Policy Project 2003), 53.9% of which are among individuals 20-29 years of age. Although HIV education efforts have increased, there remains a need for proven effective programs. We present findings from a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial of an HIV prevention program for…

  16. Coping with Stress across the Lifespan: Absolute vs. Relative Changes in Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amirkhan, James; Auyeung, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Developmental theories presume dramatic differences in the coping of the young and old, but with little empirical support. In this study, five demographically matched groups: Pre-Teens (9-12 years, n = 153), Early Teens (13-15, n = 141), Late Teens (16-18, n = 151), Younger Adults (20-29, n = 133), and Older Adults (30-70, n = 133) completed…

  17. Developmental Changes in Item and Source Memory: Evidence from an ERP Recognition Memory Study with Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprondel, Volker; Kipp, Kerstin H.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of item and source memory were assessed in 18 children (7-8 years), 20 adolescents (13-14 years), and 20 adults (20-29 years) performing a continuous recognition memory task with object and nonobject stimuli. Memory performance increased with age and was particularly low for source memory in children. The…

  18. 7 CFR 301.85 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane, and other related compounds, 80 percent; plus methyl isothiocyanate, 20... 29 °C (38 °F to 84 °F). (B) Applications of 280.6 liters of D-D (1,3 dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane, and other related compounds, 100 percent active ingredients) per hectare (30 gallons per...

  19. 7 CFR 301.85 - Quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane, and other related compounds, 80 percent; plus methyl isothiocyanate, 20... 29 °C (38 °F to 84 °F). (B) Applications of 280.6 liters of D-D (1,3 dichloropropene; 1,2 dichloropropane, and other related compounds, 100 percent active ingredients) per hectare (30 gallons per...

  20. Identification of six new lupane-type triterpenoids from Acanthopanax koreanum leaves and their tyrosinase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Dat, Le Duc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Tai, Bui Huu; Jeong, Min Hee; Woo, Mi Hee; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-02-01

    Chemical investigation of Acanthopanax koreanum leaves resulted in the isolation of 13 compounds (1-13), including six new (20,29)-dehydrolupane-type triterpenoids: 3α,11α,30-trihydroxylup-20(29)-en-23,28-dioic acid (1), 3α,11α,30-trihydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (2), 3α,11α,30-trihydroxylup-23-al-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (3), 3α, 11α-dihydroxy-20-oxo-30-norlupane-23,28-dioic acid (5), (20S)-3α-hydroxy-30 oxolupane-23,28-dioic acid (8), (20S)-3β,7β,29-trihydroxy-lupane-23-al-28-oic acid (10), and one novel compound isolated for the first time, named 3α,20α,29-trihydroxylupane-23,28-dioic acid (9), together with six known compounds (4, 6, 7, and 11-13). Chemical structures of the isolated compounds were evaluated by analyzing and comparing spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. These compounds were also evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibitory effects. Among them, compounds 3, 7, 9, and 12 showed significant inhibitory effects, with inhibitory concentrations of 50% (IC50) values ranging from 8.61 to 63.5 μM.

  1. Age-specific seroprevalence of poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus antibodies in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Pachón, I.; Amela, C.; De Ory, F.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, a seroepidemiological study was undertaken in Spain, with the main aim of estimating the population's immunity against poliomyelitis, tetanus and diphtheria. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, covering the population aged 2-39 years. The sample was stratified by age and rural-urban environment, and informed consent obtained to take blood specimens from subjects attending phlebotomy centres. The study included 3,932 persons and the prevalence of antibodies against all three types of poliovirus exceeded 94% across all age groups. From a high of 96% in subjects under the age of 15 years, immunity against diphtheria steadily declined to a low of 32.3% in subjects aged 30-39 years. Similarly, tetanus antitoxin concentrations indicating basic protection were present in 98.9% of the under-14 years age group; thereafter, immunity declined, until reaching 54.6% in the 30-39 years age group. PMID:12558336

  2. Triage and Injury Severity Scoring Systems Conference Held at Washington, D.C. on 26-28 September 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Certain pre-hospital treatments have not yet been proven effective and can be dangerous if inappropriately used, specifically: a. Chest...wounds to the heart, both of whom developed pericardial tamponade and required emergency thoracotomy. II. 3 patients had ISS of 30 - 39. Ill. 6 patients...which also function as mobile minor treatment facilities or free-standing emergency clinics; three sixty-bed MASH hospitals; three 200 bed combat support

  3. 77 FR 38718 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and/or Beaufort Seas, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... significantly reduce the threat of allisions, which could result in oil spills, and releases of natural gas, and...'' W163 28'18.52'' Burger R Posey 6812 OCS-Y-2294 N71 16'06.57'' W163 30'39.44'' Burger S Posey 6762 OCS-Y... local law enforcement officers to make arrests for safety zones established under the PWSA or...

  4. A VISAR Velocity Interferometer System at MRL for Slapper Detonator and Shockwave Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    VISAR schematic diagram. 8 The transmitted fraction of the beam enters the modified Michelson -type interferometer where it is first split into equal...Thus the phase difference will be 1 2 (A.12) 30 39 2n 2If-1A.13) In the arrangement of the Michelson interferometer used for length measurements, A2...A VISAR Velocity Interferometer L System at MRL for Slapper Detonator and Shockwave Studies David J. Hatt MRL Technical Report MRL-TR-91-42 Abstract

  5. Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Bone Marrow Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    osteogenesis, osteoblast function, or mesenchymal-derived hematopoietic support. This project postulates that the loss of gap junction ( GJ )-mediated...intercellular communication (IC) in the osteogenic HM is one of the mechanisms involved in dysfunctional mesenchymal hematopoietic support. GJ are cell...bone (30-39). GJ are formed by hexamers (hemichannels) of a family of proteins called connexins, with cell specific expression and functions(40, 41

  6. The Immediate Impact of the 2009 USPSTF Screening Guideline Change on Physician Recommendation of a Screening Mammogram: Findings from a National Ambulatory and Medical Care Survey-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Suja S; Suryavanshi, Manasi S; Karanth, Siddharth; Lairson, David R

    2016-08-26

    Regular screening is considered the most effective method to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with breast cancer. Nevertheless, contradictory evidence about screening mammograms has led to periodic changes and considerable variations among different screening guidelines. This study is the first to examine the immediate impact of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guideline modification on physician recommendation of mammograms. The study included visits by women aged 40 years and older without prior breast cancer from the National Ambulatory and Medical Care Survey 2008-2010. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the factors associated with mammography recommendation. Approximately 29,395 visits were included and mammography was recommended during 1350 visits; 50-64-year-old women had 72% higher odds, and 65-74-year-old women had twice the odds of getting a mammogram recommendation compared with 40-49-year-old women in 2009. However, there was no difference in recommendation by age groups in 2008 and 2010. Obstetricians and gynecologists did not modify their recommendation behavior in 2009, unlike all other specialists who reduced their recommendation for 40-49-year-old women in 2009. Other characteristics associated with mammogram recommendations were certain patient comorbidities, physician specialty and primary care physician status, health maintenance organization status of the clinic, and certain visit characteristics. This study demonstrated a temporary effect of the USPSTF screening guideline change on mammogram recommendation. However, in light of conflicting recommendations by different guidelines, the physicians erred toward the more rigorous guidelines and did not permanently reduce their mammogram recommendation for women aged 40-49 years.

  7. HR+/Her2- breast cancer in pre-menopausal women: The impact of younger age on clinical characteristics at diagnosis, disease management and survival.

    PubMed

    De Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Comber, Harry; Sharp, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Young women (20-39 years-old) with breast cancer are diagnosed with more aggressive tumours and consequently have poorer survival. However, there is an evidence gap as to whether age has an independent effect on survival of pre-menopausal women diagnosed with HR+/Her2- tumours. The aim of this population-based study was to compare characteristics at diagnosis, determinants of treatment and survival in women aged 20-39 and 40-49 years diagnosed with HR+/Her2- tumours. From the National Cancer Registry Ireland, we identified women aged 20-49 diagnosed with a first invasive HR+/Her2- breast cancer during 2002-2008. Women aged 20-39 were compared to those aged 40-49 years. Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to explore the impact of age on treatment receipt. Associations between age and survival from all causes was investigated using Cox models. In multivariate models, women aged 20-39 significantly more often having no cancer-directed surgery (IRR=1.49, 95%CI 1.07, 2.08). In those having surgery, younger age was associated with significantly higher likelihood of receiving chemotherapy; age was not associated with receipt of adjuvant radiotherapy or endocrine therapy. Women aged 20-39 undergoing surgery were significantly more likely to die than women aged 40-49 (HR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.31, 2.59). Age is an independent prognostic factor in younger women diagnosed with HR+/Her2- breast cancer, supporting the hypothesis that breast cancer in women under 40 has more aggressive behaviour, even within HR+/Her2- tumours. Future research should explore the reasons for poorer survival in order to inform strategies to improve outcomes in this age group.

  8. Biomarkers of Heart Failure with Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Senni, Michele; D'Elia, Emilia; Emdin, Michele; Vergaro, Giuseppe

    2017-02-09

    Biomarkers are increaingly being used in the management of heart failure not only for the purpose of screening, diagnosis, and risk stratification, but also as a guide to evaluate the response to treatment in the individual patient and as an entry criterion and/or a surrogate marker of efficacy in clinical trials testing novel drugs. In this chapter, we review the role of established biomarkers for heart failure management, according to the main classification of HF phenotypes, based on the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction, including heart failure with reduced (<40%), preserved (≥50%), and, as recently proposed, mid-range (40-49%) ejection fraction.

  9. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries (SOCS) for Luke AFB, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    LUKE AFB/PSOENIX AZ PERIOD OF RECORD: MAR 81 - FEB 91 LOT TO UTC: + 7 MOVIE : JAN SOURS: 15-17 . ...... o.oo . .. o. o.o.. o o......0. oo. .... o .. o...WIND SPEED IN EROTS DIECTION 1-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49 50-64 GE 65 TOTAL HEAN MEDIAN (DRIOYMK) % WIND WIND...15-17 ........ ,.................................................. ......... .oo ....o o o o.ooooo... .................. .°..... WIND SPEED IN EROTE

  10. Attitudes of some elites towards introduction of abortion as a method of family planning in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R H

    1975-10-01

    Of 388 married men (professors, government officials, and businessmen) who responded to a questionnaire asking whether they would recommend abortion as a method of family planning, 216 (56%) said yes. Support for abortion was positively associated with level of education, level of wife's and father's education, income, and educational upward mobility (difference between son's and father's educational level); it was negatively associated with rural background (number of years spent in a village). A U-shaped relationship was found between age and support for abortion; the middle-age group (40-49) gave more support than the younger or higher age group.

  11. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  12. Scheduling Operative Surgical Services to Recover CHAMPUS Surgical Procedures at Blanchfield Army Community Hospital, Fort Campbell, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    7758 ARTHROPLASTY 3-5 DIGITS LEFT FOOT 20 29:43 1:29 7867 REMOVAL RETAINED SCREW RIGHT ANKLE 4 7:10 1:47 9999 OTHER 25 45:03 1:48 7768 EXCISION... ARTHROPLASTY 5TH DIGIT 5 13:00 2:36 7937 ORIF 5TH METATARSAL RIGHT FOOT 2 5:25 2:42 7753 RIGHT CARPAL TUNNEL RELEASE 6 16:25 2:44 8027 ARTHROSCOPY 6...TIME 9999 OTHER 25 45:03 1:48 7758 ARTHROPLASTY PIPJ 3-5 DIGITS L FOOT 20 29:43 1:29 7752 AUSTIN OSTEOTOMY WITH HERBERT SCREW 16 35:10 2:12 7768

  13. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 - 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 - 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  14. New cytotoxic lupane triterpenoids from the twigs of Coussarea paniculata.

    PubMed

    Prakash Chaturvedula, V S; Schilling, Jennifer K; Johnson, Randall K; Kingston, David G I

    2003-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH extract of the twigs of Coussarea paniculata using a yeast-based assay for potential DNA-damaging agents resulted in the isolation of three new lupane triterpenoids, 1-3, in addition to eight known triterpenoids, lupeol (4), lupeyl acetate (5), betulin (6), betulinic acid (7), 3-epi-betulinic acid (8), 3-epi-betulinaldehyde (9), oleanolic acid (10), and ursolic acid (11). The structures of the new compounds were established as lup-20(29)-en-3beta,25-diol (1), lup-20(29)-en-11alpha-ol-25,3beta-lactone (2), and 3-deoxybetulonic acid (3), on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversion.

  15. Breakout character of islet amyloid polypeptide hydrophobic mutations at the onset of type-2 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigori, Rafael B.

    2014-11-01

    Toxic fibrillar aggregates of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) appear as the physical outcome of a peptidic phase transition signaling the onset of type-2 diabetes mellitus in different mammalian species. In particular, experimentally verified mutations on the amyloidogenic segment 20-29 in humans, cats, and rats are highly correlated with the molecular aggregation propensities. Through a microcanonical analysis of the aggregation of IAPP20 -29 isoforms, we show that a minimalist one-bead hydrophobic-polar continuum model for protein interactions properly quantifies those propensities from free-energy barriers. Our results highlight the central role of sequence-dependent hydrophobic mutations on hot spots for stabilization, and thus for the engineering, of such biological peptides.

  16. Cooling System to Treat Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    and core temperature rises until exhaustion occurs at physiological limits [1]. Heat-related illnesses exist in a spectrum of disease states, ranging...water immersion and other forms of cryotherapy: physiological changes potentially affecting recovery from high-intensity exercise. Extrem Physiol Med...Beam WC, Adams GM. Collection of basic data. In: Exercise physiology laboratory manual, 7th ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Education; 2014:20-29. 8

  17. Balance of Risk in the South China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S...Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism (Stanford, CA : Stanford University Press, 2004), 9. 49 Ibid., 12, 20. 50 Ibid., 20, 29. 14 maintain this...model for decision making under risk. Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky developed the theory in 1979 in response to observations that people

  18. Maui Optical Site, Mt. Halekulia, Hawaii, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts C, E-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-23

    T.) * TOTAL LI TOOOTBRNC Tmp. WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TONT 3TOTL (F) 0 1 2 3 4 5 76 . 9 .10 11- 12 13 14 15 .16 17 .1 19. 20 21 .2223 24...BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 1 .-2 3 .4 5.6 7 .8 9. 10 11. 12113. 14 15 .16 17 .111 9-2 21. 22 l . 2 3.24 25 .26 27.20 29 .30] a31.06

  19. Development of Spatial and Verbal Working Memory Capacity in the Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Race, Elizabeth; Burrows, Brittany; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    A core aspect of working memory (WM) is the capacity to maintain goal-relevant information in mind, but little is known about how this capacity develops in the human brain. We compared brain activation, via fMRI, between children (ages 7-12 years) and adults (ages 20-29 years) performing tests of verbal and spatial WM with varying amounts (loads)…

  20. Amino(oxo)acetate moiety: A new functional group to improve the cytotoxicity of betulin derived carbamates.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lucie; Perl, Vincent; Wiemann, Jana; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René

    2016-06-15

    While 3-O-acetylated betulin derivatives carrying a carbamate moiety at position C-28 are of rather low cytotoxicity for human tumor cell lines, the corresponding C-3 amino(oxo) acetates show good cytotoxicity. For example, an EC50 as low as 2.0μM was found for (3β) 28-{[(hexylamino)carbonyl]oxy}lup-20(29)-en-3-yl amino(oxo)acetate (16) employing the ovarian cancer cell line A2780.

  1. Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Peter D; Hoover, Robert N; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-11-01

    The use of cellular telephones has grown explosively during the past two decades, and there are now more than 279 million wireless subscribers in the United States. If cellular phone use causes brain cancer, as some suggest, the potential public health implications could be considerable. One might expect the effects of such a prevalent exposure to be reflected in general population incidence rates, unless the induction period is very long or confined to very long-term users. To address this issue, we examined temporal trends in brain cancer incidence rates in the United States, using data collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Log-linear models were used to estimate the annual percent change in rates among whites. With the exception of the 20-29-year age group, the trends for 1992-2006 were downward or flat. Among those aged 20-29 years, there was a statistically significant increasing trend between 1992 and 2006 among females but not among males. The recent trend in 20-29-year-old women was driven by a rising incidence of frontal lobe cancers. No increases were apparent for temporal or parietal lobe cancers, or cancers of the cerebellum, which involve the parts of the brain that would be more highly exposed to radiofrequency radiation from cellular phones. Frontal lobe cancer rates also rose among 20-29-year-old males, but the increase began earlier than among females and before cell phone use was highly prevalent. Overall, these incidence data do not provide support to the view that cellular phone use causes brain cancer.

  2. Middle third fractures of facial skeleton at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nor, G M; Lian, C B

    1988-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of 80 patients with major central and lateral middle third fractures of facial skeleton treated at University Hospital from 1981 to 1985. The most common was the fractures of zygomatic complex. The peak incidence was in the 20-29 year age group and males were involved more than females (ratio 9: 1). Road traffic accidents were to be blamed for most of the fractures which was 82.25%.

  3. [Obesity as risk factor associated with hypertension among nursing professionals of a national philanthropy health institution].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Aline Furtado Carlos; Nogueira, Maria Suely

    2010-06-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between obesity and high blood pressure among nursing professionals of a philanthropic institution, with a view to the early detection of possible cases of hypertension. The study population consisted of 147 nursing professionals of ages between 20-70 years. The researcher performed structured, individual, interviews at the work site of those professionals, 91.8% of which were women; 29.2% were older than 40 years; 11.6% had a SBP > or = 140 mmHg and 6.8% DBP > or = 90 mmHg; 12.2% had obesity class I-II; 38.1% of women with a WHP > or = 0.85, 12.2% in the age range of 40-49 years; 2.1% of men with a WHR > or = 1.0, 1.4% in the age range of 40-49 years. It was found that, though nursing professionals know the severity of the disease and the importance of changing their life habits, they still find it difficult to adopt that behavior, which suggests the need to implement educational programs at the work site to help them to change their behaviors.

  4. Less subclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese men in Japan than in White men in the United States in the post-World War II birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kadowaki, Takashi; El-Saed, Aiman; Okamura, Tomonori; Takamiya, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Evans, Rhobert W; Kita, Yoshikuni; Kuller, Lewis H

    2007-03-15

    Coronary heart disease incidence and mortality remain very low in Japan despite major dietary changes and increases in risk factors that should have resulted in a substantial increase in coronary heart disease rates (Japanese paradox). Primary genetic effects are unlikely, given the substantial increase in coronary heart disease in Japanese migrating to the United States. For men aged 40-49 years, levels of total cholesterol and blood pressure have been similar in Japan and the United States throughout their lifetimes. The authors tested the hypothesis that levels of subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcification, and intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in men aged 40-49 years are similar in Japan and the United States. They conducted a population-based study of 493 randomly selected men: 250 in Kusatsu City, Shiga, Japan, and 243 White men in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, in 2002-2005. Compared with the Whites, the Japanese had a less favorable profile regarding many risk factors. The prevalence ratio for the presence of a coronary calcium score of > or =10 for the Japanese compared with the Whites was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.76). Mean intima-media thickness was significantly lower in the Japanese (0.616 mm (standard error, 0.005) vs. 0.672 (standard error, 0.005) mm, p < 0.01). Both associations remained significant after adjusting for risk factors. The findings warrant further investigations.

  5. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  6. The effects of gender and age on forensic personal identification from frontal sinus in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Bora, Aydin; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Etli, Yasin; Gumus, Orhan; Keskin, Siddik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CT scans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane. Volumes were calculated using the Hospital Information Management Systems and Image Archiving and Management System program. The Statistical Package of the Social Science version 13 was used for statistical analyses. Results: We determined differences in the frontal sinus measurements of different age groups in a Turkish adult population. Frontal sinus dimensions were usually higher in females and lower in males after 40-49 years of age than their younger counterparts, but the measurements were lower in females and higher in males in 70≤ years of age group than 60-69 years of age. Left frontal sinus was dominant in young age groups but right frontal sinus was dominant in groups 40-49 years of age or older. Conclusion: We observed crossing of the measurements between the different age groups, which we could not find clear explanations. The results of such studies may affect forensic identification from frontal sinus measurements. PMID:28042629

  7. Evaluation of a single dose of diphtheria toxoid among adults in the Republic of Georgia, 1995: immunogenicity and adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Khetsuriani, N; Music, S; Deforest, A; Sutter, R W

    2000-02-01

    To determine the immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of diphtheria toxoid among adults, blood samples for detecting serum antitoxin levels were obtained from 18- to 59-year-old subjects (n=248) before and 30 days after immunization with Td (tetanus-diphtheria toxoids; manufactured by Serum Institute of India). By day 30, the seroprevalence of antitoxin levels >/=0.1 IU/mL increased from 22.6% to 81.5%; median antitoxin levels increased from 0.01 to 4.0 IU/mL. These parameters were lowest among subjects who were 40-59 years old, especially among those 40-49 years old. Adverse reactions (local redness, swelling, induration, fever>39 degrees C) were reported by 5.3% of participants. Our findings suggest that, in general, one dose of the Indian-produced Td vaccine is efficacious and safe in inducing an adequate immune response against diphtheria in adults; however, in Georgia, persons 40-59 years old, especially those 40-49 years old, will require additional doses of toxoid to achieve protective levels of antitoxin.

  8. Epidemic diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia, 1993-1996: risk factors for fatal outcome among hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Quick, M L; Sutter, R W; Kobaidze, K; Malakmadze, N; Strebel, P M; Nakashidze, R; Murvanidze, S

    2000-02-01

    Epidemic diphtheria reemerged in the republic of Georgia in November 1993. To identify risk factors for fatal outcomes, clinical and epidemiologic data on all hospitalized diphtheria patients were examined. Medical charts of patients from 1993-1995 were reviewed. A total of 659 cases and 68 deaths were identified (case fatality rate [CFR] = 10.3%). Fifty-two percent of all cases and 68% of deaths were in children 40-49 years of age (CFR=19%) and children 5-9 years of age (CFR=16%). Children who did not have the complete primary vaccination series with diphtheria toxoid and adults 40-49 years of age were the 2 groups at highest risk. Being a rural resident and having a long interval (>3 days) between onset of symptoms to antitoxin treatment were significantly associated with fatal outcomes. Immunization of children and 40- to 49-year-old adults was required to rapidly control the epidemic.

  9. Characterization of terpenoids from the root of Ceriops tagal with antifouling activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-De; Yi, Rui-Zao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Feng, Dan-Qing; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wang, Zhan-Chang

    2011-01-01

    One new dimeric diterpenoid, 8(14)-enyl-pimar-2'(3')-en-4'(18')-en-15'(16')-endolabr- 16,15,2',3'-oxoan-16-one (1) and five known terpenoids: Tagalsin C (2), Tagalsin I (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (4), 3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (5) and 28-hydroxylup- 20(29)-en-3-one (6) were isolated from the roots of the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR, IR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. All these terpenoids exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle without significant toxicity. The structure-activity relationship results demonstrated that the order of antifouling activity was diterpenoid (Compound 2) > triterpenoid (Compounds 4, 5 and 6) > dimeric diterpenoid (Compounds 1 and 3). The functional groups on the C-28 position of lupane triterpenoid significantly affect the antifouling activity. The diterpenoid dimmer with two identical diterpenoid subunits might display more potent antifouling activity than one with two different diterpenoid subunits. The stability test showed that Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 6 remained stable over 2-month exposure under filtered seawater.

  10. [What happens when mmHg are replaced by kPa? (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stepanik, J

    1981-12-01

    Resolution no. 30.39 of the WHA, passed in May 1977, recommends the adoption of SI units by the medical community throughout the world, including a change from mmHg to kPa. In Austria this requirement has been law since January 1978. This paper describes how simply the transition can be made and how other results, such as those of tonography and differential tonometry, are numerically altered as a result. Finally a simple modification is described which enables the Goldmann tonometer to indicate intraocular pressure, its kPa being equal to g on the scale.

  11. Anthropometric Sizing Systems for Army Women’s Field Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    10l46 052 9.61 - 11.32 10.75 FOREARM CIRC, FLXD 35 10.20 .45 9.44 - 10.96 10..3 HIP CIRCUFERENCE 30 39.80 1.70 36.99 - 42.61 40.94 NECK CIRCUNFERCNCE...height). (Not pictured) NECK TO BUSTPOINT (49): a distance from the lateral neck -shoulder juncture to the bra tip with the tape held tense and not...surface distance from the waist to the anterior neck -torso juncture. WAIST - KNEECAP (77): a derived dimension computed by subtracting variable no. 9

  12. TEOAE-based estimation of the auditory threshold in the mid-octave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulos, S; Martini, A; Stephens, S D

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the hearing levels, at the mid-frequencies, of 233 ears with sensorineural hearing loss by classifying the corresponding transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) recordings into three threshold groups. A classification algorithm was based upon a discriminant analysis of fast Fourier transform (FFT) data, evoked by non-linear click stimuli of 80 (+/-2) dB SPL per ear. To validate the efficiency of the proposed methodology TEOAE recordings were initially grouped by mean hearing level values of the 1 kHz and 2 kHz octaves into three threshold ranges according to two strategy schemes: in the first, TEOAE data were assigned into 10-19 dB HL, 20-39 dB HL or > or = 40 dB HL groups. In the second, TEOAE data were assigned into 10-29 > dB H >, 30-39 dB HL or > or = 40 dB HL groups. The most accurate prediction estimates were obtained from the second strategy scheme with a 90.9% accuracy in the 10-29 dB HL group, 82% in the 30-39 dB HL group and 71.4% in the > or = 40 dB HL group.

  13. Synthetic undecapeptide (NTX10-20) of noxiustoxin blocks completely the I(A) potassium currents of cerebellum granular cells.

    PubMed

    Frau, A; Pisciotta, M; Gurrola, G B; Possani, L D; Prestipino, G

    2001-01-01

    Native noxiustoxin (NTX) and synthetic peptides corresponding to its primary sequence, from positions 1-9, 1-14, 1-20, 10-20, 21-39 and 30 39, were prepared and assayed on the K+ currents of cerebellum granular cells, using the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration system. Native toxin has a reversible inhibitory effect (IC50 = 360 nM), whereas synthetic peptides NTXI-20 and NTX1-9 had a half-effective dose IC50 of approximately 2 and 10 microM, respectively, which correlates with their biological effects in vivo. Synthetic peptide NTX10-20 was quite remarkable in having a preference for the IA current, which was completely inhibited at high peptide concentration. The effects of the other peptides (NTXI 14, NTX21-39 and NTX30-39), although positive and reversible, required higher concentrations (50 200 microM) to block both currents, suggesting no affinity or, at least, much lower specificity for the channels responsible for the potassium currents in the granular cells studied.

  14. [The use of biological age on mental work capacity model in accelerated aging assessment of professional lorry-drivers].

    PubMed

    Bashkireva, A S

    2012-01-01

    The studies of biological age, aging rate, mental work capacity in professional drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions determining the mental work capacity levels. Dynamics of the aging process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age model. The results point at the premature decrease of the mental work capacity in professional drivers. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic and psychophysiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the aging process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating aging was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. The expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated aging prevention among working population was demonstrated.

  15. Quasiperiodicity route to chaos in cardiac conduction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroz-Juárez, M. A.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Ryzhii, E.; Ryzhii, M.; Aragón, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that cardiac arrhythmias are instances of chaos. In particular that the ventricular fibrillation is a form of spatio-temporal chaos that arises from normal rhythm through a quasi-periodicity or Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse route to chaos. In this work, we modify the heterogeneous oscillator model of cardiac conduction system proposed in Ref. [Ryzhii E, Ryzhii M. A heterogeneous coupled oscillator model for simulation of ECG signals. Comput Meth Prog Bio 2014;117(1):40-49. doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2014.04.009.], by including an ectopic pacemaker that stimulates the ventricular muscle to model arrhythmias. With this modification, the transition from normal rhythm to ventricular fibrillation is controlled by a single parameter. We show that this transition follows the so-called torus of quasi-periodic route to chaos, as verified by using numerical tools such as power spectrum and largest Lyapunov exponent.

  16. [Industrial hygiene for subway train operators].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Sin'kov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Subway train drivers work in specific conditions of underground surroundings, face psychoemotional stress due to high intensity of signals analyzed in short time for the decision, prominent responsibility for passengers' lives. The work is also associated with significant levels of noise, minor artificial illumination, air pollution with dust and unfavorable microclimate. By the end of working shift the drivers demonstrate marked changes in blood pressure, prolonged oculomotor reactions, depressed visual function. Morbidity with transitory disablement is high among the drivers, presenting especially cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Unfavorable changes of ageing process are seen in the drivers over 35, in age group of 40-49 years (with length of service at least 20 years). The complex investigations helped to elaborate hygienic norms for new subway cars, to base rational schedule ot work and rest for the drivers.

  17. Major developments in the 2016 european guidelines for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Trullàs, J C; González-Franco, Á

    2017-03-15

    The European Society of Cardiology has recently published new guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF). This article aims to review these recommendations and their level of scientific evidence and to present the most innovative aspects. The most significant deviations from the 2012 edition are: 1) the introduction of the concept of HF with midrange LVEF (40-49%); 2) a new diagnostic algorithm for chronic HF, initially considering the clinical probability; 3) recommendations on preventing or delaying the apparition of HF; 4) indications for the use of the new sacubitril-valsartan compound, the first angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor; 5) modification of indications for cardiac resynchronisation therapy; and 6) a new algorithm for a combined diagnostic and treatment strategy for acute HF based on the presence or absence of congestion and hypoperfusion.

  18. Synthesis and biological screening of 2'-aryl/benzyl-2-aryl-4-methyl-4',5-bithiazolyls as possible anti-tubercular and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Abhale, Yogita K; Sasane, Amit V; Chavan, Abhijit P; Deshmukh, Keshav K; Kotapalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummanni, Ramesh; Sayyad, Sadikali F; Mhaske, Pravin C

    2015-04-13

    A series of 2'-aryl/benzyl-2-aryl-4-methyl-4',5-bithiazolyl derivatives, 25-64 were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis MC(2) 155 strain and antimicrobial activities against four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. Among them, compounds 40, 49, 50, and 54 exhibited moderate to good inhibition on the growth of the bacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis at the concentration of 30 μM. Compounds 26, 40, 44, 54 and 56 exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activity. Compound 5-(2'-(4-fluorobenzyl)thiazol-4'-yl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-thiazole (54) exhibited both antitubercular as well as antimicrobial activity against all tested strains.

  19. Strategic Material Shortfall Risk Mitigation Optimization Model (OPTIM-SM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    0.029 1,147 1.42 93,877,495 Tantalum 1000 pounds 623 0.030 68 7.39 42,071,357 Terbium MT Oxide 7 0.022 996,933 13.03 7,160,960 Thulium MT Oxide 20...51 64 71 Tantalum 77 65 41 0 0 Terbium 77 42 40 49 0 Thulium 70 42 40 59 0 Tin 73 67 44 67 78 Tungsten 77 65 46 57 62 Yttrium 71 43 35 48 54...1.31 0 0 Terbium MT Oxide 1.67 1.67 0 Thulium MT Oxide 0.30 0.60 0 Tin Metric tons 0.77 0.25 1.13 Tungsten 1000 pounds 0.44 0.29 0.62 Yttrium MT

  20. A national hypertension treatment program in Germany and its estimated impact on costs, life expectancy, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Stock, Stephanie

    2007-10-01

    Almost 15 million Germans may suffer from untreated hypertension. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a national hypertension treatment program compared to no program. A Markov decision model from the perspective of the statutory health insurance (SHI) was built. All data were taken from secondary sources. The target population consists of hypertensive male and female patients at high or low risk for cardiovascular events at different age groups (40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years). The analysis shows fairly moderate cost-effectiveness ratios even for low-risk groups (less than 12,000 euros per life year gained). In women at high risk antihypertensive treatment even leads to savings. This suggests that a national hypertension treatment program provides good value for money. Given the considerable costs of the program itself, any savings from avoiding long-term consequences of hypertension are likely to be offset, however.

  1. Use of selected prediction equations (CG, MDRD4, CKD-EPI) in improving glomerular filtration rate assessment in clinical practice in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zatko, Tomás; Kolena, Branislav; Petrovicová, Ida; Pilka, Tomás; Kolacan, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to establish the best prediction equation for different age ranges in estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) in clinical practice in Slovakia. The GFR by 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) and the estimated GFR (eGFR) using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD4) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations were obtained in adults aged 30-80 (n = 433, 10-years intervals). The correlation between these prediction equations and Ccr was evaluated. Errors in prediction equations were detected by moving average and by comparisons of the formulas for GFR < 1.5 ml/s and > 1.5 ml/s. The best correlations were established between Ccr and MDRD4 for women (r = 0.7790) and men (r = 0.8009), and between Ccr and CKD-EPI for women (r = 0.7780) and men (r = 0.8002) in the 60-69 age range. High correlation was also established between Ccr and CG (r = 0.8655) and MDRD4 (r = 0.8713) for men in the 40-49 age range. With the exception of the 30-40 age range, a low prediction error was observed for each age range in both genders when GFR was < 1.5 ml/s. We recommend utilization of the MDRD4 and CG equations for men (40-49 years) and MDRD4 and CKD-EPI for women and men (60-69 years), as preferred substitutes for Ccr.

  2. Estimation of mean glandular dose for contrast enhanced digital mammography: factors for use with the UK, European and IAEA breast dosimetry protocols.

    PubMed

    Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2014-05-07

    The UK, European and IAEA protocols for breast dosimetry in mammography use tabulations of conversion factors, which relate measurements of incident air kerma to the mean glandular dose to the breast. To supplement the existing tabulations, a Monte Carlo computer program has been used to calculate conversion factors for the high-energy spectra used for contrast enhanced digital mammography. The calculations were made for the x-ray spectra from a tungsten target (tube voltage range 40-50 kV) filtered by 0.28, 0.30 and 0.32 mm of copper, and from molybdenum and rhodium targets (tube voltage range 40-49 kV), each filtered by 0.30 mm of copper. The g-factors for all of these spectra were plotted for each breast thickness as a function of half value layer (HVL) and were found to lie on smooth curves within 0.3%. These reflect the fact that the characteristic x-rays present in the spectra from molybdenum and rhodium are heavily filtered and all the spectra are essentially Bremsstrahlung. As a consequence, the s-factor previously used in the dosimetry protocols to adjust for different target/filter combinations can be taken as unity for all of the spectra considered. Tables of g-factors and c-factors are provided for breast thicknesses in the range 20-110 mm and HVLs in the range 2.4-3.6 mm of aluminium. The tables of c-factors are given for breast glandularities in the range 0.1%-100% and for typical glandularities for women in the age bands 40-49 and 50-64 attending the UK national breast screening programme.

  3. Evaluation of Neutron Capture Cross Sections and Covariances on 99Tc and 129I in the keV Energy Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Nobuyuki

    2016-03-01

    Neutron capture cross sections and covariances on radioactive 99Tc and 129I have been required for developing environmental load-reducing technology. Their evaluation was performed by using nuclear reaction calculation code CCONE and Baysian code KALMAN with data assumed on the basis of measured data. The obtained total and capture cross sections are in good agreement with the measured data. The resulting uncertainties of capture cross section were 12-18% and 20-29% for 99Tc and 129I, respectively, in the keV energy region.

  4. Microhardness, Friction and Wear of SiC and Si3N4 Materials as a Function of Load, Temperature and Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    planar slip bands in Ni-, Al- and Ti- base alloys , and have shown that this may hinder the activation of non-coplanar secondary slip and provide...and this argues against preferential fracture along planar slip bands, as observed in some metal alloys (47). Whether plasticity is important in crack...V. Hulman, 1963, Soviet Physics Dokjay8 20 29. 96. A.G. Atkins, A. Silv ~rio And D. Tabor, 1966, J. Inst. Metals 94, 369. 97. L.M. Fitzgerald, 1963

  5. Skin Wound-Enhanced Survival and Myelocytopoiesis in Mice after Whole- Body Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-16

    Radiologica Onrolngy20 29-3S, 1981. to ItEY WORDOS 1001401nuo ont wiov s41l itf ev’e.isAnd 110j4nIfitr 6v black #imbo)WO 20A0?~TWnIwow;.o.I .ws~ Weklf’Mboen...efense Nuclear Agency has been given * abolished the radiation protective effect. or should be inferred. Research was conducted according to the...trauma on human granulopoiesis. Brit. J. rad iation. Rad iat. Res. 43 (1970), 2 10. Haemat. 44 (1980), 263. -and WILSON R.: Protection induced by

  6. [Synthetic transformations of higher terpenoids. XXX. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of betulonic acid amides with a piperidine or pyrrolidine nitroxide moiety].

    PubMed

    Antimonova, A N; Petrenko, N I; Shults, E E; Polienko, Iu F; Shakirov, M M; Irtegova, I G; Pokrovskiĭ, M A; Sherman, K M; Grigor'ev, I A; Pokrovskiĭ, A G; Tolstikov, G A

    2013-01-01

    The reaction of betulonic acid chloride with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpeperidine-1-oxyl, 3-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl and 3-aminomethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl gave corresponding triterpenoid amides. It was found that new derivatives exhibit cytotoxic activity against tumor cells CEM-13, U-937, MT-4. CCID50 value for most activity compound--N-[3-oxolup-20(29)-en-30-yl]-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-yl)-1-oxyl--was 5.7-33.1 microM.

  7. Vascular Disease in Young Indians (20-40 years): Role of Dyslipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Pradeep Kumar; Shrivastava, Sameer; Rao, Maddury Srinivas; Mohan, Jagdish Chander; Kumar, Arramraju Sreenivas

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Atherosclerosis begins early in life as suggested by “fatty streaks” observed in coronaries of healthy organ donors aged 20-29 years. Premature occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Indians, increases the risk for young individuals. Management of Dyslipidemia in the young Indian poses several challenges. In this article we provide in-depth review of prevalence, guidelines’ perspective and expert comments on management of Dyslipidemia in the young (20-40 years) Indian. PMID:27630892

  8. Assessment of the Duration of Protection in Campylobacter jejuni Experimental Infection in Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    limited comparative data from challenge studies to assess the duration of protection; however, infection- derived protective immunity to Vibrio dw/erae...derived immunity to cholera . J. In- fect. Dis. 143:818-1)20. 29. 1\\.fortin. P. M., J, Mathiot, J. lperu, M. Kirimat. A. J, Georges. and M. C...and manophagcs in acute Campy· lnbar:ler colitis and cholera : an ;, ri1•o study. J. Gastroenterul. I Iepatol. 23:752-758. 38. Rao, M. R., A. B

  9. A new cycloartane nortriterpenoid from stem and leaf of Quercus variabilis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ling-Yun; Wang, Jing; Lv, Chong-Ning; Xu, Tan-Ye; Jia, Ben-Zhi; Lu, Jin-Cai

    2013-09-01

    A new compound 3-acetyloxy-epicycloeucalenol-24-one (1), with 11 known compounds 3α-acetyloxy-4α,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (2), 3-epicycloeucalenol (3), 3-epicycloeucalenyl-24-one (4), 3-epicycloeucalenyl acetate (5), 4β,14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-9β,19-cyclo-24(31)-en-3β-hydroxy-4α-carboxylic acid (6), cycloeucalenone (7), friedelin (8), epifriedelanol (9), lup-20 (29)-en-3β,30-diol (10), betulin (11), lupeol (12), was isolated from the stems and leaves of Quercus variabilis Blume. Seven compounds (1-7) showed anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of lupane and olean-18-ene derivatives. Absolute configuration of 19,20-epoxylupanes by VCD.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Nicolás, Fátima; Gordillo-Román, Bárbara; Oberti, Juan C; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Ravelo, Angel G; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2012-04-27

    Lupane triterpenoids 2 and 5-12 and oleanene derivatives 13 and 14 were prepared from lupeol (1), betulin (3), and germanicol (4). They were tested for anti-HIV activity, and some structure-activity relationships were outlined. The 20-(S) absolute configuration of epoxylupenone (8) was assessed by comparison of the observed and DFT-calculated vibrational circular dichroism spectra. The CompareVOA algorithm was employed to support the C-20 configuration assignment. The 20,29 double bond in lupenone (2) and 3-epilupeol (15) was stereoselectively epoxidized to produce 20-(S)-8 and 20-(S)-16, respectively, an assignment in agreement with their X-ray diffraction structures.

  11. [Foreign-born youth in France].

    PubMed

    Tribalat, M

    1996-12-01

    Data from an INED survey on migration and social integration (Mobilite Geographique et Insertion Sociale) carried out in France in 1992 are used to examine the process of assimilation of young people aged 20-29 in France. The results show that although there are many problems facing the young of foreign origin, and particularly those of North African origin, the situation concerning their integration into French society has improved significantly over the course of a generation despite the economic and social problems affecting the country that have made the process of assimilation more difficult.

  12. [Long-term results of treatment of tuberculosis in patients who had not received a full basic course of antimycobacterial therapy].

    PubMed

    Valets'kyĭ, Iu M

    2002-01-01

    In those TB patients who had not received a full basic course of antimycobacterial therapy, long-term results of treatment are much worse (development of early and late recurrences comes to be more commonly seen--by as high as 6.43 and 5.03% respectively; transition to a chronic form by 20.29%, case mortality by 6.04%, with clinical cure recordable by 37.75% more seldom) than in those patients having received a full basic course of the above therapy.

  13. Rubella Seroprevalence among the General Population in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiyan; Wang, Dong; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Liao, Zhengfa; Ni, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity to rubella infection in Dongguan, China, we conducted a seroprevalence survey on rubella and used ELISA to measure rubella-specific IgG in serum samples. A total of 1,017 individuals aged 0-59 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Among them, 904 (88.9%) were seropositive for rubella. Two groups (20-29 and ≥40 years) had seropositivity rates of <90%. In comparison with participants aged ≥20 years, rubella immunization rates were higher in those aged <20 years (83.2% vs. 93.7%, respectively; χ(2) = 28.063, P < 0.001). Among women aged 20-29 years, only 63.8% had antibodies above the protective level. Multivariate analysis revealed that only sex and age were significantly associated with rubella-protective antibody levels. Our results suggest that in the study area, women of childbearing age had a greater serological susceptibility to rubella. Additional vaccinations for rubella of susceptible young adults should be considered, particularly in women of childbearing age.

  14. Estimates of CDC-Funded and National HIV Diagnoses: A Comparison by Demographic and HIV-related Factors.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Van Handel, Michelle; Belcher, Lisa; Johnson, Anna Satcher

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether CDC-funded HIV testing programs are reaching persons disproportionately affected by HIV infection. The percentage distribution for HIV testing and diagnoses by demographics and transmission risk group (diagnoses only) were calculated using 2013 data from CDC's National HIV Surveillance System and CDC's national HIV testing program data. In 2013, nearly 3.2 million CDC-funded tests were provided to persons aged 13 years and older. Among persons who received a CDC-funded test, 41.1 % were aged 20-29 years; 49.2 % were male, 46.2 % were black/African American, and 56.2 % of the tests were conducted in the South. Compared with the characteristics of all persons diagnosed with HIV in the United States in 2013, among persons diagnosed as a result of CDC-funded tests, a higher percentage were aged 20-29 years (40.3 vs 33.7 %) and black/African American (55.3 vs 46.0 %). CDC-funded HIV testing programs are reaching young people and blacks/African Americans.

  15. Epidemiological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Dengue Infection in Korean Travelers.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Bae, Wonjun; Kim, Jiyeon; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Hwang, Eung Soo

    2016-12-01

    Dengue viral infection has rapidly spread around the world in recent decades. In Korea, autochthonous cases of dengue fever have not been confirmed yet. However, imported dengue cases have been increased since 2001. The risk of developing severe dengue in Korean has been increased by the accumulation of past-infected persons with residual antibodies to dengue virus and the remarkable growth of traveling to endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Notably, most of imported dengue cases were identified from July to December, suggesting that traveling during rainy season of Southeast Asia is considered a risk factor for dengue infection. Analyzing national surveillance data from 2011 to 2015, males aged 20-29 years are considered as the highest risk group. But considering the age and gender distribution of travelers, age groups 10-49 except 20-29 years old males have similar risks for infection. To minimize a risk of dengue fever and severe dengue, travelers should consider regional and seasonal dengue situation. It is recommended to prevent from mosquito bites or to abstain from repetitive visit to endemic countries. In addition, more active surveillance system and monitoring the prevalence asymptomatic infection and virus serotypes are required to prevent severe dengue and indigenous dengue outbreak.

  16. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  17. Influence of negative energy balance on the reproductive performance after treatment of cystic ovarian disease with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hooijer, G A; van Oijen, M A A J; Frankena, K; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a significant relation exists between the presence of a negative energy balance (NEB) in cows early in lactation and the reproductive performance after treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone of cows with clinical cystic ovarian disease. Reproductive performance after treatment was assessed from the interval between treatment and first insemination (ITFI) and the interval between treatment and conception (ITC). Based on the outcome of the daily change of milk fat yield (Deltafatg) between the first and second milk recordings post-partum, cows were considered to have passed the NEB nadir (positive Deltafatg) or not (negative Deltafatg). Lactations (n = 430) were divided into four groups according to the interval between calving and first milk recording (ICMR): (i) 0-9 days; (ii) 10-19 days; (iii) 20-29 days; (iv) 30-49 days. The relation between a NEB-proxy parameter (Deltafatg) and reproductive performance was determined. A significant interaction existed for groups 1 and 3 (ICMR on 0-9 and 20-29 days post-partum respectively) with an increased and a decreased probability of being inseminated the first day after treatment (ITFI) respectively. However, no significant interaction was found between Deltafatg and the groups with regard to ITC.

  18. Effects of triterpene derivatives from Maytenus rigida on VEGF-induced Kaposi's sarcoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Martucciello, Stefania; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Felice, Francesca; Estevam, Charles dos Santos; Sant'Ana, Antonio Euzébio Goulart; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2010-02-12

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a naturally occurring lupane-type triterpene which exhibits a variety of biological activities including potent cytotoxic properties. On the basis of the structural similarity to BA, two lupane derivatives namely lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,30-diol (1) and lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,28-diol (2), along with two friedelane derivatives, namely friedelan-3-one (3) and friedelan-3beta-ol (4), isolated from the Brazilian plant Maytenus rigida, have been evaluated for their anti-proliferative effect. Similarly to BA, compounds 1 and 3 at 1 microM concentration significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cell proliferation by 50%. In contrast, this effect was not found in control endothelial cells (EC). Moreover, compounds 1 and 3 showed a dose-dependent effect on the apoptotic cell death, as detected by FACS analysis and caspase-3 assay. Specifically, at 10 microM concentration, apoptosis was significantly induced (from 45% to 55% of hypodiploid cells vs control cells) and showed the same potency order observed for the anti-proliferative effect at 1 microM, i.e., compound 3>BA>compound 1. Taking into account the interest given rise by BA as anticancer agent, the comparable anti-proliferative activity shown by compounds 1 and 3 and BA, can give an impulse to further investigate lupane and friedelane derivatives as cytotoxic agents.

  19. Implications of China's future bride shortage for the geographical distribution and social protection needs of never-married men.

    PubMed

    Sharygin, Ethan; Ebenstein, Avraham; Das Gupta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Because sex ratios at birth have risen sharply in China in recent decades, an increasing proportion of men will be unable to find a bride, and will face old age without the support of a wife and children. We project the proportions of never-married men and their geographical distribution in China in the coming decades. Our projections assume that two tendencies in current marriage patterns will persist: that women will continue to migrate to wealthier areas and to prefer men with better prospects. We find that, by 2030, more than 20 per cent of men in China aged 30-39 will never have married, and that the proportion will be especially high among poor men in low-income provinces that are least able to provide social protection programmes. The projected geographic concentration of bachelors could be socially disruptive, and the results suggest a need to expand the coverage and central financing of social protection programmes.

  20. [Antitumor components screening of Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian-Xu; Cheng, Meng-Chun; Wang, Li; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2014-06-01

    This is to report the screening, extracting and validating antitumor components and compounds from Stellera chamaejasme L. under the case of discrete distribution of active data. In this work, different components from Stellera chamaejasme L. were collected by HPD macroporous resin and polyamide resin column, and their antitumor activity on A549 were tested by MTT assay. Activity results indicate that activity of components at 30-39 min is more potent than that of Stellera chamaejasme L. extract, and the activity of components at 33.97 min is equivalent to positive drug, cis-platinum at 100 microg x mL(-1), but with totally different mode of action. Under the case of discrete activity, the weight analysis is capable of screening active components and compounds from natural products.

  1. Cardiovascular dynamics during the initial period of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaselli, Clare Marie; Kenney, Richard A.; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1987-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to 1 h of 60-deg head-down tilt was studied in 12 male subjects, ages 30-39 years, to simulate the early effects of weightlessness. Fluid shifts, hemodynamic variables, and indices of myocardial contractility were evaluated by utilizing electrocardiography, systolic time intervals, impedance cardiography, sphygmomanometry, and measurement of calf circumference. Most cardiovascular variables remained stable throughout the initial 30 min of the protocol, even though translocation of fluid from the legs to the thorax commenced immediately with the onset of head-down tilt. In contrast, minutes 30-60 were characterized by reduced stroke volume, cardiac output, mean stroke ejection rate, and Heather index concomitant with an elevation in mean arterial pressure. Intrathoracic fluid volume continued to increase, while leg volume continued to decrease. This latter physiological response suggests intrathoracic sequestration of fluid volume; blood was apparently redistributed to the pulmonary circulation rather than being retained in the great veins.

  2. Effect of a central redistribution of fluid volume on response to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomaselli, Clare M.; Frey, Mary A. B.; Kenney, Richard A.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1990-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were studied following 1 hour of 6-deg head-down tilt to determine whether a redistribution of blood volume toward the central circulation modifies the subsequent response to orthostatic stress. Responses of 12 men, ages 30-39 years, were evaluated by electrocardiography, impedance cardiography, sphygmomanometry, and measurement of calf circumference. During the LBNP that followed head-down tilt, as compared with control LBNP (no preceding head-down tilt) subjects, had smaller stroke volume and cardiac output, greater total peripheral resistance, and less calf enlargement. These differences reflect differences in the variables immediately preceding LBNP. Magnitudes of the responses from pre-LBNP to each pressure stage of the LBNP procedure did not differ between protocols. Mean and diastolic arterial pressures were slightly elevated after LBNP-control, but they fell slightly during LBNP post-tilt.

  3. The risk of menstrual abnormalities after tubal sterilization: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Mehri Jafari; Atashkhoii, Simin

    2005-05-02

    BACKGROUND: Tubal sterilization is the method of family planning most commonly used. The existence of the post-tubal-ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities has been the subject of debate for decades. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 112 women with the history of Pomeroy type of tubal ligation achieved by minilaparatomy as the case group and 288 women with no previous tubal ligation as the control group were assessed for menstrual abnormalities. RESULTS: Menstrual abnormalities were not significantly different between the case and control groups (p = 0.824). The abnormal uterine bleeding frequency differences in two different age groups (30-39 and 40-45 years old) were statistically significant (p = 0.0176). CONCLUSION: Tubal sterilization does not cause menstrual irregularities.

  4. Hepatitis A virus infections in Voyvodina.

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, B. S.; Rončević, N.; Borota, R.; Terzin, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Sera of 1000 persons in Voyvodina were tested with radioimmunoassay for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The morbidity and age incidence of positive findings have been analysed and compared with relevant findings in other countries. Below the age of 19 years the morbidity rates are higher (0.138 to 0.595 per mill) and the prevalences of seropositives are lower (17.1-64.0%) than the respective frequencies above that age (0.011 to 0.052 per mill and 85.7-98.7% respectively). Below the first year of life seropositivity is more frequent than in 1- to 14-year old children. After the first year until the age of 30-39 years the frequency of seropositives increases with increasing age up to a maximum of about 90%. PMID:6257777

  5. Statistical analysis of cascading failures in power grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Pfitzner, Rene; Turitsyn, Konstantin

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a new microscopic model of cascading failures in transmission power grids. This model accounts for automatic response of the grid to load fluctuations that take place on the scale of minutes, when optimum power flow adjustments and load shedding controls are unavailable. We describe extreme events, caused by load fluctuations, which cause cascading failures of loads, generators and lines. Our model is quasi-static in the causal, discrete time and sequential resolution of individual failures. The model, in its simplest realization based on the Directed Current description of the power flow problem, is tested on three standard IEEE systems consisting of 30, 39 and 118 buses. Our statistical analysis suggests a straightforward classification of cascading and islanding phases in terms of the ratios between average number of removed loads, generators and links. The analysis also demonstrates sensitivity to variations in line capacities. Future research challenges in modeling and control of cascading outages over real-world power networks are discussed.

  6. Ultrasonographic examination of the oesophageal groove reflex in young calves under various feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    The oesophageal groove reflex was examined in 6 milk-fed Holstein Friesian calves once weekly during the first 17 weeks of life. Additionally, the effect of different feeding methods (bucket, different nipple positions and openings), different milk temperatures (20, 30, 39, 45°C) and milk replacer concentrations (100, 125, 150 grams/litre of water) on oesophageal groove closure was investigated. The reticulum and abomasum were examined ultrasonographically using a 5.0-MHz convex transducer before, during and after feeding, and the oesophageal groove reflex was considered to be functional when milk was seen entering the abomasum during feeding. The reflex was consistently induced throughout the study period in all calves at all examinations and under all experimental conditions. However, it should not be assumed that feeding technique can be neglected in unweaned calves because suboptimal feeding management has been linked to various digestive disorders.

  7. The total number of neurons and calcium binding protein positive neurons during aging in the cochlear nucleus of CBA/CaJ mice: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Idrizbegovic, E; Canlon, B; Bross, L S; Willott, J F; Bogdanovic, N

    2001-08-01

    The quantitative stereological method, the optical fractionator, was used for determining the total number of neurons and the total number of neurons immunostained with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k (calbindin), and calretinin in the dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and PVCN) in CBA/CaJ (CBA) mice during aging (1-39 months old). CBA mice have only a modest sensorineural pathology late in life. An age-related decrease of the total number of neurons was demonstrated in the DCN (r=-0.54, P<0.03), while the total number of neurons in the PVCN did not show any significant age-related differences (r=0.16, P=0.57). In the DCN 5.5% of neurons were parvalbumin positive in the very old (30-39 months) mice, vs. 2.2% in the 1 month old mice. In the DCN 3% of the neurons were calbindin immunopositive in the 30-39 months mice compared to 1.9% in the 1 month old group. In the PVCN, 20% of the neurons in the very old mice were parvalbumin immunopositive, compared to 12% in the young mice. Calbindin did not show any significant age-related differences in the PVCN. The total number of calretinin immunopositive neurons both in the DCN and PVCN did not show any significant change with increasing age. In conclusion, the total neuronal number in the DCN and PVCN was age-related and region-specific. While the neuronal number in the DCN and PVCN was decreased or unchanged, respectively, the calcium binding protein positive neuronal number showed a graded increase during aging in a region-specific and protein-specific manner.

  8. HIV-seropositivity is not important in childbearing decision-making among HIV-positive Ghanaian women receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Laar, Amos K; Taylor, Araba E; Akasoe, Bismark A

    2015-01-01

    Women in their reproductive years make up about 50% of all HIV-positive persons globally. These women, just as their HIV-negative counterparts, wield the right to procreate. However, HIV infection and lack of appropriate information on reproductive options may negatively impact women's procreative decision-making. This study assessed fertility intentions of HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in southern Ghana. Quantitative methods were used to collect data from HIV-positive women receiving ART at four treatment centers. HIV-positive aged 18-49 years, and receiving ART were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Three hundred eighteen women were interviewed after informed consent. We used univariate analysis to generate descriptive tabulations for key variables. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression modeling respectively produced unadjusted and adjusted associations between background attributes of respondents and their childbearing decision-making. All analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Irrespective of age, reproductive history, and duration of HIV diagnosis, 46% of the women were desirous of procreating. The bivariate level analysis shows that women in their late reproductive ages (30-39 years) had the strongest desire to procreate (p < 0.001). After controlling for a number of covariates, primiparous and secundiparious women were about twice as likely to desire children (aOR = 2.553; 95% CI 1.480-4.401), and so were women aged 30-39 years (aOR = 2.149; 95% CI 1.202-3.843). Of 54% women who do not wish to procreate, achievement of desired family size (64.3%) was more popular a reason than fear of vertical transmission of HIV (7.5%), poor health status (5%), and pregnancy-related complications (1.6%).

  9. A comparative study of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Archana; Sharma, Khushboo; Somvanshi, Mukesh; Samal, Rajib Lochan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Various additives are mixed with local anesthetic agents to increase the quality of block in regional anesthesia. We compared clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Material and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II patients scheduled for various orthopedic surgeries of the upper limb under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups in a randomized, double-blind manner. Patients were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. In Group C (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) clonidine and in Group D (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) dexmedetomidine were given. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, and quality of anesthesia were studied in both the groups. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block in both the groups. The durations of sensory and motor block were 316.67 ± 45.21 and 372.67 ± 44.48 min, respectively, in Group C, whereas they were 502.67 ± 43.78 and 557.67 ± 38.83 min, respectively, in Group D. The duration of analgesia was 349.33 ± 42.91 min, significantly less in Group C compared to 525.33 ± 42.89 min in Group D (P < 0.001). The quality of anesthesia was significantly better in dexmedetomidine group compared to clonidine group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The addition of dexmedetomidine prolongs the durations of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia and improves the quality of anesthesia as compared with clonidine when injected with bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. PMID:27625483

  10. Impact of prostate volume on erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the impact of total prostate volume (TPV) on the international index of erectile function-5 (IIEF) and the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8336 men who had participated in a health examination. PEDT, IIEF and transrectal ultrasonography were used. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. The median age of participants was 51.0 years. In total, 40.1% had IIEF scores ≤16. Additionally, 24.7% were classified as demonstrating premature ejaculation (PE) (PEDT > 10). The severity of erectile dysfunction (ED) significantly increased with the TPV (p trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) for IIEF scores ≤ 16 significantly increased in the group with TPVs of 30-39 cm(3) and the group with TPVs ≥ 40 cm(3) compared with the group with TPVs ≤ 19 cm(3) (TPV 30-39 cm(3), OR: 1.204, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.403; TPV ≥ 40 cm(3), OR: 1.326: 95% confidence interval: 1.051-1.733) and this relationship was maintained after adjusting for propensity score (TPV ≥ 30 cm(3), OR: 1.138: 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.280). However, neither PEDT nor PE was correlated with TPV. In conclusion, TPV is significantly and independently correlated with IIEF but not with PEDT. Future investigations should explore the temporal relationship between TPV and ED.

  11. Lifetime occupational and recreational physical activity and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Zucchetto, Antonella; Tavani, Alessandra; Montella, Maurizio; Ramazzotti, Valerio; Polesel, Jerry; Bravi, Francesca; Talamini, Renato; La Vecchia, Carlo; Franceschi, Silvia

    2006-05-15

    To investigate the relation between occupational and recreational physical activity (PA) in different periods of life and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study in Italy. The study included 1,369 histologically confirmed BPH and 1,451 controls, admitted to the same hospitals for acute, nonneoplastic diseases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of BPH, according to lifetime PA, were obtained by unconditional multiple logistic regression models, including terms for age, study center and education. Compared to the lowest level of occupational PA, the multivariate ORs for BPH for the heavy/strenuous level were 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.8) at age 15-19, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.8) at age 30-39 and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-0.9) at age 50-59. Moreover, compared to <2 hr/week of recreational PA, the ORs for BPH for the highest level (>or=5 hr/week) were 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.7) at age 15-19, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.8) at age 30-39, and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-0.8) at age 50-59. All inverse trends in risk were significant, and no heterogeneity was found by reason of BPH-diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and body mass index (BMI). The inverse association between PA and BPH risk may be due to favorable hormonal correlates of PA, but residual confounding by socioeconomic covariates cannot be excluded. A moderate PA at any ages may help reducing a sizeable number of BPH.

  12. Age-Related Changes in the Ability to Switch between Temporal and Spatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Eleanor; Holland, Carol; Kessler, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying age-related changes in cognition that contribute towards reduced driving performance is important for the development of interventions to improve older adults' driving and prolong the time that they can continue to drive. While driving, one is often required to switch from attending to events changing in time, to distribute attention spatially. Although there is extensive research into both spatial attention and temporal attention and how these change with age, the literature on switching between these modalities of attention is limited within any age group. Methods: Age groups (21-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years) were compared on their ability to switch between detecting a target in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and detecting a target in a visual search display. To manipulate the cost of switching, the target in the RSVP stream was either the first item in the stream (Target 1st), towards the end of the stream (Target Mid), or absent from the stream (Distractor Only). Visual search response times and accuracy were recorded. Target 1st trials behaved as no-switch trials, as attending to the remaining stream was not necessary. Target Mid and Distractor Only trials behaved as switch trials, as attending to the stream to the end was required. Results: Visual search response times (RTs) were longer on "Target Mid" and "Distractor Only" trials in comparison to "Target 1st" trials, reflecting switch-costs. Larger switch-costs were found in both the 40-49 and 60-69 years group in comparison to the 21-30 years group when switching from the Target Mid condition. Discussion: Findings warrant further exploration as to whether there are age-related changes in the ability to switch between these modalities of attention while driving. If older adults display poor performance when switching between temporal and spatial attention while driving, then the development of an intervention to preserve and improve this ability would be

  13. Population screening for prostate cancer and emerging concepts for young men.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2003-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men, accounting for > 29% of all diagnosed cancers and approximately 13% of all cancer deaths. Nearly 1 of every 6 men will be diagnosed with the disease at some time in their lives. In 2003 alone, an estimated 221000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and > 28000 will die of the disease. An elevated level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is correlated with the presence of prostate cancer, and since 1989 we have been living in the "PSA era," in which the PSA screening test is widely used in clinical practice. This article summarizes what has been learned about the use of PSA screening, including the intricacies of free PSA, PSA doubling time, and various factors that may affect PSA and confound screening in young men. Although population-based screening for prostate cancer has yet to be definitively proven to affect disease-specific mortality, PSA testing is detecting cancers in younger men and at earlier stages of disease progression and, partly as a result, 5-year cancer-specific survival is increasing. Even though this lead-time effect may not translate into long-term improvement, these changes are very promising and are a necessary prerequisite to effective screening. For patients at high risk with a family history of the disease and for black men, a strategy consisting of an annual PSA blood test and digital rectal examination for men >or=40 years of age appears to be prudent. Use of age- and race-specific reference ranges for PSA based on sensitivity, or maximal cancer detection, is the most appropriate approach in this high-risk group. Specifically among black men 40-49 years of age, those with a PSA value > 2.0 ng/mL should consider further evaluation. Many men at low/average risk aged 40-49 years also request testing and it is reasonable to offer testing and risk assessment to these young men. The exact screening threshold for total PSA in these men is unknown, but 95

  14. Terpenoids, flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives from Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans.

    PubMed

    Rungsimakan, Supattra; Rowan, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    Three diterpenoids, 1-oxomicrostegiol (1), viroxocin (2), viridoquinone (3), were isolated from the roots of Salvia viridis L. cvar. Blue Jeans. Five known diterpenoids, microstegiol (4), 7α-acetoxy-14-hydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (5; 7-O-acetylhorminone tautomer), 7α,14-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadiene-11,12-dione (6; horminone tautomer), ferruginol and salvinolonyl 12-methyl ether (7) were also found in the roots together with 1-docosyl ferulate (8), and a mixture of 2-(4'-alkoxyphenyl) ethyl alkanoates (9). Two lupane triterpenoids, 2α-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (10), and 3β-acetoxy-lup-20(29)-en-2α-ol (11) were found in the aerial parts together with known compounds, lup-20(29)-ene-2α,3β-diol (12), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside. A known phenylpropanoid, trans-verbascoside (or acteoside; 13), was the main constituent in the polar fraction of the aerial part, and it is now reported in the genus Salvia for the first time. Other polyphenolic compounds were cis-verbascoside (14), leucosceptoside A (15), martynoside (16), caffeic acid, 6-O-caffeoyl-glucose (18), rosmarinic acid, salidroside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-galactopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. The structures were determined by 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. Compounds 6, 10, ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 775) with MIC 50 μM, 25 μM, 50 μM, 12.5 μM, 12.5 μM respectively. Ferruginol, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were also active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6571), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 2599) with MIC 12.5-50 μM. 4 was also active against S.aureus (ATCC 6571) with MIC 50 μM. These values are consistent with previous studies on the antimicrobial activity of Salvia diterpenoids.

  15. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  16. Online health information seeking behavior in Hong Kong: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuk Yee

    2010-04-01

    This is an exploratory study that described the prevalence and patterns of internet health information seeking in Hong Kong. A convenient sample of 443 individuals completed the questionnaires. Only 44% (N = 195) of the respondents were identified as health surfers. Health surfers tended to be younger females (age group 20-29) and have higher education. Digital divide was evident by age and education. Professional health sites (78.0%) were the majority sites visited. Health topics searched ranged from women's/men's health to chronic diseases such as heart diseases, cancer and diabetes. Over 60% considered online health information useful, however, about 44% were uncertain about the reliability of this information. The major criteria for health websites were information from professionals and ease of understanding. The results underline the need for bridging the digital divide and the potential for pro-active use of the internet for health promotion.

  17. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  18. Effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Barbara E; Newton, Anna E; Mintz, Eric D

    2014-06-17

    Typhoid vaccination is recommended in the United States before travel to countries where typhoid fever is endemic, though little information is available on its effectiveness in travelers. We estimated typhoid vaccination effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination status in cases of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (Salmonella Paratyphi A infection, against which typhoid vaccine offers no protection) reported in the United States. We included travelers to Southern Asia and excluded persons <2 years old and cases in which vaccination status was not reported. From 2008 through 2011, 744 eligible cases (602 typhoid, 142 paratyphoid A) were reported to CDC. Typhoid vaccination was reported for 5% (29/602) of typhoid patients and for 20% (29/142) of paratyphoid A patients. Estimated VE was 80% (95% confidence interval, 66-89%). Because of missing data, we could not estimate VE for specific vaccines. We demonstrated moderate effectiveness of typhoid vaccination in US travelers, supporting vaccination recommendations.

  19. Extra-auditory responses to long-term intermittent noise stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Fruhstorfer, B; Hensel, H

    1980-12-01

    Respiration, heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, and electroencephalogram (EEG) reactions to long-term intermittent noise exposure were recorded from 13 volunteers (20-29 yr) with normal hearing and vegetative reactivity. They received daily within 1 h 12 noise stimuli (16 s 100 dB (A) white noise) for 10 or 21 days, respectively. Most subjects reported partial subjective adaptation to the noise. Heart rate adapted within a session but did not change considerably during successive days. Vascular responses did not change during one session but diminished mainly during the first 10 days. Noise responses in the EEG remained constant, but a decrease in vigilance occurred during the whole experimental series. Respiration responses were unpredictable and showed no trend within the sessions. It was concluded that certain physiological responses adapt to loud noise but that the time course of adaptation is different. Therefore a general statement about physiological noise adaptation is not possible.

  20. [Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes].

    PubMed

    Li, Shen-Hua; Deng, Qing; Zhu, Li; Lai, Chun-Hua; Wang, Heng-Shan; Tan, Qin-Gang

    2014-02-01

    Seven terpenoids and three sterols were isolated from the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Ricinus communis by chromatography methods and their structures were identified by spectra analysis as ficusic acid( 1), phytol(2), callyspinol(3) , lupeol(4), 30-norlupan-3beta-ol-20-one(5) , lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol(6) , acetylaleuritolic acid( 7), stigmast4-en-3-one(8) , stig-mast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one(9) , and stigmast4-en-3,6-dione(10). Compounds 1-3 and 5-10 were obtained from this species for the first time and 5 and 6 showed significant inhibitive activity and good selectivity against 11beta-HSD of mouse and human in vitro. [Key words] Ricinus communis; terpenoids; sterols; 11beta-HSD

  1. [State of clinical and neurologic condition of Temirtau inhabitants].

    PubMed

    Battakova, Sh B; Amanbekov, U A; Mukhametzhanova, S E; Fazylova, M-D A; Miianova, G A; Shraĭmanov, B S; Abdikulova, A A

    2011-01-01

    The article covers results of studies concerning psychologic and clinical neurologic state of Temirtau inhabitants. Early clinical forms of cerebro-vascular diseases were more frequent among males, but cryptogenic encephalopathies were more prevalent among females. Among the males examined, the early clinical signs of cerebro-vascular diseases were seen in all age groups, more often at the age of 20-29. Among the females, cryptogenic encephalopathies were more often at the age over 40. Early clinical forms of cerebro-vascular diseases and cryptogenic encephalopathies were associated with asthenic, astheno-hypochondriac, astheno-depressive syndrome and vegetative dysfunction syndrome. The group with early clinical signs of cerebro-vascular diseases was characterized by prevalent asthenic syndrome, but the cryptogenic encephalopathy group had more often astheno-hypochondriac syndrome.

  2. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume III. Engineering,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    4 .0 0 V v z t 0 (U : 3 3 4.4 0u 04) bo ( & 0. r. 4 ) Vo 10 1 (U 4 ) (U > 4 p U (U .±d S4 44 r- 4 (U .0 =I 0 $ 4 $ 4 (U (U 0 (U (U 0...ca (U 10 1 4 2 i: 4 ) 3 0 i (U bo 4 ) 9 0 MO 0 0 (U 0 (U 0 (U 0 4 - 0 t4 (U&.S. ( 43 MiI N (fl 61 ko ’ tD - w ON. 0 r- 4 N m" _-r LA %D m N N N~ NM N (n...n~ rn (n (n en c r-I. 8. 3 , 105, 262, 308, 514 9. 4 , 15, 20, 29, 32, 35, 37, 43, 44, 48, 49, 75 84, 95,

  3. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires embedded on thermoelectric platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, JinYong; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we propose a simple method for obtaining the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded on a thermoelectric platform. The approximation of the heat flux in SiNWs with temperature differences enables the determination of thermal conductivity. Using this method, the thermal conductivities of our n- and p-type SiNWs are found to be 18.06  ±  0.12 and 20.29  ±  0.77 W m-1 · K-1, respectively. The atomic weight of arsenic ions in the n-type SiNWs is responsible for a lower thermal conductivity than that of boron ions in the p-type SiNWs. Our results demonstrate that this simple method is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric nanomaterials embedded on thermoelectric devices.

  4. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities, with emphasis on live-born offspring of young mothers.

    PubMed Central

    Little, B B; Ramin, S M; Cambridge, B S; Schneider, N R; Cohen, D S; Snell, L M; Harrod, M J; Johnston, W L

    1995-01-01

    In a large public urban hospital obstetrics service with > 123,000 deliveries in a 10-year period (1980-89), the frequencies (0.12%) of any type of chromosomal abnormality and of trisomy syndromes were analyzed for maternal age-related risk, by logistic regression. Focusing on very young gravidas, we found that in the study period there were 9,332 births (7.5% of all deliveries) to mothers < or = 16 years old. Estimated risks of chromosomal abnormalities among offspring associated with very young maternal age (9-16 years) were similar to those age-associated risks of mothers 20-29 years old. Risks of chromosomal abnormalities increase with advancing maternal age and are independent of ethnicity. PMID:7485170

  5. Visual discrimination in noise: behavioural correlates of age-related cortical decline.

    PubMed

    Arena, Amanda; Hutchinson, Claire V; Shimozaki, Steven S; Long, Mike D

    2013-04-15

    Neurophysiological evidence has consistently shown that, compared to younger animals, single neurons in aged mammalian visual cortex exhibit reduced selectivity to stimulus direction and orientation. It has been suggested that this may be due, in part, to increased internal noise in the aged visual system. This study measured contrast thresholds for judging the motion direction (left vs. right) and spatial orientation (vertical vs. horizontal) of sinusoidal gratings presented alone and with additive noise in young (20-29 years) and older (65-79 years) adults. Compared to their young counterparts, older adults demonstrated reduced sensitivity to direction and orientation when no noise was present. However, when gratings were presented in conjunction with additive noise, older adults required a greater increase in external noise to elicit a corresponding reduction in sensitivity. Subsequent analysis assessing equivalent noise and sampling efficiency attributed performance differences to an increase in equivalent noise with age.

  6. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  7. Sunrayce 1995. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    King, R; Stafford, B; Tamai, G

    1996-05-01

    From June 20-29, 1995, more than a thousand college and university students from across North America tested their solar cars and strategies against the environment in Sunrayce 95. The 1,250-mile race, from Indiana to Colorado, is the third in a series of collegiate solar-car races across the United States. The tradition began in 1990 with the GM Sunrayce USA from Florida to Michigan. In 1993, the tradition continued as 34 solar cars raced more than 1,100 miles from Texas to Minnesota in Sunrayce 93. The U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors Corporation, and other organizations teamed together in a unique partnership between government and industry to sponsor Sunrayce 95. Their goal was to make learning exciting and relevant to today`s concerns and to demonstrate that brain power is more important than horsepower.

  8. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  9. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    PubMed

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-02

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result.

  10. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes.

  11. Chemical composition of the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata Hance.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M A; Ahmad, A S; Nafady, A M; Mansour, A I

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (13), in addition to 16 newly reported compounds: alpha-amyrin acetate (1), beta-amyrone (2), 3beta-acetoxy-20-taraxasten-22-one (3), alpha-amyrin (4), ceryl alcohol (5), stigmasterol (6), beta-sitosterol (7), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oate (8), ursolic acid (9), beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucosoide (10), protocatechuic acid (11), betulinic acid (12), quercetin (14), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (15), kampferol-3-O-beta-neohesperidoside (16) and rutin (17) were isolated from the stem bark and leaves of Ficus pandurata (Hance) cultivated in Egypt. Identification of these compounds has been established by physical, chemical and spectral data (UV, IR, MS, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR), as well as comparison with authentic samples.

  12. Ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lung during head-out water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derion, Toniann; Guy, Harold J. B.; Tsukimoto, Koichi; Schaffartzik, Walter; Prediletto, Renato; Poole, David C.; Knight, Douglas R.; Wagner, Peter D.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanisms of altered pulmonary gas exchange during water immersion were studied in 12 normal males: 6 young (aged 20-29) and 6 older (aged 40-45). It is concluded that, in young subjects with closing volume (CV) less than expiratory reserve volume (ERV), gas exchange was enhanced during immersion, because normal ventilation-perfusion relations were preserved, and by mass balance, the ventilation/O2 uptake changes elevated arterial P(O2). In older males with CV greater than ERV and 52 percent of tidal volume below CV, immersion-induced airways closure during tidal breathing was associated with minimally increased shunt that did not significantly impair gas exchange. It is suggested that airways closure of this degree is of little importance to gas exchange.

  13. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  14. Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Onodera, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Norihito; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  15. Study on the adult physique with the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype in the Han of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Zeng-Xian; Liu, Cui; He, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Han, Hua; Wen, You-Feng; Qian, Yi-Hua; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2016-03-01

    The study of somatotypes has important significance for medical and physical anthropology as well as sports science. The aim of this study was to understand the somatotype components of the Han population in Xi'an and compare the somatotypes of the Han and five other nationalities in China. The study sample consisted of 429 people of Han nationality (207 males, 222 females) from Xi'an, China, aged ≥20 years old. The Heath-Carter anthropometric method was employed. We evaluated the differences in age and sex by one-way ANOVA and t test. A comparison of somatotypes between the Han and other nationalities was made using the U test. The results showed that the male and female samples all could be classified as having a mesomorphic endomorph profile. The difference in endomorphy was strongest between sexes in all age groups (P < 0.01). There were prominent differences in mesomorphy and ectomorphy between males and females in the 50-59- and ≥60-year-old age groups. In females, the differences in somatotype components appeared to be distinguished between ages (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). However, in males, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between the 20-29 year olds and all other age groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) except for between those 20-29 and ≥60 years old in endomorphy. Compared with the other five nationalities, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between males and females. These results suggest that the somatotype of the Han population in Xi'an, China, has a predominantly mesomorphic endomorph profile. The endomorphic component shows distinct differences between ages and genders, respectively. Additionally, there are distinct differences in the somatotype components between Xi'an Han and five other nationalities in China in males and females.

  16. Three new triterpenes from Nerium oleander and biological activity of the isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liwei; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Na; Wang, Jinlan; Zhao, Ming; Sakai, Junichi; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Mitsui, Tomokazu; Kataoka, Takao; Oka, Seiko; Kiuchi, Miwa; Hirose, Katutoshi; Ando, Masayoshi

    2005-02-01

    New ursane-type triterpene 1, oleanane-type triterpene 2, and dammarane-type triterpene 15 were isolated from the leaves of Nerium oleander together with 12 known triterpenes, 3beta-hydroxy-12-ursen-28-oic acid (ursolic acid, 3), 3beta,27-dihydroxy-12-ursen-28-oic acid (4), 3beta,13beta-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (5), 3beta-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-aldehyde (6), 28-norurs-12-en-3beta-ol (7), urs-12-en-3beta-ol (8), urs-12-ene-3beta,28-diol (9), 3beta-hydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (oleanolic acid, 10), 3beta,27-dihydroxy-12-oleanen-28-oic acid (11), 3beta-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-oic acid (betulinic acid, 12), 20(29)-lupene-3beta,28-diol (betulin, 13), and (20S,24R)-epoxydammarane-3beta,25-diol (14). On the basis of their spectroscopic data, the structures of the new compounds 1, 2, and 15 were established as 3beta,20alpha-dihydroxyurs-21-en-28-oic acid, 3beta,12alpha-dihydroxyoleanan-28,13beta-olide, and (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3beta,25-diol, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of the seven isolated compounds and methyl esters of ursolic acid and oleanoic acid in vitro was examined on the basis of inhibitory activity against the induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The anticancer activity of the 14 isolated compounds, including 1, 2, 15, and methyl esters of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in vitro was examined on the basis of the cell growth inhibitory activities toward three kinds of human cell lines.

  17. Potential targets by pentacyclic triterpenoids from Callicarpa farinosa against methicillin-resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pooi Yin; Chung, Lip Yong; Navaratnam, Parasakthi

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus showed that there is no long-lasting remedy against this pathogen. The limited number of antibacterial classes and the common occurrence of cross-resistance within and between classes reinforce the urgent need to discover new compounds targeting novel cellular functions not yet targeted by currently used drugs. One of the experimental approaches used to discover novel antibacterials and their in vitro targets is natural product screening. Three known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated for the first time from the bark of Callicarpa farinosa Roxb. (Verbenaceae) and identified as α-amyrin [3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-3-ol], betulinic acid [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupaene-28-oic acid], and betulinaldehyde [3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupen-28-al]. These compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against reference and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 2 to 512 μg/mL. From the genome-wide transcriptomic analysis to elucidate the antimicrobial effects of these compounds, multiple novel cellular targets in cell division, two-component system, ABC transporters, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes and β-lactam resistance pathways are affected, resulting in destabilization of the bacterial cell membrane, halt in protein synthesis, and inhibition of cell growth that eventually lead to cell death. The novel targets in these essential pathways could be further explored in the development of therapeutic compounds for the treatment of S. aureus infections and help mitigate resistance development due to target alterations.

  18. Seroprevalence of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Ijara District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Irura, Zephania; Tigoi, Caroline; Chepkorir, Edith; Orindi, Benedict; Musila, Lillian; Venter, Marietjie; Fischer, Anne; Sang, Rosemary

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease mainly affecting pastoralists who come in contact with animals infested with Hyalomma ticks, which are the key vectors of CCHF virus (CCHFV). CCHFV has been detected among these ticks in parts of North Eastern Kenya. This study aimed to identify acute cases of CCHF, and to determine the extent of previous exposure to CCHFV in an outpatient population attending Sangailu and Ijara health centers, Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya, presenting with acute febrile illnesses. A total of 517 human serum samples were collected from these patients. The samples were screened for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to CCHF using CCCHF-IgG and IgM ELISA test kits. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with evidence of exposure to CCHFV. A single patient tested positive for anti-CCHF IgM, while 96 were positive for anti-CCHF IgG. The seroprevalence of CCHFV was 23% in Sangailu and 14% in Ijara. Most exposed persons were aged 40-49 years. The likelihood of exposure was highest among farmers (29%). Age, location, and contact with donkeys were significantly associated with exposure to CCHFV. Acute CCHFV infections could be occurring without being detected in this population. This study confirms human exposure to CCHF virus in Ijara District, Kenya, and identifies several significant risk factors associated with exposure to CCHFV.

  19. Serum nitric oxide levels in patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Tütüncü, E Ediz; Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Kuscu, Ferit; Sencan, Irfan

    2010-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute disease affecting multiple organ systems and is characterized by fever and haemorrhages. The pathogenesis of CCHF has not been well described. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of a number of different biological processes and can participate in antimicrobial defence. In this study, we measured the level of NO in the serum of patients with CCHF and healthy controls to define the possible role of NO in the control of infection. Sixty-two patients with CCHF and 31 controls were included in the study. NO levels in CCHF patients and the control group were found to be a mean of 40.49 microM (standard deviation (SD) 23.00) and 14.89 microM (SD 7.94), respectively. NO levels were significantly higher in CCHF patients with respect to controls (p < 0.001). NO levels in the patients with non-fatal CCHF and fatal CCHF were compared and found to be a mean of 43.57 microM (SD 22.70) and 26.23 microM (SD 19.43), respectively; this difference was statistically significant (p=0.009). In conclusion, elevated levels of NO may play a protective role in CCHF.

  20. Methodology for lognormal modelling of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival time distributions: a study of 5580 case histories from Europe and USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Richard F.; Lahanas, Michael; Asselain, Bernard; Brewster, David; Burgers, Sjaak A.; Damhuis, Ronald A. M.; DeRycke, Yann; Gennaro, Valerio; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2004-09-01

    A truncated left-censored and right-censored lognormal model has been validated for representing pleural mesothelioma survival times in the range 5-200 weeks for data subsets grouped by age for males, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ years and for all ages combined for females. The cases available for study were from Europe and USA and totalled 5580. This is larger than any other pleural mesothelioma cohort accrued for study. The methodology describes the computation of reference baseline probabilities, 5-200 weeks, which can be used in clinical trials to assess results of future promising treatment methods. This study is an extension of previous lognormal modelling by Mould et al (2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3893-924) to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data where the proportion cured is denoted by C and the uncured proportion, which can be represented by a lognormal, by (1 - C). Pleural mesothelioma is a special case when C = 0.

  1. [The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test in the Bantu population. Preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo, D; Spileers, W; Missotten, L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to establish in this first report the age standards of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue in Zaire. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test was performed in 132 normal subjects. All subjects were Zairian blacks aged from 20 to 49 years. The test was administered binocularly, once, to each subject. Subjects were divided in three age groups. The first age group had 35 subjects aged between 20 and 29 years, the second age group had 48 subjects aged between 30 and 39 years and the third 49 subjects aged between 40-49 years. The total error scores were 7.06 +/- 2.10 for the first age group, 9.03 +/- 1.80 for the second age group and 9.80 +/- 2 for the third age group. These results were aged related (r = 0.42, p inferior to 0.05). Scores of Zairian subjects in this study were higher when compared to those reported in Europe and U.S.A. Interpretation of results of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test must take in account this difference in ethnic origin.

  2. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Ivaşcu, M.; Sndulescu, A.; Greiner, Walter

    1985-08-01

    The great majority of the known nuclides with Z>40, including the so-called stable nuclides, are metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relative to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematic calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained from parent-emitted heavy ion combinations leading to a magic (208Pb) or almost magic daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-lives in the range of 1010-1030 s: 5He, 8-10Be, 11,12B, 12-16C, 13-17N, 15-22O, 18-23F, 20-26Ne, 23-28Na, 23-30Mg, 27-32Al, 28-36Si, 31-39P, 32-42S, 35-45Cl, 37-47Ar, 40-49 K, 42-51. . .Ca, 44-53 Sc, 46-53Ti, 48-54V, and 49-55 Cr. The shell structure and the pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes.

  3. Clinical Q fever in Northern Ireland 1962-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, J. H.; Coyle, P. V.; Adgey, A. A.; O'Neill, H. J.; Simpson, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Q fever was diagnosed in 443 patients in Northern Ireland between 1962 and 1989. From 1986 onwards there was an increase, which peaked in 1989 with 107 cases of whom 47 were infected in Ballycastle, Co Antrim. There were three outbreaks and 21 clusters of patients with Q fever. Most cases were in April and May which correlated with the peak lambing and calving season. Q fever mainly affected males in the 40-49 year old age group. County Antrim had the highest prevalence rate of 40/100,000 population and also had the most sheep. The number of sheep in Northern Ireland has doubled in the past ten years. Q fever was strongly associated with occupation and animal contact. Eighty-seven patients (19.6%) drank unpasteurized milk. The commonest presenting illnesses were pneumonia (62.8%), influenza-like illness (24.6%), involvement of the heart (9.0%) and hepatitis (1.6%). Thirty-two patients (7.2%) had endocarditis, 20 of whom had prosthetic valves and three of whom died. Coxiella burnetii was present on valves removed from seven patients. PMID:2278109

  4. The Nickel Concentration in Breast Milk during the First Month of Lactation in Yazd, Center of Iran.

    PubMed

    Salmani, Mohammad Hossein; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Rezaei, Zeynab

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding plays an important role in the growth and development of breastfed infants, especially in the first 6 months of their lives. The present study was conducted to determine the nickel concentrations in breast milk of lactating women in Yazd, Iran. One hundred fifty volunteers were selected among nursing mothers referring to health centers in Yazd. In the first month of lactation, milk samples were collected three times, on days 3 to 5 (first), 16 (Second), and 30 (third) after delivery. Nickel concentration of the samples was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Demographic variables were collected through a questionnaire which was completed by mothers. The mean age of the study group was 27.40 ± 4.66 years. The mean nickel concentrations in breast milk at the first, second, and third samples were 47.3 ± 7.40, 49.9 ± 8.05, and 54.8 ± 7.38 μg/l, respectively. The concentration of nickel in the breast milk of more than 86 % of mothers was higher than the permissible range for it. There was no significant relationship between the mean value of nickel in breast milk and education, age, and job of mothers. High level of nickel in breast milk may be attributed to consumed food and drinking water containing nickel. Monitoring the nickel level in breast milk regularly is recommended.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies using simulation.

    PubMed

    Gocgun, Y; Banjevic, D; Taghipour, S; Montgomery, N; Harvey, B J; Jardine, A K S; Miller, A B

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study breast cancer screening policies using computer simulation. We developed a multi-state Markov model for breast cancer progression, considering both the screening and treatment stages of breast cancer. The parameters of our model were estimated through data from the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study as well as data in the relevant literature. Using computer simulation, we evaluated various screening policies to study the impact of mammography screening for age-based subpopulations in Canada. We also performed sensitivity analysis to examine the impact of certain parameters on number of deaths and total costs. The analysis comparing screening policies reveals that a policy in which women belonging to the 40-49 age group are not screened, whereas those belonging to the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups are screened once every 5 years, outperforms others with respect to cost per life saved. Our analysis also indicates that increasing the screening frequencies for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups decrease mortality, and that the average number of deaths generally decreases with an increase in screening frequency. We found that screening annually for all age groups is associated with the highest costs per life saved. Our analysis thus reveals that cost per life saved increases with an increase in screening frequency.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using a Liquefaction plus Simultaneous Saccharification and co-Fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Gubicza, Krisztina; Nieves, Ismael U; Sagues, William J; Barta, Zsolt; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2016-05-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted for a simplified lignocellulosic ethanol production process developed and proven by the University of Florida at laboratory, pilot, and demonstration scales. Data obtained from all three scales of development were used with Aspen Plus to create models for an experimentally-proven base-case and 5 hypothetical scenarios. The model input parameters that differed among the hypothetical scenarios were fermentation time, enzyme loading, enzymatic conversion, solids loading, and overall process yield. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) varied between 50.38 and 62.72 US cents/L. The feedstock and the capital cost were the main contributors to the production cost, comprising between 23-28% and 40-49% of the MESP, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed that overall ethanol yield had the greatest effect on the MESP. These findings suggest that future efforts to increase the economic feasibility of a cellulosic ethanol process should focus on optimization for highest ethanol yield.

  7. [Allergies to dental materials and effectiveness of treatment in the north-eastern region of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Szepesi, Márta; Radics, Tünder; Vitályos, Géza; Hegedűs, Csaba

    2014-12-01

    The recognition and treatment of allergy is a great challenge for all fields of medicine. The high prevalence of allergic reactions to dental materials and the related financial burden of their treatment make investigation of this disease very important. Our investigation was carried out on patients assigned to our outpatient department for dental allergy test between 1996 and 1998. We determined the distribution of gender and age among the allergic patients in the examined population. We also studied the prevalence of allergic reactions to different dental allergens and the distribution of dental allergens. In a follow-up study we determined the proportion of those patients, who were retreated in conformity with the results of epicutan tests and we followed up the positive effects of these treatments. We have found that dental allergy occurred five times more frequently in women (84%) than in men (16%) and the most affected age group was between 20 to 39 and 40-49 years (31%). Seventy-five percent of the patients suffered from a combination of metal and polymer allergy. The most frequent metal allergen was TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (49.7%). The suggested treatment plan was carried out in 63% of the allergic patients. The applied treatment was successful in 48% of these cases. We experienced that 48% of these patients got rid of their earlier signs and symptoms.

  8. Poisson variations of the sex ratio at birth in African demographic surveys.

    PubMed

    Garenne, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Variations of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) were investigated using maternity history data collected in demographic surveys conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Thirty-three countries were covered, totaling about 2.0 million births. The average SRB was 1.034 and varied by ethnicity, birth order, and maternal age. The effect of maternal age was significant for younger mothers (12-19 years old) and older mothers (40-49 years old), with a decline in sex ratios with increasing maternal age in both cases. The effect of birth order was significant only for the 20-39-year-old women, with a decline in sex ratio with increasing birth order. These two effects were similar for the three main population groups identified: populations from southern, eastern, and central Africa (SRB = 1.015), populations from West Africa and Sahelian countries (SRB = 1.040), and populations from Nigeria and Ethiopia (SRB = 1.087). In contrast, no effect of marital duration was found.

  9. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods. A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results. The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion. Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  10. Summer habitat use by Gulf sturgeon in the Choctawhatchee River, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, J.E.; Zehfuss, K.P.; Fox, D.A.; Parauka, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) was listed as a threatened species in 1991 because of declines in abundance throughout the Gulf of Mexico. One recommendation of the recovery plan for Gulf sturgeon was to characterize critical habitats. In this study, radio telemetry was used to determine summer (June-August) distribution and habitat use of Gulf sturgeon in the Choctawhatchee River, Florida-Alabama. Ranging from 74 to 222 cm total length, 63 radio-tagged fish were located 398 times during weekly or biweekly searches in June-August of 1994-1997. A 10-km section of the lower Choctawhatchee River (river km 40-49.9) accounted for 38% of the summer locations of immature fish (less than 1.3 m fork length) and 73% for mature fish. Fish were typically located at sites that were 2-5 m in depth, with water temperatures of 25-28??C and a sand substrate. Spring discharges account for up to one-third of the mainstem river flow in this reach, but water temperatures at fish locations were similar to temperatures at fish locations in all other sections of the river. Efforts to monitor and improve habitat quality should be focussed on this river reach, given that a high percentage of the total Choctawhatchee River population occurs there during summer.

  11. Characteristics of distal radius speed of sound data in Chinese mainland men and women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ligang; Pan, Jiafei; Jin, Hongting; Xiao, Luwei; Tao, Jing; Tong, Peijian

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of bone health status, as a reliable method, is rapidly gaining popularity. Speed of sound (SOS) is one parameter of skeletal status provided by QUS assessment. The objective of the present study was first to determine the normative distal radius SOS data on healthy Chinese mainland men and women and second to investigate the effects of sex, age, and body size on this parameter. A study cohort consisting of 19,980 healthy Chinese women and 8722 men aged 20-89 yr participated in this investigation. They answered a detailed questionnaire on their healthy condition, and their anthropometric measurements were taken. Their distal radius SOS values were evaluated using the Sunlight ultrasound systems. The distal radius SOS values exhibited a characteristic rise-then-fall pattern with increasing age in both sexes. The peak SOS value occurred at the age of 40-49 both in males and females. Age-related differences were both pronounced among males and females. Pearson correlation and regression analysis showed that age was a major determinant of SOS in both sexes. In females, SOS values had a much stronger correlation with age than male subjects. Body weight was also correlated with SOS but not as well as age. The SOS values of distal radius at present study may be used as normal reference data for Chinese mainland population and will be useful for comparing the results of individual studies and determining diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis by QUS.

  12. Mammographic surveillance in women aged 35-39 at enhanced familial risk of breast cancer (FH02).

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Thomas, S; Caunt, J; Roberts, L; Howell, A; Wilson, M; Fox, R; Sibbering, D M; Moss, S; Wallis, M G; Eccles, D M; Duffy, S

    2014-03-01

    Although there have been encouraging recent studies showing a potential benefit from annual mammography in women aged 40-49 years of age with an elevated breast cancer risk due to family history there is little evidence of efficacy in women aged <40 years of age. A prospective study (FH02) has been developed to assess the efficacy of mammography screening in women aged 35-39 years of age with a lifetime breast cancer risk of ≥ 17 % who are not receiving MRI screening. Retrospective analyses from five centres with robust recall systems identified 47 breast cancers (n = 12 in situ) with an interval cancer rate of 15/47 (32%). Invasive tumour size, lymph node status and current vital status were all significantly better than in two control groups of unscreened women (including those with a family history) recruited to the POSH study. Further evaluation of the prospective arm of FH02 is required to assess the potential added value of digital mammography and the cancer incidence rates in moderate and high risk women in order to inform cost effectiveness analyses.

  13. Recommendations for evaluation and management of bone disease in HIV.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Hoy, Jennifer; Borderi, Marco; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Renjifo, Boris; Vescini, Fabio; Yin, Michael T; Powderly, William G

    2015-04-15

    Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40-49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged ≥50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid treatment, and patients at high risk of falls. In resource-limited settings, FRAX without bone mineral density can be substituted for DXA. Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy should be followed; adjustment should avoid tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or boosted protease inhibitors in at-risk patients. Dietary and lifestyle management strategies for high-risk patients should be employed and antiosteoporosis treatment initiated.

  14. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  15. [The dynamics of physical work capacity among ageing truck drivers].

    PubMed

    Khurtsilava, O G; Bashkireva, A S; Khavinson, V Kh

    2013-01-01

    The studies of biological age, ageing rate, physical work capacity in professional lorry drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions, which determine the physical work capacity levels. Dynamics of the ageing process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age on physical work capacity model. The results point at the premature decrease of the physical work capacity in professional drivers. There was revealed premature contraction of the range of cardio-vascular system adaptive reactions on submaximum physical load in the drivers as compared with control group. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the ageing process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating ageing was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. There was demonstrated the expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated ageing prevention among working population.

  16. A risk management model for familial breast cancer: A new application using Fuzzy Cognitive Map method.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Jayashree Subramanian; Karmegam, Akila; Papandrianos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly disease affecting women and thus it is natural for women aged 40-49 years (who have a family history of breast cancer or other related cancers) to assess their personal risk for developing familial breast cancer (FBC). Besides, as each individual woman possesses different levels of risk of developing breast cancer depending on their family history, genetic predispositions and personal medical history, individualized care setting mechanism needs to be identified so that appropriate risk assessment, counseling, screening, and prevention options can be determined by the health care professionals. The presented work aims at developing a soft computing based medical decision support system using Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) that assists health care professionals in deciding the individualized care setting mechanisms based on the FBC risk level of the given women. The FCM based FBC risk management system uses NHL to learn causal weights from 40 patient records and achieves a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The results obtained from the proposed model are in concurrence with the comprehensive risk evaluation tool based on Tyrer-Cuzick model for 38/40 patient cases (95%). Besides, the proposed model identifies high risk women by calculating higher accuracy of prediction than the standard Gail and NSAPB models. The testing accuracy of the proposed model using 10-fold cross validation technique outperforms other standard machine learning based inference engines as well as previous FCM-based risk prediction methods for BC.

  17. Early patterns of sexual activity: age cohort differences in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Frances M; Dunne, Michael P; Purdie, David M; Najman, Jake M; Cook, Michele D

    2003-11-01

    Patterns of first sexual activity among Australians born between the 1940s and 1980s were analysed using data from a national telephone survey of 1784 adults (876 males; 908 females). Sixty-one percent of those randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll and contactable by telephone responded. Many trends, including earlier first intercourse--from 20 to 18 years (females) and 18.8 to 17.8 years (males)--were established with the 40-49 year cohort, whose sexual debut was in the late 1960s-70s. Significant age-cohort effects saw women in the contemporary (18-29 year) cohort draw level with males for age at first intercourse and first sex before age 16 and before leaving school. First intercourse contraceptive use climbed from 30% to 80%. Condom use quadrupled to 70%. Australian age-cohort effects are remarkably consistent with those in similar western cultures: gender convergence in sexual experience and increasing avoidance of sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy. If such trends continue, positive long-term outcomes for health and social wellbeing should result.

  18. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires.

  19. Is Mastectomy Superior to Breast-Conserving Treatment for Young Women?

    SciTech Connect

    Coulombe, Genevieve; Tyldesley, Scott . E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca; Speers, Caroline B.A.; Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc.; Aquino-Parsons, Christina; Bernstein, Vanessa; Truong, Pauline T.; Keyes, Mira; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To examine whether modified radical mastectomy (MRM) improves outcomes compared with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) in young women. Methods and Materials: Women aged 20-49 years, diagnosed with early breast cancer between 1989 and 1998, were identified. Management with BCT or MRM was compared for local (L), locoregional (LR), and distant relapse-free survival (DRFS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by age group (20-39 years, 40-49 years). The analysis was repeated for patients considered 'ideal' candidates for BCT: tumor size {<=}2 cm, pathologically negative axillary nodes, negative margins, and no reported ductal carcinoma in situ. Results: A total of 1,597 women received BCT, and 801 had MRM. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, the outcomes (L, LR, BCSS) were worse for the younger age group; however, the outcomes were not statistically different by type of local treatment. For women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' for BCT, those treated with BCT had slightly lower LRFS compared with those treated with MRM (p = 0.3), but DRFS and BCSS were similar. Conclusions: A difference in LRFS at 10 years potentially favored MRM among women aged 20-39 years considered 'ideal' BCT candidates but was not statistically significant and did not translate into a noticeable difference in DRFS or BCSS. Our data suggest that young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  20. The educational gradient in marriage: a comparison of 25 European countries.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that a new marriage gradient has emerged in the United States, with marriage becoming increasingly the privilege of the better-educated. This article examines whether this is true for Europe and explores differences in the marriage gradient among 25 European countries, using multilevel models. The focus is on the chances of living in a marital (or cohabiting) union during midlife (ages 40-49). Multilevel analyses show that the direction and strength of the gradient depend on the societal context. In countries where gender roles are traditional, better-educated women are less likely to be married than less-educated women; in gender-egalitarian countries, better-educated women are more likely to be married. For men, the educational effect on marriage is absent in traditional countries but becomes positive as gender roles become more equal. Inequality in a society also modifies the gradient: if the degree of economic inequality between educational groups in a society is strong, better-educated men are more likely to be married than less-educated men. In general, the results suggest that there may be an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages for the less well educated in more-developed countries.

  1. Cadmium Accumulation in Periphyton from an Abandoned Mining District in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jacob R; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Rush Mining District along the Buffalo River in Arkansas has a significant history of zinc and lead mining operations. The tails and spoils of these operations deposit heavy amounts of raw ore into streams. One element commonly found in the earth's crust that becomes a minor constituent of the deposition is cadmium. Periphyton samples from Rush Creek and Clabber Creek, two creeks within the Rush Mining District were measured for cadmium as well as two creeks with no history of mining, Spring Creek and Water Creek. Periphyton samples from Rush and Clabber Creek contained mean cadmium concentrations of 436.6 ± 67.3 and 93.38 ± 8.67 µg/kg, respectively. Spring Creek and Water Creek had a mean cadmium concentration of 40.49 ± 3.40 and 41.78 ± 3.99 µg/kg within periphyton. The results indicate increased metal concentrations in algal communities from mined areas. As periphyton is the base of the aquatic food chain, it acts as a conduit for movement of cadmium in the food web.

  2. Toxicokinetics of seven perfluoroalkyl sulfonic and carboxylic acids in pigs fed a contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Numata, Jorge; Kowalczyk, Janine; Adolphs, Julian; Ehlers, Susan; Schafft, Helmut; Fuerst, Peter; Müller-Graf, Christine; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Greiner, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    The transfer of a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from contaminated feed into the edible tissues of 24 fattening pigs was investigated. Four perfluoroalkyl sulfonic (PFSAs) and three perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were quantifiable in feed, plasma, edible tissues, and urine. As percentages of unexcreted PFAA, the substances accumulated in plasma (up to 51%), fat, and muscle tissues (collectively, meat 40-49%), liver (under 7%), and kidney (under 2%) for most substances. An exception was perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), with lower affinity for plasma (23%) and higher for liver (35%). A toxicokinetic model is developed to quantify the absorption, distribution, and excretion of PFAAs and to calculate elimination half-lives. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), a PFCA, had the shortest half-life at 4.1 days. PFSAs are eliminated more slowly (e.g., half-life of 634 days for PFOS). PFAAs in pigs exhibit longer elimination half-lives than in most organisms reported in the literature, but still shorter than in humans.

  3. Process conditions for preparing methanol from cornstalk gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Feng; Du, Lei; Li, Xin-Bao; Li, Guo-Ting; Zhang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    The low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier was tentatively used for methanol synthesis. The cornstalk gas was purified and the technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar, purification and hydrogenation were studied. The catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalyst types, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. The optimum process conditions and yield of methanol from cornstalk syngas were obtained. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst for the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size was 0.833 mm x 0.351 mm. The optimum operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235 degrees C and 5 MPa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the best composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO2 8.8%, N2 37.32%, C(n)H(m) 0.95% and H2 40.49%. The best methanol yield was 0.418 g/g cornstalk. This study provided the technical support for the industrial test of methanol production from biomass (cornstalk) gas.

  4. Re-examining current breast cancer screening: An analysis of the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Beard, Carol; Beard, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) released new mammography screening guidelines in November 2009. The panel's comprehensive review of evidence for this preventive service concluded that the net benefit of screening mammography was too small to justify universal screening for women younger than 50 years of age but advocated continuing universal screening, though biennially rather than annually, for women ages 50-74 years. Under these new recommendations, it is possible undetected early breast cancers may increase and result in increases in breast cancer morbidity. This policy analysis assessed the impact of the new guidelines regarding whether the policy changes have affected breast cancer detection and treatment in the ensuing 5 years, and whether these guidelines may affect morbidity and mortality from breast cancer in the future. Trade-offs are present in cost-effectiveness and earlier detection with better treatment for women ages 40-49 years. Follow-up studies will be crucial to monitor changes in outcome for mortality and surgical intervention and ascertain the full impact of the new guidelines for women younger than 50 years.

  5. Vitamin D intake and other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in Middle Eastern people living in the UK: a comparison of cultural and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wassan A; Al-Murrani, Waleed; Kuri, Victor; Rees, Gail A

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about factors affecting vitamin D status in Middle Eastern people living in the UK. A total of 242 questionnaires were returned out of 350 distributed. A total of 85% of the sample was estimated to have a low vitamin D intake (< 5 μg/d). Other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency included covering skin from sunlight (62% men and 84% women); low use of vitamin D containing supplements (18.5%) and being overweight or obese (49% men and 44% women). Vitamin D intake was lowest in the Kurdish ethnic group (2.18 μg/d) and in those with primary (1.83 μg/d) and secondary school (2.14 μg/d) level education compared to higher education (3.0-3.59 μg/d). Vitamin D intake was highest in those aged 40-49 years (4.0 μg/d), those born in the Levant (4.29 μg/d), and in those who were obese (3.60 μg/d).

  6. Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Head, Elizabeth; Powell, David; Gold, Brian T.; Schmitt, Frederick A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A key challenge to adults with Down syndrome (DS) as they age is an increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer disease (AD). In DS persons ranging from 40-49 years of age, 5.7-55% may be clinically demented and between 50-59 years, dementia prevalence ranges from 4-55% (reviewed in [1]). Despite the wide ranges reported for dementia prevalence, a consistent feature of aging in DS is the progressive accumulation of AD brain pathologies. By the age of 40 years, virtually all have sufficient senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles for a neuropathological diagnosis of AD [2]. Thus, there is dissociation between the age of onset of AD neuropathology (40 years) and increasing signs of clinical dementia. We discuss the hypothesis that frontal impairments are a critical factor affecting cognitive function and are associated with white matter (WM) and AD neuropathology. While these may be an early sign of conversion to dementia, we also review several other clinical comorbidities that may also contribute to dementia onset. PMID:25285303

  7. Health-related quality of life measured by the UW-QoL--reference values from a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; O'donnell, J P; Williams-Hewitt, S; Christensen, J C; Lowe, D

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain age and sex-specific reference values for the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire version 4 (UW-QoLv4) and to compare this with patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional reference data was collected from 372 patients in six local general dental practices, 349 of whom presented for routine appointments. Quota sampling was used to collect data for similar numbers of patients by gender by four age bands (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 yr). The longitudinal sample consisted of 450 consecutive patients undergoing primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma presenting to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit Liverpool, between the years 1995 and 2002. At baseline the key differences were anxiety, pain, swallowing, chewing, and mood. At 1yr there were big differences in all domains with deterioration in the oral cancer group. The difference was least notable in pain, shoulder, mood and anxiety. Reference data from a non-cancer population is very important when considering UW-QoL domains as an outcome parameter in clinical trials and also when discussing health-related quality of life outcomes with patients and their families.

  8. Oligonucleotides with conjugated dihydropyrroloindole tripeptides: base composition and backbone effects on hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Kutyavin, I V; Lukhtanov, E A; Gamper, H B; Meyer, R B

    1997-01-01

    The ability of conjugated minor groove binding (MGB) residues to stabilize nucleic acid duplexes was investigated by synthesis of oligonucleotides bearing a tethered dihydropyrroloindole tripeptide (CDPI3). Duplexes bearing one or more of these conjugated MGBs were varied by base composition (AT- or GC-rich oligonucleotides), backbone modifications (phosphodiester DNA, 2'-O-methyl phosphodiester RNA or phosphorothioate DNA) and site of attachment of the MGB moiety (5'- or 3'-end of either duplex strand). Melting temperatures of the duplexes were determined. The conjugated CDPI3 residue enhanced the stability of virtually all duplexes studied. The extent of stabilization was backbone and sequence dependent and reached a maximum value of 40-49 degrees C for d(pT)8. d(pA)8. Duplexes with a phosphorothioate DNA backbone responded similarly on CDPI3 conjugation, although they were less stable than analogous phosphodiesters. Modest stabilization was obtained for duplexes with a 2'-O-methyl RNA backbone. The conjugated CDPI3 residue stabilized GC-rich DNA duplexes, albeit to a lesser extent than for AT-rich duplexes of the same length. PMID:9278496

  9. Burn injury characteristics: findings from Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Burn injury is an important yet under-researched area in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics and associated outcomes of burn injury patients presenting to major emergency departments in Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted between November 2010 and March 2011. Information related to patient demographics, mode of arrival, cause of burn injury, and outcomes was analyzed for this paper. Data were entered using Epi Info and analyzed using SPSS v.20. Ethical approval was obtained from all participating sites. Results There were 403 burn injury patients in Pak-NEDS, with a male to female ratio 2:1. About 48.9% of the burn injury patients (n = 199) were between 10 - 29 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference between unintentional and intentional burn injury patients except for body part injured (p-value 0.004) and ED disposition (p-value 0.025). Among 21 patients who died, most were between 40 - 49 years of age (61.9%) and suffered from fire burns (81%). Conclusion Burn injuries are a burden on emergency rooms in Pakistan. We were able to demonstrate the significant burden of burn injuries that is not addressed by specialized burn centers. PMID:26692165

  10. Effect of solids retention time on nitrogen and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Belli, Tiago José; Bernardelli, Jossy Karla Brasil; da Costa, Rayra Emanuelly; Bassin, João Paulo; Amaral, Miriam Cristina Santos; Lapolli, Flávio Rubens

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphate from a municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch membrane bioreactor (SBMBR) operated at different solids retention times (SRTs) and subjected to different aeration profiles. The results demonstrated that SRT reduction from 80 to 20 d had a negligible effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and only a slight negative effect on nitrification. COD removal efficiency remained stable at 97%, whereas ammonium removal decreased from 99% to 97%. The total nitrogen removal efficiency was improved by SRT reduction, increasing from 80% to 86%. Although the total phosphorus (TP) removal was not significantly affected by the SRT reduction, ranging from 40-49%, the P-release and P-uptake processes were observed to increase as the SRT was reduced. The implementation of a pre-aeration phase in the SBMBR operating cycle allowed a higher TP removal performance, which reached up to 76%. Batch tests suggested that the fraction of phosphate removed anoxically from the total (anoxic + aerobic) phosphate removal decreased with the SRT reduction.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1997-2002.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Alice S; Murphy, Staci M; Demma, Linda J; Holman, Robert C; Curns, Aaron T; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Krebs, John W; Swerdlow, David L

    2006-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is the most commonly reported fatal tick-borne disease in the United States. During 1997-2002, 3,649 cases of RMSF were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention via the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance; 2,589 case report forms, providing supplemental information, were also submitted. The average annual RMSF incidence during 1997-2002 was 2.2 cases/million persons. The annual incidence increased during 1997-2002 to a rate of 3.8 cases/million persons in 2002. The incidence was lowest among persons aged<5 and 10-29 years, and highest among adults aged 60-69 years. The overall case-fatality rate was 1.4%; the rate peaked in 1998 at 2.9% and declined to 0.7% in 2001 and 2002. Children<5 years of age had a case-fatality rate (5%) that was significantly greater than the rates for age groups<60 years of age, except for that for 40-49 years of age. Continued national surveillance is needed to assess the effectiveness of prevention efforts and early treatment in decreasing severe morbidity and mortality associated with RMSF.

  12. Diffusion and leachability index studies on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil using fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kanchinadham, Sri Bala Kameswari; Narasimman, L M; Pedaballe, Vihita; Kalyanaraman, Chitra

    2015-10-30

    Experiments were performed to establish a feasible treatment process for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of soil contaminated by leaching of Cr(VI) from Chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Reduction of the highly mobile Cr(VI) was performed using calcium polysulfide (CaS5) with a dosage of 3 times the molar stoichiometric ratio for the initial concentration of Cr(VI) present in the chromium contaminated soil (CCS). The CCS was solidified and stabilized (S/S) using fly ash (FA) in various proportions i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (FA: CCS) with and without using reducing agent i.e., CaS5. Leachability tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic long term leachability tests indicated that the CaS5 was effective in reduction of Cr(VI) followed by the S/S process. Leachability Index was derived from the results of the semi-dynamic long term leachability tests and was between 8 and 9, indicating that FA is an effective treatment for disposal into secured landfills for CCS. The characteristic compressive strength of the CaS5 treated CCS with FA mortar blocks were between 24.47 and 40.49 kg/cm(2). Considering the cost of CaS5 and FA, a total expenditure of Rs. 7826 i.e., US $ 130.4 would be required for remediation of one tonne of CCS.

  13. Association of Helicobacter pylori and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, Dost; Zeyrek, Fadile; Cakmak, Alpay; Cekin, Abdurrahim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain. The study group included 98 patients and 88 healthy controls. Patients' sera were examined for anti-H. pylori specific IgG antibodies using H. pylori IgG ELISA. Analysis of stool samples was carried out by the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of giardiasis, all stool samples were examined by saline-Lugol and formalin-ethyl-acetate sedimentation methods. H. pylori was detected in 40 (49.0%) patients and 40 (45.5%) controls. G. intestinalis was detected in 30 (30.6%) patients and 18 (20.4%) controls. There was no significant difference in frequency between the groups in the distribution of H. pylori (p=0.6) and giardiasis (p=0.4). The frequency of the combination of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in the patient groups was 22.4% compared to 6.8% in the control groups and this result was statistically significant (p=0.002). It seems that the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis represent an important ethiologic factor in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  14. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Pobereskin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.
METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.
RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).
CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.

 PMID:11181855

  15. Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Surot, D; Cortés, M; Marambio, V; Valenzuela, C; Vallverdu, A; Ward, M P

    2015-08-05

    To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58-70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40-49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85-92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68-76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority.

  16. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among church-based lay health workers: experience from a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission trial in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iheanacho, Theddeus; Kapadia, Daniel; Ezeanolue, Chinenye O; Osuji, Alice A; Ogidi, Amaka G; Ike, Anulika; Patel, Dina; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-02

    Common mental disorders are prevalent in Nigeria. Due to stigma and a limited number of trained specialists, only 10% of adults with mental illness in Nigeria receive any care. The Healthy Beginning Initiative is a community-based maternal/child health program that includes screening for perinatal depression and was implemented by lay, volunteer, church-based health advisors (CHAs). The aim of the study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes about mental illness among the CHAs. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 57 CHAs, who completed a 43-item, self-administered questionnaire that assessed their beliefs and attitudes about mental illness. The response rate was 71%. Respondents were mostly female (79%), married (83%) and aged 40-49 years (M = 41.16 SD = 10.48). Most endorsed possession by evil spirits (84%), traumatic events (81%) and witchcraft (60%) as causes of mental illness. A majority (69%) believed that people with mental illness were a nuisance, and less than half (46%) believed that mental disorders were illnesses like any other illness. It is concluded that stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness are common among the CHAs. Training for lay health workers in Nigeria should include education on the known bio-psycho-social basis of mental disorders and the role of social inclusion in recovery.

  17. The prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in mainland China: evidence from epidemiological surveys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenying; Guo, Yuwen; Zhang, Daoxin; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Xiaonan

    2015-08-26

    The epidemiological characteristics of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in mainland China are not completely understood. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BPH from 1989 through 2014. A total of 14 articles and 19 datasets were included. The pooled overall prevalence of BPH among men aged 40 years and older was 36.6% [95% CI, 32.3-44.8]. The occurrence rate of BPH in the age groups 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and 80 years and older was 2.9%, 29.0%, 44.7%, 58.1% and 69.2%, respectively. The pooled occurrence rate of BPH was 41.5% [95% CI, 34.5-48.4] in urban areas and 38.6% [95% CI, 22.7-54.6] in rural areas; this difference in prevalence was not statistically significant [OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.36]. BPH is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increased with age. The trend in the prevalence of BPH in mainland China was not steady; the prevalence map based on a geographic information system (GIS) showed an unequal geographic distribution. High-quality surveys on BPH with a larger sample size are needed throughout mainland China to confirm these findings.

  18. Subjective well-being of mental health nurses in the United Kingdom: Results of an online survey.

    PubMed

    Oates, Jennifer; Jones, Julia; Drey, Nicholas

    2016-11-23

    The aim of the present study was to measure the subjective well-being of a group of 225 UK registered mental health nurses (MHN) using three survey measures, and to identify whether certain demographic and workplace factors correlated with subjective well-being measure scores. An online survey incorporating the subjective well-being questions used by the Office for National Statistics, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was administered to members of two professional bodies for MHN. There was good consistency between the three subjective well-being measures, each demonstrating that UK MHN had a relatively low subjective well-being. Apart from the Office for National Statistics question, 'Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?', demographic and workplace factors did not correlate with subjective well-being measure scores, although the characteristics of being male, living alone, and being aged 40-49 years were associated with lower mean scores on all three measures. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that a similar study should be undertaken with a larger representative population of MHN, and that qualitative research should explore why and how UK MHN have relatively low subjective well-being. The limitations of this study, namely the response rate and sample representativeness, mean that the results of the present study must be tested in further research on the MHN population.

  19. Technical assessment of three layered cement-bonded boards produced from wastepaper and sawdust.

    PubMed

    Fuwape, Joseph Adeola; Fabiyi, James Sunday; Osuntuyi, Edward Olusola

    2007-01-01

    The technical properties of three layered cement-bonded boards (CBBs) made from wastepaper and sawdust were investigated. The CBBs were produced at three density levels of 1000, 1200 and 1300 kg/m3 and at four cement/particle ratios of 2.0:1, 2.5:1, 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 on a weight to weight basis. The technical properties evaluated were modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS). The MOR values ranged from 4.85 to 11.69 MPa and MOE values ranged from 2.80 to 5.57 GPa. The mean values of WA and TS after 24 h of water soaking of the CBBs ranged from 18.18% to 40.49% and 3.55% to 12.13%, respectively. MOR and MOE of the CBBs increased with increase in board density, but MOR decreased with the increase in cement/particle ratio. On the other hand, WA and TS decreased with increase in board density and cement/particle ratio. CBBs produced from wastepaper and sawdust at cement/particle ratios of 3.0:1 and 3.5:1 are suitable for building construction such as paneling, ceiling and partitioning.

  20. Effect of working hours on biological functions related to cardiovascular system among salesmen in a machinery manufacturing company.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, K; Sasaki, T; Oka, T; Hisanaga, N

    1998-10-01

    A field survey of 71 salesmen (22-60 years) in a machinery manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on biological functions related to the cardiovascular system. The subjects were divided into four groups by age, and those in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups by weekly working hours. Rates of complaints of subjective fatigue for LWH were significantly higher than those for SWH on the whole. Although the mean amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest decreased with age, no significant difference between SWH and LWH was found in this function. Systolic blood pressure for LWH was significantly higher than that for SWH in the 50-60 year group. The serum total cholesterol level for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH in the 40-49 year group. Comparison of biological functions related to cardiovascular system was also made between fatigue complaint and no-complaint subgroups. Significant differences were found between the two subgroups: systolic blood pressure was higher and the total cholesterol level was lower in the fatigue complaint subgroups. Summarizing our results, it appeared that long working hours might increase systolic blood pressure and lower the total cholesterol level due to fatigue.

  1. Mansfield/LAHM MAP, Ohio. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-03

    8217= UNRMMSMMAWOF ~SOOMB, IL 6225 SUA"F V&TH OUWATWO6 VRWIM3 /AAK, aP, OL NSQ # 725246 U AUG go 40 49 W 082 31 1296 FT Um PARTS A" POEs liRti HOUILY 016 JAN 73...QETHER 20-2300 SA. ~ (L.V. (KNTS) 1-3 4.6 7.10 11-16 17.21 3.27 n 33 24.4 41-0 *.35 t~b % WIND D4 S6l 03 * 1 4 05. ___01 1*21 b 3 a~ l Sol_ _______ C1 29S...MyS11,S I ~ W .SI P.mf. %/1 at .1.11 4 4 i -r, 7f 77 *2 . 6 I 2 . 3’ 273! d4 / 63 *1 09 06 2 *. . 231 231 2 7 L/ 691 i. :1. 1*1l 5 5~ 55i 17 16 6/ 65

  2. Simulated visual homing in desert ant natural environments: efficiency of skyline cues.

    PubMed

    Basten, Kai; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2010-05-01

    Desert ants, foraging in cluttered semiarid environments, are thought to be visually guided along individual, habitual routes. While other navigational mechanisms (e.g. path integration) are well studied, the question of how ants extract reliable visual features from a complex visual scene is still largely open. This paper explores the assumption that the upper outline of ground objects formed against the sky, i.e. the skyline, provides sufficient information for visual navigation. We constructed a virtual model of the ant's environment. In the virtual environment, panoramic images were recorded and adapted to the resolution of the desert ant's complex eye. From these images either a skyline code or a pixel-based intensity code were extracted. Further, two homing algorithms were implemented, a modified version of the average landmark vector (ALV) model (Lambrinos et al. Robot Auton Syst 30:39-64, 2000) and a gradient ascent method. Results show less spatial aliasing for skyline coding and best homing performance for ALV homing based on skyline codes. This supports the assumption of skyline coding in visual homing of desert ants and allows novel approaches to technical outdoor navigation.

  3. Does Fluoride Affect Serum Testosterone and Androgen Binding Protein with Age-Specificity? A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Male Farmers.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leizhen; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wang, Keyan; Zhou, Guoyu; Yang, Yuejin; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Hui; Cheng, Xuemin; Ba, Yue

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that exposure to excess fluoride was associated with a variety of diseases. Little is known about the variation of testosterone (T) levels caused by fluoride exposure. The aim of this study is to explore the association of fluoride exposure and age with serum T and androgen-binding protein (ABP) levels in male farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Henan Province, China, including high fluoride exposure from drinking water villages and control villages. Male farmers aged 18-55 years old who lived in these villages were recruited by cluster sampling and divided into a higher fluoride exposure group (HFG) and a lower fluoride exposure group (LFG) according to the level of urinary fluoride. Levels of T and ABP in serum were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. Markedly lower T levels were observed in male farmers from the HFG than in those from the LFG (t = 2.496, P < 0.05). Furthermore, younger farmers, 18-29 and 30-39 years old, may be the most likely to have lower T levels when exposed to fluoride (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum ABP levels in all male farmers between the two groups with different fluoride exposure. These results supported that excess fluoride exposure decreased serum T levels of male farmers with age-specificity.

  4. Necrotizing pancreatitis: A review of the interventions.

    PubMed

    Bugiantella, Walter; Rondelli, Fabio; Boni, Marcello; Stella, Paolo; Polistena, Andrea; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis may have a wide range of severity, from a clinically self-limiting to a quickly fatal course. Necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is the most dreadful evolution associated to a poor prognosis: mortality is approximately 15% and up to 30-39% in case of infected necrosis, which is the major cause of death. Intervention is generally required for infected pancreatic necrosis and less commonly in patients with sterile necrosis who are symptomatic (gastric or duodenal outlet or biliary obstruction). Traditionally the most widely used approach to infected necrosis has been open surgical necrosectomy, but it is burdened by high morbidity (34-95%) and mortality (11-39%) rates. In the last two decades the treatment of NP has significantly evolved from open surgery towards minimally invasive techniques (percutaneous catheter drainage, per-oral endoscopic, laparoscopy and rigid retroperitoneal videoscopy). The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of the art of the management of NP and to clarify some aspects about its diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

    2014-11-01

    Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 μg kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N = 24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 μg L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1 ± 1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction.

  6. Screening and management practices for renal disease in the HIV-positive patient population of an inner metropolitan sexual health service.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Sheena; Drak, Douglas; Amin, Tahiya; Cheung, Jason; O'Connor, Catherine C; Gracey, David M

    2017-02-01

    Renal disease is an important and commonly encountered co-morbidity in HIV infection. Despite this, few data are available concerning renal disease in this patient group. A retrospective review was conducted of all HIV-positive patients of an inner metropolitan sexual health service who attended from 1 August 2013 to 31 July 2014 for HIV management. One hundred eighty-eight HIV-positive patients attended the clinic during the study period. The majority were male (96%), Caucasian (70%) and 30-39 years of age (37%). There was a high prevalence of renal risk factors in the population, including potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral therapy (61%), smoking (38%), hypertension (12%), dyslipidemia (11%) and hepatitis C co-infection (7%). In the previous year, measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate were performed in all patients, but measurements of lipid profiles, urinary protein and serum phosphate were performed within the last year in only 48%, 33% and 30% of patients, respectively. These are the first comprehensive data regarding renal disease, associated risk factors and screening and management practices in the HIV-positive patient population of a specialized sexual health service in Australia. This patient population demonstrates a particularly high prevalence of risk factors for renal disease. Despite this, screening investigations were not performed as recommended. This represents a potential area to improve patient care.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection of the N-terminal domain of the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p27 and its complex with the ATPase domain of Rpt5 from Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wentao; Yang, Xue; Zhou, Hao

    2014-05-01

    The protein 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p27 is one of the four chaperones that help in the assembly of the 19S regulatory particle (RP) of the 26S proteasome. In the present work, the N-terminus of p27 (residues 1-128) from Mus musculus was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized alone and in complex with the C-terminal ATPase domain of Rpt5 (residues 173-442). The crystals of p27((1-128)) diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 26.79, b = 30.39, c = 145.06 Å. Resolution-dependent Matthews coefficient probability analysis suggested the presence of only one molecule per asymmetric unit, with 40.5% solvent content and a VM value of 2.02 Å(3) Da(-1). The crystal of the p27((1-128))-Rpt5((173-442)) complex diffracted to 4 Å resolution and belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.93, b = 76.08, c = 336.85 Å. The presence of four heterodimers in the asymmetric unit with 53.2% solvent content and a VM value of 2.63 Å(3) Da(-1) or five heterodimers in the asymmetric unit with 41.5% solvent content and a VM value of 2.10 Å(3) Da(-1) is assumed.

  8. Repeated effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Kee; Wong, Erik H F; Henry, Brian; Shahid, Mohammed; Tarazi, Frank I

    2010-04-01

    Adrenergic (alpha1 and alpha2) and cholinergic muscarinic (M1-M5) receptor binding in rat forebrain was quantified after 4 wk of twice-daily subcutaneous administration of asenapine or vehicle. Asenapine (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg) produced increases in [3H]prazosin binding to alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: 30%, 39%, 57%) and dorsolateral frontal cortex (DFC: 27%, 37%, 53%) and increased [3H]RX821002 binding to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in mPFC (36%, 43%, 50%) and DFC (41%, 44%, 52%). Despite showing no appreciable affinity for muscarinic receptors, asenapine produced regionally selective increases in binding of [3H]QNB to M1-M5 receptors in mPFC (26%, 31%, 43%), DFC (27%, 34%, 41%), and hippocampal CA1 (40%, 44%, 42%) and CA3 (25%, 52%, 48%) regions. These regionally selective effects of asenapine on adrenergic and cholinergic muscarinic receptor subtypes may contribute to its beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  9. [Parallelism and paradoxes on viability and the life span of two loss-of-function mutations: heat shock protein transcriptional regulator hsf(1) and l(2)gl tumor suppressor in D. melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Vaĭsman, N Ia; Evgen'ev, M B; Golubovskiĭ, M D

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how a dosage decrease in mono- and diheterozygotes on both lethal alleles of the lgl-gene and hsfheat shock regulator influences viability and life span at optimal and high temperature 29 degrees C conditions. We found that hsf(1) (1 dosage of active hsf-factor) heterozygote animals had significantly increased viability (up to 30-39%) in case of its development from egg to imago under the stress of 29 degrees C. However, this stress-protective effect of a decreased dosage of HSF1 was suppressed in diheterozygotes, while the dosage of tumor suppressor lgl was simultaneously decreased. Under stress temperature conditions, a decrease in dosage of one of the alleles also increased the average life span and delayed aging, especially in the case of maternal inheritance of each of the loss-of-function mutations. In diheterozygotes the average life span had intermediate meanings. However, in diheterozygote males under stress conditions the positive longevity effect of hsf was suppressed in the presence of the lgl-mutation. Paradoxically, that decrease of expression of each of the studied vital genes provided a positive effect on both viability and life span under stress conditions. However, a simultaneous dosage decrease of two loss-of-function alleles in diheterozygotes resulted in disbalanced effects on the organism level. The received data indicate interaction between HSF1 and LGL gene products during ontogenesis and stress-defending processes.

  10. Abdominal surgical site infections: a prospective study of determinant factors in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchuweti, David; Jönsson, Kent U G

    2015-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are reported in lower frequencies in the developed countries than in the developing world. A prospective evaluation of risk factors in 285 patients undergoing abdominal surgery procedures in Zimbabwe was therefore undertaken. Overall infection rate was 26%. The age group 30-39 years had the highest number of dirty wounds and the highest rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Multivariate regression analysis showed a correlation between wound class and SSI (P < 0·05). This was also noted for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P < 0·05). HIV-infected patients had 52% SSIs and non-infected patients had 26% (P < 0·05). Patients receiving blood transfusion had 51% SSIs and those not transfused had 17% (P < 0·01). Patients receiving pre- and intra-operative prophylactic antibiotics had 18% SSIs and those receiving postoperative administration had 37% (P < 0·01). Treatment ranged from dressings only in 11% to surgical intervention in 30% resulting in prolongation of median hospital stay from 8 to 18 days (P < 0·001). Mortality was 7%. High wound class, high ASA score, blood transfusion, HIV infection and delayed use of prophylactic antibiotics were risk factors for SSIs, resulting in surgical interventions, prolonged hospital stay and mortality.

  11. Recent advances in orthostatic hypotension presenting orthostatic dizziness or vertigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2015-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH), a proxy for sympathetic adrenergic failure, is the most incapacitating sign of autonomic failure. Orthostatic dizziness (OD) is known to be the most common symptom of OH. However, recent studies have demonstrated that 30-39 % of patients with OH experienced rotatory vertigo during upright posture (i.e., orthostatic vertigo, OV), which challenges the dogma that OH induces dizziness and not vertigo. A recent population-based study on spontaneously occurring OD across a wide age range showed that the one-year and lifetime prevalence of OD was 10.9 and 12.5 %, respectively. Approximately 83 % of patients with OD had at least one abnormal autonomic function test result. So far, 11 subtypes of OD have been proposed according to the pattern of autonomic dysfunction, and generalized autonomic failure of sympathetic adrenergic and parasympathetic cardiovagal functions was the most common type. Four different patterns of OH, such as classic, delayed, early, and transient type have been found in patients with OD. The head-up tilt test and Valsalva maneuver should be performed for a comprehensive evaluation of sympathetic adrenergic failure in patients with OD/OV. This review summarizes current advances in OH presenting OD/OV, with a particular focus on the autonomic dysfunction associated with OD.

  12. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  13. Giardia duodenalis genotypes in domestic and wild animals from Romania identified by PCR-RFLP targeting the gdh gene.

    PubMed

    Adriana, Gyӧrke; Zsuzsa, Kalmár; Mirabela Oana, Dumitrache; Mircea, Gherman Călin; Viorica, Mircean

    2016-02-15

    Sixty Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic (n=49) and wild (n=11) animals (dogs, cats, deers, wolves, raccoon dog and muskrat) were analysed by PCR-RFLP at glutamate dehydrogenase locus (gdh). The isolates were obtained from positive feces samples for Giardia cysts analysed by flotation technique with saturated sodium chloride solution (specific gravity 1.28). Three G. duodenalis genotypes were identified: C (10/60; 16.7%); D (42/60; 70.0%); and E (7/60; 11.7%). In dogs all three genotypes were found, with the following prevalences: 76.9% genotype D (30/39); 23.1% C (9/39); 2.6% genotype E (1/39). One dog was co-infected with C and D genotypes. In cats we identified only G. duodenalis genotype D. Wolves and raccoon dog harbored infection with G. duodenalis genotype D, deers with E type and muskrat C type. This is the first study regarding genotyping of G. duodenalis in cats and wild animals from Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of assemblages E in roe deers; assemblage C in wolves and muskrat; and assemblage D in raccoon dog.

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  15. Similar and Promising Outcomes in Lymphoma Patients Treated with Myeloablative or Nonmyeloablative Conditioning and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tomblyn, Marcie; Brunstein, Claudio; Burns, Linda J.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; MacMillan, Margaret; DeFor, Todd E.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    We compared the outcomes of 141 consecutive patients who received allogeneic transplantation with either myeloablative (MA) or nonmyeloablative/reduced intensity (NMA) conditioning for non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma at the University of Minnesota. All patients were transplanted between 1997 and 2004. NMA transplant recipients were older and received umbilical cord blood grafts more frequently (MA: 6 [9%]; NMA: 33 [43%], P < .001). NMA patients had more advanced disease and 30 (39%) patients had undergone prior autologous transplantation. The 4-year overall survival (OS) (MA: 46% versus NMA: 49%; p = .34) and the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) (MA: 44% versus NMA: 31%; P = 0.82) were similar after MA or NMA conditioning. However, MA conditioning resulted in significantly higher 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) (MA: 43% versus NMA: 17%; P < .01) but a lower risk of relapse at 3 years (MA: 11% versus NMA: 36%; P < .01). We conclude that similar transplant outcomes are achieved after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using MA conditioning in younger patients and NMA conditioning in older patients or those with prior autologous transplantation not eligible for MA conditioning. Modifications to refine patient assignment to the preferred conditioning intensity and reduce relapse risks with NMA approaches are needed. PMID:18410896

  16. Significance of intercellular spaces (windows) in effusion fluid cytology: a study of 46 samples.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Paari; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Habeebullah, Syed; Basu, Debdatta

    2008-09-01

    The presence and nature of intercellular windows were studied on 46 body cavity fluid samples chosen on the basis of an unequivocal diagnosis on May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG)/Papanicolaou-stained smears and cell blocks. Of these, 24 cases had adenocarcinoma (AC) and seven had reactive mesothelium (RM) with 15 having distinct populations of both. Mucicarmine and PAS stains were used wherever indicated. The specificity of windows for predicting reactive mesothelium was evaluated. Intercellular windows were found in all cases of reactive mesothelium coinciding with the presence of the fuzzy peripheral microvillous borders. Surprisingly, as many as 17/39 (44%) of the adenocarcinomas also exhibited this feature, of which 13 had a distinctly visible evenly distributed ciliated cell membrane. In addition, 30/39 (77%) cases of AC exhibited a "window-like" appearance caused by cytoplasmic vacuolation. None of the adenocarcinoma clusters with true window formation showed positivity for the mucin stains, whereas all the clusters with pseudowindows caused by vacuolation were stained. Thus the specificity of intercellular windows for RM was merely 56%, though the sensitivity was 100%. On the other hand, the absence of windows was 100% specific for adenocarcinoma. Intercellular windows, though a feature of reactive mesothelial cell populations, can also be found in cases of ciliated adenocarcinomas and may not have a significant predictive value.

  17. Auditory habituation in the fetus and neonate: an fMEG study.

    PubMed

    Muenssinger, Jana; Matuz, Tamara; Schleger, Franziska; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Goelz, Rangmar; Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Birbaumer, Niels; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-03-01

    Habituation--the most basic form of learning--is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An auditory habituation paradigm consisting of 100 trains of five 500 Hz tones, one 750 Hz tone (dishabituator) and two more 500 Hz tones, respectively, were presented to 41 fetuses (gestational age 30-39 weeks) and 22 newborns or babies (age 6-89 days). A response decrement between the first and fifth tones (habituation), an increment between the fifth tone and the dishabituator (stimulus specificity) and an increment between the fifth (last tone before the dishabituator) and seventh tones (first tone after the dishabituator) (dishabituation) were expected. Fetuses showed weak responses to the first tone. However, a significant response decrement between the second and fifth tones (habituation) and a significant increment between the fifth tone and the dishabituator (stimulus specificity) were found. No significant difference was found for dishabituation nor was a developmental trend found at the group level. From the neonatal data, significant values for stimulus specificity were found. Sensory fatigue or adaptation was ruled out as a reason for the response decrement due to the strong reactions to the dishabituator. Taken together, the current study used fMEG to directly show fetal habituation and provides evidence of fetal learning in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Puumala virus infections in Finland: increased occupational risk for farmers.

    PubMed

    Vapalahti, K; Paunio, M; Brummer-Korvenkontio, M; Vaheri, A; Vapalahti, O

    1999-06-15

    Puumala hantavirus, transmitted by bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), causes a mild-type hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The disease is common in Finland and is considered an occupational hazard for farmers, but the actual risk has not been assessed by analytical studies. Data on 5,132 serologically confirmed Puumala virus infections during 1989-1994 were analyzed, and cases among farmers and the population living in similar conditions were compared. The farmers contracted the disease earlier and more often than did the comparison group. In the province of Mikkeli with the highest incidence (70/100,000), the risk ratio was 5.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.4) for 20- to 29-year-old farmers; in the older age groups, the risk was still increased but the risk ratios were lower. The peak incidence in the comparison group was 10 years later (age group 30-39 years). For the whole country, the result was similar although less marked. The average risk ratio adjusted by age, sex, and geographic variation was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for the whole country and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5-2.3) for the Mikkeli province, where 80% of Puumala virus infections among young farmers could be estimated to be attributable to occupation.

  19. Building young women's knowledge and skills in female condom use: lessons learned from a South African intervention.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, A C; Masvawure, T B; Smit, J A; Beksinska, M; Mabude, Z; Ngoloyi, C; Mantell, J E

    2016-04-01

    Partner negotiation and insertion difficulties are key barriers to female condom (FC) use in sub-Saharan Africa. Few FC interventions have provided comprehensive training in both negotiation and insertion skills, or focused on university students. In this study we explored whether training in FC insertion and partner negotiation influenced young women's FC use. 296 female students at a South African university were randomized to a one-session didactic information-only minimal intervention (n= 149) or a two-session cognitive-behavioral enhanced intervention (n= 147), which received additional information specific to partner negotiation and FC insertion. Both groups received FCs. We report the 'experiences of' 39 randomly selected female students who participated in post-intervention qualitative interviews. Two-thirds of women reported FC use. Most women (n= 30/39) applied information learned during the interventions to negotiate with partners. Women reported that FC insertion practice increased their confidence. Twelve women failed to convince male partners to use the FC, often due to its physical attributes or partners' lack of knowledge about insertion. FC educational and skills training can help facilitate use, improve attitudes toward the device and help women to successfully negotiate safer sex with partners. Innovative strategies and tailored interventions are needed to increase widespread FC adoption.

  20. Body mass index, conversion rate and complications among patients undergoing robotic surgery for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mary J; Dorzin, Esther; Nguyen, Loan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Bunn, W Douglas

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the relationship of BMI to conversion rate in patients undergoing robotic surgery for endometrial cancer. Secondary outcomes were operative times, number of lymph nodes retrieved, and complications. Women with endometrial cancer scheduled for robotic surgery from September 2008 to September 2012 were included. Women were divided into three groups based on BMI, and conversion rates to laparotomy were compared. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed among non-obese, obese, and morbidly obese women who completed robotic surgery. 298 women were scheduled for robotic surgery for endometrial carcinoma: 87 non-obese (BMI 19-29, μ 25.23), 110 obese (BMI 30-39, μ 34.21), and 101 morbidly obese (BMI 40-71, μ 47.38). Conversion to laparotomy occurred in 18 patients (6%), with no difference in conversion rate between BMI categories. Direct comparison between converted and completed robotic patients showed no significant differences in preoperative characteristics, except that patients who required conversion had a higher number of previous abdominal surgeries. Patients completing robotic surgery underwent node dissections at similar rates in all three BMI categories. Operating room time, but not surgical time, was increased in morbidly obese patients. There were no significant differences in complications, performance of lymphadenectomy, or lymph node yields between BMI categories. Increase in BMI was not associated with an increase in rate of conversion to laparotomy or complication rate in patients undergoing robotic surgery for endometrial carcinoma. Node dissections were pathologically equivalent between BMI categories.

  1. Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Dam, Vi T; Klempel, Monica C; Horne, Matthew; Cruz, Rani; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Santosa, Sylvia

    2015-01-05

    Cardiovascular disease risk is associated with excess body weight and elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. This study examines how an alternate-day fasting (ADF) diet high (HF) or low (LF) in fat affects plasma FFA profiles in the context of weight loss, and changes in body composition and lipid profiles. After a 2-week weight maintenance period, 29 women (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2)) 25-65 years old were randomized to an 8-week ADF-HF (45% fat) diet or an ADF-LF (25% fat) diet with 25% energy intake on fast days and ad libitum intake on feed days. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were assessed weekly and body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total and individual FFA and plasma lipid concentrations were measured before and after weight loss. Body weight, BMI, fat mass, total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglyceride concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) in both groups. Total FFA concentrations also decreased (P < 0.001). In the ADF-LF group, decreases were found in several more FFAs than in the ADF-HF group. In the ADF-HF group, FFA concentrations were positively correlated with waist circumference. Depending on the macronutrient composition of a diet, weight loss with an ADF diet decreases FFA concentrations through potentially different mechanisms.

  2. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among HIV Patients in Jahrom, Southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezanezhad, Hassan; Sayadi, Fateme; Shadmand, Enayatollah; Nasab, Seyed Dawood Mousavi; Yazdi, Hadi Rezaei; Solhjoo, Kavous; Kazemi, Akbar; Maleki, Monireh; Vasmehjani, Abbas Ahmadi

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected. Among the HIV patients, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were significantly higher in age group of 30-39 years old (P=0.05). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with CD4(+)<100 cells/μl was 33.3% that was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.042) with or without IgG antibodies. The CD4(+) count mean of seropositive patients was lower than that of seronegative patients. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy was significantly less than patients without therapy (P=0.02). In conclusion, this study showed low seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis among HIV-infected patients in the region and confirmed the need for intensifying prevention efforts among this high-risk population and also the risk of toxoplasmosis reactivation which could be important among this population.

  4. The flehmen response and pseudosuckling in a captive, juvenile Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Island, Heide D; Wengeler, Julia; Claussenius-Kalman, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    A juvenile, female sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) was observed in 43 instances of the flehmen response over 19 days from May through July of 2015 at the Oregon Zoo. In all flehmen grimace observations, the juvenile sea otter engaged in nibbling, nosing, or licking the peri-mammary or anogenital areas of a non-lactating, geriatric female sea otter. The flehmen behavior observed was consisted with the sequences of behavior documented in other mammals, lifting the head, elevating the nose to the air, retracting the upper lip slightly, and manipulating her mystacial vibrissae back and forth while rapidly inspiring air through her mouth in quick succession, tongue extruded. The occurrence of this behavior was not specific to visitor density, visitor impact rating, day of the month, time of day, or exhibit zone. However, it did occur more frequently in one area of the enclosure. Among the three sea otters (two females, one male) currently housed at the Oregon Zoo, the juvenile female's flehmen response only occurred following interactions with the older female and was always preceded by the pseudosuckling or anogenital nosing, licking or nibbling behavior. Zoo Biol. 36:30-39, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Predictors of general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living and intention of a second donation in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donation.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Jang, J H; Min, H J; Jang, H I; Nah, J H; Lyu, C J; Han, K-S; Won, J H; Lee, Y-H; Chong, S Y; Mun, Y C; Lee, W S; Kim, S J; Kim, I

    2017-02-01

    We performed a retrospective study of 1868 consecutive unrelated donors to predict the risk factors related to general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and intention of a second donation in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donation. General discomfort and limitations in ADLs were assessed by numerical measurement (scores of 0-10) and donor's intention of a second donation by yes or no reply. The post-donation questionnaires were completed within 48 h after HSC collection and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 4 months thereafter. Predictors of general discomfort included female sex (P<0.0001), bone marrow (BM) collection (P<0.0001) or PBSC collection through a central line (CL; P=0.0349), 2-day collection (P=0.0150) and negative or undetermined intention of a second donation on day 1 (P<0.0001). Predictors of limitations in ADLs included age group of 30-39 years (P=0.0046), female sex (P<0.0001), BM collection (P<0.0001) or PBSC collection through a CL (P<0.0001) and negative or undetermined intention of a second donation on day 1 (P<0.0001). The only predictor of positive intention of a second donation was male sex (P=0.0007). Age, sex and collection method and period should be considered risk factors when unrelated HSC donation is performed.

  6. Emissions estimation for lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Nurten Vardar; Zehra Yumurtaci

    2010-01-15

    The major gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide), some various organic emissions (e.g. benzene, toluene and xylenes) and some trace metals (e.g. arsenic, cobalt, chromium, manganese and nickel) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are estimated. The estimations are made separately for each one of the thirteen plants that produced electricity in 2007, because the lignite-fired thermal plants in Turkey are installed near the regions where the lignite is mined, and characteristics and composition of lignite used in each power plant are quite different from a region to another. Emission factors methodology is used for the estimations. The emission factors obtained from well-known literature are then modified depending on local moisture content of lignite. Emission rates and specific emissions (per MWh) of the pollutants from the plants without electrostatic precipitators and flue-gas desulfurization systems are found to be higher than emissions from the plants having electrostatic precipitators and flue -gas desulfurization systems. Finally a projection for the future emissions due to lignite-based power plants is given. Predicted demand for the increasing generation capacity based on the lignite-fired thermal power plant, from 2008 to 2017 is around 30%. 39 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  8. Establishing reference intervals for bone turnover markers in healthy postmenopausal women in a nonfasting state.

    PubMed

    Gossiel, Fatma; Finigan, Judith; Jacques, Richard; Reid, David; Felsenberg, D; Roux, Christian; Glueer, Claus; Eastell, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In order to interpret bone turnover markers (BTMs), we need to establish healthy reference intervals. It is difficult to establish reference intervals for older women because they commonly suffer from diseases or take medications that affect bone turnover. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify diseases and drugs that have a substantial effect on BTMs; (2) to establish reference intervals for premenopausal and postmenopausal women; and (3) to examine the effects of other factors on BTMs in healthy postmenopausal women. We studied women aged 30-39 years (n=258) and women aged 55-79 years (n=2419) from a five-European centre population-based study. We obtained a nonfasting serum and second morning void urine samples at a single baseline visit. BTMs were measured using automated immunoassay analysers. BTMs were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency and chronic kidney disease. Three or more BTMs were higher in women who were osteoporotic and at least two BTMs were lower in women who were oestrogen replete, taking osteoporosis treatments or having diseases known to affect bone turnover. These were used as exclusion criteria for selecting the populations for the reference intervals. The reference intervals for BTMs were higher in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Levels of BTMs were not dependent on geographical location and increased with age.

  9. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p < 0.01). Evaluation of the PIES subscores found significant (p < 0.05) delays in all ego strength areas (hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom). When adjusting for potential confounders, opioid dependence remained a significant (p < 0.001) independent predictor of total PIES score. Conclusion. Adolescents with opioid dependence demonstrated significant delays in ego strength development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  10. Effect of adding human chorionic gonadotropin to frozen thawed embryo transfer cycles with history of thin endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Robab; Miraj, Sepideh; Farid Mojtahedi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Embryo implantation process is a complex phenomenon and depends on fetal and maternal factors interaction. Endometrial thickness is needed for successful implantation. Objective: We designed this study in order to assess adding human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) to the conventional protocol in endometrial preparation in women with thin endometrium and a history of in vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF-ET) failure. Materials and Methods: The non-randomized clinical trial study (quasi experimental design) was performed on 28 patients. Participants were women who were candidate for frozen-thawed (ET) and had two previous failed ET cycles because of thin endometrial. HCG was administrated (150 IU, intramuscular) from the 8th day of cycle and when endometrial thickness reached at least 7mm HCG was discontinued and frozen thawed ET was done. Results: Totally 28 patients were included. The mean ± SD age of participants was 30.39±4.7. The mean of endometrium thickness before and after HCG were 5.07±0.43 and 7.85±0.52, respectively p<0.001. Also, there were five clinically and chemically pregnant women. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that adding HCG to the conventional preparation method was an effective protocol and significantly improved endometrial thickness and pregnancy outcomes in women with previous embryo transfer failure because of thin endometrium. PMID:27141549

  11. Hepatitis E virus infection as a marker for contaminated community drinking water sources in Tibetan villages.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J; Claridge, Frances; Anderson, David A; Zhuang, Hui; Morgan, Christopher; Otto, Brad; Stewart, Tony

    2006-02-01

    In April-May 2001, a study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) among 426 persons 8-49 years of age randomly selected from two groups of rural villages in central Tibet. Group 1 villages were assessed in 1998 as having poor quality water sources; new water systems were then constructed prior to this study. Group 2 villages had higher quality water and were not designated as priority villages for new systems prior to the study. No participants tested positive for IgM; only IgG was detected in the analyzed samples. Overall, 31% of the participants had ever been infected with HEV (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.7-35.7%). The rate was higher in men (36.6%) than women (26.3%) and highest in those 30-39 years of age (49.1%). The rate of past infection was higher in group 1; the risk ratio was 2.77 (95% CI = 1.98-3.88). This difference is most likely the result of the poor quality of the original water sources in these villages. In resource-poor countries, HEV may be a useful health indicator reflecting the degree of contamination in village water sources. This may be especially important in rural areas (such as Tibet) where maternal mortality ratios are high because HEV may be an important cause of deaths during pregnancy in disease-endemic areas.

  12. Sweat loss prediction using a multi-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William R.

    2011-07-01

    A new multi-model approach (MMA) for sweat loss prediction is proposed to improve prediction accuracy. MMA was computed as the average of sweat loss predicted by two existing thermoregulation models: i.e., the rational model SCENARIO and the empirical model Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA). Three independent physiological datasets, a total of 44 trials, were used to compare predictions by MMA, SCENARIO, and HSDA. The observed sweat losses were collected under different combinations of uniform ensembles, environmental conditions (15-40°C, RH 25-75%), and exercise intensities (250-600 W). Root mean square deviation (RMSD), residual plots, and paired t tests were used to compare predictions with observations. Overall, MMA reduced RMSD by 30-39% in comparison with either SCENARIO or HSDA, and increased the prediction accuracy to 66% from 34% or 55%. Of the MMA predictions, 70% fell within the range of mean observed value ± SD, while only 43% of SCENARIO and 50% of HSDA predictions fell within the same range. Paired t tests showed that differences between observations and MMA predictions were not significant, but differences between observations and SCENARIO or HSDA predictions were significantly different for two datasets. Thus, MMA predicted sweat loss more accurately than either of the two single models for the three datasets used. Future work will be to evaluate MMA using additional physiological data to expand the scope of populations and conditions.

  13. Malacological and palynological evidence of the Lower Pleistocene cold phase at the Carpathian Foothills (Southern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stworzewicz, Ewa; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Wójcik, Antoni

    2012-05-01

    Early Pleistocene sediments bearing gastropod shells and pollen flora were found during coring at Jawornik (South Poland) at a depth interval of 54.30-39.00 m, beneath the oldest till of the Carpathians. Thirteen land-snail taxa identified in 55 samples of the core formed two molluscan assemblages. In the bottom part, typical cold-loving snails were found (e.g. Vallonia tenuilabris, Pupilla loessica, Vertigo genesii, Columella columella), whereas in the upper part only Semilimax kotulae was present. The succession of molluscan assemblages may suggest that at the site of deposition, after a phase of tundra, steppe-tundra or forest-steppe landscape with patches of wet habitats in cold climate, the climate became slightly milder but still cool, favourable to the spreading of boreal (coniferous) woodlands. Pollen analysis was performed only for the upper part of the profile. The pollen spectra, besides the Tertiary (Miocene) elements, contained sporomorphs common to the Tertiary and Quaternary floras. Among them, the highest percentages were noted for Pinus haploxylon t., P. diploxylon t., Picea, Quercus, Ericaceae, Betula, and Ulmus. The fact that the sediments with organic remains underlie the oldest Scandinavian till suggests that they are older than the oldest glacial unit of the South-Polish Complex (Narevian = Menapian, ~ 1.2 Ma).

  14. Excessive computer game playing among Norwegian adults: self-reported consequences of playing and association with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H G; Bakken, I J; Johansson, A; Götestam, K G; Øren, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Computer games are the most advanced form of gaming. For most people, the playing is an uncomplicated leisure activity; however, for a minority the gaming becomes excessive and is associated with negative consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate computer game-playing behaviour in the general adult Norwegian population, and to explore mental health problems and self-reported consequences of playing. The survey includes 3,405 adults 16 to 74 years old (Norway 2007, response rate 35.3%). Overall, 65.5% of the respondents reported having ever played computer games (16-29 years, 93.9%; 30-39 years, 85.0%; 40-59 years, 56.2%; 60-74 years, 25.7%). Among 2,170 players, 89.8% reported playing less than 1 hr. as a daily average over the last month, 5.0% played 1-2 hr. daily, 3.1% played 2-4 hr. daily, and 2.2% reported playing > 4 hr. daily. The strongest risk factor for playing > 4 hr. daily was being an online player, followed by male gender, and single marital status. Reported negative consequences of computer game playing increased strongly with average daily playing time. Furthermore, prevalence of self-reported sleeping problems, depression, suicide ideations, anxiety, obsessions/ compulsions, and alcohol/substance abuse increased with increasing playing time. This study showed that adult populations should also be included in research on computer game-playing behaviour and its consequences.

  15. Relationship between disease activity and infection in patients with spondyloarthropathies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, A; Pacheco-Tena, C; Vazquez-Mellado, J; Burgos-Vargas, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods: A cross sectional study of 95 non-selected patients with SpA (62 men; mean age 26.4 years), who were examined for signs and symptoms of infection and their association with disease activity. 52 had ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 32 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA), 6 chronic reactive arthritis (ReA), and 5 psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Categorical data were analysed by χ2 or Fisher's tests. Results: 53 (56%) patients had infections: 41 (43%) upper respiratory tract (URT), 34 (36%) enteric, and 20 (21%) genitourinary infections. More infections occurred in HLA-B27 positive patients as a whole (39 v 5; p = 0.003) and in uSpA (12 v 2; p = 0.005). In AS and uSpA, infections occurred in ∼50%. 30/39 (77%) patients with active disease (group A) and 23/56 (41%) (group B) (p = 0.001) had infection. There were more enteric infections in group A (47%; p<0.001) and more URT infections in group B (52%; p = NS). 22/30 (73%) patients attributed disease activity to infection. Conclusion: Enteric, and less commonly, URT infections in Mexican patients with SpA, particularly those who were HLA-B27 positive, seem to have a role in the active phase of AS and uSpA. PMID:15361397

  16. Molecular and serological detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in donkeys (Equus asinus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, R Z; Toledo, C Z P; Teixeira, M C A; André, M R; Freschi, C R; Sampaio, P H

    2012-05-25

    Piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognized as a serious problem of major economic importance, since the affected animals manifest loss of appetite and decreased working capacity. The present work is aimed at detecting infection or exposure of donkeys in São Paulo, Brazil to Theileria (T.) equi and Babesia (B.) caballi using molecular and serological approaches. EDTA-blood and serum samples were collected from 88 donkeys (Equus asinus). From 88 sampled donkeys, 65 (73.86%; 95% confidence interval, PI=63.41, 82.65) and 82 (93.2%; 95% confidence interval, PI=85.75, 97.46) animals showed IgG antibodies to T. equi (by ELISA) and B. caballi (by IFAT), respectively. Twenty-eight (31.81%; 95% confidence interval, PI=22.3, 42.61) and 18 (20.45%; 95% confidence interval, PI=12.6, 30.39) donkeys were positive to T. equi and B. caballi nested PCR assays, respectively. The results indicated that T. equi and B. caballi are prevalent among donkeys in Brazil.

  17. Prevalence of HBV and HCV among blood donors in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender

    2009-02-13

    Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000-2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30-39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries.

  18. Knowledge and Beliefs of Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer among Market Women in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Igbodekwe, Franklin C.; Twomey, Mary; Akolo, Christopher; Balarabe, Hadiza Sabuwa; Atilola, Olayinka; Jegede, Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    Background In most resource constrained settings like Nigeria, breast self-examination self-breast examination (BSE) is culturally acceptable, religious friendly and attracts no cost. Women's knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer and its management may contribute significantly to medical help-seeking behaviours. This study aimed to assess knowledge and beliefs of BSE among market women. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 603 market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistical methods. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34.6±9.3 years with 40% of the women aged between 30-39years. The proportion of married women was 339 (68.5%) with 425 (70.8%) respondents reporting that they do not know how to perform BSE. However, 372 (61.7%) women strongly agreed that BSE is a method of screening for breast cancer. Highest proportion 219 (36.3%) reported that the best time for a woman to perform BSE was ‘anytime’. Most of the respondents believed breast cancer is a dangerous disease that kills fast and requires a lot of money for treatment. Conclusion More efforts are needed in creating awareness and advocacy campaigns in the grassroots in order to detect early breast cancer and enhance prevention strategies that would reduce the burden of breast cancer in Nigeria. PMID:26606137

  19. Emergency Nurses’ Requirements for Disaster Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Hesam; Abbasi Dolatabadi, Zahra; Rajabifard, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters affect people, communities, and health systems. Nurses play a key role in the health system and must be prepared for appropriate response in disasters. Objectives: This study was done to assess the current knowledge of nurses in emergency departments for disaster preparedness. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 110 emergency nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the data were then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Based on the findings, most of the participants (64.5%) were aged 30 - 39 years old. 84% of the cases were female and 97.3% had a bachelor’s degree. The average perceived knowledge of nurses was 2.43 ± 1.01. The nurses had the highest familiarity with triage and lowest knowledge in epidemiology and decision-making. Conclusions: Lack knowledge of nurses regarding response to disaster situations indicates inefficiencies in the current system. Therefore, it is recommended to organize more workshops, annual training courses, and maneuvers based on staff needs and formulate continuous education courses for nurses. PMID:26839868

  20. The efficacy and safety of inflatable obstetric belts for management of the second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Hee; Lee, Gun Ho; Park, Young Bae; Jun, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Hahn, Won Bo; Park, Sang Won; Park, Hee Jin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor. One hundred twenty-three nulliparas with a singleton cephalic pregnancy at term were randomized. Standard care was performed in the control group, and uterine fundal pressure by the Labor Assister (Baidy M-420/Curexo, Inc., Seoul, Korea) was utilized in addition to standard care in the active group. The Labor Assister is an inflatable obstetric belts that synchronized to apply uniform fundal pressure during a uterine contraction. The 62 women in the active group spent less time in the second stage of labor when compared to the 61 women in the control group (41.55+/-30.39 min vs. 62.11+/-35.99 min). There was no significant difference in perinatal outcomes between the two groups. In conclusion, the uterine fundal pressure exerted by the Labor Assister reduces the duration of the second stage of labor without attendant complications.

  1. Prevalence of the generalist flea Pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in New Mexico, USA: the importance of considering imperfect detection.

    PubMed

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E; Antolin, Michael F; Long, Dustin H; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Gage, Kenneth L

    2015-04-01

    If a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. We fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (Siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) during June-August 2012 in the Vermejo Park Ranch, New Mexico, USA. With the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: Oropsylla hirusta (a prairie dog specialist) and Pulex simulans (a generalist). Detection probability was <100% for both species and about 21% lower for P. simulans. Pulex simulans may be especially difficult to detect because it is about half the size of O. hirusta. Monthly occupancy (prevalence) for P. simulans was estimated at 24% (June, 95% confidence interval = 19-30), 39% (July, 32-47), and 56% (August, 49-64) in new prairie dog colonies, and 43% (32-54), 61% (49-71), and 79% (70-87) in old colonies. These results suggest P. simulans can attain high prevalence on prairie dogs, especially in old colonies. If P. simulans is highly prevalent on prairie dogs, it may serve as a "bridge vector" between Cynomys and other mammalian hosts of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis, and even function as a reservoir of Y. pestis between outbreaks.

  2. Epidemiological profile of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria, July-September 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Emmanuel Onunche; Adedire, Elizabeth; Adeoye, Olawunmi; Adewuyi, Peter; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Nguku, Patrick; Nanjuya, Miriam; Adebayo, Bisola; Fatiregun, Akinola; Enya, Bassey; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Sabitu, Kabiru; Shuaib, Faisal; Okoh, Alex; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Onyekwere, Nnanna; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Olayinka, Adebola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In July 2014, Nigeria experienced an outbreak of Ebola virus disease following the introduction of the disease by an ill Liberian Traveler. The Government of Nigeria with the support of Technical and Development Partners responded quickly and effectively to contain the outbreak. The epidemiological profile of the outbreak that majorly affected two States in the country in terms of person, place and time characteristics of the cases identified is hereby described. Methods Using field investigation technique, all confirmed and probable cases were identified, line-listed and analysed using Microsoft Excel 2007 by persons, time and place. Results A total of 20 confirmed and probable cases; 16 in Lagos (including the index case from Liberia) and 4 in Port Harcourt were identified. The mean age was 39.5 ± 12.4 years with over 40% within the age group 30-39 years. The most frequent exposure type was direct physical contact in 70% of all cases and 73% among health care workers. The total case-fatality was 40%; higher among healthcare workers (46%) compared with non-healthcare workers (22%). The epidemic curve initially shows a typical common source outbreak, followed by a propagated pattern. Conclusion Investigation revealed the size and spread of the outbreak and provided information on the characteristics of persons, time and place. Enhanced surveillance measures, including contact tracing and follow- up proved very useful in early case detection and containment of the outbreak. PMID:26587177

  3. Treatment of Patients with Tiolox-Dentaurum Dental Implants at the Polyclinic Shoshi

    PubMed Central

    Shoshi, Avdyl; Alushi, Adem; Isufi, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the dental implantology has influenced the development of many treatment methods in this field. The aim of our study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment with TIOLOX-DENTAURUM dental implants in cases of partial and total lack of teeth, compared to classic dentures. To conduct our research we have used the prospective method. Material and methods: The analyzed cases have undergone surgical treatment at the “Policlinic Shoshi” in Prishtina during 2010–2011. This study included 29 patients, 23 in the research group and 6 in the control group. The patients involved in the study were 30-59 years old. 52,2% of our patients were 30-39 years old, while 17,4% were 50-59 years old. Results: In the research group, the average time of placing the dental bridges in the lower jaw was 2 months and 4.2 months in the control group. In the upper jaw, the average time was 3 months for the experimental group and 5,4 months for the control group. Conclusion: The period after the placement of implants until the placement of dentures, can be shortened from 4-6 months to 3 months for the upper jaw and from 3 to 2 months for the lower jaw. PMID:25568555

  4. Comparison of age-related changes in anti-Müllerian hormone levels and other ovarian reserve tests between healthy fertile and infertile population.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Banu; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Ahmet; Guler, Ismail; Mutlu, Ilknur; Oktem, Mesut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels vary between fertile and infertile populations and compare them with basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC). This was a prospective study that included 177 primarily infertile patients who underwent IVF treatment and 162 healthy fertile patients admitted to our clinic for benign diseases. FSH and AMH levels and the AFC of the infertile and fertile populations were compared between the age categories <30, 30-39 and ≥40. Correlations between AMH, basal FSH, and AFC with age were evaluated. AFC and AMH levels did not differ between the fertile and infertile groups in all age categories. AMH was inversely correlated with age in both the fertile and infertile populations. However, AFC revealed a stronger correlation with age in both the fertile and infertile populations compared with basal FSH and AMH. Age was positively correlated with basal FSH and inversely correlated with AMH and AFC. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between the fertile and infertile populations in terms of AMH or AFC. The decrease in ovarian reserve in infertile patients is directly related to age, not infertility.

  5. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30-39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups.

  6. Acceptance of Genetic Testing for Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Among Study Enrollees from an African American Kindred

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Mandal, Diptasri; Neuhausen, Susan L; Seggar, Kate; Holubkov, Rich; Smith, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Clinical availability of genetic testing for cancer predisposition genes is generating a major challenge for U.S. health care systems to provide relevant genetic services to underserved populations. Here we present rates of study enrollment and utilization of genetic testing in a research study on BRCA1 testing acceptance in one large kindred. We also present data on baseline access to genetic information as well as enabling and obstructing factors to study enrollment. The study population included female and male members of an African-American kindred based in the rural southern United States with an identified BRCA1 mutation. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Of the 160 living, eligible and locatable kindred members, 105 (66%) enrolled in the study. Family, personal, and educational motivations were the most commonly endorsed reasons for study participation. The most commonly cited reasons for refusal to participate in the study were: lack of interest, time constraints, and negative experiences with prior participation in genetic research. Eighty three percent of the participants underwent BRCA1 testing. In multiple logistic regression analysis, age 40-49 (odds ratio (OR) = 6.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-39.5), increased perceived cancer risk (OR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.1-14.6), and high cancer genetics knowledge levels (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) were associated with BRCA1 testing acceptance. The results of this study indicate that cognitive and demographic factors may influence genetic research participation and genetic testing decisions among African Americans who are at increased risk of carrying a deleterious BRCA1 mutation. PMID:16523520

  7. Wuchereria bancrofti infection in rural tropical guinea savannah communities: Rapid epidemiological assessment using immunochromatographic card test and prevalence of hydrocoele.

    PubMed

    Ivoke, N; Ezeabikwa, B O; Ivoke, O N; Ekeh, F N; Ezenwaji, N E; Odo, G E; Onoja, U S; Eyo, J E

    2015-06-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti is a major public health concern in endemic communities worldwide. Among tropical diseases it is second to malaria in terms of disability adjusted life years. The Nigerian LF elimination programme has been slated for 2015. Currently, there is paucity of published data on the problem in rural Ebonyi State. This survey was conducted in six rural communities of southwestern Ebonyi State to assess its prevalence among the population and provide baseline data for incorporation into the national LF elimination programme. Immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for detecting circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using whole blood and overt clinical manifestations (lymphoedema and hydrocoele) were used as epidemiological tools. All the studied communities were endemic for active bancroftian filariasis. Of the 600 randomly selected subjects aged ≥10 years, an overall prevalence of 23.50% was established (range, 17.00 - 30.00%). Overall, the antigenaemic prevalence was similar; there was a trend of slightly higher prevalence in males (24.34%) than females (22.39%). The between-gender prevalence difference was not statistically significant (χ² = 8.16, df = 1, p = 0.05) based on CFA positivity. Antigenaemia prevalence was age-dependent, increased exponentially and peaked at 20.57% in subjects in the 40-49 years age category. Lymphoedema and hydrocoele attributable to W. bancrofti were observed in 4.05% of subjects examined. Generally, hydrocoele was observed in 1.69% males, whereas lymphoedema was presented by 2.36% (1.35% females; 1.01% males) of studied population. None of the male subjects had both the two clinical features. Results of this study showed that W. bancrofti infection is widespread in southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria, and is a major health issue. There is a need for mass mobilization, mass education and community involvement in sustained intervention programme toward lymphatic filariasis

  8. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jayasingh, Indhu Aynipully; Puthuran, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a condition wherein there are small elevations in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), yet normal circulating levels of free thyroid hormones (FT4). Alterations in thyroid function result in changes in composition and transport of lipoproteins. Methods: The study was undertaken in the outpatient department of Lourdes hospital, Ernakulam. 110 patients between 40-69 years were studied, of which 60 were identified to have SCH based on cross-sectional survey, 50 patients were randomly selected to represent the EU group. Data based on interview, clinical examination, thyroid function, lipid profiles. Student's t, chi-square tests used for computation of p values. Results: SCH were seen in females (66.66%) and in the age group of 40-49 years (61.66%). Mean cholesterol values were elevated in the subclinical hypothyroid group and in relation to age (60-69) and gender. Statistical analysis showed significant difference in total cholesterol(TC) (P<0.005) and triglycerides (P<0.05) in relation to age (40–49 yrs.) between two groups. Based on TSH, group A 5-7.49Mu/L and group B 7.5-10Mu/L were compared to the euthyroid group N<5Mu/L. Mean cholesterol values were raised in both subgroups. Statistically significant difference seen (P<0.0005) in cholesterol values between the subclinical hypothyroid group B and the euthyroid group N. Conclusions: SCH appears to be associated with increased mean cholesterol levels in females and of age > 60 years. The TC values were elevated in both subgroups of patients with SCH (A and B) based on TSH values. PMID:28348996

  9. Advanced colonic neoplasia in the first degree relatives of colon cancer patients: A colonoscopy-based study.

    PubMed

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Amani, Mohammad; Ansari, Reza; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-11-15

    We aimed to determine the risk of advanced neoplasms among a cohort of asymptomatic first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with matched controls. Data for patients with a diagnosis of CRC made between September 2013 and August 2014 were obtained from a population-based cancer registry system in Tehran. Screening colonoscopies were done for 342 FDRs and the findings were compared to those from 342 age- and gender-matched healthy controls without a family history of CRC. We reported the association as conditional Odds Ratio (OR) using Mantel Hazel and Logistic regression. The prevalence of advanced neoplasia was 13.2% among FDRs and 3.8% in controls (matched OR [mOR], 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1 - 7.6; p < 0.001). In FDRs aged 40-49 years, the prevalence of advanced neoplasia was significantly higher than in their matched controls (mOR, 6.8, 95% CI, 1.5-31.4; p = 0.01). Family history of CRC in at least one FDR was the strongest predictor of advanced neoplasia (adjusted OR, 4.0, 95% CI: 2.1-7.6; p < 0.001). The age of the index case at diagnosis did not predict the presence of advanced colonic neoplasms in their FDRs. Our study indicates a high risk of advanced neoplasia in FDRs of CRC cases, where only eight colonoscopies are needed to detect one advanced neoplasia. Our data suggest that all FDRs, regardless of the age of CRC diagnosis in their index case, should be considered for a targeted early screening.

  10. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West

    PubMed Central

    Leshno, Ari; Moshkowitz, Menachem; David, Maayan; Galazan, Lior; Neugut, Alfred I; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in average risk persons 40-59 years of age in Israel and to compare the results with other populations. METHODS We reviewed the results of asymptomatic average-risk subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, undergoing their first screening colonoscopy between April 1994 and January 2014. The detection rates of adenoma, advanced adenoma (AA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined in the 40’s and 50’s age groups by gender. The prevalence of lesions was compared between age groups. After meticulous review of the literature, these results were compared to published studies addressing the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in similar patient groups, in a variety of geographical locations. RESULTS We included first screening colonoscopy results of 1750 individuals. The prevalence of adenomas, AA and CRC was 8.3%, 1.0% and 0.2% in the 40-49 age group and 13.7%, 2.4% and 0.2% in the 50-59 age group, respectively. Age-dependent differences in adenoma and AA rates were significant only among men (P < 0.005). Literature review disclosed 17 relevant studies. As expected, in both Asian and Western populations, the risks for overall adenoma and advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the 50's age group as compared to the 40's age group in a similar fashion. The result of the current study were similar to previous studies on Western populations. A substantially higher rate of adenoma, was observed in studies conducted among Asian populations in both age groups. CONCLUSION The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population. PMID:27621582

  11. Curative and population medicine: bridging the great divide.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J H

    1999-01-01

    There are gaps in understanding between practicing physicians (curative medicine) and those trained in public health and epidemiology (population medicine). In the last century, these groups were closer, as physicians played a role in public health, sanitation and in the prevention of the spreading of infection. However, with the recent extraordinary successes of the biomedical model in explaining disease, and the ensuing explosion of remarkable - and expensive - medical procedures and treatments, public health, preventive medicine and the population approach in general have been overshadowed. In this essay, I try to explain how the training of physicians and the daily care of patients may hinder their appreciation of the population model. For instance, for many of the myriad decisions involved in patient care in daily practice, there is little evidence, population derived or otherwise. What little evidence there is may be dominated by personal experiences, opinions and values. Additionally, the statistical and epidemiologic approach necessary for the maintenance of health and prevention of illness may not be valued by practitioners whose training and focus is on treating sick people one by one. To illustrate these disparities in understanding, examples are given from the NIH Consensus Conference on mammography screening for women aged 40-49, and from the use of science in the courtroom in adjudicating toxic tort cases. Understanding population medicine requires an appreciation of the concepts of chance, probability and statistics and of epidemiologic principles, difficult areas for many - including the general public. These topics play a small to nonexistent role in the formal training of most physicians. Some closing of the gap in understanding may be occurring. It is hoped this essay will help.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Factors in Adults of the Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    França, Sérgio Lobato; Lima, Sandra Souza; Vieira, José Ricardo Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) plays a key role in the origin of cardiovascular diseases. Studies on the MS in Brazil are recent, and its epidemiology in more isolated regions such as the Amazon is still unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS and associated factors in adults of the Brazilian Amazon. This study was conducted in 2012-2013. It is a cross-sectional population-based study, involving 787 adults randomly selected from the urban area of four cities in the state of Pará, in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon. The participants underwent anthropometric measurements, laboratory examination, and were questioned about their lifestyle. MS was defined by the Joint Interim Statement criteria, using the multiple logistic regression to investigate the potential association of risk factors with the presence of MS. The overall prevalence of MS was 34.1% (95% CI = 30.8-37.4), increasing linearly with the increasing body mass index and age. From 40-49 years of age, MS was observed in about half of the women (46.0%), while men only experienced a high prevalence in the fifth decade of life (43.3%). The low HDL-c (64.4%) and abdominal obesity (58.9%) were higher in women (p < 0.001), while for men, high blood pressure was significantly higher (p < 0.001). Individuals aged 40-59 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35 [95% CI = 2.30-4.90]), ≥ 60 years old (OR = 5.80 [3.63-9.27]), overweight (OR = 4.17 [2.77-6.29]), and obese (OR = 8.82 [5.56-13.98]) were more likely to have MS. The study population experienced high cardiometabolic risk, requiring government efforts to control MS and related risk factors, especially obesity.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini infections in upper Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thaewnongiew, Kesorn; Singthong, Seri; Kutchamart, Saowalux; Tangsawad, Sasithorn; Promthet, Supannee; Sailugkum, Supan; Wongba, Narong

    2014-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is an ongoing public health problem in Northeast Thailand. Despite continuous efforts for decades by healthcare organizations to overcome this problem, infection rates remain high. To enable related personnel to identify and address the various issues effectively, a cross-sectional study was performed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for opisthorchiasis. The target group was 3,916 Thai residents of Northeast Thailand who were 15 or over. Participants were recruited using the 30 clusters sampling technique. The data were gathered through questionnaires, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and stool examinations for parasite eggs (using the Modified Kato Katz method). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inference statistics; in order to ascertain the risk factors and test them using the odds ratio and multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of opisthorchiasis was 22.7% (95%CI: 0.26 to 0.24). The province with the highest prevalence was Nakhorn Phanom (40.9%; female to male ratio =1:1.2). The age group with the highest prevalence was 40-49 year olds. All age groups had a prevalence >20%. Four of seven provinces had a prevalence >20%. The factors related to opisthorchiasis were (a) sex, (b) age (especially > 50), (c) proximity and duration living near a water body, and (d) eating raw and/or fermented fish. In order to reduce the prevalence of opisthorchiasis, the focus in populations living in upper Northeast Thailand should be changing their eating behaviors as appropriate to their tradition and context.

  14. Correlation between Age, Gender, Waist-Hip Ratio and Intra Ocular Pressure in Adult North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Manjhi, Prafulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular pressure (IOP) is affected by various systemic and local factors. The significance of studying the factors affecting IOP is because of its association with potentially blinding condition known as glaucoma. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to find out the correlation between gender, age, Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and IOP. Materials and Methods The study included 300 healthy individuals between 40-79years of age. The subjects were divided into 2 categories according to gender i.e., male and female. The subjects were divided into 4 categories according to age i.e., 40-49years, 50-59years, 60-69years and 70-79years. The subjects were divided into two groups according to Waist-hip ratio (WHR) as per WHO guidelines: WHR <0.9 and WHR >0.9 in males and WHR <0.85 and WHR >0.85 in females. IOP was recorded in each group using Goldmann Applanation tonometer and statistical comparisons were made to find correlation between gender, age, Waist-hip ratio and IOP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between IOP of males and females (p=0.235). The age and IOP were positively correlated with each other i.e., IOP increases with increasing age (r=0.511, p<0.001). Higher WHR is associated with significantly higher IOP in both the genders (males r =0.644, p<0.001; females r=0.794, p<0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in IOP amongst males and females. Increasing age and higher WHR are risk factors for raised IOP. PMID:28208848

  15. Damage type and strain mode associations in human compact bone bending fatigue.

    PubMed

    Boyce, T M; Fyhrie, D P; Glotkowski, M C; Radin, E L; Schaffler, M B

    1998-05-01

    When compact bone is subjected to fatigue loading, it develops matrix microdamage, which reduces the tissue's ability to resist fracture. The relative influence of different strain modes on damage and strength in compact bone has not been characterized, to our knowledge. In this study, the nonuniform strain field produced by four-point bending was used to introduce fatigue damage into tibial bending beam specimens from men 40-49 years old. The specimens were then bulk-stained with basic fuchsin to mark damage surfaces and were examined histologically and with confocal microscopy to describe damage morphologies and position relative to tension and compression-strained regions of the specimen. Histomorphometric methods were used to quantify the amounts of different types of bone microdamage. Three major types were observed. In regions subjected to tensile strains, the bone had focal regions of diffusely increased basic fuchsin staining (i.e., diffuse microdamage). Confocal microscopy of these regions showed them to be composed of extensive networks of fine, ultrastructural-level cracks. In compressive strain regions, the tissue developed linear microcracks in interstitial areas similar to those originally described by Frost. Fine, tearing-type (wispy-appearing) cracks were observed near and in the plane of the neutral axis. The paths of these fine cracks were not influenced by microstructural boundaries. Other minor damage morphologies (sector-stained osteons, delamination of regions of lamellae, and intraosteonal cracking) were observed, but their distribution was unrelated to local strain field. Thus. in fatigue of human compact bone, the principal mechanisms of matrix failure (i.e., linear microcrack, diffuse damage foci, and tearing-type damage) are strongly dependent on local strain type.

  16. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  17. Autoimmune diseases and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Komrokji, Rami S; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Al Ali, Najla H; Kordasti, Shahram; Bart-Smith, Emily; Craig, Benjamin M; Padron, Eric; Zhang, Ling; Lancet, Jeffrey E; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; List, Alan F; Mufti, Ghulam J; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K

    2016-05-01

    Immune dysregulation and altered T-cell hemostasis play important roles in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Recent studies suggest an increased risk of MDS among patients with autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigated the prevalence of autoimmune diseases among MDS patients, comparing characteristics and outcomes in those with and without autoimmune diseases. From our study group of 1408 MDS patients, 391 (28%) had autoimmune disease, with hypothyroidism being the most common type, accounting for 44% (n = 171) of patients (12% among all MDS patients analyzed). Other autoimmune diseases with ≥5% prevalence included idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 12% (n = 46), rheumatoid arthritis in 10% (n = 41), and psoriasis in 7% (n = 28) of patients. Autoimmune diseases were more common in female MDS patients, those with RA or RCMD WHO subtype, and those who were less dependent on red blood cell transfusion. Median overall survival (OS) was 60 months (95% CI, 50-70) for patients with autoimmune diseases versus 45 months (95% CI, 40-49) for those without (log-rank test, P = 0.006). By multivariate analysis adjusting for revised IPSS and age >60 years, autoimmune diseases were a statistically significant independent factor for OS (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92; P = 0.004). The rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation was 23% (n = 89) in MDS patients with autoimmune disease versus 30% (n = 301) in those without (P = 0.011). Patient groups did not differ in response to azacitidine or lenalidomide treatment. Autoimmune diseases are prevalent among MDS patients. MDS patients with autoimmune diseases have better OS and less AML transformation.

  18. Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness and Blood Pressure Control in Matao, Brazil: A Pilot Study in Partnership With the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Program

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Cesar; Borin, Lucileni Aparecida; Trovo, Mayra de Cassia; dos Reis, Geraldo Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Background Around 30% of Brazilian population is hypertensive. Brazilian’s Family Health Strategy (FHS) is a community-based approach to provide primary health care and control chronic disease as hypertension. The aims of this pilot study were to study hypertension prevalence and awareness and to analyze the feasibility of FHS program with community healthy agents (CHA) to collect data about hypertensive subjects in Matao, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in subjects equal or older than 40 years old in a neighborhood belonging to FHS program. CHA were trained to collect data and to assess blood pressure (BP) with an automated device. Hypertension diagnosis was defined if systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or subject had previous use of hypertensive drug. Chi-square test and univariate logistic regression analysis were applied with significance level of 5% and a confidence interval of 95%. Results In 625 subjects, hypertension prevalence was 68.8% and women (71.9%) were more hypertensive than men (63.2%) (P = 0.02). Prevalence of hypertension increased with age group, from 46.3% (40 - 49 years) to 82.5% (70 - 79 years) (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of pre-hypertension was 40.1%: stage 1, 25.7% and stage 2, 17.0%. Hypertension awareness was 81.8% and 79.8% reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs. BP was not controlled in 61.8% and 67.7% of them was using anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA reported no difficulties to collect data and BP assessment with the automated device. Conclusion We observed a high hypertension prevalence rate, awareness, and subjects with uncontrolled hypertension even with use of anti-hypertensive drugs. CHA from FHS program are a feasible option to BP control in future studies involving larger populations. PMID:27298661

  19. A Dynamical Origin Of The Leading/trailing Asymmetry In Jupiter's Trojan Swarms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, David P.

    2012-10-01

    The cataloged population of Jupiter Trojans has long shown a puzzling asymmetry between the leading (L4) and trailing (L5) swarms down to the smallest observable sizes. Estimates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) place the leading/trailing ratio at 1.6 ± 0.1 [1], survey observations with the Subaru telescope give a leading/trailing ratio of around 1.8 [2], and most recently, estimates from the WISE mission give a leading/trailing ratio of 1.4 ± 0.2 [3]. Current models for Trojan capture [eg. 4] predict that the two swarms should begin with roughly equal numbers of bodies, and there is no inherent difference in stability between the leading and trailing swarms in the three-body problem. However, several researchers have proposed that when Saturn is included in the dynamics, the trailing swarm might be less stable than the leading swarm [5-8], and this difference may be able to explain the asymmetry. Here we test that hypothesis with long-term orbital integrations using a wider range of initial conditions than explored by those authors. References: [1] Szabo, G. M. et al., MNRAS 377, 1393-1406 (2007). [2] Nakamura, T. and Yoshida, F., PASJ 60, 293-296 (2008). [3] Grav, T. et al., ApJ 742, 40-49 (2011). [4] Morbidelli, A. et al., Nature 435, 462-465 (2005). [5] Pal, A. and Suli, A., Publications of the Astronomy Department of the Eotvos University (PADEU) 14, 285-292 (2004). [6] Schwarz, R. et al., CMDA 90, 139-148 (2004). [7] Dvorak, R. and Schwarz, R., CMDA 92, 19-28 (2005). [8] Freistetter, F., A&A 453, 353-361 (2006).

  20. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  1. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  2. Prevalence of nutritional deficiency in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Silvana Gomes Nunes; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Barreto, Florisneide Rodrigues; Pereira, Susan Martins

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nutritional deficiency among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and from the medical records of patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (15-59 years of age) residing in one of the municipalities that make up the 16th Regional Health District of the state of Bahia. We calculated the incidence, lethality, and mortality rates, as well as the prevalence of nutritional deficiency, as evaluated by body mass index. Demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiological data were collected. RESULTS: Of the 72 confirmed cases of tuberculosis, 59 (81.9%) were in males, and 21 (29.2%) of the patients were in the 40-49 year age bracket. The majority (85.3%) described themselves as Mulatto or Black; 55.2% reported using alcohol; and approximately 90% were treated as outpatients. In the district and age bracket studied, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 30.6/100,000 population. Among the 72 patients, data regarding nutritional status was available for 34. Of those, 50% and 25%, respectively, presented nutritional deficiency at the beginning and at the end of treatment. No statistically significant differences were found between normal-weight and malnourished patients regarding the characteristics studied. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of nutritional deficiency was high among our sample of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. This underscores the importance of nutritional follow-up for the assessment of tuberculosis treatment in the decision-making process regarding therapeutic interventions. PMID:24068270

  3. Health care and social media platforms in hospitals.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Michele L; Armbruster, Shannon D; Chung, Jae Eun; Kim, Junghyun; McKenzie, Alissa; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate user characteristics of a hospital's social media structure using analytics and user surveys. A 1-year retrospective analysis was conducted along with an Internet survey of users of the hospital's Facebook, Twitter, and blog. Of the survey respondents (n = 163), 95.7% are female and 4.3% are male; most are ages 50-59 years (31.5%) and 40-49 years (27.8%); and 93.2% are Caucasian. However, the hospital system database revealed 55% female and 37% minority population, respectively. Of the survey respondents, 61.4% reported having a bachelor's degree or higher, whereas only 11.7% reported having a high school degree/equivalent or lower. However, within the hospital patient databases, 93% of patients have a high school degree/equivalent or lower and only 3% have a bachelor's degree or higher in our women's services population. Social media were used to seek personal health information 68.7% (n = 112), to learn about hospital programming 27.6% (n = 45), and to seek family health information 25.2% (n = 41). Respondents younger than 49 years of age were more likely to seek personal health information using social media compared to those 50 years of age and older (p = .02). Respondents with a bachelor's degree or higher education were statistically less likely to search for physician information compared to those less educated individuals (p = .04). We conclude that social media may play an important role in personal health information, especially for young female respondents; however, the survey provides strong evidence that further research is needed to ensure that social network sites provided by hospitals are reaching the full spectrum of health system patients.

  4. Immediate and Persistent Effects of Salvinorin A on the Kappa Opioid Receptor in Rodents, Monitored In Vivo with PET.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Michael S; Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Lukas, Scott E; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring changes in opioid receptor binding with positron emission tomography (PET) could lead to a better understanding of tolerance and addiction because altered opioid receptor dynamics following agonist exposure has been linked to tolerance mechanisms. We have studied changes in kappa opioid receptor (KOR) binding availability in vivo with PET following kappa opioid agonist administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were anesthetized and treated with the (KOR) agonist salvinorin A (0.01-1.8 mg/kg, i.v.) before administration of the KOR selective radiotracer [(11)C]GR103545. When salvinorin A was administered 1 min prior to injection of the radiotracer, [(11)C]GR103545 binding potential (BPND) was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating receptor binding competition. In addition, the unique pharmacokinetics of salvinorin A (half-life ~8 min in non-human primates) allowed us to study the residual impact on KOR after the drug had eliminated from the brain. Salvinorin A was administered up to 5 h prior to [(11)C]GR103545, and the changes in BPND were compared with baseline, 2.5 h, 1 h, and 1 min pretreatment times. At lower doses (0.18 mg/kg and 0.32 mg/kg) we observed no prolonged effect on KOR binding but at 0.60 mg/kg salvinorin A induced a sustained decrease in KOR binding (BPND decreased by 40-49%) which persisted up to 2.5 h post administration, long after salvinorin A had been eliminated from the brain. These data point towards an agonist-induced adaptive response by KOR, the dynamics of which have not been previously studied in vivo with PET.

  5. Profile of a drunk driver and risk factors for drunk driving. Findings in roadside testing in the province of Uusimaa in Finland 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Rajalin, S; Eriksson, C J P; Gunnar, T; Koskimaa, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to define the profile of a drunk driver and to determine risk factors for drunk driving by analyzing data on both sober and drunk drivers. Systematic roadside surveys have been carried out in Southern Finland for over 18 years, with 20,000-30,000 drivers breath tested annually. During the study period, 1241 drunk drivers were caught (legal blood alcohol limit 0.50‰). The comparison material consisted of 3407 sober drivers. The surveys were designed to further investigate demographic features and driving habits of drivers. The prevalence of drunk driving has been 0.2% over the time period, with only random variations. According to the data, a typical drunk driver is a man aged 40-49 who has a valid driving license and drives his own car, usually alone, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.0‰. He has a job and is married or cohabiting. The profile remained consistent throughout the study period. The risk of drunk driving was found to be five times higher for men than for women. Divorcees and widow(er)s had a substantially higher risk factor for being caught drunk driving than married drivers. Drunk drivers are most likely to be caught by roadside testing on Saturday mornings. During the study period the blood alcohol limit for aggravated drunk driving was lowered in 1994 from 1.5 to 1.2‰. In 2004 the taxation of alcohol beverages was reduced by 30%. Neither of these measures affected the prevalence of drunk driving or the mean BAC of drunk drivers (p=0.63).

  6. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  7. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy with Morcellation: Should it stay or should it go?1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jubilee; Taylor, Kristal; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Sun, Charlotte; Holman, Laura L.; Cone, S. Mark; Irwin, John; Frumovitz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the risk of unidentified neoplasia and subsequent adverse outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) with morcellation. Methods This was a retrospective review of all consecutive women who had undergone laparoscopic SCH at a single institution between January 2002 and December 2008. We abstracted charts for patient characteristics and outcomes. Results We identified 808 women with planned laparoscopic SCH with morcellation. The median age was 44.1 years (range, 23.4-79.8 years). The most common indications were menorrhagia (n=472 patients, 58.4%) and leiomyomata (n=400 patients, 49.5%). Of the 30 patients converted to an open procedure prior to morcellation, one had leiomyosarcoma on final pathology. Of the 778 patients who completed laparoscopic SCH with morcellation, 16 (2.0%) patients had endometrial hyperplasia and 3 (0.4%) patients had cancer on final pathology. Abnormal pathology appeared more likely in women over 50 years of age with abnormal bleeding. Of the 778 patients, 189 were under 40 years of age, and 4 (2.1%) of these 189 women had hyperplasia on final pathology; none had cancer. Of the 433 patients age 40-49 years, 8 (1.8%) patients had hyperplasia or cancer. Of the 156 patients age 50 years or older, 7 (4.5%) had hyperplasia (P=.18); none had cancer. No patient with hyperplasia or morcellated cancer had adverse sequelae after a median follow-up of 90.4 months.. Conclusion In this cohort of patients who underwent laparoscopic SCH, the risk of hyperplasia or malignancy was low. Laparoscopic SCH with morcellation appears to be a low risk procedure. PMID:25242233

  8. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Veierød, Marit B; Couto, Elisabeth; Lund, Eiliv; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-07-15

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but the association with risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is unclear. Cohort studies of SCC risk are rare and we aimed to assess the association between SCC risk and host characteristics, sun exposure, and indoor tanning in a population-based cohort of Norwegian and Swedish women conjunctly with SCC incidence data from national cancer registries. Host characteristics and exposure to sun and indoor tanning devices before 50-years old were recorded by questionnaire at inclusion (30-50 years) in 1991/92. Multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression. During follow-up of 106,548 women through December 2009, SCC was diagnosed in 141 women. Skin sensitivity to acute sun exposure was the most important pigmentation characteristic (RR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.47-5.05, for red with pain/red with pain and blisters versus brown). We found no consistent associations with sunburns and bathing vacations in the first five age decades, but a significant positive trend for bathing vacations summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.02). We also found significantly increased risks of SCC following indoor tanning at age 40-49 years (RR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.29-3.67, for ≥ 1 time/month versus never) and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years (Ptrend  = 0.001). RR for ever versus never use of indoor tanning over ages 10-49 years was 1.93 (95% CI 1.27-2.95). Propensity to burn was an important host characteristic, and bathing vacations and indoor tanning summarized over ages 10-49 years increased SCC risk.

  9. Clinicopathological features of familial adenomatous polyposis in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Min; Yoon, Yong Sik; Lim, Seok-Byeong; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify prognostic factors and to correlate APC mutations with clinical features, including extracolic manifestations. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five patients who underwent surgical procedures for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were included. FAP was diagnosed when the number of adenomatous polyps was > 100. Data related to patient, extracoloic manifestations, cancer characteristics, operative procedure, follow up and surveillance were collected. APC mutation testing was performed in the 30 most recent patients. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and polymerase chain reaction products using 31 primer pairs on APC gene were sequenced. A retrospective study was performed to investigate a causal relationship between prognosis and feature of patient. RESULTS: The mean age of the 51 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) was older than that of those without CRC (30.5 vs 36.9, P = 0.002). Older individuals were more likely to have colon cancer at the time of FAP diagnosis [odds ratio, 4.75 (95%CI: 1.71-13.89) and 5.91(1.76-22.12) for 40-49 years and age > 50 vs age < 30). The number of confirmed deaths was 13 and the median age at death was 40 years (range, 27 to 85 years). Ten of the deaths (76.9%) were from CRC. Another cause of two cases of death were desmoid tumors (15.4%). Development of cancer on remnant rectal or ileal mucosa after surgery was not observed. The APC mutation testing revealed 23 pathogenic mutations and one likely pathogenic mutation, among which were four novel mutations. The correlation between mutational status and clinical manifestations was investigated. Mutations that could prodict poor prognosis were at codon 1309 which located on mutation cluster region, codon 1465 and codon 1507. CONCLUSION: Identification of APC mutations should aid in the diagnosis and counseling of family members in terms of early diagnosis and management of FAP. PMID:27158207

  10. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, P<0·04). Equol-producers had significantly lower CAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  11. At what age should screening mammography be recommended for Asian women?

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Junko; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Rashid, Omar M; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-07-01

    Although regular screening mammography has been suggested to be associated with improvements in the relative survival of breast cancer in recent years, the appropriate age to start screening mammography remains controversial. In November 2009, the United States Preventive Service Task Force published updated guidelines for breast cancer, which no longer support routine screening mammography for women aged 40-49 years, but instead, defer the choice of screening in that age group to the patient and physician. The age to begin screening differs between guidelines, including those from the Task Force, the American Cancer Society and the World Health Organization. It remains unclear how this discrepancy impacts patient survival, especially among certain subpopulations. Although the biological characteristics of breast cancer and peak age of incidence differ among different ethnic populations, there have been few reports that evaluate the starting age for screening mammography based on ethnicity. Here, we discuss the benefits and harm of screening mammography in the fifth decade, and re-evaluate the starting age for screening mammography taking ethnicity into account, focusing on the Asian population. Breast cancer incidence peaked in the fifth decade in Asian women, which has been thought to be due to a combination of biological and environmental factors. Previous reports suggest that Asian women in their 40s may receive more benefit and less harm from screening mammography than the age-matched non-Asian US population. Therefore, starting screening mammography at age 40 may be beneficial for women of Asian ethnicity in well-resourced countries, such as Japanese women who reside in Japan.

  12. Association between Helicobacter pylori and end-stage renal disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Thongprayoon, Charat; Nissaisorakarn, Pitchaphon; Lekuthai, Natasorn; Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Nakkala, Kiran; Rajapakse, Ridhmi; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence and association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS SA comprehensive literature search was completed from inception until October 2016. Studies that reported prevalence, relative risks, odd ratios, hazard ratios or standardized incidence ratio of H. pylori among ESRD patients were included. Participants without H. pylori were used as comparators to assess the association between H. pylori infection and ESRD. Pooled risk ratios and 95%CI was calculated using a random-effect model. Adjusted point estimates from each study were combined by the generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. RESULTS Of 4546 relevant studies, thirty-seven observational studies met all inclusion criteria. Thirty-five cross-sectional studies were included in the analyses to assess the prevalence and association of H. pylori with ESRD. The estimated prevalence of H. pylori among ESRD patients was 44% (95%CI: 40%-49%). The pooled RR of H. pylori in patients with ESRD was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.59-1.00) when compared with the patients without ESRD. Subgroup analysis showed significantly reduced risk of H. pylori in adult ESRD patients with pooled RR of 0.71 (95%CI: 0.55-0.94). The data on the risk of ESRD in patients with H. pylori were limited. Two cohort studies were included to assess the risk of ESRD in patients with H. pylori. The pooled risk RR of ESRD in patients with H. pylori was 0.61 (95%CI: 0.03-12.20). CONCLUSION The estimated prevalence of H. pylori in ESRD patients is 44%. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a decreased risk of H. pylori in adult ESRD patients. PMID:28293097

  13. Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    PubMed

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-08-01

    The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders.

  14. Moessbauer Mineralogy of Rock, Soil, and Dust at Gusev Crater, Mars: Spirit's Journey through Weakly Altered Olivine Basalt on the Plains and Pervasively Altered Basalt in the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Schroeder, C.; Rodionov, D. S.; Yen, A.; Ming, D. W.; deSouza, P. A., Jr.; Fleischer, I.; Wdowiak, T.; Gellert, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Evlanov, E. N.; Zubkov, B.; Foh, J.; Bonnes, U.; Kankeleit, E.; Guetlich, P.; Renz, F.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectrometer on Spirit measured the oxidation state of Fe, identified Fe-bearing phases, and measured relative abundances of Fe among those phases for surface materials on the plains and in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Eight Fe-bearing phases were identified: olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), hematite, goethite, and a Fe(3+)-sulfate. Adirondack basaltic rocks on the plains are nearly unaltered (Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T)<0.2) with Fe from olivine, pyroxene (Ol>Px), and minor npOx and magnetite. Columbia Hills basaltic rocks are nearly unaltered (Peace and Backstay), moderately altered (WoolyPatch, Wishstone, and Keystone), and pervasively altered (e.g., Clovis, Uchben, Watchtower, Keel, and Paros with Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) approx.0.6-0.9). Fe from pyroxene is greater than Fe from olivine (Ol sometimes absent), and Fe(2+) from Ol+Px is 40-49% and 9-24% for moderately and pervasively altered materials, respectively. Ilmenite (Fe from Ilm approx.3-6%) is present in Backstay, Wishstone, Keystone, and related rocks along with magnetite (Fe from Mt approx. 10-15%). Remaining Fe is present as npOx, hematite, and goethite in variable proportions. Clovis has the highest goethite content (Fe from Gt=40%). Goethite (alpha-FeOOH) is mineralogical evidence for aqueous processes because it has structural hydroxide and is formed under aqueous conditions. Relatively unaltered basaltic soils (Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) approx. 0.3) occur throughout Gusev crater (approx. 60-80% Fe from Ol+Px, approx. 10-30% from npOx, and approx. 10% from Mt). PasoRobles soil in the Columbia Hills has a unique occurrence of high concentrations of Fe(3+)-sulfate (approx. 65% of Fe). Magnetite is identified as a strongly magnetic phase in Martian soil and dust.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of digital mammography screening before the age of 50 in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sankatsing, Valérie D V; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; van Luijt, Paula A; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Fracheboud, Jacques; de Koning, Harry J

    2015-10-15

    In the Netherlands, routine mammography screening starts at age 50. This starting age may have to be reconsidered because of the increasing breast cancer incidence among women aged 40 to 49 and the recent implementation of digital mammography. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of digital mammography screening that starts between age 40 and 49, using a microsimulation model. Women were screened before age 50, in addition to the current programme (biennial 50-74). Screening strategies varied in starting age (between 40 and 50) and frequency (annual or biennial). The numbers of breast cancers diagnosed, life-years gained (LYG) and breast cancer deaths averted were predicted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated to compare screening scenarios. Biennial screening from age 50 to 74 (current strategy) was estimated to gain 157 life years per 1,000 women with lifelong follow-up, compared to a situation without screening, and cost €3,376/LYG (3.5% discounted). Additional screening increased the number of LYG, compared to no screening, ranging from 168 to 242. The costs to generate one additional LYG (i.e., ICER), comparing a screening strategy to the less intensive alternative, were estimated at €5,329 (biennial 48-74 vs. current strategy), €7,628 (biennial 45-74 vs. biennial 48-74), €10,826 (biennial 40-74 vs. biennial 45-74) and €18,759 (annual 40-49 + biennial 50-74 vs. biennial 40-74). Other strategies (49 + biennial 50-74 and annual 45-49 + biennial 50-74) resulted in less favourable ICERs. These findings show that extending the Dutch screening programme by screening between age 40 and 49 is cost-effective, particularly for biennial strategies.

  16. Effect of age on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) and comparison of screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated serum aldosterone concentration for primary aldosteronism screening in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoshu; Zhang, Shaoling; Yan, Li; Wu, Muchao; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on ARR and compare the screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC for PA screening in different age groups. Thirty-nine patients with PA, 274 patients with EH, and 153 healthy volunteers were recruited. Blood was sampled for SAC and PRA measuring under keeping upright posture for 1 h. Levels of SAC, PRA, and ARR were compared at different ages range for the respective three groups of subjects. The screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC was compared in different age groups and PA patients served as the same positive subjects. In the EH group, logarithmically transformed ARR (Log-ARR) increased with advancing age and reached its peak in the ≥ 60 years group; in the normotensives group, Log-ARR reached its peak in the 40-49 years group and slightly declined with advancing age. In the PA group, Log-ARR was not age dependent. Screening accuracy increased when combined index of ARR and SAC was used in the ≥ 40 years group but not in the <40 years group. Although the number of EH patients with elevated ARR increased with advancing age, but the screening accuracy and cutoff values of ARR were not affected by age. Using the combined index of ARR and SAC increased the screening accuracy for the patients older than 40 years, but not necessary for the patients younger than 40 years.

  17. Assessment of an intervention aimed at early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy in a Brazilian University hospital.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Gislaine Ferraresi; Fontes, Astrídia Marília de Souza; Jorge, Miguel Tanús; Silveira, Alexandre Barcelos Morais da

    2016-01-01

    Many interventions demonstrate success in adapting the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, but few studies have been conducted in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in the induction of early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy and/or its switch to oral therapy. The study employed a before-after intervention design that consisted of displaying a message in the computerized prescription on the third day and suspension of the prescription on the fifth day of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A total of 465 patients were followed during the control period (CP) and 440 in the intervention period (IP). The intravenous therapy was switched to oral therapy for 11 (2.4%) patients during the CP and 25 (5.7%) in the IP (p=0.011), and was discontinued for 82 (17.6%) patients during the CP and 106 (24.1%) in the IP (p=0.017). During the IP there was a significant increase of patients who had their antimicrobial treatment discontinued before the seventh day of intravenous treatment, 37.40% (49/131) in the IP and 16.13% (15/93) in the CP (p=0.0005). The duration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy decreased by one day, but it was not significant (p=0.136). It is concluded that the proposed intervention is effective in promoting the early discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment and/or switch to oral therapy. As long as a computerized system for prescription already exists, it is easy and inexpensive to be implemented, especially in hospitals in developing countries.

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Expression in Canine Liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avallone, G; Pellegrino, V; Roccabianca, P; Lepri, E; Crippa, L; Beha, G; De Tolla, L; Sarli, G

    2017-03-01

    The expression of tyrosine kinase receptors is attracting major interest in human and veterinary oncological pathology because of their role as targets for adjuvant therapies. Little is known about tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression in canine liposarcoma (LP), a soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the TKRs fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ); their ligands, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB); and c-kit in canine LP. Immunohistochemical labeling was categorized as high or low expression and compared with the mitotic count and MIB-1-based proliferation index. Fifty canine LPs were examined, classified, and graded. Fourteen cases were classified as well differentiated, 7 as myxoid, 25 as pleomorphic, and 4 as dedifferentiated. Seventeen cases were grade 1, 26 were grade 2, and 7 were grade 3. A high expression of FGF2, FGFR1, PDGFB, and PDGFRβ was identified in 62% (31/50), 68% (34/50), 81.6% (40/49), and 70.8% (34/48) of the cases, respectively. c-kit was expressed in 12.5% (6/48) of the cases. Mitotic count negatively correlated with FGF2 ( R = -0.41; P < .01), being lower in cases with high FGF2 expression, and positively correlated with PDGFRβ ( R = 0.33; P < .01), being higher in cases with high PDGFRβ expression. No other statistically significant correlations were identified. These results suggest that the PDGFRβ-mediated pathway may have a role in the progression of canine LP and may thus represent a promising target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  19. Cortactin and focal adhesion kinase as predictors of cancer risk in patients with laryngeal premalignancy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Álvarez-Alija, Gustavo; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Mancebo, Gonzalo; Allonca, Eva; García-Carracedo, Darío; Fresno, Manuel Florentino; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana María

    2011-08-01

    Novel markers are needed to accurately predict the risk of malignant transformation in laryngeal premalignancies. We therefore investigated the clinical significance of cortactin (CTTN) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) during laryngeal tumorigenesis and their potential utility as cancer risk markers. CTTN and FAK protein expression and gene amplification were assessed in 82 patients with laryngeal dysplasia and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and laryngeal cancer risk. Increased CTTN and FAK expression was found respectively in 41 (50%) and 40 (49%) of 82 laryngeal dysplasias; protein expression was maintained or further augmented in the corresponding patient-matched invasive tumors subsequently developed. CTTN and FAK/PTK2 gene amplifications were respectively detected in 10 (12%) and 26 (32%) laryngeal dysplasias. Both CTTN and FAK protein expression increased with the grade of dysplasia; however, CTTN and FAK expression but not histology correlated significantly with increased laryngeal cancer risk (P = 0.009 and P = 0.002, respectively). Patients carrying strong CTTN- or FAK-expressing dysplastic lesions experienced a significantly higher cancer incidence (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively; log-rank test). Furthermore, FAK expression was an independent predictor of laryngeal cancer development (HR = 3.706, 95% CI: 1.735-7.916; P = 0.001) and the combination of FAK and CTTN showed superior predictive value (HR = 5.042, 95% CI: 2.255-11.274; P < 0.001). Taken together, our findings support the involvement of CTTN and FAK in malignant transformation and provide original evidence for their potential clinical utility as biomarkers for the risk of developing laryngeal cancer.

  20. Psychostimulant-Related Deaths as Reported by a Large National Database

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Susan; Binswanger, Ingrid A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increased methamphetamine use occurred during the last decade and little is known about factors associated with death. Objective This study assesses trends in psychostimulant deaths in the United States. Methods Using the CDC Wonder Database we reviewed all deaths among 15-64 year olds from 1999 to 2009. We identified decedents who died with “psychostimulants with abuse potential, excluding cocaine” using the ICD code T43.6 to identify methamphetamine-related deaths. We determined trends in death rates and the most common underlying causes of death. We calculated age-stratified and age-adjusted death rates/100,000 person-years (p-y) and (95% confidence interval [CI]) among those who died with psychostimulants from 2005 to 2009. Results The rate of psychostimulant-related deaths increased three fold from 1999 (0.37/100,000 (p-y) (95% CI 0.354-0.39) to 2005 (1.05/100,000 p-y (95% CI 1.01-1.10). Deaths steadily declined from 2006 to 2008, but rose again in 2009 to 0.97/100,000 p-y (95% CI 0.92-1.01). Across all age groups, men had a 2-3 times higher rate of death than women. American Indians/Alaska Natives were twice as likely to die a psychostimulant-related death as compared to non-Hispanic whites. The Northwestern/Western region of the US had the highest rates of psychostimulant-related deaths, while the Northeastern region had the lowest death rates. “Accidental poisonings” (ICD-10: X40-49) was the most frequently listed cause of death among those who died with psychostimulants. Conclusions Psychostimulant related deaths declined from 2006 to 2008 but are rebounding. Interventions targeting those at highest risk of death must be implemented and studied to prevent increasing deaths. PMID:23577906

  1. Low-serum GTA-446 anti-inflammatory fatty acid levels as a new risk factor for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Shawn A; Tonita, Jon; Alvi, Riaz; Lehotay, Denis; Elshoni, Hoda; Myat, Su-; McHattie, James; Goodenowe, Dayan B

    2013-01-15

    Gastrointestinal tract acid-446 (GTA-446) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the serum. A reduction of GTA-446 levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients has been reported previously. Our study compared GTA-446 levels in subjects diagnosed with CRC at the time of colonoscopy to the general population. Serum samples and pathology data were collected from 4,923 representative subjects undergoing colonoscopy and from 964 subjects from the general population. Serum GTA-446 levels were determined using a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method. A low-serum GTA-446 level was based on the bottom tenth percentile of subjects with low risk based on age (40-49 years old) in the general population. Eighty-six percent of newly diagnosed CRC subjects (87% for stages 0-II and 85% for stages III-IV) showed low-serum GTA-446 levels. A significant increase in the CRC incidence rate with age was observed in subjects with low GTA-446 levels (p = 0.019), but not in subjects with normal levels (p = 0.86). The relative risk of CRC given a low GTA-446 level was the highest for subjects under age 50 (10.1, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 6.4-16.4 in the reference population, and 7.7, 95% C.I. = 4.4-14.1 in the colonoscopy population, both p < 0.0001), and declined with age thereafter. The CRC incidence rate in subjects undergoing colonoscopy with low GTA-446 levels was over six times higher than for subjects with normal GTA-446 levels and twice that of subjects with gastrointestinal symptoms. The results show that a low-serum GTA-446 level is a significant risk factor for CRC, and a sensitive predictor of early-stage disease.

  2. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  3. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa from wild-born Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and influence of glycerol on cryosurvival.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Howard, Jogayle; Dickman, Amy J; Marker, Laurie; Wildt, David E

    2006-04-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a valuable tool for the genetic management of ex situ populations. This study was conducted to assess: (1) semen characteristics of wild-born cheetahs; and (2) the impact of three types of glycerol influence (duration of exposure, temperature, and method of addition) on sperm cryosensitivity. To evaluate the impact of duration of glycerol exposure, spermatozoa were incubated in Test Yolk Buffer (TYB) with 4% glycerol at ambient temperature (approximately 22 degrees C) for 15 vs. 60 min before cryopreservation. To evaluate the influence of temperature and method of glycerol addition, spermatozoa were resuspended at ambient temperature either in TYB with 0% glycerol followed by addition of 8% glycerol (1:1 v/v; at ambient temperature vs. 5 degrees C) or directly in TYB with 4% glycerol. All samples were cryopreserved in straws over liquid nitrogen vapor and evaluated for sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after thawing. Semen samples (n = 23; n = 13 males) contained a high proportion (78%) of pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Ejaculates also contained a high proportion of acrosome-intact (86%) and motile spermatozoa (78%). Immediately after thawing, a significant proportion of spermatozoa retained intact acrosomes (range, 48-67%) and motility (range, 40-49%). After thawing, incubation in glycerol for 60 min at ambient temperature before freezing decreased (p < 0.05) sperm motility and acrosomal integrity at one time-point each (pre-centrifugation and post-centrifugation, respectively). However, method or temperature of glycerol addition had no (p > 0.05) impact on sperm cryosurvival. In summary, (1) wild-born cheetahs produce high proportions of pleiomorphic spermatozoa but with a high proportion of intact acrosomes; and (2) resuspension in 4% glycerol, followed by exposure for up to 60 min at ambient temperature, had minimal effect on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after cryopreservation. Results indicate the feasibility of

  4. Intrinsic factors, adrenal gland morphology, and disease burden in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gillis-Germitsch, Nina; Vybiral, Pamela-Rose; Codron, Daryl; Clauss, Marcus; Kotze, Antoinette; Mitchell, Emily P

    2017-01-01

    Adrenal gland weight (AW) and corticomedullary ratio (ACMR) are used as indicators of stress in animals. Captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) have higher ACMRs than free-ranging ones and stress has been linked to gastritis, amyloidosis, glomerulosclerosis, and myocardial fibrosis. We reviewed age, sex, body weight (BW), kidney weight (KW), and left AW and ACMR with necropsy findings in 51 South African captive cheetahs. Eleven common histopathologic lesions were counted for each animal as measure of its disease burden. Adrenal corticomedullary hyperplasia was significantly correlated with left AW and ACMR. Males had significantly higher AWs than females; other parameters showed no difference between the sexes. Disease burden, gastritis, and myocardial fibrosis were moderately correlated with adrenal morphology supporting prior evidence that gastritis and myocardial fibrosis are linked to stress. Glomerulosclerosis was not correlated with adrenal morphology and neither kidney nor liver amyloidosis contributed significantly to variation in AW or ACMR on multivariate analyses. Interstitial nephritis showed much stronger correlations with kidney and liver amyloidosis than gastritis. All three adrenal parameters were correlated with age; age was the only significant variable affecting ACMR on the multivariate analyses; and disease burden as well as systemic amyloidosis and kidney disease (except for fibrosis) showed moderate correlations with age. Age may, therefore, be important in the pathogenesis of disease in captive cheetahs, particularly of amyloidosis and kidney disease. None of the intrinsic measurements or adrenal parameters were sufficiently closely linked to disease to be used as ante-mortem proxies for disease burden or specific diseases. Zoo Biol. 36:40-49, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Disease severity at the first hospitalization as a predictor for mechanical ventilation dependency in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuang-Ming; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Li, Chung-Yi; Yang, Yea-Huei Kao

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are predisposed to respiratory failure with ventilator dependency. This study aims to determine the risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), defined as 22 days or more of mechanical ventilation dependency after the first day of hospital admission (index date) in patients diagnosed with COPD. A retrospective cohort was conducted using medical claim data of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Eligible study subjects were those who had a diagnosis of COPD made between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. Patients were then followed until being registered as a PMV case, death, or the end of the study. The comorbidities were measured from January 1, 1997 to the index date by the ICD-9 code. The study sample consisted of 6,341 patients with COPD with a mean age of 73.89 (± 12.01) years. Over a maximum of 6 years of follow-up, 654 patients developed PMV dependency, with an incidence density of 41.56 per 1,000 person-years. Patients aged 70 years and older were at significantly increased risk for PMV dependency, compared to those aged 40-49 years after adjusting for confounders. Expenses per visit and hospital visits per year, representing the severity of the COPD, were also associated with an elevated risk of PMV. Most patients developed PMV dependency within the first two years after the index date. Physicians should be aware that elderly patients with COPD have a high risk of PMV after first hospitalization, and these patients need to be closely monitored.

  6. China fulfills 1991 population plan.

    PubMed

    Peng, P

    1992-06-01

    Minister Peng of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission of China's remarks are summarized. A major new achievement in 1991 was the meeting of population targets in FP. The birth rate for 1991 was 19.68/1000, which was lower than the 1991 target by .118%. The rate of natural increase was 12.98/1000, which was also lower. 1991 marks the lowest population increase in 6 years. Even though those 20-29 years and those at peak childbearing years increased over 1990, the rate of natural increase still declined by .1%. The decline is attributed to the strengthening of all Party leadership over FP; to more widespread publicity and education on FP and acceptance; more conscientious contraception, including permanent methods, and effective FP research; and strengthening of grassroots level FP. 1992 is the year of the 3rd baby boom peak since 1949. 318.9 million will be of childbearing age in 1992, which is an increase of 4.1 million; 13.25 million will be those at the peak age (23 years); 123.7 million will be fecund ages (20-29 years). Continued work is required in strengthening FP, in improving management of population and FP targets, in extensive and penetrating publicity on FP, on consistent and focused FP policy implementation, on increasing input for FP programs, and on pooling government and society's resources for administration of the population problem. Conscientious FP means responsibility and urgency in implementation, FP as a priority, and active FP effort. Earnest FP means using "down to earth" grassroots implementation which is painstaking and meticulous. Persistent FP means unremitting effort in a longterm struggle in controlling population growth. The quality of statistics needs to be improved as well as better criteria for assessment. Emphasis should be on the socioeconomic benefits of the FP program. The focus is still rural areas. The operating funds for FP have been increased to 2 yuan RMB per capita/year. Minorities should practice FP, and a conference

  7. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in reproductive age Mongolian women: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Holick, Michael F; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Frazier, Lindsay A; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Ninjin, Boldbaatar; Janes, Craig; Hoover, Robert N; Troisi, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D production is critical not only for rickets prevention but for its role in several chronic diseases of adulthood. Maternal vitamin D status also has consequences for the developing fetus. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]<20ng/ml) and insufficiency [25(OH)D=20-29ng/ml] in spring, among reproductive age Mongolian women. Blood was drawn in March and April, 2009 from 420 Mongolian women, 18-44 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured, anthropometric measurements were performed and information was collected by interview on lifestyle, dietary and reproductive factors. Logarithm-transformed 25(OH)D levels were compared across risk factor categories by analysis of variance. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the independent associations of factors with vitamin D status. Cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis was assessed between December and July using a standard 7-dehydrocholesterol ampoule model. The vast majority of women 415 (98.8%) had serum 25(OH)D<20ng/ml (50nmol/l) with an additional 4 women (<1%) in the insufficient range (20-29ng/ml); only one women (0.2%) had sufficient levels (>30ng/ml or 75nmol/l). 25(OH)D concentrations were positively and independently associated with educational status and use of vitamin D supplements, but not with other demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, or anthropometric factors. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with dietary factors in this population, as there is little access to foods containing vitamin D in Mongolia. No production of previtamin D3 was observed until March and was maximally effective in April and was sustained through July. These data suggest that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in spring among reproductive age women in Mongolia is high. Given the lack of naturally vitamin D-rich food in the diet and limited use of vitamin D supplements, food fortification and/or supplementation with vitamin D should be considered

  9. [Tuberculosis Annual Report 2011--(1) Summary of tuberculosis notification statistics and tuberculosis in foreign nationals].

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    The Tuberculosis Surveillance Center (TSC) at the Research Institute of Tuberculosis has published a series of annual reports on tuberculosis (TB) statistics in Japan since 2008. These reports are based on information on the nationwide computerized TB surveillance system database, which has been in operation since 1987. This is the first of a new series of reports for the "TB Annual Report 2011" that includes a summary of TB statistics and an overview of TB cases with foreign nationality in 2011. A total of 22,681 cases with all types of TB were notified in 2011 with a notification rate of 17.7 per 100,000 population. The TB notification rates decreased to less than 20 per 100,000 population in 2007 and continued to decline until 2011. A total of 8,654 sputum-smear positive pulmonary TB were notified in 2011, at a rate of 6.8 per 100,000 population. The number of latent TB infection (LTBI) cases requiring prophylactic treatment drastically increased from 4,930 cases in 2010 to 10,046 cases in 2011. Surveillance data on TB cases with foreign nationality in Japan have been collected since 1998. The number of TB cases with foreign nationality increased from 739 in 1998 to 931 in 2004 but has been stagnated since then, that indicated 921 in 2011. The TB cases with foreign nationality accounted for 2.1 % of all new TB cases in 1998, and this percentage increased to 4.1% in 2011. Of note, new TB cases with foreign nationality aged 20-29 years accounted for 30.0% of all new TB cases among the same age group in 2011. Among the TB cases with foreign nationality, more than half were from China (29.6%) and the Philippines (23.7%) taken together. In most cases, foreign nationals developed TB within 5 years of entry into Japan, including 80.0% of those aged 10-19 years and 80.8% of those aged 20-29 years. Of these TB cases with foreign nationality, 27% were noted in full-time employees, followed by unemployed persons (21%) and students (20%). With an increase in the number of

  10. Prevalence of referable, sight-threatening retinopathy in type 1 diabetes and its relationship to diabetes duration and systemic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Warwick, A N; Brooks, A P; Osmond, C; Krishnan, R

    2017-02-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to provide contemporary estimates for diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence in a well-defined UK cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and investigate potential risk factors for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic maculopathy.Patients and MethodsFour hundred and sixty four T1DM patients in North Hampshire had T1DM duration, demographic and systemic risk factor data evaluated retrospectively alongside their DR status in 2010 using logistic regression analysis.ResultsOverall prevalence of any retinopathy, PDR, and maculopathy was 71.5%, 6.5%, and 10.8%, respectively. PDR and maculopathy prevalence were 0 and 0.7% for <10 years T1DM duration. PDR prevalence was 4%, 8%, and 16% for 10-19.9 years, 20-29.9, years and ≥30 years duration, respectively. Maculopathy prevalence was 15.6%, 18%, and 11% for 10-19.9 years, 20-29.9 years, and ≥30 years duration, respectively. In univariate analysis, PDR was associated with T1DM duration (odds ratio (OR) 1.07/year), age (OR 1.03/year), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03/mmHg), and antihypertensive therapy (OR 10.63), while maculopathy was associated with duration (OR 1.03/year) and statin therapy (OR 2.83). In multivariate analysis, disease duration (OR 1.07/year) and antihypertensive therapy (OR 6.87) remained significantly associated with PDR, and maculopathy with statin therapy (OR 2.27).ConclusionThis study confirms T1DM duration is a strong risk factor for sight-threatening DR. Maculopathy and PDR prevalence within 10 years of T1DM diagnosis is very low. PDR prevalence at 10-20 years was 4% and then doubled for every 10-year interval thereafter up to 16% with ≥30 years duration. Antihypertensive therapy and statin therapy were strongly associated with PDR and maculopathy, respectively.

  11. Effects of chromium and nitrogen content on the microstructures and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-Cr-Mo alloys for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Keita; Suyalatu; Takaichi, Atsushi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Kurosu, Shingo; Chiba, Akihiko; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Hanawa, Takao

    2012-07-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast Co-(20-33)Cr-5Mo-N alloys were investigated to develop ductile Co-Cr-Mo alloys without Ni addition for dental applications that satisfy the requirements of the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. The effects of the Cr and N contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties are discussed. The microstructures were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction pattern analysis. The mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile testing. The proof strength and elongation of N-containing 33Cr satisfied the type 5 criteria in ISO 22674. ε-phase with striations was formed in the N-free (20-29)Cr alloys, while there was slight formation of ε-phase in the N-containing (20-29)Cr alloys, which disappeared in N-containing 33Cr. The lattice parameter of the γ-phase increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content) in the N-containing alloys, although the lattice parameter remained almost the same in the N-free alloys because of the small atomic radius difference between Co and Cr. Compositional analyses by EDS and XRD revealed that in the N-containing alloys Cr and Mo were concentrated in the cell boundary, which became enriched in N, stabilizing the γ-phase. The mechanical properties of the N-free alloys were independent of the Cr content and showed low strength and limited elongation. Strain-induced martensite was formed in all the N-free alloys after tensile testing. On the other hand, the proof strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation of the N-containing alloys increased with increasing Cr content (i.e. N content). Since formation of ε-phase after tensile testing was confirmed in the N-containing alloys the deformation mechanism may change from strain-induced martensite transformation to another form, such as twinning or dislocation slip, as the N content increases. Thus the N

  12. Epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Norway, 1992-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Norway is classified as a low prevalence country for hepatitis B virus infection. Vaccination is only recommended for risk groups (intravenous drug users (IDUs), Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), immigrants and contacts of known carriers). We describe the epidemiology of reported cases of hepatitis B in Norway, during the years 1992-2009 in order to assess the validity of current risk groups and recommend preventive measures. Methods We used case based data from the national surveillance system on acute and chronic hepatitis B. The Norwegian Statistics Bureau provided population and migration data and the Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research the estimated number of active IDUs between 2002-2007. Incidence rates (IR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for acute hepatitis B and notification rates (NR) and notification rate ratios (NRR) for chronic hepatitis B with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results The annual IR of acute hepatitis B ranged from 0.7/100,000 (1992) to 10.6/100,000 (1999). Transmission occurred mainly among IDUs (64%) or through sexual contact (24%). The risk of acquiring acute hepatitis B was highest in people aged 20-29 (IRR = 6.6 [3.3-13.3]), and in males (IRR = 2.4 [1.7-3.3]). We observed two peaks of newly reported chronic hepatitis B cases in 2003 and 2009 (NR = 17.6/100,000 and 17.4/100,000, respectively). Chronic hepatitis B was more likely to be diagnosed among immigrants than among Norwegians (NRR = 93 [71.9-120.6]), and among those 20-29 compared to those 50-59 (NRR = 5.2 [3.5-7.9]). Conclusions IDUs remain the largest risk group for acute hepatitis B. The observed peaks of chronic hepatitis B are related to increased immigration from high endemic countries and screening and vaccination of these groups is important to prevent further spread of infection. Universal screening of pregnant women should be introduced. A universal vaccination strategy should be considered, given the high cost of reaching the

  13. Molecular docking studies and in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of chemical constituents of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Atlas, Amir; Khan, Imran; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah

    2015-01-01

    Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3β-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE.

  14. Dose equivalence for high-dose-rate to low-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Akine, Y.; Tokita, N.; Ogino, T.; Kajiura, Y.; Tsukiyama, I.; Egawa, S. )

    1990-12-01

    By comparing the incidence of major radiation injury, we estimated doses clinically equivalent for high-dose-rate (HDR) to conventional low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary irradiation in patients with Stages IIb and IIIb cancer of the uterine cervix. We reviewed a total of 300 patients who were treated with external beam therapy to the pelvis (50 Gy in 5 weeks) followed either by low-dose-rate (253 patients) or high-dose-rate (47 patients) intracavitary treatment. The high-dose-rate intracavitary treatment was given 5 Gy per session to point A, 4 fractions in 2 weeks, with a total dose of 20 Gy. The low-dose-rate treatment was given with one or two application(s) delivering 11-52 Gy to the point A. The local control rates were similar in both groups. The incidence of major radiation injury requiring surgical intervention were 5.1% (13/253) and 4.3% (2/47) for low-dose-rate and high-dose-rate groups, respectively. The 4.3% incidence corresponded to 29.8 Gy with low-dose-rate irradiation, thus, it was concluded that the clinically equivalent dose for high-dose-rate irradiation was approximately 2/3 (20/29.8) of the dose used in low-dose-rate therapy.

  15. Life cycle of Nosomma monstrosum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-05-01

    Nosomma monstrosum (Nuttall & Warburton) is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle in Sri Lanka. Biological data on the life cycle pattern of N. monstrosum were collected using experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. The three-host life cycle was completed within 64-102 days. Eggs hatched after 20-29 days of incubation and the larvae hatched out started feeding which lasted for 2-4 days. After a moulting period of 8-11 days nymphs emerge and they actively fed for 2-4 days. Subsequently the nymphs took 15-18 days for moulting before emerging as adults. Freshly moulted females fed for 7-8 days and remained latent for 4-5 days before starting the oviposition. Females laid 3864-12,520 eggs for 11-17 days. The male: female sex ratio was 8:3 in the adults which were moulted under laboratory conditions. Strong positive correlations were found in female weight with number of eggs laid and REI. Females raised from the first generation of eggs had higher oviposition periods, higher REI, laid ten times more eggs, and lower pre-oviposition periods compared to those collected from the wild. When a suitable host is given, N. monstrosum could successfully complete its three-host life cycle under laboratory conditions.

  16. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Keita; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabetes, and/or severity of periodontitis were evaluated. Results 68 patients (9.5%) had hyperglycemia (blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Of these patients, 20 (29.4%) did not have a history of diabetes. Blood glucose tended to be higher with greater periodontitis severity. Of the 3 groups, the severe periodontitis group had the highest proportion of patients with hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). Conclusions Patients with dental problems could be screened for diabetes, especially undiagnosed diabetes. General dentists could function as practitioners to screen for diabetes. Trial registration number UMIN-CTR 000014877. PMID:26629348

  17. Normal test scores in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test.

    PubMed

    Mantyjarvi, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and sixty persons aged from 10 to 69 years (106 women, 54 men) with healthy eyes were studied with the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue (FM100) test. The mean of the results in the total scores and in the individual box scores in the right and left eye were calculated. The total score was also separately calculated in women and men. The test was administered under the illumination of Macbeth Easel lamp, 1000 lux, and the right eye was tested first. The results were calculated in six different age groups, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, etc. The mean of the total scores in the right eye varied from 7.44+/-2.46 (SD) to 10.07+/-2.03 in different age groups and in the left eye from 7.56+/-2.36 to 10.16+/-2.68. The scores changed significantly with the age: the correlation between the age and the test scores by linear regression gave significant results, in the right eye (R = 0.308, P = 0.0001), and in the left eye (R = 0.246, P = 0.0021). The present study with the normal error scores in the FM100 test and its individual boxes in persons aged 10-69 years gives clinicians working with colour vision defects a possibility to estimate the normality or abnormality of the results in their patients.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency, Hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Lomé (Togo) by multiplex real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Assih, Maléki; Feteke, Lochina; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of multiplex PCR to ELISA technique in the instantaneous detection of HBV, HCV and HIVin blood samples from donors of the National blood Transfusion Centre in Togo. A total of 440 blood samplesfrom volunteer were collected and tested by ELISA and multiplex PCR for HBV, HCV and HIV detection. Among the 440 volunteer blood donors, 83% were female and 17% were male. Age range of 20-29 years was more represented (73%). Whereas, multiplex PCR detected more cases of HBV than ELISA (50% vs 33%, P=0.0155);ELISA more detected HCV than PCR (34% vs 3%, P<0.0001) and HIV (26% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Confirming these observations our data showed that multiplex PCR was more sensitive in the detection of HBV. The sensitivity of ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV was elevated compared to multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR was more specific that ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV.Interestingly, our data showed that the gender do not influenced the sensitivity of either ELISA or multiplex PCR to detect these viruses. This study showed the limit of both ELISA and multiplex PCR in the detection of HBV, HCV and HIV. PMID:28293358

  19. Simultaneous determination of carbamate insecticides and mycotoxins in cereals by reversed phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wu, Yin-Liang; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 22 carbamate insecticides and 17 mycotoxins in cereals by ultra high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Carbamates and mycotoxins were extracted from cereal samples using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) procedure without any further clean-up step. The extract was diluted with water containing 0.1% formic acid and 5.0mM ammonium acetate, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with water (0.1% formic acid, 0.50mM ammonium acetate)/methanol as mobile phase with gradient elution. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification. Blank samples (rice, wheat and corn) were fortified at 5, 10 and 50 μg/kg except for five zearalenonic compounds at 25, 50 and 250 μg/kg, and recoveries were in the range of 70-120%. Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% in all cases. The LOQ values were in the range of 0.20-29.7 μg/kg. The method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of carbamate insecticides and mycotoxins in cereals. The total time required for the analysis of one sample, including sample preparation, was about 35 min.

  20. Comparing older and younger Japanese primiparae: fatigue, depression and biomarkers of stress.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emi; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Ozawa, Harumi; Morita, Akiko; Maekawa, Tomoko; Saeki, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    This cohort study of primiparae was conducted to answer the following questions: Do older (≧ 35 years) and younger (20-29 years) Japanese primiparous mothers differ when comparing biomarkers of stress and measures of fatigue and depression? Are there changes in fatigue, depression and stress biomarkers when comparing older and younger mothers during the postpartum period? The Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administered in a time-series method four times: shortly after birth and monthly afterwards. Assays to measure biomarkers of stress, urinary 17-ketosteroids, urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and salivary chromogranin-A, were collected shortly after delivery and at 1 month postpartum in both groups and a third time in older mothers at the 4th month. Statistical testing showed very little difference in fatigue, depression or stress biomarkers between older and younger mothers shortly after birth or 1 month later. Accumulated fatigue and depression scores of older mothers were highest 1 month after delivery. Additional cohort studies are required to characterize physical/psychological well-being of older Japanese primiparae.

  1. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

    PubMed

    Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

    2013-01-01

    Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

  2. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong; Wendong, Sun; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Tongyan; Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Xiulin; Yuan, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80%) patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30%) were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7%) were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1%) revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26) with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7%) with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine), 31 (56.4%) with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9%) had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26) patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1%) with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR), 20 (29.9%) with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs) and 25 (37.3%) with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs). Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED. PMID:26689522

  3. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain.

  4. Perceptions of the motivational climate, need satisfaction, and indices of well- and ill-being among hip hop dancers.

    PubMed

    Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the self-determination theoretical framework (SDT) formulated by Deci and Ryan, and specifically the basic needs mini-theory (BNT), this study examined the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate manifested in hip hop environments, satisfaction of the three basic needs, and indicators of well- and ill-being among hip hop dancers. Fifty-nine hip hop dancers (mean age: 20.29 years) completed a questionnaire assessing the variables of interest in the study. Perceptions of a task-involving climate were positively associated with satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Perceptions of an ego-involving climate negatively predicted relatedness. Satisfaction of the need for competence was positively associated with positive affect, and negatively linked to negative affect. Competence need satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between a perceived task-involving climate and positive and negative affective states. In sum, the findings provided partial support for the facets of SDT and BNT. The results also indicated that promoting the task-involving features of dance learning environments may be beneficial to dancers' well-being.

  5. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  6. Effects of temporal and spatial cueing on anticipatory postural control in a rapid interceptive task.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Andrew H; Zettel, John L

    2015-04-10

    Balance disruptions induced by voluntary focal arm actions are accommodated via anticipatory postural adjustments, but how this coordinated control is organized by the central nervous system remains unclear: either as combined or separate streams of postural-focal motor commands. For example, a focal arm task that dictates extremely tight temporal constraints may induce a focal response in absence of an anticipatory postural adjustment, providing evidence for separate focal-postural control streams. This study sought to probe the organization of focal-postural control via an interceptive task with very little available response time, and to determine whether focal-postural coordination depends on temporal and/or spatial foreknowledge of the task. Ten healthy young adults (5 males and 5 females; 20-29 years) reacted to catch a ball when standing under four conditions of temporal and spatial foreknowledge. Response onset was characterized by muscle activity from both postural and focal arm muscles. The catching task resulted in rapid muscle responses, but there was no difference between the fastest focal and postural muscle onsets. As expected, temporal cuing resulted in faster focal and postural onsets compared to spatial and control cuing trials. The accompaniment and time-locking of focal and postural muscle onsets, suggests that postural-focal coupling remains intact even under external time constraints and provides evidence for a single combined command stream of postural and focal control under such circumstances.

  7. Evaluation of stated motives for legal abortion.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, M; Ingelhammar, E; Lilja, H; Möller, A; Svanberg, B

    1994-03-01

    In a study of 404 women (simple random sample), 20-29 years of age, 201 (group A) applying for abortion and 203 (group B) continuing their pregnancies, the women were given a questionnaire and in addition were interviewed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spontaneous personal motives of women for abortion at a time when age is not supposed to be a common reason. The results showed that more than half of the women expressed that a bad relationship with the partner in one way or another was a motive for the abortion. Other important motives included characteristics of the women and their partners, mainly immaturity, work/studies and unsuitable life situation for having a child. Less common motives seemed to be economy, dwelling and medical and health factors. It is obvious that women in this study wanted to have a stable relationship to the child's father before they dared or wanted to have a child. Social networks in modern society seem to be too weak. The women do not want to face social and emotional problems as lonely mothers. Political decisions in the society, for example with parental benefit according to your income discourage women from continuing their pregnancies during their studies. It also seems important for the woman to feel mature enough to have a child. The provision and encouragement of methods for safer sex may be a possible way by which to reduce the number of abortions.

  8. Far-Ultraviolet Number Counts of Field Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, Elysse N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Siana, Brian D.; deMello, Duilia F.

    2010-01-01

    The Number counts of far-ultraviolet (FUV) galaxies as a function of magnitude provide a direct statistical measure of the density and evolution of star-forming galaxies. We report on the results of measurements of the rest-frame FUV number counts computed from data of several fields including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the GOODS-North and -South fields. These data were obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope Solar Blind Channel of the Advance Camera for Surveys. The number counts cover an AB magnitude range from 20-29 magnitudes, covering a total area of 15.9 arcmin'. We show that the number counts are lower than those in previous studies using smaller areas. The differences in the counts are likely the result of cosmic variance; our new data cover more area and more lines of sight than the previous studies. The slope of our number counts connects well with local FUV counts and they show good agreement with recent semi-analytical models based on dark matter "merger trees".

  9. [Calculation of therapeutic intensity for piglets and fattening pigs during the use of antibiotics in feed].

    PubMed

    Müntener, R C; Stebler, R; Horisberger, U; Althaus, R F; Gassner, B

    2013-06-01

    Oral treatments for groups of pigs via medicated feed must be prescribed on specific forms submitted to veterinary authorities. We analyzed 869 such prescription forms for the year 2009 representing the treatment of 69'863 piglets and 31'506 fattening pigs. Parameters under investigation were indication and quantity of antimicrobials prescribed. Most of the treatments took place at weaning with 10 - 14 kg and again at the beginning of the fattening period with 20 - 29 kg body weight. The average body weights at treatment were 16 kg (piglets) and 29 kg (fatteners). In analogy with the indicator DID of human medicine, we developed PIDvet describing the prescribed dose per 1000 individuals on given day in veterinary medicine. Calculated PIDvet on a given day was 180.9 for the whole population, 297.6 for piglets and 83.2 for fatteners. This shows PIDvet to be useful to stratify therapeutic intensity in different age classes and could represent a new tool to monitor the use of antibiotics.

  10. Therapeutic effect of apple pectin in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Ncib, Sana; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder and is associated with significant comorbidities such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. This pathology is changing worldwide and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study, carried out on adult male Wistar rats, evaluates the inhibitory effects of supplementation with apple pectin molecule on obesity. Under our experimental conditions, administration of pectin molecule decreased 1) the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-ch) and triglycerides (TG) levels as well as ASAT, ALAT, LDH, ALP, UREA and uric acid (UC) levels in blood serum; and 2) increased the creatinine levels (CREA), compared to HFD group. TBARS concentrations decreased in liver, kidney, and serum by 20%, 29% and 19%, respectively, in a group treated with high-fat diet and pectin (HFD+Pec) compared to a HFD-treated group. The same treatment with pectin molecule increased superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase and catalase activities by 39%, 14% and 16% in liver; 5%, 7% and 31% in kidney; and 9%, 32% and 22% in blood serum in the HFD Pec-treated group. The anti-obesity effects of the pectin molecule in several organs are mainly due to the interaction of this molecule with both the polysaccharide and the enzyme system which can be determined by phytochemical analysis.

  11. Hamacantha (Hamacantha) boomerang sp. nov. from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin, SW Atlantic, and redescription of H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882) (Hamacanthidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana

    2014-01-08

    There are 22 species of Hamacantha registered from all over the world, and frequently from deep-waters, only two of which had previously been reported from the SW Atlantic. Here we describe a third species for this area, Hamacantha (H.) boomerang sp. nov., collected from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (off Rio de Janeiro state). We found oxeas 271-630 µm long, diancistras in three size classes, 125-155, 45-69 and 20-29 µm, and toxas, 58-82 µm. This is the only Hamacantha combining oxeas and toxas, but the latter are very rare. The species approaches the Caribbean H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882), where we observed oxeas 390-495 µm long, and diancistras in three size classes, 109-124,  44-54 and 26-41 μm, however toxas appear to be absent. Both species are clearly distinct by micrometric values, as well as the overall morphology of the smaller diancistras, distinct from the intermediate category in the new species, but quite similar in H. (H.) schmidtii. Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula approaches the new species very closely in microsclere dimensions and morphology, but is set apart by its styloid and smaller megascleres.

  12. Allergic rhinitis and chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Rajati, Mohsen; Fereidouni, Mohammad; Khadivi, Ehsan; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Allergic inflammation in upper airways can act as a predisposing factor for infectious ear diseases. There are some evidences about the role of allergic rhinitis in chronic otitis media with effusion, but its role in establishing chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) has not been clearly shown. 68 adult patients with established CSOM, who were candidates for ear surgery, and 184 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated for the presence of allergic rhinitis. Standard questionnaire was filled out for all participants. All patients and controls underwent skin prick test for 28 common regional aeroallergens, and serum total IgE was measured by means of ELISA method. Allergic rhinitis were defined as a positive responses to the questionnaire, positive skin prick test to at least one allergen, and/or high level of serum total IgE. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 20 (29.41%) and 41 (22.28%) of patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.241) (OR = 1.28, CI = 0.69-2.36). Outdoor allergens, especially grass pollen, were the most prevalent allergens among both groups, but indoor allergens like mites and molds have a low prevalence. The study did not show a significant difference in the prevalence of AR in the CSOM patients compared to the controls. The intermittent nature of allergy and other less known intervening factors in the etiopathogenesis of CSOM make such a conclusion difficult.

  13. Lattisimus Dorsi Transfer assisted by arthroscopy for the treatment of irreparable posterolateral Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Muiño, José María Silberberg; Gimenez, Martín Alejandro; Salvucci, Mauro Gabriel Maroa; Ferro, Diego; Rullan, Ramón Muiña

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate subjective and functional mid term results of patients treated by a lattisimus dorsi tendón transfer arthroscopically assisted for massive irreparable posterolateral injuries of the Rotator Cuff. Methods: Between 2009 and 2012, 17 Lattisimus Dorsi transfers (Paribelli technique) for irreparable posterolateral rotator cuff tears were performed. Distribution by sex: 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 53 years old (range, 40-63). Thirteen right shoulders and 4 left shoulders. Average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 8 months (range, 6-13 months). Mean follow-up was 28 months (range, 18-44). Patients were evaluated by the VAS, satisfaction rate, the Constant Modified Scale, postoperative range of motion and strength. Postoperative radiological studies included simple AP radiographs and MRI in order to measure AC distance and asses the integrity of the plasty. Results: Postoperative Constant Modified score averaged 63.54 points. (average increase of 13 points compared to preoperative score. (P ..05)). Active Mobility: a) Mean elevation: 142° postop vs. 119° preop (p <.001). b) Mean abduction: 138.24º postop vs. 112.35º preop (p <.001). c) Mean external rotation 40° postop vs. 20.29º preop (p <.004). Insert text. Conclusion: Lattisimus Dorsi transfer in patients with posterolateral massive irreparable injuries of the RC, is a highly demanding and palliative procedure for those cases with loss of active mobility, especially lifting and shoulder abduction.

  14. PREVALENCE OF DEPRESSION AND ITS GRADING IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Rasputina, L; Rasputin, V; Ovcharuk, M; Serhiichuk, O; Broniuk, A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of our work was to determine a prevalence of depression and its distribution by grades in patients with a coronary heart disease, namely - with the myocardial infarction. The study involved 125 patients of average age 64.2±4.7 years, treated at cardiology department for myocardial infarction. The first stage was a depression screening using PHQ - 2 questionnaire. In case of positive answer to at least one question, we assessed the severity of depression using a PHQ-9 tool. We established, that PHQ-2 questionnaire questions for screening depressive disorders were positively answered by 80 patients (64.3%). Total signs of depression of various severity grades was diagnosed in 68 patients (54.4%). Minimal depression was diagnosed in 25 (36.8%) patients, mild depression - in 20 (29.4%) patients, moderately severe disease - in 16 (23.6%) patients, and severe depression - in 7 (10.2%) patients. The severity of depression was clearly related to age, gender of patients, comorbid diseases, and a history of MI and revascularization.

  15. Is there any evidence for a post-tubal sterilization syndrome?

    PubMed

    Gentile, G P; Kaufman, S C; Helbig, D W

    1998-02-01

    Evidence for a post-tubal sterilization syndrome was sought in a literature review of over 200 English-language articles. This syndrome has been described, variously, as encompassing symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and/or pain, changes in sexual behavior and emotional health, exacerbation of premenstrual symptoms, and menstrual symptoms necessitating hysterectomy or tubal reanastomosis. It has been postulated that the destruction of the fallopian tube and, in some cases, portions of the mesosalpinx, alters the blood supply to the ovary, with consequent impairment of follicular growth and corpus luteum function. Evaluation of the research literature is hindered by the failure to control for age, parity, obesity, previous contraceptive use, interval since sterilization, or type of sterilization. Despite the vast discrepancies in the research findings, it does appear that women 20-29 years of age with pre-existing histories of menstrual dysfunction are at increased risk of some post-tubal sterilization symptoms. After this age, however, there is no consistent evidence that tubal sterilization is associated with an increased risk of menstrual dysfunction, dysmenorrhea, or increased premenstrual distress.

  16. Lupane triterpene glycosides from leave of Acanthopanax koreanum and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Ding, Yan; Hyun, Jae-Hee; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2009-09-01

    One new lupane-triterpene glycoside, acankoreoside I (1), and four known compounds, acankoreoside A (2), acankoreoside D (3), acankoreoside F (4), and acantrifoside A (5), were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax koreanum (Araliaceae). Their chemical structures were elucidated by mass, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The structure of new compound 1 was determined to be 3alpha,11alpha,30-trihydroxylup-23-al-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated with four cancer cell lines such as A-549 (lung), HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), MCF-7 (breast), and U-937 (leukemia). Compound 1 showed growth inhibitory effect in A-549, HL-60, and MCF-7 cell lines with the IC(50) values of 8.2 microM, 12.1 microM, and 28.6 microM, respectively, whereas it was less active in the U937 cell line (the IC(50) >100 microM).

  17. Dissociation constants and speciation in aqueous Li 2SO 4 and K 2SO 4 from measurements of electrical conductance to 673 K and 29 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharygin, Andrei V.; Grafton, Brian K.; Xiao, Caibin; Wood, Robert H.; Balashov, Victor N.

    2006-10-01

    The electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions of Li 2SO 4 and K 2SO 4 have been measured at 523-673 K at 20-29 MPa in dilute solutions for molalities up to 2 × 10 -2 mol kg -1. These conductivities have been fitted to the conductance equation of Turq, Blum, Bernard, and Kunz with a consensus mixing rule and mean spherical approximation activity coefficients. In the temperature interval 523-653 K, where the dielectric constant, ɛ, is greater than 14, the electrical conductance data can be fitted by a solution model which includes ion association to form MSO4-, MSO40, and HSO4-, where M is Li or K. The adjustable parameters of this model are the first and second dissociation constants of the M 2SO 4. For the 673 K and 300 kg m -3 state point where the Coulomb interactions are the strongest (dielectric constant, ɛ = 5), models with more extensive association give good fits to the data. In the case of the Li 2SO 4 model, including the multi-ion associate, Li(SO)80, gave an extremely good fit to the conductance data.

  18. Developing a new small-area measure of deprivation using 2001 and 2011 census data from Scotland.

    PubMed

    Allik, Mirjam; Brown, Denise; Dundas, Ruth; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-05-01

    Material deprivation contributes to inequalities in health; areas of high deprivation have higher rates of ill-health. How deprivation is measured has a great impact on its explanatory power with respect to health. We compare previous deprivation measures used in Scotland and proposes a new deprivation measure using the 2001 and 2011 Scottish census data. We calculate the relative index of inequality (RII) for self-reported health and mortality. While across all age groups different deprivation measures provide similar results, the assessment of health inequalities among those aged 20-29 differs markedly according to the deprivation measure. In 2011 the RII for long-term health problem for men aged 20-24 was only 0.71 (95% CI 0.60-0.83) using the Carstairs score, but 1.10 (0.99-1.21) for the new score and 1.13 (1.03-1.24) for the income domain of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). The RII for mortality in that age group was 1.25 (0.89-1.58) for the Carstairs score, 1.69 (1.35-2.02) for the new measure and 1.76 (1.43-2.08) for SIMD. The results suggest that researchers and policy makers should consider the suitability of deprivation measures for different social groups.

  19. Summer Institute for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Calloway, Cliff

    2008-04-01

    We have conducted again a summer institute for high-school teachers in South Carolina at Winthrop University. The target audience were 9th grade physical science teachers in schools within a 50-mile radius from Winthrop. We developed a graduate level physics professional development course covering selected topics from the physics and chemistry content areas of the South Carolina Science Standards. Delivery of the material included the traditional lectures and the following innovative approaches in science teaching: hands-on experiments, group activities, computer based data collection, group discussions, and presentations. Two master teachers assisted us during the delivery of the course which took place in June 20-29, 2007 using Winthrop facilities. Requested funds were used for the following: salary for us and master teachers, contract course fee, some of the participants' room and board, startup equipment for all the teachers, and indirect costs to Winthrop University. Startup equipment included Pasco's stand-alone and portable Xplorer GLX interface and sensors (temperature, voltage, pH, pressure, motion, and sound). What we learned and ideas for continued K-12 teacher preparation initiatives will be presented.

  20. Human papillomavirus-16 is integrated in lung carcinomas: a study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, F; Castillo, A; Koriyama, C; Higashi, M; Itoh, T; Capetillo, M; Shuyama, K; Corvalan, A; Eizuru, Y; Akiba, S

    2007-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected in 20 (29%) out of 69 lung carcinomas (LCs) in Chile, by PCR and Southern blot, and was more frequently detected in squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) than in adenocarcinomas (46 vs 9%, P=0.001). HPV-16, positive in 11 cases, was the most frequently detected HPV genotype determined by DNA sequencing. HPV-16 E2/E6 ratio, estimated from real-time PCR analysis, was much lower than the unity, suggesting that at least a partial HPV-16 genome was integrated in all but one HPV-16-positive SQCs. The remaining one case was suspected to have only episomal HPV-16. Although the viral load was low in most of the LCs, a case showed the HPV-16 copy number as high as 8479 per nanogram DNA, which was even a few times higher than the minimum viral load of seven cervical carcinomas (observed viral load: 3356–609 392 per nanogram DNA). The expression of the HPV-16/18 E6 protein was found in only two HPV-16-positive SQCs (13%) but not in the case with the highest viral load. Although the viral load was in general very low and HPV E6 expression is none or weak, further studies seem warranted to examine aetiological involvement of high-risk HPV in lung carcinogenesis. PMID:17579626

  1. A genome-wide scan for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds.

    PubMed

    Tozaki, T; Hirota, K; Sugita, S; Ishida, N; Miyake, T; Oki, H; Hasegawa, T

    2010-12-01

    Tying-up syndrome, also known as recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbreds, is a common muscle disorder for racehorses. In this study, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis using LOKI based on the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method using 5 half-sib families (51 affected and 277 nonaffected horses in total), and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using microsatellites (144 affected and 144 nonaffected horses) to map candidate regions for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds. The linkage analysis identified one strong L-score (82.45) between the loci UCDEQ411 and COR058 (24.9-27.9 Mb) on ECA12. The GWAS identified two suggestive genomic regions on ECA12 (24.9-27.8 Mb) and ECA20 (29.3-33.5 Mb). Based on both results, the genomic region between UCDEQ411 and TKY499 (24.9-27.8 Mb) on ECA12 was the most significant and was considered as a candidate region for tying-up syndrome in Japanese Thoroughbreds.

  2. GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) Altimeter Document Series, Volume 8: GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report Update:The First 109 Cycles Since Acceptance November 29, 2000 to December 26, 2005. Version 1, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, A. M.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hayne, G. S.; Brooks, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present and document GFO performance analyses and results. This is the fifth Assessment Report since the initial report. This report extends the performance assessment since acceptance to 26 December 2005. The initial GFO Altimeter Engineering Assessment Report, March 2001 (NASA/TM-2001-209984/Ver.1/Vol.1) covered the GFO performance from Launch to Acceptance (10 February 1998 to 29 November 2000). The second of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 20 (29 November 2000 to 21 November 2001). The third of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 42 (29 November 2000 to 30 November 2002). The fourth of the series covered the performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 64 (29 November 2000 to 17 December 2003). The fifth of the series covered performance from Acceptance to the end of Cycle 86 (29 November 2000 to 17 December 2004). Since launch, we have performed a variety of GFO performance studies; an accumulative index of those studies is provided in Appendix A.

  3. Reference data for quantitative ultrasound values of calcaneus in 2927 healthy Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Cheng-Li; Han, Shao-Mei; Zu, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Guang-Jin

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a bone densitometry technique that is rapidly gaining popularity for the assessment of bone status. However, few QUS data are available for men, especially in China. In the present study, a random stratified sample of 2927 Chinese men (10-90 years) was recruited, and bone status was established using measurements by Achilles ultrasonometer. The peak stiffness index (SI) value for Chinese men was 103.0 +/- 20.8, which presented in the age group of 20-24 years. Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was significant correlation between SI and age (P < 0.001), and multivariate regression analysis indicated that weight was also an important factor for SI. In addition, in comparison with the normal data of Italian and Japanese males, the SI value for Chinese males in each age group was lower than those of Italians but higher than Japanese, except for the 20-29 years age group. The descending velocity of curves for Chinese men was lower than that of Italian and Japanese men. In conclusion, QUS values of the calcaneus provided by the present study may be used as normal reference values for Chinese men.

  4. A successful experience of the Iranian blood transfusion organization in improving accessibility and affordability of plasma derived medicine.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Azita; Torab, Seyed Ardeshir; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-01

    Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is estimated 21.6 million liters of plasma collect from Whole blood annually. From these plasma, 4.2 million liters transfuse, 8.1 million liters fractionate, 9.3 million liters waste. Nowadays, blood products and PDM (plasma derived medicine) consider as essential medicine in modern health care and transfusion medicine. Iranian blood transfusion organization as a non-profit organization was established in 1974 in order to centralize all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to distribution of blood components to hospitals. Iran is the only country in EMR region with the rate of 20-29.9 blood donations per 1000 population and reached 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation in 2007. RBCs and platelets demand are much more than FFPs so the IBTO was faced the surplus plasma that could cause surplus plasma wastage. Simultaneously, hospitals need more plasma derived medicine especially albumin, IVIG, factor VIII, factor IX. IBTO was faced the challenges such as Fractionators selection, Plasma volume shipment, Contract duration, Product profile, Multiple External audits, Cold chain maintenance, Transporting plasma across international borders, NAT test. To overcome plasma wastage and storage of PDM. IBTO involved toll manufacturing in 2005 and not only prevents plasma wastage but also save MOH (ministry of health) budget.

  5. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in swimming amongst working residents of warsaw.

    PubMed

    Biernat, Elżbieta

    2012-05-01

    The aim of research is to assess the correlation between socio-demographic factors and swimming activity among the working population of Warsaw. The questionnaire survey included 4405 randomly selected residents of Warsaw. The correlation between the swimming activity and the variables characterizing the socio-demographic structure of the respondents were assessed by log-linear modelling. The significance of the impact of factors included in the analysis was determined using the chi-square test. Thirty-five per cent of the respondents declared recreational swimming. Gender, age, BMI, education, occupation, and income were significantly related to the swimming activity. Women (33%) - compared to men (38%) - were almost 1.2 times less likely to participate in swimming; similarly, overweight people (33%, OR = 0.90) and obese people (33%, OR = 0.92). People from Warsaw from 20-29 years (43%), with higher education (40%), incomes above the national average (40%), and representing the profession of an actor (52%), swam relatively more often. The results of the study might help in developing marketing plans and market segmentation strategies, as well as in forecasting the development trends of the leisure activity.

  6. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Fawzia; El Hazmi, Malak M

    2010-01-01

    Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

  7. Combination of amino acid/dipeptide with ligustrazine-betulinic acid as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Yan, Wen-Qiang; Xu, Xin; Wu, Gao-Rong; Zhang, Chen-Ze; Han, Yao-Tian; Chu, Fu-Hao; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Peng-Long; Lei, Hai-Min

    2017-04-21

    The lead compound TBA, 3β-Hydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-28-oic acid-3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazin-2-methyl ester, which exhibited promising antitumor activity and induced tumor cell apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, had previously been reported. Moreover, reports have revealed that the introduction of amino acid to betulinic acid could improve selective cytotoxicity as well as water solubility. Thus, a series of novel TBA amino acid and dipeptide derivatives were designed, synthesized and screened for selective cytotoxic activity against five cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT-29, Hela, BCG-823 and A549) and the not malignant cell line MDCK by standard MTT assay. Most of the tested TBA-amino acid and dipeptide analogues showed stronger anti-proliferative activity against all tested tumor cell lines than TBA. Among them, BA-25 exhibited the greatest cytotoxic activity on tumor cell lines (mean IC50 = 2.31 ± 0.78 μM), that was twofold than the positive drug cisplatin (DDP), while it showed lower cytotoxicity on MDCK cell line than DDP. Further cell apoptosis analyses indicated BA-25-induced apoptosis was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration.

  8. [Research on ultrafine grinding technology of improving dissolution rates of effective components in Sanjie Zhentong capsule].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhong-kun; Gao, Jin; Qin, Jian-ping; Chen, Guang-bo; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ultrafine grinding on the dissolution rates of the effective components in Sanjie Zhentong capsule (SZC) were studied in this experiment. Fine and ultrafine powder of SZC intermediates were made by ordinary grinding and ultrafine grinding technology, and then granulated by wet granulation. SZC were prepared by fine powder, ultrafine powder and ultrafine granules, respectively. With resveratrol and loureirin B as investigated indexes, dissolution rates of the four intermediates in SZC were determined by cup method and HPLC. The dissolution rates of resveratrol in SZC prepared by fine powder, ultrafine powder and ultrafine granules were 26.11%, 63.27%, 67.49%, respectively; and the dissolution rates of loureirin B were 7.160%, 20.29%, 23.05%, respectively. The dissolution rate of resveratrol and loureirin B in SZC prepared by ultrafine granules was the best. D90 size of ultrafine grinding was 13.221 μm and could improve the dissolution rates of resveratrol and loureirin B in SZC.

  9. An assessment of suicide attempts by self-poisoning in the west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Farid; Beiki, Omid; Ahmadijouybari, Tuoraj; Amini, Saeed; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Hatemi, Masoame; Moradi, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    Intentional self-poisoning that is widely used all over the world is one of the most common methods of suicide. This study aim was to determine the rate of attempted intentional self-poisoning and to identify high risk persons in the west of Iran (Kermanshah). A total of 3138 people (1279 M and 1859 F) studied. The average annual rate of suicide in Kermanshah was 153 persons per 100 000 people. The most number of attempted intentional self-poisoning (55.5%) were in the 20-29 year age group. The most popular toxic substances for self-poisoning were drugs (71%) and oil and fuels (15%), respectively. The most number of intentional self-poisoning suicides are attempted by drugs. By considering the high rate of intentional self-poisoning, low age of suicide attempts and also its high mortality rate in Kermanshah, it is necessary to stop the opportunity to buy over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, especially those being most misused.

  10. Human parvovirus B19-induced acute glomerulonephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shimohata, Homare; Higuchi, Takashi; Ogawa, Yujiro; Fujita, Shogo; Nagai, Miho; Imaizumi, Masahiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection is well known as a cause of erythema infectiosum in children. Acute glomerulonephritis due to HPVB19 infection is rarely observed in adults. Here, we present the case of a 45-year-old female who showed acute glomerulonephritis induced by HPVB19 infection with various autoantibodies. She had proteinuria (175 mg/g creatinine) and hematuria (20-29 erythrocytes per high-power field) in a urinalysis, and various autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies, proteinase-3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (PR3-ANCA), antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies, and anticardiolipin antibodies in a blood examination. A renal biopsy showed that endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis comprised of mononuclear cell infiltration. By using immunofluorescence microscopy, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, and C1q deposits were detected mainly in glomerular capillaries. Electron-dense deposits were detected in the subendothelial area and mesangial area by using electron microscopy. All symptoms and abnormal laboratory data were self-improved. Our patient's case may provide a clue to the etiology of ANCA-associated vasculitis or lupus nephritis.

  11. Outcomes of open temporomandibular joint surgery following failure to improve after arthroscopy: is there an algorithm for success?

    PubMed

    Tzanidakis, Konstantinos; Sidebottom, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    We reviewed the results of one surgeon's experience of open surgical management of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients who fail to respond to arthroscopy and aimed to identify groups of patients that may or may not benefit from the intervention. Over a 7-year period (2005-2012) we retrospectively collected data from the medical notes of patients who underwent discectomy, disc plication, eminectomy, eminoplasty, and adhesiolysis, according to the clinical findings for joint pain, restriction, and locking. A total of 22 patients (71%) reported improvement in pain score and 19 (61%) reported an improvement in mouth opening 12 months postoperatively. Overall, 12 patients (39%) ultimately needed TMJ replacement. This group included 5/6 patients in Wilkes' stage IV and 6/15 in stage V, 5/7 patients with a preoperative pain score of 90-100, and half of those with preoperative mouth opening of 20-29 mm (7/14). Open surgical management of the TMJ can benefit patients despite the previous failure of arthroscopy to manage pain, restriction, and locking. Arthroscopy seems to reduce the percentage of patients that need open TMJ surgery, but also the success of subsequent operations compared with previous studies. TMJ replacement is increasingly being done successfully to treat end-stage disease. These results may be used when obtaining a patient's consent for open TMJ surgery, particularly if they are in the groups considered to have a high risk of subsequently requiring a replacement joint.

  12. Modulation of EEG Theta Band Signal Complexity by Music Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Lee, Eun-Jeong

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the impact of monochord (MC) sounds, a type of archaic sounds used in music therapy, on the neural complexity of EEG signals obtained from patients undergoing chemotherapy. The secondary goal was to compare the EEG signal complexity values for monochords with those for progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), an alternative therapy for relaxation. Forty cancer patients were randomly allocated to one of the two relaxation groups, MC and PMR, over a period of six months; continuous EEG signals were recorded during the first and last sessions. EEG signals were analyzed by applying signal mode complexity, a measure of complexity of neuronal oscillations. Across sessions, both groups showed a modulation of complexity of beta-2 band (20-29Hz) at midfrontal regions, but only MC group showed a modulation of complexity of theta band (3.5-7.5Hz) at posterior regions. Therefore, the neuronal complexity patterns showed different changes in EEG frequency band specific complexity resulting in two different types of interventions. Moreover, the different neural responses to listening to monochords and PMR were observed after regular relaxation interventions over a short time span.

  13. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep quality in urban Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Basishvili, Tamar; Datunashvili, Maia; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Sleep problems represent a worldwide health concern but their prevalence and impacts are unknown in most non-European/North American countries. This study aimed to evaluate sleep-wake patterns, sleep quality and potential correlates of poor sleep in a sample of the urban Georgian population. Methods Analyses are based on 395 volunteers (267 females, 128 males, aged 20-60 years) of the Georgia Somnus Study. Subjects completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Sociodemographic information and self-reported height and weight were collected. Results 43% of subjects had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5). Further, 41% had low sleep efficiency, 27.6% slept 6 hours or less, 32.4% went to bed after midnight, 27.6% snored, 10.6% were taking sleep medication, and 26.8% had sleep maintenance problems as occurring three or more times a week. The latest bedtime, rise time, and gender effect on these variables were found in the age group 20-29 years. PSQI global score showed a significant age but not gender difference. The economic status and the depression score were two significant predictors of sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality has a high prevalence and is strongly linked to the economic status. Study findings call for a global assessment of sleep problems in countries where sleep disturbances represent an insufficiently recognized public health issue. PMID:28123823

  14. Analysis and distribution of esculetin in plasma and tissues of rats after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Ha, Tae-Youl; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we developed a method to quantify esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) in plasma and tissues using HPLC coupled with ultraviolet detection and measured the level of esculetin in rat plasma after oral administration. The calibration curve for esculetin was linear in the range of 4.8 ng/mL to 476.2 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.996, a limit of detection value of 33.2 ng/mL, and a limit of quantification value of 100.6 ng/mL. Recovery rates for the 95.2 ng/mL and 190.5 ng/mL samples were 95.2% and 100.3%, within-runs and 104.8% and 101.0% between-runs, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 7% for both runs. In the pharmacokinetic analysis, the peak plasma esculetin level was reached 5 min after administration (Cmax=173.3 ng/mL; T1/2=45 min; AUC0 ~180 min=5,167.5 ng · min/mL). At 180 min post-administration (i.e., after euthanasia), esculetin was only detectable in the liver (30.87±11.33 ng/g) and the kidney (20.29±7.02 ng/g).

  15. Chemical constituents of the bark of Dipteryx alata vogel, an active species against Bothrops jararacussu venom.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Franco, Luiz M; Santos, Marcio G Dos; Silva, Renata V da; Rubem-Mauro, Leandro; Feliciano, Arturo San

    2010-11-12

    The effect of four sub-extracts prepared from the lyophilized hydroalcoholic bark of Dipteryx alata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) dissolved in a methanol-water (80:20) mixture through a liquid-liquid partition procedure has been investigated against the neuromuscular blockade of the venom of the snake Bothrops jararacussu. The active CH₂Cl₂ sub-extract has been extensively analyzed for its chemical constituents, resulting in the isolation of four lupane-type triterpenoids: lupeol, lupenone, 28-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, betulin, nine isoflavonoids: 8-O-methylretusin, 7-hydroxy-5,6,4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, afrormosin, 7-hydroxy-8,3',4'-trimethoxyisoflavone, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, odoratin, 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, dipteryxin, one chalcone: isoliquiritigenin, one aurone: sulfuretin and three phenolic compounds: vanillic acid, vanillin, and protocatechuic acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  16. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup. PMID:27630933

  17. HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Adair, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females.

  18. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  19. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  20. Cow hair allergen (Bos d 2) content in house dust: correlation with sensitization in farmers with cow hair asthma.

    PubMed

    Hinze, S; Bergmann, K C; Løwenstein, H; Hansen, G N

    1997-03-01

    Farmers (N = 45) suffering from occupational cow hair asthma were visited at home to evaluate the concentration of cow hair major allergen Bos d 2 in the house dust and to correlate these results with measures of avoidance, degree of sensitization, clinical symptoms, and lung function. Bos d 2 was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In dust of tiles and linoleum Bos d 2 was difficult to detect, whereas dust samples of carpets often contained high concentrations of the allergen (50-520 micrograms/g fine dust). Bos d 2 levels were significantly higher when barn and living quarters were in the same building. Concentrations of cow hair-specific IgE were correlated with concentrations of Bos d 2 in house dust samples. A concentration of 20-29 micrograms Bos d 2 per gram of house dust could be established as threshold value for relevant IgE sensitization. Avoiding the barn is not a sufficient avoidance measure for cow hair asthmatics if the partner continues cattle farming. Cessation of cattle farming and avoiding the former barn results in a marked reduction in Bos d 2 concentration in living quarters, a decreased degree of sensitization, and a reduced symptom score. Farmers with cow hair asthma should avoid cattle and thoroughly clean all carpets in the living quarters to avoid continuous cow allergen exposure.

  1. Trait anxiety mimics age-related cardiovascular autonomic modulation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A; Guzik, P; May, R W; Koutnik, A P; Hughes, R; Muniz, S; Kabbaj, M; Fincham, F D

    2015-04-01

    Anxiety produces maladaptive cardiovascular changes and accelerates biological aging. We evaluated cardiovascular reactivity in young and middle-aged individuals with varying anxiety scores to test the hypothesis that anxiety mimics cardiovascular aging by influencing cardiovascular autonomic modulation. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to classify healthy young individuals (20-29 years) into high (YHA, n=22;10 men) and low (YLA, n=21;10 men) anxiety, and to identify middle-aged individuals (50-60 years) with low anxiety (MLA, n=22;11 men). Heart rate, blood pressure (BP) and their variability (HRV and BPV, respectively) and baroreflex function were analyzed from beat-to-beat finger BP and electrocardiogram recordings collected during 5-min baseline, 6-min speech task (ST) and 3-min post ST recovery. Analyses of covariance showed significant differences (P<0.05) at baseline for HRV, BPV and barorelfex, and low-frequency power of systolic BP variability (LFSBP) was lower, whereas baroreflex and high frequency (HF) normalized units were higher in the YLA compared with YHA and MLA groups. Compared with YLA, YHA and MLA displayed attenuated vagal withdraw response (HF) to ST. BP and LFSBP responses to ST in YHA and MLA were higher compared with the YLA group. These findings suggest that anxiety could be linked to cardiovascular aging as it attenuates cardiac reactivity and exaggerates vascular responses to stress.

  2. National asthma attack audit 1991-2. General Practitioners in Asthma Group.

    PubMed Central

    Neville, R G; Clark, R C; Hoskins, G; Smith, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the frequency and characteristics of asthma attacks in the United Kingdom and to compare actual management with recommended guidelines for the management of attacks. DESIGN--Correspondence survey. SETTING--218 general practices in the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--1775 patients of all ages who had a total of 1805 asthma attacks over three months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patient characteristics, place of management of attacks, comparison of actual management with recommended guidelines. RESULTS--Of the 1805 attacks, 300 occurred in boys aged 0-9, 144 in girls aged 0-9, and 118 in women aged 20-29. The estimated frequency of attacks in the community was 14.3 per 1000 patients per year. 1546 (86%) patients with attacks were managed within general practice, 225 (12%) were admitted to hospital, and 34 (2%) were discharged from an accident and emergency department. Two patients died. On initial presentation, 248 (14%) patients were "not breathless," 900 (50%) were "moderately breathless," 535 (30%) were "breathless and distressed," 68 (4%) were "too breathless to talk," and 2 were "moribund." Recording of clinical data was variable. Underuse of nebulised bronchodilators and systemic steroid was apparent in all grades of clinical severity. Contrary to current guidelines for asthma management, "step up" in maintenance therapy after an attack was often not practised. CONCLUSION--Reported management was at variance with recommended guidelines. This has major implications for the design and distribution of future guidelines. PMID:8461773

  3. Incidence of syphilis, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie L; Hunt, Devin J

    2015-09-01

    In 2014,the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported significant increases in cases of primary and secondary syphilis in the U.S.; among beneficiaries of the Military Health System, monthly surveillance reports tracking reportable medical events of syphilis have reflected similar increases. This analysis reports on incident cases and rates of syphilis among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces from 1 January 2010 through 31 August 2015. During the surveillance period, 2,976 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Crude incidence rates increased from 30.9 cases per 100,000 person-years (p-yrs) in 2010 to 47.4 cases per 100,000 p-yrs in 2015. Males accounted for 88.7% of cases. Incidence rates of syphilis were highest among service members who were black, non-Hispanic or who were aged 20-29 years. About one-quarter of syphilis cases (24.4%; 727 cases) were diagnosed as HIV infected. Primary and secondary syphilis cases comprised 42% of all syphilis cases. Increasing rates of primary and secondary syphilis in active component service members reflect similar trends reported in the U.S. civilian population.

  4. Incidence of hidradenitis suppurativa and associated factors: a population-based study of Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Benjamin G; Alikhan, Ali; Weaver, Amy L; Wetter, David A; Davis, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    There are no population-based incidence studies of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Using the medical record linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we sought to determine the incidence of the disease, as well as other associations and characteristics, among HS patients diagnosed in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between 1968 and 2008. Incidence was estimated using the decennial census data for the county. Logistic regression models were fit to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and disease severity. A total of 268 incident cases were identified, with an overall annual age- and sex-adjusted incidence of 6.0 per 100,000. Age-adjusted incidence was significantly higher in women compared with men (8.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 7.0-9.3) vs. 3.8 (95% CI, 3.0-4.7). The highest incidence was among young women aged 20-29 years (18.4 per 100,000). The incidence has risen over the past four decades, particularly among women. Women were more likely to have axillary and upper anterior torso involvement, whereas men were more likely to have perineal or perianal disease. In addition, 54.9% (140/255) patients were obese; 70.2% were current or former smokers; 42.9% carried a diagnosis of depression; 36.2% carried a diagnosis of acne; and 6% had pilonidal disease. Smoking and gender were significantly associated with more severe disease.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency, Hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Lomé (Togo) by multiplex real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Assih, Maléki; Feteke, Lochina; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Djigma, Florencia; Karou, Simplice Damintoti; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the sensitivity of multiplex PCR to ELISA technique in the instantaneous detection of HBV, HCV and HIVin blood samples from donors of the National blood Transfusion Centre in Togo. A total of 440 blood samplesfrom volunteer were collected and tested by ELISA and multiplex PCR for HBV, HCV and HIV detection. Among the 440 volunteer blood donors, 83% were female and 17% were male. Age range of 20-29 years was more represented (73%). Whereas, multiplex PCR detected more cases of HBV than ELISA (50% vs 33%, P=0.0155);ELISA more detected HCV than PCR (34% vs 3%, P<0.0001) and HIV (26% vs 7%, P<0.0001). Confirming these observations our data showed that multiplex PCR was more sensitive in the detection of HBV. The sensitivity of ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV was elevated compared to multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR was more specific that ELISA for the detection of HCV and HIV.Interestingly, our data showed that the gender do not influenced the sensitivity of either ELISA or multiplex PCR to detect these viruses. This study showed the limit of both ELISA and multiplex PCR in the detection of HBV, HCV and HIV.

  6. Complementary contrast media for metal artifact reduction in dual-energy computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jack W.; Edic, Peter M.; FitzGerald, Paul F.; Torres, Andrew S.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Metal artifacts have been a problem associated with computed tomography (CT) since its introduction. Recent techniques to mitigate this problem have included utilization of high-energy (keV) virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images, produced via dual-energy CT (DECT). A problem with these high-keV images is that contrast enhancement provided by all commercially available contrast media is severely reduced. Contrast agents based on higher atomic number elements can maintain contrast at the higher energy levels where artifacts are reduced. This study evaluated three such candidate elements: bismuth, tantalum, and tungsten, as well as two conventional contrast elements: iodine and barium. A water-based phantom with vials containing these five elements in solution, as well as different artifact-producing metal structures, was scanned with a DECT scanner capable of rapid operating voltage switching. In the VMS datasets, substantial reductions in the contrast were observed for iodine and barium, which suffered from contrast reductions of 97% and 91%, respectively, at 140 versus 40 keV. In comparison under the same conditions, the candidate agents demonstrated contrast enhancement reductions of only 20%, 29%, and 32% for tungsten, tantalum, and bismuth, respectively. At 140 versus 40 keV, metal artifact severity was reduced by 57% to 85% depending on the phantom configuration. PMID:26839905

  7. Betulin inhibits lung carcinoma proliferation through activation of AMPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Han, Ji-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β, 28-diol) is an abundant, naturally occurring triterpene. It is commonly isolated from the bark of birch trees and forms up to 30% of the dry weight of the extractive. In the present study, we revealed its antiproliferative effects and mechanisms using two lung carcinoma cells (A549 and NCI-292). By 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, we found that betulin could efficiently inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Besides, several key genes of cell-cycle regulators were also affected by betulin treatment. At the molecular level, our results demonstrated that treatment with betulin was also associated with activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling in these cells. In agreement, inhibition of AMPK signaling largely reversed the antiproliferative roles of betulin. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of betulin and justify further work to explore its potential roles in lung cancer prevention and treatment.

  8. Betulin inhibits cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans by targeting vicRK and gtf genes.

    PubMed

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Subramenium, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar; Radhika, Solai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a multivirulent pathogen is considered the primary etiological agent in dental caries. Development of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen has created a need for novel antagonistic agents which can control the virulence of the organism and reduce resistance development. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-virulence potential of betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol), an abundantly available plant triterpenoid against S. mutans UA159. Betulin exhibited significant dose dependent antibiofilm activity without affecting bacterial viability. At 240 µg/ml (biofilm inhibitory concentration), betulin inhibited biofilm formation and adherence to smooth glass surfaces by 93 and 71 % respectively. It reduced water insoluble glucan synthesis by 89 %, in conjunction with down regulation of gtfBC genes. Microscopic analysis confirmed the disruption in biofilm architecture and decreased exopolysaccharide production. Acidogenicity and aciduricity, key virulence factors responsible for carious lesions, were also notably affected. The induced auto-aggregation of cells upon treatment could be due to the down regulation of vicK. Results of gene expression analysis demonstrated significant down-regulation of virulence genes upon betulin treatment. Furthermore, the nontoxic effect of betulin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells even after 72 h treatment makes it a strong candidate for assessing its suitability to be used as a therapeutic agent.

  9. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Effects of Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. in Rats: Involvement of Enzyme Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Jamwal, Rohitash; Dethe, Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Butea frondosa Koenig ex Roxb. (BF) is traditionally used to manage male sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED). Methanol extract of BF (bark) inhibited Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-II) enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 20.29 ± 1.83 μg/mL. The relaxant effect of methanol extract of BF (MEBF) was studied on phenylephrine precontracted corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) isolated from young rats. The effect of MEBF treatment on sexual behaviour of both young (5 month) and aged (24 month) rats was also studied in addition to the influence on smooth muscle, collagen (collagen-I and -III) level in penis, and sperm characteristics of young and aged rats. MEBF relaxed CCSM up to 21.77 ± 2.57% and increased sexual behavior of young and aged rats. This increase in sexual function could be attributed to ROCK-II inhibition and increase in ratio of smooth muscle to collagen level in rat penile tissue. Increased sperm production and decreased defective sperms in young and aged rats corroborate the usefulness of Butea frondosa in male infertility in addition to ED. PMID:24069061

  10. High prevalence of HPV infection in the remote villages of French Guiana: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Adenis, A; Dufit, V; Douine, M; Corlin, F; Ayhan, G; Najioullah, F; Molinie, V; Brousse, P; Carles, G; Lacoste, V; Cesaire, R; Nacher, M

    2017-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women in French Guiana. Studies have shown that populations living in the remote areas of the interior have early sexual debut and that multiple sexual partnerships are common. The objective of the present study was thus to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these areas. A study was conducted in women aged 20-65 years with previous sexual activity. Women were included on a voluntary basis after using local media and leaders to inform them of the visit of the team. HPV infection was defined by the detection of HPV DNA using the Greiner Bio-One kit. In addition to HPV testing cytology was performed. The overall age-standardized prevalence rate was 35%. There was a U-shaped evolution of HPV prevalence by age with women aged >50 years at highest risk for HPV, followed by the 20-29 years group. Twenty-seven percent of women with a positive HPV test had normal cytology. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer in French Guiana and the high prevalence of HPV infections the present results re-emphasize the need for screening for cervical cancer in these remote areas. Vaccination against HPV, preferably with a nonavalent vaccine, also seems an important prevention measure. However, in this region where a large portion of the population has no health insurance, this still represents a challenge.

  11. Analysis of the sociodemography of gonorrhoea in Leeds, 1989-93.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, C. J.; Merrick, D. W.; Bensley, D. C.; Fairley, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology of gonorrhoea in an urban area in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Analysis of all cases of gonorrhoea with regard to age, sex, ethnic group, and socioeconomic group with 1991 census data as a denominator. SETTING: Leeds, a comparatively large urban area (population around 700,000) in the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: All residents of Leeds with culture proved cases of gonorrhoea during 1989-95. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Relative risk of gonorrhoea. RESULTS: Sex, age, race, and socioeconomic group and area of residence were all independently predictive of risk of infection. Young black men aged 20-29 were at highest risk, with incidences of 3-4% per year. Black subjects were 10 times more likely than white subjects to acquire infection, and subjects from the most deprived socioeconomic areas were more than four times more likely than those from the most affluent areas to acquire infection. CONCLUSIONS: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups vary in their risk of infection with gonorrhoea within an urban area. Targeted interventions and screening to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted disease are now priorities. PMID:9185496

  12. Altruistic aptitude: age-dependent influence of temperament and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Faron-Lasyk, Aneta; Borecki, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear why some people behave altruistically and others do not. This study seeks to determine what psychological features could help predict altruistic behavior. We addressed the issue by examining distinct dimensions of temperament and emotional intelligence and their associations with the level of proaltruistic aptitude in two distant age-groups, young (20-29 years) and senior (60-79 years) persons. The study was one of a self-reported psychometric survey. The major findings were that emotional intelligence, rather than temperament, is strongly associated with the expression of altruistic behavior in both young and senior subjects, despite a general decrease in the characteristics of emotional intelligence in advanced age. We also failed to substantiate the presence of an appreciable difference in the level of declared altruism between the senior and young subjects. High emotional intelligence, often underling social engagement and bonding, seems thus a good predictor of altruistic aptitude to be displayed by a person. The independence of this association of age-changes in emotional agility is suggestive of causal relationship. The study is relevant for an understanding of the enigmatic origins of important social behaviors like altruism.

  13. A not so happy day after all: excess death rates on birthdays in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Peña, Pablo A

    2015-02-01

    This study estimates average excess death rates on and around birthdays, and explores differences between birthdays falling on weekends and birthdays falling on weekdays. Using records from the U.S. Social Security Administration for 25 million people who died during the period from 1998 to 2011, average excess death rates are estimated controlling for seasonality of births and deaths. The average excess death rate on birthdays is 6.7% (p < 0.0001). No evidence is found of dips in average excess death rates in a ±10 day neighborhood around birthdays that could offset the spikes on birthdays. Significant differences are found between age groups and between weekend and weekday birthdays. Younger people have greater average excess death rates on birthdays, reaching up to 25.4% (p < 0.0001) for ages 20-29. Younger people also show the largest differences between average excess death rates on weekend birthdays and weekday birthdays, reaching up to 64.5 percentage points (p = 0.0063) for ages 1-9. Over the 13-year period analyzed, the estimated excess deaths on birthdays are 4590.

  14. Subtask 12H2: Status of the dynamic helium charging experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the dynamic helium charging experiment (DHCE) is to investigate the effects of concurrent helium production and fast-neutron irradiation on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium-based alloys for fusion blanket applications. A major task in this reporting period was to disassemble the tritium-bearing DHCE capsules to retrieve irradiated specimens for examination and testing. Seven DHCE capsules containing vanadium-alloy specimens were irradiated in the MOTA-2B vehicle in FFTF to {approx}20-29 dpa. In this and the previous reporting periods, equipment and procedures were developed at Argonne National Laboratory-East to disassemble these capsules. Six of the seven capsules have been disassembled. (The seventh capsule was processed in April 1994, immediately following this reporting period.) Effluence of tritium into the cell exhaust was <2% of the total inventory. No contamination incidents occurred during the DHCE disassembly work. Initial testing of the retrieved specimens is under way. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in the prisoners of Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Poudat, A; Nasirian, H

    2007-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of active pediculosis and scabies among prisoners prompted us to conduct a head louse and scabies prevalence survey among prisoners in the Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan province, Iran. During the study, 67 patients with skin disorders were found. Among the doubtful patients who were considered 38 patients (57%) indicated Sarcoptes scabiei, 6 patients (9%) were indicated lice and 23 patients (33%) were set aside for more studying and specialized tests. Contamination rates were 18.4, 10.5 and 10.5% in the youths, drug abusers and kitchen units, respectively. Adults, foreigners and quarantine units were contaminated 7.9, 5.3 and 5.3%, respectively. In cheque and military units, no contamination was observed because of the higher hygienic status. Morbidity rate in the individual and technical units was 2.5%. The highest and the least morbidity rates were observed among 20-29 year age group (55.2%) and over 50 year age group (2.6%). The average and the mean ages of the 38 patients that contaminated to Sarcoptes scabiei was 29 +/- 8 and 28 years, respectively. The least and the highest contamination ages were 18 and 59 years, respectively. The affirmative Sarcoptes scabiei cases in the different units indicated that the general units had the most morbidity percentage because there were many prisoners with different cultural backgrounds (26.3%).

  16. [Sexual dimorphism of the psychophysiological indices in sportsmen of higher qualification].

    PubMed

    Korobeĭnikov, H V; Koniaieva, L D; Rossokha, H V; Medvydchuk, K V; Petrov, H S

    2006-01-01

    To determine the influence of sexual dimorphism on mental characteristics in elite athletes, 24 sportsmen (18-27 years old) (17 men and 7 women members of Ukrainian National Judo Team), 20 sedentary men and 20 sedentary women (20-29 years old) were studied. Results obtained confirmed significant difference of sexual dimorphism indices in athletes and sedentary people. It was determined that sexual dimorphism manifestations in athletes were as follows: (1) short memory capacity (62.58 +/- 3.21%) and coefficient of operational thinking (2.67 +/- 0.16 standard units) was increased in women in comparison with men (55.78 +/- 2.07% and 1.44 +/- 0.30 standard units, p < 0.05, accordingly), (2) on the contrary neurodynamic functions were decreased in women (latent time of simple (266.92 +/- 4.73 ms) and composite (494.44 +/- 6.38 ms) visual-motor reactions and power of nervous processes (18.49 +/- 8.93%) in comparison with men (239.62 +/- 5.26 ms, 440.10 +/- 6.61 ms, 5.33 +/- 0.59%, p < 0.05, respectively). Results obtained indicate influence of sexual dimorphism on psychophysiological functions.

  17. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Cooper, Nigel P; Rosowski, John J

    2008-07-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance H(MY) (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil's audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The H(MY) magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The H(MY) phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20-29 micros delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from H(MY) and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram.

  18. Epizootiological survey of small mammals as Leptospira spp. reservoirs in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stritof Majetic, Zrinka; Galloway, Renee; Ruzic Sabljic, Eva; Milas, Zoran; Mojcec Perko, Vesna; Habus, Josipa; Margaletic, Josip; Pernar, Renata; Turk, Nenad

    2014-03-01

    In this survey we investigated a population of small mammals in Eastern Croatia in order to determine Leptospira carriage rates and identify circulating serovars. Out of 67 trapped animals, 20 (29.9%) isolates were obtained. Identification of isolates using microscopic agglutination test, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing revealed that 10 (50.0%) isolates belong to serogroup Pomona, serovar Mozdok, 6 (30.0%) isolates to serogroup Australis, serovar Jalna, 2 (10.0%) isolates to serogroup Sejroe, serovar Saxkoebing, and 1 (5.0%) isolate to serogroup Grippotyphosa, serovar Grippotyphosa. One isolate from serogroup Bataviae was unable to be identified to the serovar level. Amplification of a 331-bp region of the locus LA0322 using real-time polymerase chain reaction determined that 12 (60.0%) isolates belong to L. kirschneri, 6 (30.0%) isolates to L. interrogans, and 2 (10.0%) isolates to L. borgpetersenii. Leptospira carriage rate was high (29.9%), which corresponds to a high incidence of human and domestic animal leptospirosis in Eastern Croatia. Furthermore, 90.0% of the isolates belong to serogroups Pomona, Australis and Sejroe which are also the most prevalent serogroups in humans in this area. These findings suggest that small mammals might be an important source of Leptospira spp. infection in Eastern Croatia.

  19. Prevalence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci recovered from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Rola, J G; Korpysa-Dzirba, W; Czubkowska, A; Osek, J

    2015-07-01

    Raw milk may be contaminated by enterotoxigenic coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Several of these microorganisms show antimicrobial resistance, which poses a potential risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of CPS isolated from cow milk. A total of 115 samples were analyzed for the presence of CPS according to the International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 6888-2). The genes were identified using 2multiplex PCR assays. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Overall, 71 samples (62%) were contaminated with CPS and 69 isolates were further analyzed. Among them, 20 (29%) strains harbored the enterotoxin genes. The most commonly detected staphylococcal enterotoxin markers were sed, sej, and ser, whereas none of the analyzed isolates possessed the seb and see genes. Almost one-half of the tested strains (43%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to penicillin was the most common, followed by sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, and streptomycin. None of the strains was positive for the mecA and mecC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) genes. These results indicate that enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant CPS strains are present in raw milk, which may be a potential risk for public health.

  20. The international primary ciliary dyskinesia cohort (iPCD Cohort): methods and first results.

    PubMed

    Goutaki, Myrofora; Maurer, Elisabeth; Halbeisen, Florian S; Amirav, Israel; Barbato, Angelo; Behan, Laura; Boon, Mieke; Casaulta, Carmen; Clement, Annick; Crowley, Suzanne; Haarman, Eric; Hogg, Claire; Karadag, Bulent; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula; Leigh, Margaret W; Loebinger, Michael R; Mazurek, Henryk; Morgan, Lucy; Nielsen, Kim G; Omran, Heymut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Scigliano, Sergio; Werner, Claudius; Yiallouros, Panayiotis; Zivkovic, Zorica; Lucas, Jane S; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Data on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) epidemiology is scarce and published studies are characterised by low numbers. In the framework of the European Union project BESTCILIA we aimed to combine all available datasets in a retrospective international PCD cohort (iPCD Cohort).We identified eligible datasets by performing a systematic review of published studies containing clinical information on PCD, and by contacting members of past and current European Respiratory Society Task Forces on PCD. We compared the contents of the datasets, clarified definitions and pooled them in a standardised format.As of April 2016 the iPCD Cohort includes data on 3013 patients from 18 countries. It includes data on diagnostic evaluations, symptoms, lung function, growth and treatments. Longitudinal data are currently available for 542 patients. The extent of clinical details per patient varies between centres. More than 50% of patients have a definite PCD diagnosis based on recent guidelines. Children aged 10-19 years are the largest age group, followed by younger children (≤9 years) and young adults (20-29 years).This is the largest observational PCD dataset available to date. It will allow us to answer pertinent questions on clinical phenotype, disease severity, prognosis and effect of treatments, and to investigate genotype-phenotype correlations.

  1. HIV-1 in Haitian women 1982-1988. The Cite Soleil/JHU AIDS Project Team.

    PubMed

    Boulos, R; Halsey, N A; Holt, E; Ruff, A; Brutus, J R; Quinn, T C; Adrien, M; Boulos, C

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Haitian women (n = 4,474) residing in a periurban slum were interviewed to identify risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases and sera were tested to identify antibodies to HIV-1 and syphilis. The seroprevalence rates for antibodies to HIV-1 increased from 8.9% in 1986 to 9.9% in 1987 and 10.3% in 1988. Sera obtained in 1982 from 533 mothers of young infants in the same community revealed that 7.8% were HIV-1 seropositive. Of women pregnant for the first time in 1986-1988, 6.6% were HIV-1 seropositive and 6.0% had a positive VDRL. The highest seropositivity rates (greater than 15%) were noted in women 20 to 29 years of age with a history of two or more sexual partners in the year prior to pregnancy. Factors independently associated with HIV-1 seropositivity in pregnant women by logistic regression analysis included being unmarried, age 20-29 years, having had more than one sex partner in the year prior to pregnancy, a positive serologic test for syphilis, and smoking. A dose-response effect was noted in the association between HIV-1 seropositivity and smoking. The association between smoking and HIV-1 infections could be confounded by unrecognized behavioral factors or due to a biologic effect of smoking. The continuing high HIV-1 seropositivity rates in pregnant women indicate that current preventive measures are insufficient and increased control efforts are urgently needed.

  2. Application of In-Syringe Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Narrow-Bore Tube Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Amounts of BTEX in Water Samples.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Mashaallah; Kaykhaii, Massoud; Ghasemi, Elham; Tahernejad, Mohadeseh

    2015-08-01

    Two new simple and effective methods based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure, termed "in-syringe DLLME (IS-DLLME)" and "narrow-bore tube DLLME (NB-DLLME)", were developed and applied for rapid and simultaneous separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in water samples followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of both methods such as type and volume of the extraction solvent and the disperser solvent; pH, temperature and volume of sample solution and ionic strength of samples were investigated and optimized. Under optimal condition, the limits of detection ranged from 1.7 to 2.4 µg L(-1) for IS-DLLME and 1.5 to 2.2 µg L(-1) for NB-DLLME. Precision (as relative standard deviation) of the two techniques was between 2.1 and 4.6% for IS-DLLME and between 1.5 and 4.5% for NB-DLLME. The enrichment factors found to be between 20-29 and 31-73 for IS- and NB-DLLME, respectively. The applicability of the proposed methods was investigated by analyzing real water samples.

  3. [Habitat selection attributes of giant panda].

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Guo, Wen-Xia; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Wen; Li, Jun-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1997-2009 inventory data of Wanglang Nature Reserve, the habitat selection attributes of giant panda were studied from the aspects of topography, forest community structure, and main feeding bamboo by the methods of frequency distribution and Bailey. The giant panda had obvious habitat preferences. Topographically, the preferred microhabitat was on the even or convex slopes at the ridge, top, or middle part of mountain body at an elevation 2500-3000 m, with southwest aspect, 6 degrees-30 degrees, and the distance to the nearest water source > 300 m. As for the forest community structure, the giant panda preferred the microhabitat with the bamboo succeeded from secondary forest or mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest, and with the average tree height being 20-29 m and the shrub coverage being 0-24%. The preferred main feeding bamboo by the giant panda was the growing well Fargesia denudate with an average height of 2-5 m and the coverage of > 50%.

  4. Trends in uninsured clients visiting health centers funded by the Title X family planning program - Massachusetts, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Carter, Marion; Desilets, Kathleen; Gavin, Lorrie; Moskosky, Sue; Clark, Jill

    2014-01-24

    In 2006, Massachusetts passed legislation that broadened access to health insurance for its residents. The percentage of the state population that had health insurance (obtained through either private insurance or publicly funded programs) subsequently increased, reaching 97% in 2011, leaving only 3% uninsured, compared with approximately 9%-20% uninsured among nonelderly residents in 2006. Given such high rates of insurance coverage, questions arise about the need for categorical public health programs designed to serve clients without health insurance. This report describes trends in the percentage of uninsured clients seen at community-based organizations in Massachusetts that received federal funding for one such program, the Title X family planning program. Title X program data from 2005-2012 indicate that client volume remained high throughout the period, and that the percentage of clients who were uninsured declined, from 59% in 2005 to 36% in 2012. Across years, young adults aged 20-29 years and persons whose incomes were 101%-250% of the federal poverty level were more likely to be uninsured than were persons in other age and income groups. After health-care reform, publicly funded family planning services in Massachusetts saw continued demand from uninsured and insured clients. Family planning services in other states implementing health-care reform might have a similar experience, and public health agencies are encouraged to track such trends to monitor the demand for such services and inform budget planning and resource allocation.

  5. Association of genetic variations in miR-146a rs2910164 and miR-149 rs11614913 with the development of classic Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Lu, Q L; Wu, X J; Ma, H Y; Qu, Y Y; Zhang, D Z; Pu, X M

    2016-11-03

    Classic Kaposi sarcoma is a type of vascular proliferative inflammatory disease. Previous studies have reported significant associations between microRNAs expression and the development of classic Kaposi sarcoma. Here, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between miR-146a and miR-149 genetic polymorphisms and risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma in a Chinese population. Both classic Kaposi sarcoma patients and healthy controls were recruited between December 2013 and October 2015. Genotyping of miR-146a and miR-149 was performed by polymerase chain reaction-coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results showed that the GG genotype of miR-146a was associated with increased risk to classic Kaposi sarcoma (OR = 6.00, 95%CI = 1.19-30.12), as compared with the CC genotype. In the recessive model, we found that the GG genotype carried a 4.55-fold increased risk to classic Kaposi sarcoma as compared with the CC + CG genotype (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.04-20.29). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that miR-146a, but not miR-149 polymorphism, is associated with risk to classic Kaposi sarcoma in the Chinese population.

  6. Immediate hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R; Hedayati, M T; Mansouri, P; Shokri, H; Moazzeni, M

    2007-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic dermatitis that has unknown aetiology. It seems that Malassezia furfur has a role in pathogenesis of AD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin responses to M. furfur antigens in AD patients. Malassezia furfur was grown and the yeasts were broken. Cells were centrifuged and supernatants were used as crude extracts (CE). Protein components of CE were separated by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In addition, to fractionate CE antigens, gel filtration chromatography was performed. One hundred and fifteen AD patients were selected for skin-prick test (SPT). In SDS-PAGE, CE showed a total of 19 different protein bands (10-100 kDa). Chromatographic gel filtration with M. furfur proteins showed four major fractions (F). The protein pattern of F(1) (tube no. 40) was between 22 and 100 kDa and it was selected for SPT. In SPT, 49.6% and 42.6% patients showed positive reactions with CE and F(1) antigens respectively. The most positive results were obtained in 20-29 aged group (P < 0.001). The allergens of M. furfur may have a role in AD signs; it is suggested to use F(1) antigens in allergy tests.

  7. Autogenous cultured growth plate chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of physeal injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, R.; Bohosiewicz, J.; Gap, A.; Bursig, H.; Wysocka, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand’s white rabbits was to investigate the transplantation of autogenous growth plate cells in order to treat the injured growth plate. They were assessed in terms of measurements of radiological tibial varus and histological characteristics. Methods An experimental model of plate growth medial partial resection of the tibia in 14 New Zealand white rabbits was created. During this surgical procedure the plate growth cells were collected and cultured. While the second surgery was being performed, the autologous cultured growth plate cells were grafted at the right tibia, whereas the left tibia was used as a control group. Results Histological examinations showed that the grafted right tibia presented the regular shape of the plate growth with hypertrophic maturation, chondrocyte columniation and endochondral calcification. Radiological study shows that the mean tibial deformity at the left angle was 20.29° (6.25 to 33) and 7.21° (5 to 10) in the right angle. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that grafting of autogenous cultured growth plate cells into a defect of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis can prevent bone bridge formation, growth arrest and the development of varus deformity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:310–16 PMID:25376625

  8. Acute T cell-mediated rejection accompanied by C4d-negative acute antibody-mediated rejection and cell debris in tubulus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Izumi; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Katsumata, Haruki; Yamakawa, Takafumi; Furuya, Maiko; Mafune, Aki; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Tanno, Yudo; Miki, Jun; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report a complicated case of acute T-cell-mediated rejection (ACR) accompanied by C4d-negative acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cell debris in tubulus. A 32 year-old male was admitted for an episode biopsy with a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.83 mg/dL and pyuria (20-29 white blood cells per high power field) 49 days following kidney transplantation. Histological features included three distinct entities, mainly, in one of the three specimens: 1) focal aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration with moderate tubulitis, 2) inflammatory cell infiltration in peritubular capillaries (including neutrophils) and glomerular capillaries, and 3) cell debris consisting mainly of neutrophils in tubulus. Laboratory examination revealed evidence of non-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies. However, urinary culture and gram staining were negative. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, the patient was diagnosed with ACR accompanied by C4d-negative AMR and suspicion of a urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was treated for three consecutive days with steroid pulse therapy. The patient's S-Cr level decreased to ~1.5 mg/dL following treatment and did not increase thereafter. A second biopsy 133 days following kidney transplantation showed an excellent response to treatment and revealed no evidence of rejection. This case report demonstrates the difficulty in the diagnosis of, and therapy for, the complicated pathological findings of ACR, AMR and suspicion of a UTI.

  9. [Women hospitalized due to abortion in a maternity teaching hospital in Recife, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Ramos, Karla Silva; Ferreira, Ana Laura Carneiro Gomes; de Souza, Ariani Impieri

    2010-09-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed with 160 women between 2005-2006. The objective was to describe the social-demographic and reproductive characteristics of women hospitalized due to abortions, and their knowledge about contraceptive methods and abortion induction. In order to determine the association between the abortion classification and social-demographic variables, Pearson's chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 5%. A frequency of 56.3% was found for probably induced abortions. Most cases of abortion occurred before 12 weeks (55.7%). As for the women's profiles: 48.9% were between 20-29 years old, 72.0% had eight years or more of schooling, 90.1% had a partner, 52.0% had 1-3 children, 100% knew about oral contraceptives and condoms and 80.0% had heard about misoprostol. The social-demographic and reproductive profile of women hospitalized at the referred service due to abortion did not change over the last years. Misoprostol remains the most known method for abortion induction.

  10. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  11. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    PubMed

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  12. [Effect of nitrogen-containing derivatives of the plant triterpenes betulin and glycyrrhetic acid on the growth of MT-4, MOLT-4, CEM, and Hep G2 tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Shintiapina, A B; Shul'ts, E E; Petrenko, N I; Uzenkova, N V; Tolstikov, G A; Pronkina, N V; Kozhevnikov, V S; Pokrovskiĭ, A G

    2007-01-01

    Derivatives of the available plant triterpenes glycyrrhetic acid and betulin (betulin succinates and amides of betulonic and 18beta-glycyrrhetic acids containing fragments of long-chain amino acids and a peptide) were synthesized. The inhibitory action of these compounds on the growth of MT-4, MOLT-4, CEM. and Hep G2 tumor cells and their effect on the apoptosis of these cells were studied. It was shown that betulonic acid amides are more effective inhibitors of the tumor cell growth than the corresponding amides of glycyrrhetic acid. It was also found that betulonic acid amides containing fragments of caprylic, pelargonic, and undecanoic acids are more effective inhibitors of tumor cell growth than betulinic acid. The 17-dipeptide derivative of betulonic acid N-{N-[3-oxo-20(29)-lupen-28-oyl]-9-aminononanoyl}-3-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid exhibited the maximum inhibitory activity toward the tumor cells studied. Data on the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by betulin derivatives at a concentration of 10 microg/ml were obtained by flow cytometry. The amides of betulonic acid proved to be the most effective inducers of apoptosis.

  13. Triterpenes from Euphorbia spinidens with immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ghannadian, M; Akhavan, A; Abdalla, O M; Ayatollahi, A M; Mohammadi-Kamalabadi, M; Ghazanfari, H

    2013-07-01

    Dried aceton-chloroform extract of aerial parts of Euphorbia spinidens Bornm. ex Prokh. endemic to Iran, yielded two new triterpenoids, lup-20(29)-ene-33, 28 diol commonly known as betulin and (3β,23E)-Cycloarta-23-ene-3,25-diol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by 13C- and 1H-NMR as well as 2D-NMR, IR and by the aid of mass fragmentation pattern. In phagocyte chemiluminescence assay, different concentrations of compounds were incubated with the human whole blood in triplicate and the chemiluminescence activity of phagocytic cells were measured by using serum opsonized zymosan and luminol. For lymphocyte proliferation assay, peripheral human blood lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the test compound in supplemented Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium along with 5.0 μg/ml phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 37°C in CO2 environment for 72 h and proliferation level was determined by Beta-scintillation counter. In phagocyte chemiluminescence assay, betulin showed moderate inhibitory effect on the oxidative burst in the neutrophils, while addition of betulin triterpene was able to stimulate the proliferation of the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) treated human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hPBLs).

  14. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of aging and exercise: physical ability and trainability decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew J H; Zerulla, Tanja C; Tierney, Keith B

    2014-02-01

    A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organization level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to mitigate the effects of aging has not been studied in zebrafish. We investigated the effects of aging and intermittent exercise on swimming performance, kinematics and behavior. Young, middle-aged and old zebrafish (20-29, 36-48 and 60-71% of average lifespan, respectively) were exercised to exhaustion in endurance and sprint swimming tests once a week for four weeks. Both endurance and sprint performance decreased with increased age. Swimming performance improved with exercise training in young and middle-aged zebrafish, but not in old zebrafish. Tail-beat amplitude, which is akin to stride length in humans, increased for all age groups with training. Zebrafish turning frequency, which is an indicator of routine activity, decreased with age but showed no change with exercise. In sum, our results show that zebrafish exhibit a decline in whole-organism performance and trainability with age. These findings closely resemble the senescence-related declines in physical ability experienced by humans and mammalian aging models and therefore support the use of zebrafish as a model for human exercise and aging.

  15. Delayed childbearing.

    PubMed

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  16. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  17. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance.

  18. [Darkling beetle community structure and its relations with environmental factors in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu

    2010-09-01

    From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.

  19. Structure and molecular arrangement of proteolipid protein of central nervous system myelin.

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, W; Hillen, H; Giersiefen, H

    1984-01-01

    Proteolipid protein (PLP) of central nervous system myelin is one of the most hydrophobic integral membrane proteins. It consists of a 276-residue-long polypeptide chain with five strongly hydrophobic sequences of 26, 30, 39, 12, and 36 residues, respectively, linked by highly charged hydrophilic sequences. Hyposmotically dissociated bovine myelin membranes were treated with trypsin. PLP was completely cleaved into smaller fragments, whereas basic myelin protein remained essentially unaltered. The proteins and tryptic peptides of myelin were separated after the removal of the short, water-soluble peptides into three large fragments of 11, 7.3, and 9.0 kDA, respectively. They were characterized by their molecular mass and NH2-terminal amino acid sequences, which proved that trypsin cleaved predominantly at Arg-97 yielding the 11-kDa fragment from Gly-1 through Arg-97, at Arg-126 releasing the 7.3-kDa fragment from Gly-127 through Lys-191, and at Lys-191 releasing the 9-kDa fragment from Thr-192 through Phe-276. We propose that PLP is integrated into the lipid bilayer of myelin with the NH2 terminus and three positively charged hydrophilic loops oriented toward the extracytosolic side of the membrane, whereas one strongly negative hydrophilic loop and the positively charged COOH terminus cover the cytosolic side of the lipid bilayer. Basic myelin protein remains protected against tryptic cleavage, which indicates its apposition to the cytosolic side of the membrane. These cleavage sites of trypsin support the suggested orientation of PLP in the myelin membrane and thereby extend our knowledge about the molecular arrangement of the components of this membrane. In demyelinating processes membrane desintegration could be initiated by proteolysis at the external surfaces of proteolipid protein in a similar way as described here. Images PMID:6206491

  20. Alzheimer Lesions in the Autopsied Brains of People 30 to 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay L.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Ali, Sabeen Z.; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Gangadeen, Salina; Crain, Barbara J.; Fowler, David R.; Rubio, Ana I.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that asymptomatic Alzheimer disease lesions may appear before 50 years of age. Background Alzheimer disease has an asymptomatic stage during which people are cognitively intact despite having substantial pathologic changes in the brain. While this asymptomatic stage is common in older people, how early in life it may develop has been unknown. Methods We microscopically examined the postmortem brains of 154 people aged 30-39 years (n = 59) and 40-50 years (n = 95) for specific Alzheimer lesions: beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and tau-positive neurites. We genotyped DNA samples for the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Results We found beta-amyloid lesions in 13 brains, all of them from people aged 40 to 49 with no history of dementia. These plaques were of the diffuse type only and appeared throughout the neocortex. Among these 13 brains, 5 had very subtle tau lesions in the entorhinal cortex and/or hippocampus. All individuals with beta-amyloid deposits carried 1 or 2 APOE4 alleles. Among the individuals aged 40 to 50 with genotype APOE3/4, 10 (36%) had beta-amyloid deposits but 18 (64%) had none. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex appear as early as 40 years of age in APOE4 carriers, suggesting that these lesions may constitute a very early stage of Alzheimer disease. Future preventive and therapeutic measures for this disease may have to be stratified by risk factors like APOE genotype and target people in their 40s or even earlier. PMID:26413742

  1. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches.

  2. Risk factors for psoriasis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Slavenka; Raznatovic, Milena; Marinkovic, Jelena; Jankovic, Janko; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2009-06-01

    A case-control study of 110 consecutive psoriatic outpatients and 200 unmatched controls was carried out in order to analyze the association of psoriasis with smoking habits, alcohol consumption, family history of psoriasis and stressful life events. Stressful life events were assessed with Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events, a semi-structured interview covering 63 life events. According to our results, the risk of psoriasis is higher in urban dwellers (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-13.18), patients who were divorced (OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.26-14.34) and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.12-4.67). Alcohol consumption (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.26-5.17), family history of psoriasis (OR = 33.96; 95% CI = 14.14-81.57) and change in work conditions (OR = 8.34; 95% CI = 1.86-37.43) are also risk factors for psoriasis. Separate analyses for men and women showed that the risk of developing psoriasis was stronger in men with a family history of psoriasis (OR = 30.39; 95% CI = 6.72-137.42) than in women (OR = 16.99; 95% CI = 7.21-40.07). The effect of environmental tobacco smoke at home was found only in women (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.26-4.73). Future well-designed epidemiological studies need to be performed in order to determine whether lifestyle factors and stress could be risk factors triggering or aggravating psoriasis.

  3. Increased health risk in Bangkok children exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from traffic-related sources.

    PubMed

    Tuntawiroon, Jantamas; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Navasumrit, Panida; Autrup, Herman; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess potential health risk of exposure to particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in children living in a megacity with traffic congestion such as Bangkok. The study population comprised 184 Thai schoolboys (aged 8-13 years) attending schools adjacent to high-density traffic areas in Bangkok and schools located in the provincial area of Chonburi. The ambient concentration of total PAHs at roadsides in proximity to the Bangkok schools was 30-fold greater than at roadsides in proximity to the provincial schools (30.39 +/- 5.80 versus 1.50 +/- 0.28 ng/m(3); P < 0.001). Benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), an indicator of automobile exhaust emission, was the predominant PAH. Personal exposure to total PAHs and the corresponding benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent concentrations in Bangkok schoolchildren were 3.5-fold higher than in provincial schoolchildren (4.13 +/- 0.21 versus 1.18 +/- 0.09 ng/m(3); P < 0.001 and 1.50 +/- 0.12 versus 0.43 +/- 0.05 ng/m(3); P < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was significantly higher in Bangkok schoolchildren. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct levels in peripheral lymphocytes were also significantly higher (0.45 +/- 0.03 versus 0.09 +/- 0.00 adducts/10(8) nt; P < 0.001). Finally, a significantly higher level of DNA strand breaks and a significantly lower level of DNA repair capacity were observed in Bangkok schoolchildren (P < 0.001). This study indicates that Bangkok schoolchildren exposed to a high level of genotoxic PAHs in ambient air may be more vulnerable to the health impacts associated with the exposure to genotoxic pollutants than children in provincial areas and may have increased health risks for the development of certain diseases such as cancer.

  4. HBXIP up-regulates ACSL1 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shuqin; Cui, Ming; Liu, Fabao; Sun, Baodi; Zhang, Weiying; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2017-03-11

    The oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) results in the dysregulation of lipid metabolism to enhance the development of breast cancer. Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1) is required for thioesterification of long-chain fatty acids into their acyl-CoA derivatives. In this study, we present a hypothesis that HBXIP might be involved in the regulation of ACSL1 in breast cancer. Interestingly, we found that the overexpression of HBXIP was able to up-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cells. Conversely, silencing of HBXIP led to the opposite results. Mechanistically, HBXIP as a coactivator interacted with transcriptional factor Sp1 through binding to the promoter of ACSL1 by ChIP assays analysis, leading to the transcription of ACSL1 in breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the positive rate of ACSL1 was 71.4% (35/49) in clinical breast cancer tissues, HBXIP 79.6% (39/49), in which the positive rate of ACSL1 was 76.9% (30/39) in the HBXIP-positive specimens. But, few positive rate of ACSL1 10% (1/10) was observed in normal breast tissues. The mRNA levels of ACSL1 were significantly higher in clinical breast cancer tissues than those in their corresponding peritumor tissues. The mRNA levels of ACSL1 were positively associated with those of HBXIP in clinical breast cancer tissues. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to up-regulate ACSL1 through activating the transcriptional factor Sp1 in breast cancer.

  5. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  6. LMA Supreme™ vs i-gel™--a comparison of insertion success in novices.

    PubMed

    Ragazzi, R; Finessi, L; Farinelli, I; Alvisi, R; Volta, C A

    2012-04-01

    Two new supraglottic airway devices, the LMA Supreme™ (LMA) and the i-gel™, offer potential benefits when inserted by inexperienced operators. This study compared the insertion success rate and ventilation profile between the LMA Supreme and the i-gel when inserted by operators without previous airway management expertise. Following a short lecture and manikin training, airway novices were randomly allocated to insert either the LMA Supreme or the i-gel into 80 patients undergoing breast surgery. The primary outcome was first-time success rate, and secondary outcomes were overall success rate, insertion time, airway leak pressure, tidal volume during pressure controlled ventilation at 17 cmH(2)O, and adverse events. First-time insertion success rate was significantly higher for the LMA Supreme than the i-gel (30/39 (77%) vs 22/41 (54%); p = 0.029). Significantly more placement failures occurred with the i-gel (6 vs 0, p = 0.025). Mean (SD) leak pressure (29 (8) vs 23 (11) cmH(2)O, p = 0.007) and expired tidal volume (PCV 17 cmH(2)O) (785 (198) vs 654 (91), p = 0.001) were significantly greater with the LMA Supreme than with the i-gel, respectively. More patients complained of pharyngolaryngeal pain with the LMA Supreme than with the i-gel (17/39 (44%) vs 8/41 (20%); p = 0.053). We found better first time success rate, fewer failures, and a better seal with the LMA Supreme compared with the i-gel, indicating that the LMA Supreme may be preferable for emergency airway use by novices.

  7. Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangshin

    2017-03-27

    Whether age at first childbirth has an effect on hypertension incidence is unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension and to examine whether degree of obesity, measured as body mass index, mediates age at first childbirth-related hypertension in postmenopausal women. This study analyzed 4779 postmenopausal women data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate relationship between age at first childbirth and hypertension. Mediation analysis was performed to examine the contribution of body mass index to age at first childbirth-related hypertension. Mean of participants' age at first childbirth and current age were 23.8 and 63.4 years, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 51.1%. Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with the prevalence of hypertension (odds ratio, 0.963; 95% confidence interval, 0.930-0.998; P=0.036). Women with age at first childbirth ≤19 years had significantly higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.23; P=0.004) compared with those >19 years. Multivariable-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was significantly lower in women who delivered the first infant at 20 to 24 (45.5%), 25 to 29 (46.1%), and ≥30 (39.9%) years compared with those at ≤19 years (58.4%). Body mass index completely mediated age at first childbirth-hypertension relationship (indirect effect: odds ratio, 0.992; 95% confidence interval, 0.987-0.998; P=0.008). Age at first childbirth was significantly associated with hypertension in postmenopausal women. Body mass index mediated the effects of age at first childbirth on hypertension.

  8. Prevalence of Depression Among College-Goers in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cai Xiao; Li, Zhan Zhan; Chen, Peng; Chen, Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are no proper statistics available to assess how much of a burden it is to them. This study was conducted to gauge the pooled prevalence and offer evidence in support of few prevention and regulation strategies. A methodical literature search was conducted with the help of the Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases. Furthermore, articles published from 2000 to 2014, reporting about the estimated prevalence of depression among college students in mainland China, were covered as well. In this study, a meta-analysis was deployed to approximate the overall prevalence of depression among college-goers in mainland China. A total of 45 studies were conducted on 50,826 participants. The average pooled prevalence of depression was 30.39% (26.38–34.55%). Subgroup analyses showed that 29.45% (22.88–36.48%) were men and 28.65% (23.44–34.16%) were women. Furthermore, 28.10% (22.83–33.70%) were from the northern part and 32.44% (26.67–38.48%) were from the southern. The prevalence of depression was 30.45% (23.96–37.36%) for sample sizes of <500 subjects, 30.99% (25.08–37.23%) for samples with 500 to 1000 people, and 29.54% (33.32–37.33%) in case of samples with >1000 people. Publications between 2000 and 2006 showed a depression prevalence of 8.45% (22.34–35.00%), whereas 30.52% (21.30–40.61%) and 31.79% (27.31–36.45%) were the corresponding values according to publications during 2007 to 2011 and 2012 to 2014. The prevalence of depression among college students in mainland China had reached the world's epidemic level. PMID:26683916

  9. An Observational Study to Evaluate the Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction (ED) and Prescribing Pattern of Drugs in Patients with ED Visiting an Andrology Specialty Clinic, Mumbai: 2012-14

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Vijay R.; Bhagat, Sagar B.; Beldar, Amit S.; Patel, Sadiq B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common occurrence and its incidence is expected to increase significantly along with the increase in various lifestyle diseases. The drug utilization for ED is very low. Also, studies describing the prescription pattern in ED are lacking. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional observational study, including a drug utilization analysis, of 606 prescriptions as per the standard guidelines (WHO and STROBE). Results: Out of 606, 249 (41%) were from the age group of 30-39 years. Addictions were present in 388 (64%). Out of 606, 186 had urological, 154 had cardiovascular and 102 had psychological co-morbid disorders. Out of 348, 201 were prescribed Tadalafil (low dose) on a once daily basis. Out of 172, 121 were prescribed Sildenafil (high dose) on an ‘as and when required’ basis. Nutritional/ herbal supplements were prescribed in 126/606. The ratio of ‘Prescribed Daily Dose’ to ‘Defined Daily Dose’ of Tadalafil, Sildenafil, and Dapoxetine were 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 respectively. Conclusion: Measures for de-addiction play an important role in the overall management of ED. The most common co-morbid disorders were urological, like BPH, LUTS, etc, followed by cardiovascular, psychological and diabetes. Overall, rational pharmacotherapy was observed. Tadalafil was the most commonly prescribed drug for ED. The main factor in the selection of a particular PDE5 inhibitor was its pharmacokinetics and cost. Udenafil, being the costliest, was the least prescribed. Dapoxetine was used in a significant number of individuals primarily for PE with ED. The combination of Papaverine, Chlorpromazine ± Alprostadil was used as intracavernosal injection in patients not responding to oral drugs. PMID:26393163

  10. Differential Effects of Continuous and Interval Exercise Training on the Atherogenic Index of Plasma in the Non-Obese Young Male

    PubMed Central

    Ezeukwu, Antoninus O; Agwubike, Elias O; Uadia, Patrick O

    2015-01-01

    Background The process of atherogenicity is known to be influenced by exercise. However, appropriate exercise stimulus necessary to generate the response and adaptation in sedentary non-obese individuals has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week continuous training and corresponding interval training on the atherogenic index of plasma in sedentary Nigerian males. Methods Overall, there were 54 male university students that participated in our study, which used a pretest- posttest control group design. Participants (18 males per group) were assigned into continuous, interval and control groups respectively. During the first two weeks, training was done 3 times weekly for 30 minutes each day, and was increased by 5 minutes every 2 weeks. Continuous training was done at 70-84% of heart rate reserve. Interval training was done at 70-84%/30-39% heart rate reserve in 1:2 minutes work/rest intervals, respectively. The control group did not participate in the training. Data collected were analysed using descriptive, paired t-test, analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. Results Young sedentary non-obese males were at high risk (atherogenic index of plasma > 0.24) of cardiovascular diseases/conditions. However, continuous training led to significant reductions (p = 0.002) in the atherogenic index of plasma. In contrast, non-significant increase (p = 0.084) followed interval training. After controlling for baseline values, only continuous training still had significant effects on atherogenic index of plasma when compared with other groups. Conclusions Continuous training of vigorous intensity is better than a corresponding interval training protocol as a natural anti-atherogenic method of reducing risk of cardiovascular event in sedentary non-obese males. PMID:27122890

  11. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; ...

    2002-11-07

    In this study, we use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach.more » The modal approach with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  12. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia.

  13. Steep Decrease of Gender Difference in DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison of Two Nation-wide Surveys Conducted 10 Years Apart in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Hong, Jin Pyo; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-01-01

    While decreasing trend in gender differences in alcohol use disorders was reported in Western countries, the change in Asian countries is unknown. This study aims to explore the shifts in gender difference in alcohol abuse (AA) and dependence (AD) in Korea. We compared the data from two nation-wide community surveys to evaluate gender differences in lifetime AA and AD by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Face-to-face interviews using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) were applied to all subjects in 2001 (n=6,220) and 2011 (n=6,022). Male-to-female ratio of odds was decreased from 6.41 (95% CI, 4.81-8.54) to 4.37 (95% CI, 3.35-5.71) for AA and from 3.75 (95% CI, 2.96-4.75) to 2.40 (95% CI, 1.80-3.19) for AD. Among those aged 18-29, gender gap even became statistically insignificant for AA (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.97-2.63) and AD (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.80-2.41) in 2011. Men generally showed decreased odds for AD (0.55; 95% CI, 0.45-0.67) and women aged 30-39 showed increased odds for AA (2.13; 95% CI 1.18-3.84) in 2011 compared to 2001. Decreased AD in men and increased AA in women seem to contribute to the decrease of gender gap. Increased risk for AA in young women suggests needs for interventions. PMID:26539014

  14. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    In this study, we use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach. The modal approach with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).

  15. Effect of triptorelin on lower urinary tract symptoms in Australian prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Henry H; Murphy, Declan G; Testa, Gerard M; Grummet, Jeremy P; Chong, Michael; Stork, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prostate cancer is often comorbidly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but few studies have assessed the effects of androgen deprivation therapy on LUTS in this patient group. Patients and methods We conducted a prospective, noninterventional, multicenter, observational study to assess the effectiveness of triptorelin (11.25 mg every 12 weeks) over 48 weeks in men presenting with local stage T3/4 prostate cancer and moderate to severe LUTS (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS] >7) in a routine practice setting in Australia. Results Of the 44 men who enrolled, effectiveness data were available for 39 men. By the end of the study, 30% of men no longer met the IPSS criteria for moderate to severe LUTS. The proportion of patients with moderate to severe LUTS was 69.6% (16/23) at week 48 and 76.9% (30/39) at the last available visit (coprimary outcomes). An IPSS reduction of ≥3 from week 0 was observed in 47% of men at week 4, 56% at week 24, 61% (14/23) at week 48, and 61.5% (24/39) at the last available visit. Quality of life was rated as mostly satisfied-to-delighted by 39.5% of patients at week 0, 53.9% at week 24, and 77.3% at week 48. Triptorelin was well tolerated with 8 treatment-related adverse events reported, half of which were hot flushes; 5 patients discontinued due to the reported treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion This observational study suggests that triptorelin improves moderate to severe LUTS in prostate cancer patients in a routine clinical practice setting. PMID:28261572

  16. Long-term Benzodiazepine Treatment in Patients with Psychotic Disorders Attending a Mental Health Service in Rural Greece

    PubMed Central

    Peritogiannis, Vaios; Manthopoulou, Thiresia; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited. Materials and Methods: Information for 77 patients with psychotic disorders who were regularly attending follow-up appointments with the multidisciplinary Mobile Mental Health Unit of the prefectures of Ioannina and Thesprotia, Northwest Greece, during 1-year period (2015) was obtained from our database. Results: From the total of 77 engaged patients, 30 (39%) were regularly prescribed BZDs in the long term, as part of their treatment regimen. Prescribed BZDs were mostly diazepam and lorazepam, in 43.3% of cases each. The mean daily dose of these compounds was 13 mg and 3.77 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a correlation of long-term BZD use with the history of alcohol/substance abuse. Most patients were receiving BZD continuously for several years, and the mean dose was steady within this interval. Conclusions: A large proportion of patients with psychotic disorders were regularly prescribed BZD in long term. It appears that when BZDs are prescribed for some period in the course of a psychotic disorder, their use commonly exceeds the recommended interval and then becomes a regular part of the chronic treatment regimen. Future research should address the factors that may be related to the long-term BZD use by patients with psychotic disorders. Interventions for the reduction of regular BZD prescription should target the primary care setting and all those who treat first episode patients. PMID:28163499

  17. High rate of prey consumption in a small predatory fish on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, W. E.; Lönnstedt, O. M.; Bosiger, Y.; Martin, J.; Jones, G. P.; Rowe, R. J.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Small piscivores are regarded as important regulators of the composition of coral reef fish communities, but few studies have investigated their predatory ecology or impact on assemblages of juvenile fishes. This study investigated the foraging ecology of a common coral reef predator, the dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, using underwater focal animal observations. Observations were conducted at two times of year: the summer, when recruit fishes were an available food item and winter, when remaining juveniles had outgrown vulnerability to P. fuscus. During the summer, P. fuscus directed 76% of its strikes at invertebrates and 24% at recruiting juvenile fishes. When striking at fishes, P. fuscus exhibited two distinct feeding modes: an ambush (26% successful) and a pursuit mode (5% successful). Predator activity in the field peaked at midday, averaging 2.5 captures h-1 of juvenile fishes. Monitoring of activity and foraging in the laboratory over 24-h periods found that P. fuscus was a diurnal predator and was active for 13 h d-1 during the summer. The number of hours during which foraging was recorded differed greatly among individuals ( n = 10), ranging from 4 to 13 h. The number of predatory strikes did not increase with standard length, but the success rate and consumption rate of juvenile fishes did increase with size. Estimated hourly mortality on juvenile fish ranged from 0.49 fish h-1 in small P. fuscus individuals (30-39 mm standard length, SL; equating to 6.3 per 13 h day) to 2.4 fish h-1 in large P. fuscus individuals (55-65 mm SL; 30.6 per 13 h day). During the winter, P. fuscus struck at invertebrates with a similar rate to the summer period. These observations of the predatory ecology of P. fuscus support the hypothesis that in coral reef systems, small piscivores, because of their high metabolism and activity, are probably important regulators of coral reef fish community composition.

  18. Recent lung cancer patterns in younger age-cohorts in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Zubair; Connolly, Gregory N; Clancy, Luke

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking causes 85% of all lung cancers in males and 70% in females. Therefore, birth cohort analysis and annual-percent-changes (APC) in age-specific lung cancer mortality rates, particularly in the youngest age cohorts, can explain the beneficial impacts of both past and recent anti-smoking interventions. Methods A long-term time-trend analysis (1958-2002) in lung cancer mortality rates focusing on the youngest age-cohorts (30-49 years of age) in particular was investigated in Ireland. The rates were standardised to the World Standard Population. Lung cancer mortality data were downloaded from the WHO Cancer Mortality Database to estimate APCs in death rates, using the Joinpoint regression (version 3.0) program. A simple age-cohort modelling (log-linear Poisson model) was also done, using SAS software. Results The youngest birth cohorts (born after 1965) have almost one-fourth lower lung cancer risk relative to those born around the First World War. A more than 50% relative decline in death rates among those between 35 and 39 years of age was observed in both sexes in recent years. The youngest age-cohorts (30-39 years of age) in males also showed a significant decrease in death rates in 1998-2002 by more than 3% every five years from 1958-1962 onwards. However, death rate declines in females are slower. Conclusions The youngest birth cohorts had the lowest lung cancer risk and also showed a significant decreasing lung cancer death rate in the most recent years. Such temporal patterns indicate the beneficial impacts of both recent and past tobacco control efforts in Ireland. However, the decline in younger female cohorts is slower. A comprehensive national tobacco control program enforced on evidence-based policies elsewhere can further accelerate a decline in death rates, especially among the younger generations. PMID:17476821

  19. Herbivores influence the growth, reproduction, and morphology of a widespread Arctic willow.

    PubMed

    Christie, Katie S; Ruess, Roger W; Lindberg, Mark S; Mulder, Christa P

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs have expanded in Arctic ecosystems over the past century, resulting in significant changes to albedo, ecosystem function, and plant community composition. Willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, L. muta) and moose (Alces alces) extensively browse Arctic shrubs, and may influence their architecture, growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, these herbivores may alter forage plants in such a way as to increase the quantity and accessibility of their own food source. We estimated the effect of winter browsing by ptarmigan and moose on an abundant, early-successional willow (Salix alaxensis) in northern Alaska by comparing browsed to unbrowsed branches. Ptarmigan browsed 82-89% of willows and removed 30-39% of buds, depending on study area and year. Moose browsed 17-44% of willows and browsed 39-55% of shoots. Browsing inhibited apical dominance and activated axillary and adventitious buds to produce new vegetative shoots. Ptarmigan- and moose-browsed willow branches produced twice the volume of shoot growth but significantly fewer catkins the following summer compared with unbrowsed willow branches. Shoots on browsed willows were larger and produced 40-60% more buds compared to unbrowsed shoots. This process of shoot production at basal parts of the branch is the mechanism by which willows develop a highly complex "broomed" architecture after several years of browsing. Broomed willows were shorter and more likely to be re-browsed by ptarmigan, but not moose. Ptarmigan likely benefit from the greater quantity and accessibility of buds on previously browsed willows and may increase the carrying capacity of their own habitat. Despite the observed tolerance of willows to browsing, their vertical growth and reproduction were strongly inhibited by moose and ptarmigan. Browsing by these herbivores therefore needs to be considered in future models of shrub expansion in the Arctic.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  1. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with refractory or relapsed lymphoma: results of Children's Oncology Group study A5962.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard E; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Smith, Lynette M; Lynch, James; Henry, Michael M; Perkins, Sherrie L; Gross, Thomas G; Warkentin, Phyllis; Vlachos, Adrianna; Harrison, Lauren; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2011-02-01

    This prospective study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, BCNU, and etoposide (CBV) conditioning and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in children with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and NHL). Patients achieving complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) after 2 to 4 courses of reinduction underwent a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized PBSC apheresis with a target collection dose of 5 × 10⁶ CD34(+)/kg. Those eligible to proceed received autologous PBSCT after CBV (7200 mg/m², 450-300 mg/m², 2400 mg/m²). Forty-three of 69 patients (30/39 HL, 13/30 NHL) achieved a CR/PR after reinduction. Thirty-eight patients (28 HL, 10 NHL) underwent PBSCT. All initial 6 patients who received BCNU at 450 mg/m² experienced grade III or IV pulmonary toxicity compared to none of the subsequent 32 receiving 300 mg/m² (P < .0001). The probability of overall survival (OS) at 3 years for all patients is 51% and for transplanted patients is 64%. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) is 38% (45% for HL; 30% NHL). The 3-year EFS in transplanted patients is 66% (65% HL; 70% NHL). Initial duration of remission of ≥12 versus <12 months was associated with a significant increase in OS (3 years OS 70% versus 34%) (P = .003). BCNU at 300 mg/m(2) in a CBV regimen prior to PBSCT is well tolerated in relapsed or refractory pediatric lymphoma patients. A short duration (<12 months) of initial remission is associated with a poorer prognosis. Last, a high percentage of patients achieving a CR/PR after reinduction therapy can be salvaged with CBV and autologlous PBSCT.

  2. Relations between anthropometric parameters and sexual activity of Hungarian men.

    PubMed

    Rurik, I; Szigethy, E; Fekete, F; Langmár, Z

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, there were visible achievements in the evaluation of sexuality-related problems and issues regarding sexual life. However, there are limited reliable and comparable data on the average values of sexual activity and its relation to anthropometric parameters in different populations and age cohorts. This study tries to examine the association between anthropometric parameters and male sexual activity. A clinical population of 1146 male patients between 25 and 45 years of age attending an outpatient clinic of andrology in Budapest (Hungary) was examined and questioned in a medical setting. Age, body height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported sexual activity were the main outcome measures. The patients were allotted into age groups (25-29, 30-39 and 40-45 years), the youngest group showing the highest coital activity. Although obesity and overweight were present in 61% of the study population, no connections between BMI and sexual activity were apparent. Comparing less active persons with those reporting at least two intercourses per week, significant difference was found between body height groups. Men below 170 cm reported higher activity than men over 180 cm. Despite the fact that the prevalence of obesity among younger generations is increasing, it has had no visible influence on the sexual activity of this age cohort as yet. Our data suggest that sexual activity was not clearly related to other anthropometric parameters, and depends mainly on the characteristics of the population examined. There is a great need for large-scale studies worldwide on larger representative samples, using similar methods, to acquire reliable data from other nations and different age groups.

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics and Functional Disability of Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Zeqiraj, Kamber; Kruja, Jera; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic recurrent neurological disease that affects the Central Nervous System. This study aims to determine epidemiological factors that affect the appearance of MS, such as: incidence, prevalence, mortality, case appearance in accordance with the disease phase RRMS, SPMS, PPMS, gender, age, age group, and EDSS. Materials and methods: Deals with analyzing diagnosed and treated patients in the Clinic of Neurology in Prishtina during the period of 2003-2012. The research was conducted through a questionnaire applied in the diagnosed cases of MS. Information on patients was gathered from: history of illness, discharge reports and other relevant documents on MS illness. Clinical and epidemiological-descriptive study methods were used. The acquired results are shown through tables, graphics. Statistical processing was conducted with Microsoft Office Excel. Results: From the total number of doubtful hospitalized cases of demyelinization (644) in the Clinic of Neurology in Prishtina, 412 cases (64%) were diagnosed with MS. For the period of 2003–2012 the prevalence of MS has been 19.6 of patients in 100,000 inhabitants. MS incidence rate was 0.95 of patients in 100,000 inhabitants. MS mortality rate was 0.14 of deceased in 100,000 inhabitants. The ratio female – male is 2.3:1. A larger number of patients fall within the age group of 30-39 years-old. Clinical form trends: RRSM 72.3%, SPSM 22.6%, PPSM 5.1%. The rate of EDSS 78.3% (0–3.5), 14.9% (4–6.5), 6.8% (7–9). PMID:25568528

  4. Cardiopulmonary mortality and COPD attributed to ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Khaniabadi, Yusef Omidi; Hopke, Philip K; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Daryanoosh, Seyed Mohammad; Jourvand, Mehdi; Basiri, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the second most important atmospheric pollutant after particulate matter with respect to its impact on human health and is increasing of its concentrations globally. The main objective of this study was to assess of health effects attributable to ground-level ozone (O3) in Kermanshah, Iran using one-hour O3 concentrations measured between March 2014 and March 2015. The AirQ program was applied for estimation of the numbers of cardiovascular mortality (CM), respiratory mortality (RM), and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HA-COPD) using relative risk (RR) and baseline incidence (BI) as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The largest percentage of person-days for different O3 concentrations was in the concentration range of 30-39µg/m(3). The health modeling results suggested that ~2% (95% CI: 0-2.9%) of cardiovascular mortality, 5.9% (95% CI: 2.3-9.4) of respiratory mortality, and 4.1% (CI: 2.5-6.1%) of the HA-COPD were attributed to O3 concentrations higher than 10µg/m(3). For each 10µg/m(3) increase in O3 concentration, the risk of cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and HA-COPD increased by 0.40%, 1.25%, and 0.86%, respectively. Furthermore, 88.8% of health effects occurred on days with O3 level less than 100µg/m(3). Thus, action is needed to reduce the emissions of O3 precursors especially transport and energy production in Kermanshah.

  5. Effects of ration level on immune functions in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Murray, A.L.; Shearer, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and disease resistance in cultured salmonids can be affected by dietary manipulations. Careful attention to feeding levels may be important to avoid imbalances in nutrient levels that could ultimately impair a fish's ability to resist infectious microorganisms. In the current study, fish in three feed-level groups were fed an experimental diet either to satiation, 64% of satiation or 40% of satiation. A fourth group of fish were fed a commercial diet at the 64% of satiation level and served as controls. To evaluate certain indices of disease resistance in the test and control fish, a panel of assays was employed to measure humoral and cellular immune functions 30, 39 and 54 weeks after starting the dietary treatments. The panel included measures of blood hematocrit and leucocrit levels, plasma protein concentration and serum lysozyme and complement activity. Cellular analyses included differential blood leucocyte counts, NBT reduction and phagocytosis by pronephros macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity of pronephros neutrophils. No differences were observed in those indices between fish tested from the control-diet group (commercial diet fed at the 64% rate) and fish tested from the 64% feed-level group, except that fish fed the commercial diet had a greater concentration of plasma protein. Leucocrit values and plasma protein concentrations tended to increase among the experimental feed groups as the ration increased from 40% to satiation. More importantly, phagocytic activity by anterior kidney leucocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the feed level. Whereas the results of this study provide evidence that the salmonid immune system may be fairly robust with regard to available metabolic energy, the significant changes observed in phagocytic cell activity suggest that some cellular immune functions may be affected by the feed level.

  6. Pathologic findings in nonpalpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McKinney, C D; Frierson, H F; Fechner, R E; Wilhelm, M C; Edge, S B

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that patients with nonpalpable invasive breast cancer have a favorable prognosis. These studies, however, have not analyzed pathologic features of mammographically detected tumors according to tumor size. We describe the histopathologic features of 77 nonpalpable invasive breast cancers, comparing neoplasms less than or equal to 1 cm with larger clinically occult tumors. Forty-seven lesions (61%) were less than or equal to 1 cm (group A) and 30 (39%) were greater than 1 cm (group B). In group A, there were 30 infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC); seven infiltrating lobular carcinomas (ILC); and two cases each of mixed ILC and IDC, mixed tubular carcinoma and ILC, and infiltrating cribriform carcinoma. There was one case each of mucinous carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and mixed mucinous and IDC. In group B, there were 23 (77%) IDC, five (17%) ILC, and two mixed IDC and ILC. Tumors in group B were more frequently grade 3 (22% versus 7%), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). There were no important differences in the frequency, subtypes and location of carcinoma in situ, or other histopathologic parameters evaluated in the biopsy specimens. Mastectomy specimens with axillary lymph node dissections were available for review in 64 cases (83%). Group B patients had a higher rate of residual invasive carcinoma (31% versus 13%) and lymph node metastases (31% versus 16%), but these differences were not statistically significant. Residual carcinoma in situ was more frequent in group B (54%) compared with group A (26%) (p = .036). Of seven group B cases with negative biopsy margins, residual invasive carcinoma was present in five (71%). We conclude that small nonpalpable invasive breast cancers differ from larger nonpalpable tumors primarily in size. The finding of negative biopsy margins should not be construed as conclusive evidence for the absence of residual infiltrating disease.

  7. Results of long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on Coca-Cola administered to Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Belpoggi, Fiorella; Soffritti, Morando; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Trabucco, Francesca

    2006-09-01

    Coca-Cola was invented in May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia by a pharmacist who, by accident or design, mixed carbonated water with the syrup of sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, and other natural flavors to create what is known as "the world's favorite soft drink." Coca-Cola is currently sold in more than 200 countries and in early 2000, the company sold its 10 billionth unit case of Coca-Cola branded products. Given the worldwide consumption of Coca-Cola, a project of experimental bioassays to study its long-term effects when administered as substitute for drinking water on male and female Sprague-Dawley rats was planned and executed. The objective of the project was to study whether and how long-term consumption of Coca-Cola affects the basic tumorigram of test animals. The bioassays were performed on rats beginning at different ages, namely: (a) on males and females exposed since embryonic life or from 7 weeks of age; and (b) on males and females exposed from 30, 39, or 55 weeks of age. Overall, the project included 1999 rats. During the biophase, data were collected on fluid and feed consumption, body weight, and survival. Animals were kept under observation until spontaneous death and underwent complete necropsy. The results indicate: (a) an increase in body weight in all treated animals; (b) a statistically significant increase of the incidence in females, both breeders and offspring, bearing malignant mammary tumors; (c) a statistically significant increase in the incidence of exocrine ademonas of the pancreas in both male and female breeders and offspring; and (d) an increased incidence, albeit not statistically significant, of pancreatic islet cell carcinomas in females, a malignant tumor which occurs very rarely in our historical controls. On the basis of the results of this study, excessive consumption of regular soft-drinks should be generally discouraged, in particular for children and adolescents.

  8. Structural characterization of laminaran and galactofucan extracted from the brown seaweed Saccharina longicruris.

    PubMed

    Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Beaulieu, Martin

    2010-09-01

    Brown seaweed contains several polysaccharides like laminaran, fucoidan and alginate. Laminaran is a beta-glucan that has shown anti-apoptotic and anti-tumoral activities, while galactofucan (fucoidan) is a sulfated polysaccharide that has displayed anticoagulant, anti-tumor, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. In this study, crude laminaran and galactofucan (fucoidan) were extracted from the brown seaweed Saccharina longicruris at four harvest periods (M05, A05, N05 and J06). The galactofucan M05 and N05 fractions were depolymerized (RDP) over 2 or 4h to give 4 RDP fractions (M05 RDP 2H, M05 RDP 4H, N05 RDP 2H and N05 RDP 4H) whose molecular weights, monosaccharide compositions and glycosidic linkages were determined by GC-MS. The laminaran fraction gave a molecular weight range from 2900 to 3300 Da and contained between 50.6% and 68.6% d-glucose and an average of 1.3% D-mannitol. The presence of a beta-(1,3) linkage between D-glucose in the main chain was observed, with branching at positions 6 and 2. The M05 fraction contained less branching than other laminaran fractions, which might have influenced its conformation in solution and thus its activity. The crude galactofucan fractions displayed a molecular weight range from 638 to 1529 kDa, whereas the RDP fractions had molecular weights <30 kDa. The structure of the galactofucan fractions remained complex after depolymerization, with these also being more sulfated (30-39%) than the crude fractions (13-20%). The crude and RDP fractions contained 3-linked fucopyranose 4-sulfate and 6-linked galactopyranose 3-sulfate moieties, although the galactofucans isolated from M05 and J06 contained less 6-linked galactopyranose 3-sulfate than the A05 and N05 fractions.

  9. Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Majumder, A; Chatterjee, S; Maji, D

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is common complication of diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients on the basis of loss of vibration sensation had been studied. Detailed clinical history of each patient including age, gender, duration of diabetes, foot ulcer and biothesiometry was recorded in 211 diabetic patients between 20 and 80 years of age. It was observed that all patients under 30 years age (n = 8) felt vibration below 15 volts (no risk zone); 77% (24 out of 31) of the patients in the age group of 30-39 years were in the no risk zone, and 23% (n = 7) had mild peripheral neuropathy. Sixty per cent of the patients between 40 and 50 years (n = 44) were in the no risk zone, while 32% (n = 24) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 5% (n = 4) had moderate neuropathy and 3% (n = 2) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Amongst patients above 50 years of age, 31% (n = 31) were in no risk zone, 34% (n = 34) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 22% (n = 20) had moderate peripheral neuropathy and 13% (n = 13) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for less than 5 years, 58% had no neuropathy, and only 3% had severe neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for 5 to 15 years, 50% had no neuropathy, 30% had mild, and 10% had severe peripheral neuropathy. When patients with diabetes for over 15 years were studied, only 6% had no neuropathy and 19% had severe peripheral neuropathy. The study re-establishes that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vibration perception decreses progressively with increased duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold testing helps to identify the high risk subjects who require special counselling and education to protect their feet.

  10. Thyroid disorders in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: A retrospective analysis of seventy-three patients

    SciTech Connect

    Alterio, Daniela . E-mail: daniela.alterio@ieo.it; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Franchi, Benedetta; D'Onofrio, Alberto Sc.D.; Piazzi, Valeria; Rondi, Elena; Ciocca, Mario; Gibelli, Bianca; Grosso, Enrica; Tradati, Nicoletta; Mariani, Luigi; Boboc, Genoveva Ionela; Orecchia, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of thyroid disorders and dose distribution to the thyroid in patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck carcinomas. Methods and Materials: A retrospective evaluation of data from 73 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers in our department was performed. Thyroid function was evaluated mainly by the measurement of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]). A retrospective analysis of treatment plans was performed for 57 patients. Percentages of thyroid glandular volume absorbing 10, 30, and 50 Gy (V10, V30, and V50 respectively) were considered for statistical analysis. Results: A majority of patients (61%) had a normal thyroid function whereas 19 patients (26%) had hypothyroidism. Mean thyroid volume was 30.39 cc. Point 3 (located at isthmus) absorbed lower doses compared with other points (p < 0.0001). Median values of V10, V30, and V50 were 92% (range, 57-100%), 75% (range, 28.5-100%), and 35% (range, 3-83%) respectively. Gender was associated with toxicity (presence of any kind of thyroid disorders) (p < 0.05), with females displaying higher levels of TSHr (relative TSH = patient's value/maximum value of the laboratory range) (p = 0.0005) and smaller thyroid volume (p 0.0012) compared with male population. TSHr values were associated with thyroid volume, and the presence of midline shielding block in the anterior field was associated with relative free thyroxine (FT4r = patient's value/maximum value of the laboratory range) values. Conclusions: Gender and thyroid volume seem to play an important role in the occurrence of thyroid toxicity, but further studies on dose-effect relationship for radiotherapy-induced thyroid toxicity are needed.

  11. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  12. Is the audiologic status of professional musicians a reflection of the noise exposure in classical orchestral music?

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank

    2008-07-01

    The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.

  13. A Cross “Ethnical” Comparison of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) in an Economically Fast Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Verjee, Mohamud; Dafeeah, Elnour E.; Yousafzai, Mohammad T.; Mari, Sundus; Hassib, Ahmed; Al-Khatib, Hamza; Choi, Min Kyung; Nema, Noor; Özkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the driving behaviours of four ethnic groups and to investigate the relationship between violations, errors and lapses of DBQ and accident involvement in Qatar. Subjects and Methods: The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was used to measure the aberrant driving behaviours leading to accidents. Of 2400 drivers approached, 1824 drivers agreed to participate (76%) and completed the driver behaviour questionnaire and background information. Results: The study revealed that the majority of the Qatari (35.9%) and Jordanian drivers (37.5%) were below 30 years of age, whereas Filipino (42.3%) and Indian subcontinent (34.1%) drivers were in the age group of 30-39 years. Qatari drivers (52%) were involved in most accidents, followed by Jordanians (48.3%). The most common type of collision was a head on collision, which was similar in all four ethnic groups. The Qatari drivers scored higher on almost all items of violations, errors and lapses compared to other ethnic groups, while Filipino drivers were lower on all the items. The most common violation was the same in all four ethnic groups “Disregard the speed limits on a motorway”. The most common error item observed was “Queing to turn right/left on to a main road”. “Forget where you left your car” and “Hit something when reversing” were the two lapses identified in factor analysis. Conclusion: The present study identified that Qatari drivers scored higher on most of the items of violations, errors and lapses of DBQ compared to other countries, whereas Filipino drivers scored lower in DBQ items. PMID:23777732

  14. Exposure to opiates in female adolescents alters mu opiate receptor expression and increases the rewarding effects of morphine in future offspring.

    PubMed

    Vassoler, Fair M; Wright, Siobhan J; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2016-04-01

    Prescription opiate use and abuse has increased dramatically over the past two decades, including increased use in adolescent populations. Recently, it has been proposed that use during this critical period may affect future offspring even when use is discontinued prior to conception. Here, we utilize a rodent model to examine the effects of adolescent morphine exposure on the reward functioning of the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine for 10 days during early adolescence (post-natal day 30-39) using an escalating dosing regimen. Animals then remained drug free until adulthood at which point they were mated with naïve males. Adult offspring (F1 animals) were tested for their response to morphine-induced (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioned place preference (CPP) and context-independent morphine-induced sensitization. Naïve littermates were used to examine mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Results indicate that F1 females whose mothers were exposed to morphine during adolescence (Mor-F1) demonstrate significantly enhanced CPP to the lowest doses of morphine compared with Sal-F1 females. There were no differences in context-independent sensitization between maternal treatment groups. Protein expression analysis showed significantly increased levels of accumbal mu opiate receptor in Mor-F1 offspring and decreased levels in the VTA. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a shift in the dose response curve with regard to the rewarding effects of morphine in Mor-F1 females which may in part be due to altered mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and VTA.

  15. Persistence of fensulfothion in a sandy-loam soil and uptake by rutabagas, carrots and radishes using microplots

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, R.; Read, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Field microplots were treated with 141 and 282 ppm fensulfothion and 37.1 and 74.2 ppm fensulfothion sulfone. These concentrations are equivalent to field treatment rates of 8.48 and 16.96 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion, and 2.23 and 4.47 kg AI/ha, fensulfothion sulfone, respectively, for banded application (10 cm wide, rows 80 cm apart). The half-lives in a sandy loam soil were 30-39 and 14-23 days, respectively. Fensulfothion sulfone and sulfide were the main derivatives found in fensulfothion treated soil. The maximum levels of these derivatives were 21.22 and 22.95 ppm, respectively for the 8.48 kg/ha treatment and 33.90 and 42.45 ppm, respectively, for the higher treatment, which occurred between 30-60 days. Carrots appeared to take up more fensulfothion from soil than rutabagas or radishes. The residue levels at harvest decreased in the order carrot peel greater than pulp greater than rutabagas root greater than peel greater than pulp. Residue levels of fensulfothion and sulfone in radishes were similar to those found in rutabagas. The ratio sulfoxide/sulfone in rutabagas ranged from 0.4-1.5 and in carrots from 1.7-7.6. This phenomenon is thought to be due to oxidative enzyme systems present in rutabagas. Dimethyl phosphorothioic acid, but not dimethyl phosphoric acid was detected (max. 1.33 ppm) in some rutabagas samples but not in carrots.

  16. Ethnic inequalities in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates among young and middle-aged adults in Northern Italy: high risk for South Asians.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Cestari, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated. The indirect standardization method was used to estimate standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) for each immigrant group, with rates of Italian residents as a reference. Overall, 8200 AMI events were retrieved, 648 among immigrants. The highest risk of AMI is seen in South Asians males (SHR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6-4.9) and females (SHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). AMI rates in South Asian males sharply increase in the 30-39 years age class. Other immigrant subgroups (Eastern Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, other Asian countries, Central-South America, high-income countries) displayed age- and gender-adjusted hospitalization rates similar to the native population. Present findings stress the urgent need for implementation of ethnic-specific health policies in Italy. The awareness about the high cardiovascular risk in subjects from South Asia must be increased among general practitioners and immigrant communities.

  17. Genital mycoplasmas in semen samples of males attending a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria: any role in sperm count reduction?

    PubMed

    Agbakoba, N R; Adetosoye, A I; Ikechebelu, J I

    2007-06-01

    Semen samples from 54 married men attending the outpatient clinics for problems of infertility and routine semen analysis were examined for the presence of genital mycoplasmas. The mean age of the men was 36.1 years with a range of 25 55 years. Majority of the men 57.4% (31 of 54) were in their fourth decade of life (30 39 years). This age group also had the highest percentage 57.2% (8 of 14) of positive isolates of genital mycoplasmas on semen culture. A total of 21 organisms obtained from 14 (26.0%) positive samples were isolated. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. separately isolated from the samples yielded frequencies of 1 (1.9%) and 6 (11.1%) respectively and the remaining 7 (13.0%) samples were infected with both organisms. A breakdown of the mycoplasma species include 5 (23.8%) M. hominis, 2 (9.5%) M. fermentans and 1 (4.8%) M. penetrans. Apart from one isolate of M. hominis other Mycoplasma species were found in association with Ureaplasma species. Fifteen (71.4%) of the 21 isolates [8 (53.3%) ureaplasmas and 7 (46.7%) mycoplasmas] were isolated from samples with sperm counts less than 20 million/ml while the remaining 6 (21.6%) isolates [5 (83.3%) ureaplasmas and 1 (16.7) mycoplasma] were from samples with counts greater than 20 million/ml. This finding could indicate a possible influence of genital mycoplasmas especially mycoplasmas species on sperm count.

  18. Municipal household solid waste collection strategies in an African megacity: analysis of public private partnership performance in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Aliu, Ibrahim Rotimi; Adeyemi, Oluwagbemiga Ezekiel; Adebayo, Adeolu

    2014-09-01

    Managing municipal solid waste is a pervasive urban problem globally. While several strategies have been applied for efficient municipal solid waste management in developing economies, their performance level has not been critically investigated. Among these strategies, the public private partnership has widest appeal. This study examines the performance of public private partnership in household solid waste collection in Lagos, Nigeria. We collected primary data using a municipal solid waste survey in three residential density areas of Lagos megacity. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Two indexes of service performance, namely the service reliability index and operational quality index, were created to produce evidence on public private partnership performance in municipal solid waste collection in Lagos. Results show that the average amount of household solid waste generation per week ranges between 22.75 kg in the medium residential density area and 30.39 kg in the high residential density region of the city. The estimated per capita waste generated in Lagos Megacity is 0.95 kg day(-1). Regression models indicate that the public private partnership performance is significantly influenced by economic status, affordability, flexibility, consistency, cleanliness, coverage and accessibility, as well as number of waste collection vehicles, vehicle maintenance, capacity, trip rate, frequency, number of personnel and quality of personnel. Findings from this study reveal that Lagos residents have strong positive perception of public private partnership as a waste collection policy framework. The study has important policy and practical implications for urban waste management, public health and sustainability in developing economies.

  19. Efficacy and safety of the combination imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets) in the treatment of ear mite infection (Otodectes cynotis) in ferrets.

    PubMed

    Le Sueur, Christophe; Bour, Sophie; Schaper, Roland

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy and safety of a treatment with the combination imidacloprid 10 %/ moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets) was tested in 39 ferrets naturally infested with ear mites (Otodectes cynotis). The study was performed as a multicentre, non-randomised, non-controlled (all study animals were treated) and non-blinded clinical field study in two French veterinary practices. Four visits (day (D) 0 = inclusion and first treatment, D14 = second treatment, D28 = possible third treatment, D56 = termination) were planned. The dosage was one pipet per ferret (designed for cats weighing up to 4 kg, corresponding to a dose of moxidectin ranging from 2.2 to 5 mg/kg body weight) two or three times at 14-days intervals (at D0, D14 and possibly D28 depending on the parasitological examination of the ears at D28). The main efficacy criterion was the absence of the parasite (all stages incl. eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults) from ear scrapings by microscopic examination. At D28 after two treatments (D0 and D14), 76.9 % (30/39) of animals were cured. Only 23 % (9/39) needed a third treatment. At day 56, 100 % were cured. Local symptoms (inflammation and pruritus) were consistently improved (50.6 % improvement at D14, 81.0 % at D28 and 97.9 % at D56) as well as the abnormal cerumen production (14.7 % improvement at D14, 77.7 % at D28 and 100.0 % at D56). No general symptoms were noticed during the study (general health and skin aspect). Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets is an effective and safe treatment for ear mite infection in ferrets. Two or three treatments administered in 14-days intervals to ferrets infested with ear mites provided 100 % parasitological cure on D56.

  20. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Aureococcus anophagefferens by qPCR Method (Taqman) in the Qinhuangdao Coastal Area: A Region for Recurrent Brown Tide Breakout in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ping; Lei, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Since 2009, Aureococcus anophagefferens has caused brown tide to occur recurrently in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. Because the algal cells of A. anophagefferens are so tiny (~3 µm) that it is very hard to identify exactly under a microscope for natural water samples, it is very urgent to develop a method for efficient and continuous monitoring. Here specific primers and Taqman probe are designed to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for identification and quantification continually. The algal community and cell abundance of A. anophagefferens in the study area (E 119°20'-119°50' and N 39°30'-39°50') from April to October in 2013 are detected by pyrosequencing, and are used to validate the specification and precision of qPCR method for natural samples. Both pyrosequencing and qPCR shows that the targeted cells are present only in May, June and July, and the cell abundance are July > June > May. Although there are various algal species including dinoflagellata, diatom, Cryptomonadales, Chrysophyceae and Chlorophyta living in the natural seawater simultaneously, no disturbance happens to qPCR method. This qPCR method could detect as few as 10 targeted cells, indicating it is able to detect the algal cells at pre-bloom levels. Therefore, qPCR with Taqman probe provides a powerful and sensitive method to monitor the brown tide continually in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. The results provide a necessary technology support for forecasting the brown tide initiation, in China.