Science.gov

Sample records for 20-30 year period

  1. 46 CFR 190.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Messrooms. 190.20-30 Section 190.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-30 Messrooms. (a)...

  2. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  3. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  4. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  5. Biology 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Biology 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  6. Chemistry 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Chemistry 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  7. Physics 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Physics 20-30 is an academic program that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science disciplines; (2) to provide…

  8. Science 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in both English and French, Science 20-30 is an integrated academic program in Alberta, Canada that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills common to biology, chemistry, physics, and the Earth sciences. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the…

  9. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  10. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  11. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1280.109 Fiscal period and marketing year. Fiscal period and marketing year means the 12-month period... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  13. Antennas for 20/30 GHz and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Harry; Wong, William C.; Hamada, S. Jim

    1989-01-01

    Antennas of 20/30 GHz and higher frequency, due to the small wavelength, offer capabilities for many space applications. With the government-sponsored space programs (such as ACTS) in recent years, the industry has gone through the learning curve of designing and developing high-performance, multi-function antennas in this frequency range. Design and analysis tools (such as the computer modelling used in feedhorn design and reflector surface and thermal distortion analysis) are available. The components/devices (such as BFN's, weight modules, feedhorns and etc.) are space-qualified. The manufacturing procedures (such as reflector surface control) are refined to meet the stringent tolerance accompanying high frequencies. The integration and testing facilities (such as Near-Field range) also advance to facilitate precision assembling and performance verification. These capabilities, essential to the successful design and development of high-frequency spaceborne antennas, shall find more space applications (such as ESGP) than just communications.

  14. Marketing 20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Marketing 20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section contains introductory information on the Marketing 20-30 curriculum, including course objectives and a flowchart of the modules in the marketing course. Planning the course…

  15. Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

  16. Biology 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormie, George; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Biology 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Biology 20, explaining the program philosophy and depth of coverage of some of the objectives. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is described, as well…

  17. Physics 20-30 Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Physics 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Physics 20, explaining the program philosophy and the selection and sequencing of topics. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around the science themes are described, as well as…

  18. Social Studies 10, 20, 30: Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This teacher resource manual was developed to help teachers implement the Canadian province of Alberta's new Social Studies 10, 20, 30 (high school) courses. It offers suggestions on teaching social studies, planning for instruction, and instruction/evaluation strategies. For each grade level, class activities on the two topical areas to be taught…

  19. General Music 10-20-30. Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lorraine, Ed.

    In Canada's province of Alberta, senior high school General Music 10-20-30 is a sequence of courses for students who are interested in a broad spectrum of musical experiences within a nonperformance-based environment but not interested in specializing in choral or instrumental performance. General Music 10, 20, and 30 courses are offered for 3 or…

  20. [Stability of steroids in plasma over a 10-year period].

    PubMed

    Kley, H K; Schlaghecke, R; Krüskemper, H L

    1985-12-01

    In order to examine whether plasma samples may be used for steroid analysis after long periods of storage, cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol were remeasured in samples, which had been analysed 1.3-10.8 years earlier. The method for the measurement of these steroids was unchanged over this period. The results demonstrate that at a temperature of -25 degrees C steroids remained stable. Only cortisol and testosterone concentrations showed a small, insignificant decrease (6-9%) after 3 to 4 years of storage. These differences are well within the range of the precision of the method (interassay variation), which over a period of 11 years was 9.4%, 8.0%, 10.0% and 9.5% for cortisol, testosterone, oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. It is concluded that steroid hormones in human plasma are stable in our laboratory, and that they might be analysed even after more than 10 years of storage at -25 degrees C. PMID:3831227

  1. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  2. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  3. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Offset dual reflector antenna for 20/30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, R. I.

    The design and testing results of the TDS-6 high performance dual reflector antenna, intended for communications experiments with the ESA Olympus satellite in the 20/30 GHz band, are discussed. The offset Gregorian antenna has an aperture of 2.47 m, and it exhibits high gain while maintaining 90 percent of the sidelobes below 29-25 log theta dBi. The reflector shapes are optimized using the method of diffraction profile synthesis. A wide-band corrugated horn feed with a ring-loaded throat section has been incorporated in the antenna. The results show the achievement of an accuracy of 140-145 microns rms for the main reflectors.

  6. Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia with 20-30% bone marrow blasts.

    PubMed

    Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Sarlo, Chiara; Di Caprio, Luigi; Ditto, Concetta; Giannotti, Federica; Nasso, Daniela; Ceresoli, Eleonora; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    The transition of patients with ≥20% <30% bone marrow (BM) blast from the FAB category of myelodysplasia to the family of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) according to the recent WHO classification has not resolved the argument as to whether the natural history and responsiveness to therapy of these diseases is comparable to that of AML with > 30% BM blast. These controversies are even more manifest when it comes to elderly patients in whom concern for intensive chemotherapy (IC) related toxicity is the critical determinant for the therapeutic choice. In fact, due to concerns of treatment-related morbidity and mortality associated with delivery of IC, approximately only 30% of all patients ≥65 years are considered eligible for this approach. Therefore, a great deal of attention has been dedicated to alternative agents such as hypomethylators (azacitidine and decitabine). Actually, these agents have shown efficacy with reduced toxicity when administered to elderly patients with 20-30% BM blasts and not eligible for IC. In the present review, we will discuss the clinical results achieved in the treatment of elderly patients with 20%-30% BM blasts AML using intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hypomethylating agents. Overall, our survey of the literature suggests that only controlled, randomized, clinical trials will answer the question as to whether hypomethylating agents has the potential to substitute for IC even in elderly patients with an optimal functional status. PMID:23795270

  7. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  10. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  11. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  13. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  17. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his…

  18. A 250-year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Jones, R. T.; Fogwill, C.; Hatton, J.; Williams, A. N.; Hogg, A.; Thomas, Z. A.; Palmer, J.; Mooney, S.; Reimer, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean-atmosphere system of the mid- to high latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately, historic observations only extend back to the late 19th century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30-year) record of past westerly wind strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated within the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow (the so-called furious fifties), we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen and charcoal derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength. We find a period of high charcoal content between 2000 and 1000 cal. years BP, associated with increased burning in Patagonia, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and stronger westerly airflow. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a pervasive ca. 250-year periodicity that is coherent with radiocarbon production rates, suggesting that solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow. Our results have important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  19. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  20. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Five year build-out period. 22.947 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems... channel block in each cellular market is afforded a five year period, beginning on the date the...

  1. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  2. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF. PMID:25439558

  3. Correlation and periodicity analysis between herbage yields and climatic factors in the Tianshan Mountain,China in 22 year periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianlong, L.

    2009-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between herbage yields and climatic factors, 22 years of herbage yields and climate data were collected on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains region of western China. Using multiple regression analysis, maximum entropy spectrum analysis and cross spectrum analysis, it was clarified that fluctuation of climatic factors affected herbage yields and their periodical variation. The herbage yields were correlated significantly to the four climate factors including annual precipitation, annual means of relative humidity, absolute humidity and percentage of sunshine, but unrelated to the trend variable (the former year yield has little effects on the later) and other climatic factors. These clarified that long term variation of grassland productivity responded directly to changes of some climate factors in typical zone of arid continental climate. The results in co-spectrum and quadrature spectrum analysis revealed that the herbage yields had 4-year period similar to some moisture factors, and with 1/4 period delay. These findings demonstrated further that the fluctuation of some climatic elements (precipitation particularly) was the crucial factor affecting the variations of herbage yields of natural grassland in arid and semiarid ecosystem. The periodical change of vegetation and correlation with climate provide us a way to predict the herbage production according to the climate change, and it was important for the herdsmen to arrange predictively their animal production including rectifying their livestock population in natural grazing land and storing up the supply of forage timely for livestock use in cold season. Our finding in periodical variation of climatic element and plant yield further demonstrated the crucial driver of some climate factors on formation of herbage yields. The same or similar quasi-4-year period in climatic element and vegetation was due to that periodical variation of climatic element (especially

  4. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Five year build-out period. 22.947 Section 22.947 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive...

  5. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Five year build-out period. 22.947 Section 22.947 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems authorized in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive...

  6. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  7. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ∼11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  8. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  9. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  10. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  11. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  12. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  13. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted...

  14. A 100,000-year periodicity in the accretion rate of interplanetary dust

    PubMed

    Kortenkamp; Dermott

    1998-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the orbital evolution of interplanetary dust particles revealed that, over the past 1.2 million years, the rate of accretion of dust by Earth has varied by a factor of 2 to 3. These variations display a 100,000-year periodicity and are anticorrelated with Earth's changing orbital eccentricity. Extraterrestrial helium-3 concentrations in a deep-sea sediment core display a similar periodicity but are 50,000 years out of phase with the predicted variations. Also, because collisions between large bodies in the asteroid belt are inevitable, it is expected that large-amplitude stochastic variations on 10(7)- to 10(8)-year time scales would be superimposed on the 10(5)-year periodic variations. PMID:9572725

  15. A National Comparison of Universities Successful and Unsuccessful in Enrolling Blacks Over a Five Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, William E.; And Others

    A national survey of minority student admissions was conducted for the fifth consecutive year. In addition to previous questions, the 14 schools with the greatest increase in new black freshmen over a 4-year period were compared with the 13 schools showing the greatest enrollment decrease on items relating to their methods and programs. Results…

  16. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Hendrick, Timothy P

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  17. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, John; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. Methods All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. Results A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0–105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001). Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications. Conclusions Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally. PMID:26182236

  18. Length of the current interglacial period and interglacial intervals of the last million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    It was ascertained that the long-term cyclical oscillations of the global climate of the Earth between glacial and interglacial states for the last million years respond to cyclical oscillations of the orbital parameters of the Earth. Cold glacial states with a period of approximately 100 ka give way to shorter intervals of warming of around 10-12 ka long. The current interglacial period—the so-called Holocene—started on Earth roughly 10 ka ago. The length of the current interglacial period and the causes of the climate change over the last approximately 50 years arouse sharp debates connected with the growing anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. To estimate the length of the current interglacial period, interglacial intervals near ~400 (MIS-11) and ~800 (MIS-19) ka are analyzed as its probable analogs.

  19. First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodgate, Sheila D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the methods that have been developed to blend descriptive chemistry and principles in a first-year chemistry course. The key is active teaching of the subject using the periodic table as a template. Inorganic chemistry is taught using a group approach: developing trends that help teaching and learning become obvious if all elements of…

  20. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... full size map, a reduced map, and an exhibit showing technical data relevant to determination of the... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  1. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  2. Persistence of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability over a Period of 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, V.; Toogood, S.; Hastings, R. P.; Lewis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviours in people with an intellectual disability (ID) often develop early and tend to persist throughout life. This study presents data on the chronicity of challenging behaviours in adults with ID over a period of 11 years, and explores the characteristics of people with persistent serious behaviour problems. Method:…

  3. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  4. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of the... map must have a legend, a distance scale and correctly labeled latitude and longitude lines. The...

  5. 26 CFR 53.4943-6 - Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests... foundation's interest in such enterprise)) would be subject to the 25 percent limit prescribed by section... 4943(c)(4) applies, and such holdings would exceed the 25 percent limit of section 4943(c)(4)(D)(i)...

  6. 26 CFR 53.4943-6 - Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests... foundation's interest in such enterprise)) would be subject to the 25 percent limit prescribed by section... 4943(c)(4) applies, and such holdings would exceed the 25 percent limit of section 4943(c)(4)(D)(i)...

  7. 26 CFR 53.4943-6 - Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests... foundation's interest in such enterprise)) would be subject to the 25 percent limit prescribed by section... 4943(c)(4) applies, and such holdings would exceed the 25 percent limit of section 4943(c)(4)(D)(i)...

  8. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  9. [Unfavorable effect of the period of new year holidays on total and cardiovascular mortality].

    PubMed

    Barbarash, O L; Altarev, S S; Fomina, N V

    2010-01-01

    We studied effect of the period of new year holydays on parameters of total and cardiovascular mortality. We analyzed all registered deaths in Kemerovo from 01.01.1998 to 31.12.2001 using data of the Kemerovo registry office (ZAGS). In time interval from 21 December to January 10 of each year there were 1830 deaths (968 men and 862 women). Between January 1 and 5 compared with preceding and subsequent days total and cardiovascular mortality were 27% (p = 0.003) and 25% (p = 0.024), high respectively. We also noted dependence of the parameter studied on age and sex. Thus the period of New Year holydays is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality and this association can not be explained by the effect of low temperatures.

  10. Spurious One-Month and One-Year Periods in Visual Observations of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Visual observations of variable stars, when time-series analyzed with some algorithms such as DC-DFT in vstar, show spurious periods at or close to one synodic month (29.5306 days), and also at about a year, with an amplitude of typically a few hundredths of a magnitude. The one-year periods have been attributed to the Ceraski effect, which was believed to be a physiological effect of the visual observing process. This paper reports on time-series analysis, using DC-DFT in vstar, of visual observations (and in some cases, V observations) of a large number of stars in the AAVSO International Database, initially to investigate the one-month periods. The results suggest that both the one-month and one-year periods are actually due to aliasing of the stars' very low-frequency variations, though they do not rule out very low-amplitude signals (typically 0.01 to 0.02 magnitude) which may be due to a different process, such as a physiological one. Most or all of these aliasing effects may be avoided by using a different algorithm, which takes explicit account of the window function of the data, and/or by being fully aware of the possible presence of and aliasing by very low-frequency variations.

  11. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder. PMID:15171171

  12. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  13. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, M. ); Fluegeman, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  14. Arm Anthropometry Indices in Turkish Children and Adolescents: Changes Over a Three-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. Methods: The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. Results: In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. Conclusions: The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years. PMID:25541892

  15. On the degree of stability of measured hypnotizability over a 25-year period.

    PubMed

    Piccione, C; Hilgard, E R; Zimbardo, P G

    1989-02-01

    Conducted a longitudinal study of hypnotizability, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, that yielded a relatively high degree of stability in hypnotic responsiveness over repeated testings spanning a 25-year period. The 50 Ss were retested in 1985, after tests when they were students, between 1958-1962 and again in 1970. The statistically significant stability coefficients were .64 (10-year retest), .82 (15-year retest), and .71 (25-year retest). The means did not change significantly, and the median change in the scores of individuals was only 1 point on the 12-item scale. A set of score measures and their intercorrelations are insufficient to resolve the issue of why stability occurs. The stability of hypnotizability over time compares favorably with that of other measures of individual differences.

  16. [Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Fukunaga, T; Tatsuno, Y

    1990-04-01

    The authors examined 3,335 cases of suicides among the unnatural deaths in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. The results obtained were as follows: The number of suicides in a year amounted to 200 during the period from 1974 to 1982, and increased to 280 in 1983 at maximum. The cases of suicide were more in male than in female. The incidence of suicide was higher in March to July and the peak of incidence was observed in April. The highest frequency of suicides was in 40-49 year age group in male, and 70-79 year group in female. Among various procedures of suicide, hanging was most frequent during the past 15 years in both sexes, and the following procedure was carbon monoxide poisoning in male and drowning in female. As to the occupation, housewives and person without a regular occupation constituted 53.1% of the total suicidal cases, and products makers and laborers were found in 11.1%. With regarded to the causative factors, "suffering from illness" was the most frequent factor, and followed by "insanity or mental disorder", "problems of economic distress", "disagreement with family" and others.

  17. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  18. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  19. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  20. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  1. Evidence for Periodicity in 43 year-long Monitoring of NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, E.; Zucker, S.; Netzer, H.; Marziani, P.; Bon, N.; Jovanović, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Komossa, S.; Gaskell, C. M.; Popović, L. Č.; Britzen, S.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A. N.; Sergeev, S.; La Mura, G.; Valdés, J. R.; Stalevski, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of 43 years (1972 to 2015) of spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. This includes 12 years of new unpublished observations (2003 to 2015). We compiled about 1600 Hβ spectra and analyzed the long-term spectral variations of the 5100 Å continuum and the Hβ line. Our analysis is based on standard procedures, including the Lomb–Scargle method, which is known to be rather limited to such heterogeneous data sets, and a new method developed specifically for this project that is more robust and reveals a ˜5700 day periodicity in the continuum light curve, the Hβ light curve, and the radial velocity curve of the red wing of the Hβ line. The data are consistent with orbital motion inside the broad emission line region of the source. We discuss several possible mechanisms that can explain this periodicity, including orbiting dusty and dust-free clouds, a binary black hole system, tidal disruption events, and the effect of an orbiting star periodically passing through an accretion disk.

  2. Evidence for Periodicity in 43 year-long Monitoring of NGC 5548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bon, E.; Zucker, S.; Netzer, H.; Marziani, P.; Bon, N.; Jovanović, P.; Shapovalova, A. I.; Komossa, S.; Gaskell, C. M.; Popović, L. Č.; Britzen, S.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A. N.; Sergeev, S.; La Mura, G.; Valdés, J. R.; Stalevski, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of 43 years (1972 to 2015) of spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. This includes 12 years of new unpublished observations (2003 to 2015). We compiled about 1600 Hβ spectra and analyzed the long-term spectral variations of the 5100 Å continuum and the Hβ line. Our analysis is based on standard procedures, including the Lomb-Scargle method, which is known to be rather limited to such heterogeneous data sets, and a new method developed specifically for this project that is more robust and reveals a ˜5700 day periodicity in the continuum light curve, the Hβ light curve, and the radial velocity curve of the red wing of the Hβ line. The data are consistent with orbital motion inside the broad emission line region of the source. We discuss several possible mechanisms that can explain this periodicity, including orbiting dusty and dust-free clouds, a binary black hole system, tidal disruption events, and the effect of an orbiting star periodically passing through an accretion disk.

  3. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    PubMed

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  4. Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.

  5. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods

    PubMed Central

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. Objective To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. Methods This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. Results There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. Conclusion The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions. PMID:26559984

  6. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  7. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  8. Outer-core Azimuthal Flow and the 1470-year Periodicity of the Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle refers to a sequence of abrupt climate change events during the last glacial period with a recurrence interval of 1470 years. Each event was associated with rapid, 5-10 C warming throughout much of the northern hemisphere and a more gradual 2 C cooling in the southern hemisphere. Although much has been learned about the potential mechanisms involved, the ultimate source of the 1470-yr periodicity of this climate signal is undetermined. Five theories have been proposed so far. Each identifies a causal agent with the requisite periodicity and a general mechanism to explain how its behavior could have induced global-scale climate change. Proposed agents include the ocean-atmosphere itself, the sun, the moon and the geomagnetic field. Proposed mechanisms include systematic variation in the thermohaline circulation of the ocean ('salt oscillator'), the location of north Atlantic deepwater formation ('stochastic resonator'), the intensity of the El Nino Southern Oscillation ('super-ENSO'), the intensity of tidally-driven upwelling ('super-tide') and geomagnetically-induced cloud formation. This presentation lays the groundwork for the first theory to invoke the outer core. The theory identifies a causal agent with the requisite periodicity (the outer core's azimuthal flow) and describes how systematic variation in its motion could have affected ocean-atmosphere motion and thus global climate during the last glacial period. Five criteria are used to evaluate the proposed theory and compare its performance to the other theories. Some ways to further test the new theory using paleoproxy data and data for the contemporary climate system are described.

  9. Hemoptysis workup before embolization: single-center experience with a 15-year period follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Miguel A; Medrano, Joaquin; Laborda, Alicia; Higuera, Teresa

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to present our experience in arterial embolization in the endovascular treatment of massive hemoptysis and remark on the importance of the workup before embolization. We present some clinical aspects to keep in mind before carrying out a bronchial embolization in a patient with severe hemoptysis. The main causes of hemoptysis are presented, as well as diagnosis means and the most important therapeutic procedures aimed to stabilize the patient who will undergo a bronchial arterial embolization. Likewise, we present our own experience with 401 patients with over a 15-year period of follow-up. PMID:18572140

  10. [Recurrent periods of respiratory tract infections in a 22-year-old].

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Frost, Majbritt; Iyer, Victor Vishwanath; Bertelsen, Henrik Christian; Clausen, Paul; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2014-12-01

    A 22-year-old male with recurrent periods of coughing and nasal discharge was unable to work and cooperate. A bronchoscopy revealed high amounts of leucocytes and no eosinofils, acute inflammation and > 105/ml Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptible to penicillin. The symptoms relapsed after penicillin and at the age of 24 the patient was CT-scanned which revealed bilateral sinusitis, mastoiditis and bronchiectasis. Treatment with azithromycin and a weight loss programme (from 156 kg) improved the health of the patient, who was an orangutan. This highlights the benefit of cooperation between medical doctors and veterinarians.

  11. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  12. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  13. Yucca mountain - From 10,000 to 1-Million year compliance period

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, R.G.

    2007-07-01

    Two plus years ago a U.S. Federal Court of Appeals (the Court) ruled that EPA had not followed the recommendation of the National Academy of Science (NAS) with regard to the 10,000 year period of regulatory compliance. In response to that ruling EPA went back to the drawing board in 2005 and issued a draft rule that it believed complied with the Court's ruling and the intent of the NAS recommendation. The result is a recommendation to cause there to be compliance out to 1- million years. It is the author's belief that thinking in terms of 1-million years is absurd, not based upon scientific information, and just results in yet another delay for an environmental program sorely needed by this country, especially in light of the nuclear power renaissance emerging at this time around the world. So, the Yucca Mountain Project is at yet another critical juncture. It is facing a decision to either clear the political and regulatory issues and move ahead; continue to be stalled costing the nation billions of wasted dollars; or be moth balled until a solution is reached. The Department of Energy has announced that waste acceptance will be delayed until at least 2017 and it is hard to comprehend why the project should continue to be funded at current levels. It is the author's opinion that only Congress can clear these obstacles so the project can move forward in a safe and efficient manner. This paper will present the history of the ever increasing compliance period for Yucca Mountain; the need to reevaluate the regulatory strategy; the events that have occurred in the history of man and geologically in a million year time span; the absence of a mechanism for enforcing such regulations; the approach other countries are taking on this issue; the absurdity of trying to protecting people thousand of generations in the future from radiation doses that our generation is already exposed to from mostly natural causes, and lastly proposes a rational compliance period and regulatory

  14. Regulatory Perspective on Implementation of a Dose Standard for a One-Million Year Compliance Period

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, Timothy

    2007-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is governed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The EPA has the responsibility for setting public health and safety and environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain and it is the NRC's responsibility to implement those standards in its regulations to ensure public health and safety and the environment are protected. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as the developer of the potential repository, must submit a license application to the NRC to seek approval to construct the repository. DOE must comply with NRC's regulations for NRC to authorize construction and license operation of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 2005, EPA issued proposed revised standards and NRC issued proposed revised regulations for conducting performance assessment beyond 10,000 years up to 1 million years. The challenge for the EPA and NRC is to develop standards and regulations that provide an appropriate method for evaluating the safety of the potential repository given the unprecedented time period to be analyzed and the inherent uncertainties in estimating the future evolution of the Yucca Mountain site and the containment of the waste in the waste packages. A fundamental aspect of the proposed EPA standard is the specified approach for limiting undue speculation on future behavior of the site by constraining the features, events, and processes that need to be considered in the performance assessment. EPA proposed to limit the assessment of specific features, events, and processes in the period after 10,000 years to effects on the repository system that are most relevant (i.e., ignoring lesser or secondary effects that may add to speculation and uncertainties but would not be expected to have a significant effect on peak dose over a 1 million year period). For

  15. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Trevor W.; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L.; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle. PMID:24130555

  16. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Trevor W; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  17. Three Fundamental Periods in an 87 Year Light Curve of the Symbiotic Star MWC 560

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-01

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  18. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  19. A Bayesian Estimation for Spica's Apsidal Period from 111 years of Spectroscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenberg, Jason P.; Robinette, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Toward the goal of constraining the short period (P = 4.01 d) massive binary star Spica's apsidal constant, which in turn constrains the internal structure of the primary star (B1.5 IV), we have modified the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo code EXOFAST (Eastman et al. 2013) to fit six radial velocity (RV) data sets obtained between 1889 to 2000. The code was modified to take radial velocity input from two stars rather than a single exoplanet host star. In addition the apsidal period (U) and the RV amplitude of the secondary star (K2) have been added as fit parameters, and the longitude of periastron is now a function of time. Measurements from Vogel (1889), Baker (1910), Struve & Ebigghausen (1934), Struve et al. (1958), Shobbrook et al. (1972) and Riddle (2000) provide 338 and 239 RV measurements for the primary and secondary stars respectively.Preliminary results yield: (1) a median apsidal period (U) of 118.9±1.3 years with 68% confidence consistent with the value of Herbison-Evans et al. (1971), 124±11 years. The ratio of the orbital period to the apsidal period (P/U), one of three parameters needed for observationally determined apsidal-motion constant k2obs (Claret & Willems 2002), is now tentatively constrained to 1%, P/U = 9.24±0.01x10-5. (2) The eccentricity is constrained in our solution with an uncertainty of 9%, down from an uncertainly of 20% found by Riddle (2000). (3) The uncertainty in k2obs is dominated by the uncertainty of the ratio of the primary star radius, R1,to the semi-major axis, a, since k2obs is proportional to (R1/a)5. The semi-major axis can be found from a●sini which is constrained with an uncertainty of 3%, similar to previous work. The influence of the prior values on the posterior distributions will be described. The next step is to constrain the inclination from the light curve and long-baseline near-IR interferometry.

  20. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  1. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  2. The frequency of fragrance allergy in a patch-test population over a 17-year period.

    PubMed

    Buckley, D A; Wakelin, S H; Seed, P T; Holloway, D; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    2000-02-01

    Fragrances are widely encountered in our daily environment and are known to be a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We have reviewed our patch test data from 1980 to 1996 to establish whether the pattern of fragrance allergy has changed with time. During this period, 25,545 patients (10,450 male, 15,005 female) were patch tested with the European standard series. The mean annual frequency of positive reactions to the fragrance mix was 8.5% in females (range 6.1-10.9) and 6.7% in males (range 5.1-12.9). Females were 1.3 times more likely to be allergic to fragrance (P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.17-1.41). Males with fragrance allergy were older than females by 5.6 years (mean age 48.2 vs. 42.6 years; P < 0.001, 95% CI 3.9-7.3). The incidence of a concomitant positive patch test to balsam of Peru in fragrance-sensitive patients showed wide variation, suggesting that it is not a reliable marker of fragrance allergy. There was a positive correlation between the isomers isoeugenol and eugenol. Oak moss remained the most common overall allergen throughout the study, positive in 38.3% of females and 35.6% of males who were tested to the constituents of the fragrance mix. During the period of the study the incidence of positive tests to oak moss increased by 5% yearly (P = 0.001, 95% CI 2.2-8.7). The frequency of allergic reactions to eugenol and geraniol remained relatively constant. Isoeugenol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde sensitivity increased and hydroxycitronellal showed a slow decline. There was a striking reduction in the frequency of sensitivity to cinnamic aldehyde (by 18% yearly; P < 0.001, 95% CI 14.3-21.0) and cinnamic alcohol (by 9% yearly; P < 0.001, 95% CI 5.2-12.9); these are now uncommon fragrance allergens. These data show temporal trends which may reflect the frequency of population exposure to individual fragrances.

  3. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  4. Choledochal cysts in infants and children: experiences over a 20-year period at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsuan; Lin, Lung-Huang; Chen, Der-Fang; Huang, Ching-Shui

    2011-09-01

    This analysis was undertaken to compare the clinicopathological features of infants with choledochal cysts to those of older children with these entities and to evaluate the surgical outcomes for both subject groups. The medical records of all children admitted to the Cathay General Hospital with choledochal cysts over a 20-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-five subjects were included and divided into the infant (<1 year at presentation; 8 subjects) and classical pediatric (1-18 years at presentation; 17 subjects) groups. Anatomical subtypes were: IA (16), IC (6), and IVA (3). The median biliary amylase value was markedly elevated for the pediatric group but not for the infant group. Most (82.4%) patients in the pediatric group, but none in the infant group, presented with abdominal pain. Jaundice and clay-colored stool were present in all patients in the infant group but only 35% of those in the pediatric group. All patients underwent choledochocystectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with good outcomes. Neonates/infants with choledochal cysts present differently from older children with these entities. Amylase measurements may serve to distinguish biliary atresia with cystic dilatation from choledochal cyst in neonates/infants. Prognosis following radical cyst excision and reconstruction with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is excellent. PMID:21350805

  5. Antibiotic Consumption During a 4-year Period in a Community Hospital with an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Fernandez, Eliezer Alemán; Guerrero, Yaquelín Batista; Serrano, Ramon N. Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. Methods This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012–2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD). Results The consumption of antimicrobials in 2012 was 171.3 DBD, and increased to 252.7 DBD in 2013, 229.1 DBD in 2014, and 184.7 DBD in 2015. Cephalosporins use reduced from 98.2 DBD in 2013 to 51.5 DBD in 2015 while the consumption of penicillins increased during the beginning of 2014 with a slight decrease in 2015. Carbapenems consumption during 2014–2015 was lower than previous years, and vice-versa for aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones had a sustained increase with 37.1% increased consumption in 2015 compared to the two previous years. There was an increase in the use of intravenous (IV) (108.5%) and oral azithromycin (55.1%) and the use of oral (152.8%) and IV moxifloxacin (22.9%). Conclusions We observed a decrease in antibiotic use in patients admitted to a community hospital with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but the increase in fluoroquinolones consumption is a concern that requires focused strategies. PMID:27602189

  6. Improved prognosis in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: experience of 62 cases over 2-year period1

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alistair; Sumner, Edward

    1982-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, 62 babies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia were admitted to the Hospitals for Sick Children. All 62 babies underwent surgical closure of the anatomical defect. There were 44 survivors and 18 deaths, a survival rate of 71%. Both the number treated and the overall survival rate were greater than any series reported for a similar period. The number of admissions may reflect earlier diagnosis and improved resuscitation, with safer and more rapid transfer to our units. The improved survival must be mainly attributed to our experience over the past few years which has consolidated understanding and methods of management and led to a close cooperation between surgeon and anaesthetist both in immediate management and in postoperative care. PMID:7108880

  7. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ~30 year period

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of {+-} 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations.

  8. Lead content in multifloral honey from central Croatia over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Ðokić, Maja; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Ðurđica; Simić, Branimir; Končurat, Ana; Brstilo, Mate

    2012-06-01

    Lead concentrations were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry in multifloral honeys collected in central Croatia (Zagreb County) during a three-year period from 2009 to 2011. The mean levels of elements (μg/kg) in honey samples measured were: 90.8 in 2009, 189 in 2010 and 360 in 2011. Significant differences were observed, and Pb levels determined in 2009 were significantly lower than those in 2010 and 2011 (p < 0.05, both). In 2009 there was no concentration found above 300 μg/kg. However, in 2010 and 2011 levels exceeding 300 μg/kg were found in 28.6 % and 25 % of samples. Trace element levels of Pb determined in multifloral honey were generally higher than concentrations obtained from other geographical origins and neighbouring countries. These high concentrations of Pb may be related to the fact that the central region is becoming increasingly urban and the network of motorways is growing. Accordingly, the risk of positioning hives near zones of busy highways and railways is increasing. This underlines that particular attention should be paid to toxic Pb levels, due to their gradual increased during the study period.

  9. [Falls and accidents in the nursing home--review of a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Fisch, H P

    1983-07-01

    61 falls and accidents and one suicide needed medical attention in our nursing home during a five-year period. Most frequent sequelae were scalp lacerations, followed by fractures of the femoral neck. 73% of the patients who got hurt by falls suffered of dementia. 38% were being treated with neuroleptic, antihypertensive or diuretic drugs. It was not possible however to document a relationship between drug treatment and falls. Most falls occurred while patients were walking on the floor without obstacles and without external influences. 3 patients died as immediate consequence of their falls. We observed falls more often in the first period of the patient's stay in our institution and again shortly before the patient's death. Prophylactic measures against falls include bed-rails, little tables that can be fixed to the wheel-chairs in order to hinder unassisted standing up of patients, unable to walk alone and judicious treatment with sedative drugs. The most important measure however seems to be compassionate and attentive patient care that conveys trust and confidence between patients and the nursing personnel. Possibly the incidence of falls and accidents could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care in geriatric institutions.

  10. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  11. Determining Erosion Rates and Processes in the Pro-Glacial Area over a 28-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, I. A.; Huss, M.; Weidmann, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Glacially fed hydropower reservoirs in the Swiss Alps have experienced substantial increases in sedimentation recently. This sedimenation causes reduced reservoir capacity, turbine abrasion and increased need for sediment flushing, all of which reduce the efficiency and economic viability of hydropower in the region. Although the issue is largely attributed to regional glacier retreat, there is a need for greater understanding of the specific processes that contribute to the increased sedimentation. To evaluate these processes, we examine the Griesgletscher catchment, which lies in the central Swiss Alps and its runoff feeds a hydropower reservoir. The recent exposure of the glacier's fore-field (roughly 1986) due to the glacier's retreat beyond the reservoir's margin, along with its simple catchment area make it an ideal location to examine pro-glacial erosion. Here we present a time-series from 1986 to 2014 of digital elevation models (DEM) created from aerial photographs of the Griesgletscher's fore-field from each year except for 2. Comparison of DEMs from subsequent years yields erosion volumes and sediment balance over the 28 year period for the pro-glacial area. Bathymetry of the pro-glacial reservoir for select years allows us to speculate if the erosion of the recently exposed glacier fore-field is the sole source of sediment to the reservoir, or if alternative processes such as increased glacial erosion or mobilization of sub-glacial sediments could contribute. We correlate erosion amounts with runoff volumes from the Griesgletscher and changes in the the glacier's morophology and coverage. Additionally, implimentation of the Glacier Evolution Runoff Model allows us to examine the variability in the glacier's runoff on the hourly to daily scale. By examining these relationships we constrain the processes contributing to the erosion of the Griesgletscher's pro-glacial area.

  12. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  13. A Long Period Eclipsing Binary Project - Five Years of Observations at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlin, P.; Sundman, A.

    1982-06-01

    The star HO 161387 first caught our eyes when we were reading an article on ~ Aurigae stars by K. O. Wright in Vistas in Astronomy No. 12. This was some 8 or 9 years ago. Aurigae stars are eclipsing binaries formed by a cool supergiant K star and a very much smaller and holter mainsequence (more or less normal) B star. Out of eclipse the B star dominates the blue spectral region, but a pure K-type spectrum is found in eclipse. The drastic spectral changes lor HO 161387 can be seen in Fig 1c and 1d. Periods for these binaries are in the range of 2 to 10 years. The general benefit 01 ~ Aurigae star studies is the possibility of direct determination 01 physical parameters of the components such as masses and radii. In practice, what one does observe is the change in radial velocity of the stars as they orbit around their common centre 01 gravity and the change in magnitude as the light from the B star is eclipsed by the K supergiant. There is also the possibility of studying the structure of the atmosphere of a K supergiant manifested by spectral changes occurring as the point light of the B star shines through the outer parts of the K star c1ose to the total eclipse. Besides Aurigae itsell only the stars 31 and 32 Cygni have been studied in greater detail.

  14. International Collaboration and Academic Exchange of the CHAIN Project in this Three Years (Period)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.

    2014-02-01

    We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.

  15. Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective analysis of 107 patients during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Hou, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease, and early diagnosis may be difficult. In order to provide diagnostic clues and to enhance the prompt management of such cases, we retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of PLA during a 3-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. The crude incidence rate of PLA in our study was 446.1 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Male predominance and a mean age of 57.6 +/- 14.4 years were observed. Diabetes mellitus was the most common concomitant disease, and biliary pathologies were the most common predisposing cause of this type of abscess. The most common clinical features were fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Leukocytosis was found in 67.3% of the patients, and the observed C-reactive protein (CRP) values were high. The most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate was 6.5%. A complete history, physical examination, evaluation of the white blood cell count and CRP, and the prompt arrangement of imaging studies may lead to an earlier diagnosis. The aggressive performance of image-guided catheter drainage and the appropriate administration of antibiotics may reduce the mortality rate of PLA. PMID:16377869

  16. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  17. Pediatric encephaloceles: A series of 20 cases over a period of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Shashank Ravindra; Sukanya, M.; Maitra, Jayabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. The exact worldwide frequency is not known. Aims and Objectives: To determine the epidemiological features, patterns of encephalocele, and its postsurgical results. Materials and Methods: The study was carried from year July 2012 to June 2015. Patients with encephalocele were evaluated for epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging characteristics, and surgical results. Results: 20 encephaloceles patients were treated during the study period. Out of these 12 (60%) were male and 8 (40%) female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. The most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12 (60%), occipito-cervical 4 (20%), parietal 2 (10%), fronto-nasal 1 (5%), and fronto-naso-ethmoidal 1 (5%). One patient had a double encephalocele (one atretic and other was occipital) with dermal sinus tract and limited dermal myeloschisis. Other associations: Chiari 3 malformation (2), meningomyeloceles (4), and syrinx (4). Three patients presented with rupture two of whom succumbed to meningitis and shock. Seventeen patients treated surgically did well with no immediate surgical mortality (except a case of Chiari 3 malformation who succumbed 6 months postsurgery to unrelated causes). Shunt was performed in 4 cases. Conclusion: The most common type of encephalocele is occipital in our set up. Early surgical management of encephalocele is not only for cosmetic reasons but also to prevent tethering, rupture, and future neurological deficits. PMID:26962334

  18. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time.

  19. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  20. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  1. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  2. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  3. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Retrospective Clinical Data Analysis of 30 Patients in a 10-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Jiang; Yan, Yong; Zhou, Biao; Lan, Tian-Fei; Wang, Xue-Yan; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by development of fibrosclerotic tissues involving retroperitoneal structures. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of 30 patients with RPF in a single center in Beijing in a 10-year period. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, radiological findings, modalities of treatments, outcomes and prognosis of 30 patients with RPF. Patients were treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital between January 2003 and December 2013. Results: The mean age of patients with RPF was 56.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-three patients were men and seven patients were women. Acute phase reactants were elevated in most patients. Rheumatic factor was positive in 4/25 (16.0%) patients, and antinuclear antibody was positive in 6/22 (27.3%) patients. Elevation of IgG4 was observed in 9/22 (40.9%) patients. The most common type was I + III (n = 13), followed by I + II + III (n = 12). Five patients undertook an 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography examination and increased uptake was detected in four patients. Eight patients received combination therapy with glucocorticoids and tamoxifen. Surgical intervention treatments included intraureteral double-J stent implantation (n = 26), percutaneous nephrostomy (n = 2), open ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5) and laparoscopic ureterolysis and intraperitonealization of the ureters (n = 5). Three patients underwent hemodialysis because of renal failure. Conclusions: Clinical characteristics of RPF patients in our study are similar to those previously reported. Steroids and immunosuppressive therapy combined with ureterolysis could be a viable choice of treatment for RPF. More prospective, multi-center studies with a longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:25758277

  4. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.145 Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. (a) Except...

  5. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.145 Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. (a) (b)...

  6. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.145 Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. (a) Except...

  7. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.145 Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. (a) Except...

  8. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.145 Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands. (a) Except...

  9. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  10. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  11. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  12. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  13. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  14. 34 CFR 30.20 - To what do §§ 30.20-30.31 apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owed by a State or local government; (2) The debt, or the payment against which offset would be taken... Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT COLLECTION What Provisions Apply to....20-30.31 establish the general procedures used by the Secretary to collect debts by...

  15. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  16. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10‐Year Period, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine R.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Sanford, Thomas H.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, McCulloch CE, Shindel AW, and Breyer BN. The decline of inpatient penile prosthesis over the 10‐year period, 2000–2010. Sex Med 2015;3:280–286. PMID:26797062

  17. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  18. Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability.

    PubMed

    Huffard, C L; von Thun, S; Sherman, A D; Sealey, K; Smith, K L

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic forms of the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Sargassum spp. and their conspicuous rafts are defining characteristics of the Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic. Given rising temperatures and acidity in the surface ocean, we hypothesized that macrofauna associated with Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea have changed with respect to species composition, diversity, evenness, and sessile epibiota coverage since studies were conducted 40 years ago. Sargassum communities were sampled along a transect through the Sargasso Sea in 2011 and 2012 and compared to samples collected in the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone from 1966 to 1975. Mobile macrofauna communities exhibited changes in community structure and declines in diversity and evenness within a 6-month time period (August 2011-February 2012). Equivalent declines in diversity and evenness were recorded in the same region (Sargasso Sea, 25°-29°N) in 1972-1973. Recent community structures were unlike any documented historically, whether compared to sites of the same latitude range within the Sargasso Sea, or the broader historical dataset of sites ranging across the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone. Recent samples also recorded low coverage by sessile epibionts, both calcifying forms and hydroids. The diversity and species composition of macrofauna communities associated with Sargassum might be inherently unstable. While several biological and oceanographic factors might have contributed to these observations, including a decline in pH, increase in summer temperatures, and changes in the abundance and distribution of Sargassum seaweed in the area, it is not currently possible to attribute direct causal links.

  19. Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability.

    PubMed

    Huffard, C L; von Thun, S; Sherman, A D; Sealey, K; Smith, K L

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic forms of the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Sargassum spp. and their conspicuous rafts are defining characteristics of the Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic. Given rising temperatures and acidity in the surface ocean, we hypothesized that macrofauna associated with Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea have changed with respect to species composition, diversity, evenness, and sessile epibiota coverage since studies were conducted 40 years ago. Sargassum communities were sampled along a transect through the Sargasso Sea in 2011 and 2012 and compared to samples collected in the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone from 1966 to 1975. Mobile macrofauna communities exhibited changes in community structure and declines in diversity and evenness within a 6-month time period (August 2011-February 2012). Equivalent declines in diversity and evenness were recorded in the same region (Sargasso Sea, 25°-29°N) in 1972-1973. Recent community structures were unlike any documented historically, whether compared to sites of the same latitude range within the Sargasso Sea, or the broader historical dataset of sites ranging across the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone. Recent samples also recorded low coverage by sessile epibionts, both calcifying forms and hydroids. The diversity and species composition of macrofauna communities associated with Sargassum might be inherently unstable. While several biological and oceanographic factors might have contributed to these observations, including a decline in pH, increase in summer temperatures, and changes in the abundance and distribution of Sargassum seaweed in the area, it is not currently possible to attribute direct causal links. PMID:25414525

  20. Water quality changes in a polluted stream over a twenty-five-year period.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jason; Skousen, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    The Deckers Creek watershed in northern West Virginia (USA), containing a land area of 166 km2 (63 mi2), has a long history of industrial development and attendant environmental abuses from both land and water pollution practices. The water in Deckers Creek was sampled in 1974 at 29 locations along the main stem and resampled in 1999-2000 to determine water quality changes over this 25-year period. Water samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, alkalinity, iron, and calcium at both times, while aluminum, manganese, zinc, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria densities were added in 1999-2000. Water at almost all sampling points showed lower acidity and metal contents in 1999-2000 compared with 1974. Water pH increased at the mouth from 5.4 in 1974 to 6.0 in 1999-2000. Acidity and iron concentrations were decreased an average of 70% in the upper stretches of the creek. However, one major untreated point source of water from an abandoned underground mining complex continues to degrade the quality of the creek in its lower stretches. In the upper section, the water quality in Deckers Creek has improved due to decreased surface and underground coal mining activities, reclamation of abandoned and recently permitted surface mined lands, and natural healing of past land use scars from timbering and mining over time. The decrease in mineral extraction activities and the reclamation of disturbed lands has occurred due to the passage and enforcement of water quality and land reclamation laws and regulations. More time and additional reclamation projects will continue to enhance the water quality in the creek. Improved water chemistry in the majority of the creek, however, shows the previously unnoticeable biological contamination from sewage inputs.

  1. Trends in antibacterial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens during a seven-year period.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Walker, R D; Bolin, C A; Bartlett, P C; White, D G

    2002-05-01

    Milk samples collected from dairy cattle suspected of having mastitis were submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory of the Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory, Michigan State University, for bacteriologic culture. A total of 2778 isolates, from the years 1994 to 2000, were isolated, identified, and subjected to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion method, in accordance with National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) standards. Isolates included in this study were Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcesens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proportion of bacterial isolates determined to be susceptible did not change during the 7-yr period for the majority of bacterial-antibacterial interactions tested. However, analysis for linear trend in proportions determined that there were increases in the proportion of S. aureus isolates that were susceptible to ampicillin, penicillin, and erythromycin. For Strep. uberis, increases in the proportion of susceptible isolates occurred for oxacillin, sulfa-trimethoprim, gentamicin, and pirlimycin, and a decrease in the proportion of susceptible isolates occurred with penicillin. For Strep. dysgalactiae, increases in the proportion of susceptible isolates occurred with erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfa-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. For Strep. agalactiae, increases in the proportion of susceptible isolates occurred with sulfa-trimethoprim. Among E. coli isolates, there was an increase in the proportion that were susceptible to ampicillin and cephalothin. Among K pneumoniae isolates, there was an increase in the proportion that were susceptible to ceftiofur. Overall, there was no indication of increased resistance of mastitis isolates to antibacterials that are commonly used in dairy cattle.

  2. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  3. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  4. A Simple Stochastic Model with Environmental Transmission Explains Multi-Year Periodicity in Outbreaks of Avian Flu

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Hua; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Quan-Xing; van de Koppel, Johan; Alonso, David

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus reveals persistent and recurrent outbreaks in North American wild waterfowl, and exhibits major outbreaks at 2–8 years intervals in duck populations. The standard susceptible-infected- recovered (SIR) framework, which includes seasonal migration and reproduction, but lacks environmental transmission, is unable to reproduce the multi-periodic patterns of avian influenza epidemics. In this paper, we argue that a fully stochastic theory based on environmental transmission provides a simple, plausible explanation for the phenomenon of multi-year periodic outbreaks of avian flu. Our theory predicts complex fluctuations with a dominant period of 2 to 8 years which essentially depends on the intensity of environmental transmission. A wavelet analysis of the observed data supports this prediction. Furthermore, using master equations and van Kampen system-size expansion techniques, we provide an analytical expression for the spectrum of stochastic fluctuations, revealing how the outbreak period varies with the environmental transmission. PMID:22363397

  5. 42 CFR 457.610 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year. 457.610 Section 457.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... a fiscal year. The amount of a final allotment for a fiscal year, as determined under § 457.608(h..., beginning with the fiscal year of the final allotment and ending with the end of the second fiscal...

  6. Periodic impact cratering and extinction events over the last 260 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-12-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. A newly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 ± 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 ± 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  7. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  8. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  9. Conservation Reserve Programs: Enrollment statistics for signup periods 1-11 and fiscal years 1990-92. Statistical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, C.T.; Llacuna, F.; Linsenbigler, M.

    1992-11-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture accepted approximately 33.9 million acres of cropland into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) during 1986-89. These acres were enrolled in nine separate signups under the authority of the Food Security Act of 1985. Enrollment was extended through 1995 by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Two signup periods were held in 1991. The 10th signup was for fiscal year 1991 retirement of land from production, and the 11th signup was for fiscal year 1992. Approximately 1.5 million additional acres were enrolled in these two signup periods under significantly revised program rules. The report presents statistics covering all CRP cropland enrolled in signup periods 1-11 and CRP cropland newly retired in fiscal years 1990-92.

  10. Spatial Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies in Eastern China During Centennial Cold and Warm Periods of the Past 2000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial patterns of precipitation anomalies in eastern China during both warm and cold periods over the past 2000 years were studied. Four warm periods (ad 650-750, ad 1000-1100, ad 1190-1290, and ad 1900-2000) and five cold periods (ad 440-540, ad 780-920, ad 1390-1460, ad 1600-1700, and ad 1800-1900) were selected on a centennial timescale, referring to the synthesized temperature changes over China and Northern Hemisphere. The regional differences in precipitation were analyzed and compared using a data set consisting of the grades in severity of floods and droughts as derived from Chinese historical documents. The results showed that there has been no fixed spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies during either cold or warm periods in eastern China over the past 2000 years. For the most of warm periods, there existed coherence of spatial pattern with dry condition only occurred over north of the Yangtze River, and the consistent spatial patterns were found between the periods 650-750 and 1190-1290, 650-750 and 1000-1100. For the cold periods, the precipitation showed various spatial patterns, and similarities were only presented in the two periods of 1600-1700 and 1800-1900 featured by meridional distribution. Comparing the spatial patterns between cold and warm periods, inverse pattern of 440-540 and 1900-2000 over the most study area can be detected, but similar pattern was also found between the periods 1800-1900 and 1900-2000, and 1600-1700 and 1900-2000. Our results implicated that the relationship between temperature and spatial pattern of precipitation anomaly has high complexity, which would be of significance to understanding the spatial pattern of precipitation in the future climate change study.

  11. Homosexual Pornography: Trends in Content and Form over a Twenty-Five Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celline, Harold B.; Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted qualitative content analysis to examine homosexual pornography on sale in adult bookstores during four time periods: 1960-1969, 1970-1974, 1975-1979, and 1980-1984. Results revealed four trends: less tendency to disguise homosexual pornography, increasingly explicit sexual content, increasing emphasis on physical attractiveness of…

  12. Main research accomplishments during the past three-year period. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    During the current funding period the investigators have purified AP endonuclease to yield a peptide Mr=32000. The rat cDNA for S3 has been cloned into E. coli and has been expressed there. Enzyme activities observed appear to be the same as those of UV endonuclease III.

  13. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  14. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  15. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  16. CHANGES IN MARRIAGE PATTERNS AMONG THE ARAB COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL OVER A 60-YEAR PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Sharkia, Rajech; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Athamny, Esmael; Khatib, Mohammad; Sheikh-Muhammad, Ahmad; Zalan, Abdelnaser

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends of various types of consanguineous marriage among the Arab community in Israel over a long time period (1948-2007) by religion and educational level. Data were collected by face-to-face interview of 3173 Arab couples living in Israel in 2007 and 2008. The trend in consanguineous marriages was found to decrease significantly over successive time periods, from 42.5% to 30.9% (p=0.001), and the prevalence of first-cousin and closer marriages decreased, from 23% to 12.7%. Consanguinity was found to be significantly related to religion (p=0.001) and wife's level of education (p=0.028).

  17. Period and phase of the 88-year solar cycle and the Maunder minimum - Evidence for a chaotic sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, Stephen B.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of whether the solar dynamo is quasi-periodic or chaotic is addressed by examining 1500 years of sunspot, geomagnetic, and auroral activity cycles. Sub-harmonics were found of the fundamental solar cycle period during the years preceding the Maunder minimum and loss of phase of the subharmonic on emergence from it. These phenomena are indicative of chaos. They indicate that the solar dynamo is chaotic and is operating in a region close to the transition between period doubling and chaos. Since Maunder-type minima reoccur irregularly for millennia, it appears that the sun remains close to this transition to and from chaos. This is postulated to be a universal characteristic of solar type stars caused by feedback in the dynamo number.

  18. Conservation reserve program: Enrollment statistics for signup periods 1-12 and fiscal years 1986-1993. Statistical bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, C.T.; Llacuna, F.; Linsenbigler, M.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) accepted about 33.9 million acres of cropland into the Conservation Reserve Program (CPR) during 1986-89. This acreage was enrolled in nine separate signups under authority of the Food Security Act of 1985. CRP enrollment was extended through 1995 with passage of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Three signup periods (the 10th, 11th, and 12th) were held in 1991 and 1992. About 2.5 million additional acres were enrolled in these signup periods under significantly revised program rules. No funds were appropriated for additional signups in fiscal years 1993-95. This report presents tables covering all CRP cropland enrolled in signup periods 1-12 and CRP cropland newly retired for each of fiscal years 1986-93.

  19. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  20. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  1. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  2. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND...

  3. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  4. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  5. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  6. An "Appropriate" Test Taker: The Everyday Classroom during the National Testing Period in School Year Three in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Eva; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Bagger, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for 9-10-year-old children in Sweden. Data were produced by observations, video-recordings and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends,…

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  8. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  9. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  10. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  11. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  12. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  13. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  14. Retention and readability of radio frequency identification transponders in beef cows over a five-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this study was to evaluate failure (loss or inability to read) of radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags in beef cows over a 2 to 5 year period under ranching conditions. One of 5 types of RFID tags was applied in the ear of a total of 4316 cows on 4 separate ranches. Tags wer...

  15. Consensus Sequence of 27 African Horse Sickness Virus Genomes from Viruses Collected over a 76-Year Period (1933 to 2009)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Isabella M.; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2015-01-01

    We announce the complete consensus genome sequence of 27 African horse sickness viruses, representing all nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes from historical and recent isolates collected over a 76-year period (1933 to 2009). The data set includes the sequence of the virulent Office International des Epizooties AHSV reference strains which are not adapted to cell culture. PMID:26358586

  16. The Presence of Matthew Effects in Dutch Primary Education, Development of Language Skills over a Six-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low…

  17. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants.

  18. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants. PMID:2631593

  19. Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W K; Simeon, D T; Bramble, D; Buffonge, C; Gallagher, P

    1996-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education and other public health strategies seeking to reduce its prevalence have usually met with only limited success. The study reported here surveyed anemia of pregnancy on the island of Montserrat in 1980, 1985, and 1990. This involved examination of clinic and hospital records for over 90% of all women giving birth on Montserrat in 1980 and 1985, as well as 80% of those giving birth in 1990. This examination showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of anemia at the time of the first prenatal visit (a drop from 82% of the study women in 1980 to 23% in 1985 and 19% in 1990) and also a marked drop at three days postpartum (from 91% in 1980 to 41% in 1985 and 39% in 1990). Logistic regression analyses indicated that after controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia's prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear, partly because of the retrospective nature of the study. However, better nutrition resulting from improvement in the standard of living on Montserrat during the survey period could have been important, as could changes in health education and food supplementation activities. PMID:8919721

  20. Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W K; Simeon, D T; Bramble, D; Buffonge, C; Gallagher, P

    1996-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education and other public health strategies seeking to reduce its prevalence have usually met with only limited success. The study reported here surveyed anemia of pregnancy on the island of Montserrat in 1980, 1985, and 1990. This involved examination of clinic and hospital records for over 90% of all women giving birth on Montserrat in 1980 and 1985, as well as 80% of those giving birth in 1990. This examination showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of anemia at the time of the first prenatal visit (a drop from 82% of the study women in 1980 to 23% in 1985 and 19% in 1990) and also a marked drop at three days postpartum (from 91% in 1980 to 41% in 1985 and 39% in 1990). Logistic regression analyses indicated that after controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia's prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear, partly because of the retrospective nature of the study. However, better nutrition resulting from improvement in the standard of living on Montserrat during the survey period could have been important, as could changes in health education and food supplementation activities.

  1. Prediction of Childhood Behavior Problems over a Four-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicht, David J.; And Others

    Path analysis was used to discover predictors of personality, school conduct, and distractibility-hyperactivity problems in this 4-year longitudinal study of 173 rural children. While previous studies had shown that children's behavior disorders are related to sex of child, family disruption, IQ, Bender-Gestalt Test scores, and socioeconomic…

  2. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  3. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  4. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    PubMed Central

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential. PMID:26644677

  5. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period.

    PubMed

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3-15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential.

  6. Epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the East of ireland in the 25-year period 1984-2008.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Robert; Owens, Miriam; Delany, Caroline; Earley, Michael; McGillivary, Anne; Orr, David J; Duggan, Laura

    2014-07-01

    Objective : To describe the epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the east of Ireland. Design and Setting : A descriptive epidemiologic study on 851 cases of orofacial cleft identified over a 25-year period from 1984 to 2008 from more than 500,000 births. Results : There were 438 (51.5%) cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 413 (48.5%) cases of cleft palate. The total birth prevalence was 16.0 per 10,000 births for all orofacial clefts, 8.2 for cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and 7.8 for cleft palate. Of all cases, 63.7% (542/851) occurred as isolated anomalies, 21.5% (183/851) were associated with multiple anomalies, and 14.8% (126/851) were associated with a syndrome or chromosomal anomaly. A significantly increasing trend over the 25-year period was observed for cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with syndromes or chromosomal anomalies among mothers younger than 35 years but not in those older than 35 years. Conclusion : A slightly higher rate of orofacial clefts was observed in the east of Ireland than was observed in European and multinational studies during the study period, and there were higher rates of cleft palate. The rising trend in the proportion of mothers aged 35 years or older in Ireland is not contributing significantly to orofacial clefts associated with chromosomal syndromes.

  7. Stain and dye stability over a 30-year period: a comparison of certified dye powders by the Biological Stain Commission.

    PubMed

    Penney, D P; Frank, M; Fagan, C; Willis, C

    2009-02-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) Assay Laboratory has received numerous inquiries during the past several years regarding the long-term stability of stain and dye powders, particularly since packaging requirements call for expiration dates on reagents. We have conducted a study to examine the long-term stability of selected dye powders. We used the standard procedures of the BSC for testing biological stains for certification to give an indication of the long-term chemical stability as well as staining performance of the dye powders. An earlier study by Emmel and Stotz examined the stability of various dye powders after a five-year storage period. The present study is a follow-up project covering the same dyes after storage for 30 years. The dye samples chosen for the study are the same samples used in the five-year storage period study and give comparative results for all three time periods. The results of this study affirm the generally held speculation that dye powders are stable for many years and thus have a substantial shelf-life. PMID:19096966

  8. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations.

  9. Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Brendyn; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of upper and lower body strength changes in highly trained professional rugby union players after 2 years of training. An additional purpose was to examine if the changes in strength were influenced by the starting strength level, lean mass index (LMI), or chronological age. This longitudinal investigation tracked maximal strength and body composition over 3 consecutive years in 20 professional rugby union athletes. Maximal strength in the bench press and back squat and body composition was assessed during preseason resistance training sessions each year. The athletes completed a very rigorous training program throughout the duration of this study consisting of numerous resistance, conditioning and skills training sessions every week. The primary findings of this study were as follows: (a) Maximal upper and lower body strength was increased by 6.5-11.5% after 2 years of training (p = 0.000-0.002 for bench press; p = 0.277-0.165 for squat); (b) magnitude of the improvement was negatively associated with initial strength level (r = -0.569 to -0.712, p ≤ 0.05); (c) magnitude of improvement in lower body maximal strength was positively related to the change in LMI (an indicator of hypertrophy; r = 0.692-0.880, p ≤ 0.05); and (d) magnitude of improvement was not associated with the age of professional rugby union athletes (r = -0.068 to -0.345). It appears particularly important for training programs to be designed for continued muscle hypertrophy in highly trained athletes. Even in professional rugby union athletes, this must be achieved in the face of high volumes of aerobic and skills training if strength is to be increased.

  10. [Radiology of osteoarticular changes in patients undergoing periodic hemodialysis for more than 15 years].

    PubMed

    Orzincolo, C; Bedani, P L; Scutellari, P N; Ghedini, M; Storari, A; Cavallari, L; Cardona, P

    1991-05-01

    Osteoarticular complications, which are characterized by osseous pain, pathologic fractures, and decreased articular mobility, represent one of the major problems affecting long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis patients. These changes seem to have a multifactorial etiology; they include osteomalacia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Ten patients (5 males and 5 females, mean age 55 +/- 7 years) on long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis were submitted to X-ray examinations of the skull, spine, shoulders, wrists, pelvis, and knees. Serum calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and basal aluminium levels were also calculated. Osteopenia was demonstrated in all patients. Seven of them had alterations due to hyperparathyroidism. Six patients exhibited signs related to dialysis spondyloarthropathy; in 9 cases amyloid lesions, geodes, and erosions were present in wrists, humeral heads, or hips. One patient exhibited osteomalacic changes. Most long-term dialysis patients presented multifactorial osteoarticular changes due to hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Clinical symptoms and decreased articular mobility appeared to be due mainly to amyloid osteoarthropathy.

  11. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques.

  12. Clinical Effects and Radiological Results of Vertebroplasty: Over a 2-year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Han Ga Wi; Shin, Il Young; Moon, Seung-Myung; Hwang, Hyung Sik

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between clinical and radiological results and assessed the radiological changes according to the distribution pattern and amount of injected cement after vertebroplasty. Methods Two hundred and one patients underwent vertebroplasty; of these, 15 were follow up for more than 2 years. For radiological analysis, we grouped the patients according to cement distribution as follows: group 1, unilateral, unilateral distribution of cement; group 2, bilateral-uneven, bilateral distribution of cement but separated mass; and group 3, bilateral-even, bilateral single mass of cement. To compare radiologic with clinical results, we assessed the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, amount of injected cement, bone mineral density (BMD), postoperative and follow-up vertebral body compression ratios, and postoperative and follow-up kyphotic angles. Results There were 4 (26.7%) patients in group 1, 6 (40.0%) in group 2, and 5 (33.3%) in group 3. The mean VAS score was 5.2 preoperatively, 1.8 postoperatively, and 3.2 at 2-year follow-up. The 2-year follow-up compression ratio was better in patients with even distribution of injected cement (group 2 and 3) than group 1. However, it was not statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The follow-up kyphotic angle was more aggravated in the group 1 than in the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that vertebroplasty had a beneficial effect on pain relief, particularly in the immediate postoperative stage. The augmented spine tended to be more stable in the cases with increased amount and more even distribution of injected cement. PMID:25983842

  13. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  14. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification.

    PubMed

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W; Allen, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  15. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W.; Allen, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  16. Prefrontal cortex atrophy predicts dementia over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgmans, S; van Boxtel, M P J; Smeets, F; Vuurman, E F P M; Gronenschild, E H B M; Verhey, F R J; Uylings, H B M; Jolles, J

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) atrophy as a possible predictor of dementia. Eighty-eight older participants of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) were administered for neuropsychological tests at baseline and after three years (t(3)). Magnetic resonance images were acquired at t(3) and nine years after baseline all participants were screened for dementia. Three groups were distinguished: (1) participants who did not develop dementia or cognitive decline, (2) participants who did not develop dementia but did show significant cognitive decline, and (3) participants who developed dementia. Gray matter volume of structures in the PFC and medial temporal lobe (MTL) was measured. Prefrontal volume was significantly smaller in group 3 than in the other two groups, and PFC volume was significantly better than MTL volume in distinguishing between groups 2 and 3. These findings suggest that PFC atrophy is highly associated with dementia and can be considered an important predictor of the disease. It may even be a better predictor than the MTL atrophy that has been found in earlier studies.

  17. Cohort differences in Big Five personality factors over a period of 25 years.

    PubMed

    Smits, Iris A M; Dolan, Conor V; Vorst, Harrie C M; Wicherts, Jelte M; Timmerman, Marieke E

    2011-06-01

    The notion of personality traits implies a certain degree of stability in the life span of an individual. But what about generational effects? Are there generational changes in the distribution or structure of personality traits? This article examines cohort changes on the Big Five personality factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience, among first-year psychology students in The Netherlands, ages 18 to 25 years, between 1982 and 2007. Because measurement invariance of a personality test is essential for a sound interpretation of cohort differences in personality, we first assessed measurement invariance with respect to cohort for males and females separately on the Big Five personality factors, as measured by the Dutch instrument Five Personality Factors Test. Results identified 11 (females) and 2 (males) biased items with respect to cohort, out of a total of 70 items. Analyzing the unbiased items, results indicated small linear increases over time in Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and small linear decreases over time in Neuroticism. No clear patterns were found on the Openness to Experience factor. Secondary analyses on students from 1971 to 2007 of females and males of different ages together revealed linear trends comparable to those in the main analyses among young adults between 1982 onward. The results imply that the broad sociocultural context may affect personality factors.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  19. Clinical performance and survival of space maintainers: evaluation over a period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Lamis D

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the clinical performance of 387 space maintainers fitted in 358 patients aged from 3 to 9 years in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the Faculty of Dentistry-University of Jordan from 1996 to 2000. Failure occurred in 119 appliances (30.7%), of which 49.6% were due to solder breakage, 32.8% from cement loss, 11% from soft tissue lesions, 4.2% from eruption interference, and 2.5% were completely lost. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated median survival time for space maintainers was 18 months. Lingual arches had the lowest median survival time of 14 months. Bands and loops, Nance appliances, and removable partial dentures had similar probability of survival. Fixed bilateral mandibular appliances recorded lower survival time than fixed bilateral maxillary appliances. Gender, age, type of dentition, fixed vs. removable, year of placement of the appliance and number of space maintainers fitted simultaneously in the same patient had no significant effect on survival of the appliances.

  20. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Rwanda’s genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer’s exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. Results The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely

  1. Physical activity promotion in the preschool years: a critical period to intervene.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Harvey, Alysha; Grattan, Kimberly; Adamo, Kristi B

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a "lessons learned" model based on our research team's experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.

  2. Glioblastoma occurring at the site of a previous medulloblastoma following a 5-year remission period.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah E; Brat, Daniel J; Vance, Gail H; Stohler, Ryan; Choi, Haki; Douglas-Akinwande, Annette C; Hattab, Eyas M

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of a 14-year-old boy who developed a cerebellar and brainstem glioblastoma 5 years after treatment for a medulloblastoma. The patient first presented in 2003 with 9 months of vomiting and a 9-kg weight loss. A head MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing posterior fossa mass with hydrocephalus. Gross total resection was performed and the tumor was consistent with a classic medulloblastoma. Postoperative chemotherapy and craniospinal radiation was administered. The patient remained tumor-free until 2008, at which time he presented with right-sided weakness and numbness, left eye pain, vomiting and weight loss. Imaging showed abnormalities within the posterior pons, medulla, inferior cerebellar peduncles, cerebellar hemispheres and cervicomedullary junction with expansion of the medulla and cervical spinal cord. Due to the location of the lesion, biopsy was felt to be too risky and was avoided. Despite receiving chemotherapy, his symptoms continued to worsen and he died 4 months later. Post mortem examination limited to the brain and spinal cord confirmed the radiographic extent of the tumor. Microscopic examination showed a highly cellular infiltrative glial neoplasm with extensive palisading necrosis. A diagnosis of glioblastoma was rendered. The question of whether the first and second tumors were related is of potential clinical and academic interest. The first tumor was synaptophysin-positive and GFAP-negative, consistent with medulloblastoma. The second tumor was synaptophysin-negative and focally GFAP-positive, consistent with glioblastoma. The glioblastoma displayed EGF receptor amplification, and interestingly, it also displayed MYCN amplification; both tumors showed low level PTEN deletion. The medulloblastoma displayed a signal pattern consistent with an isochromosome 17q, while the glioblastoma showed some cells with an isochromosome 17q signal pattern amid a background of cells with abundant chromosomal instability. The relationship

  3. Potential risk factors for development of postmenopausal osteoporosis--examined over a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A; Overgaard, K; Riis, B J; Christiansen, C

    1991-02-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated the influence of risk factors on bone mass at menopause and postmenopausal bone loss in 121 healthy postmenopausal women. These women had completed a 2-year prospective study in 1979 and a follow-up examination in 1989. Measurements of the bone mineral content in the distal forearm (single photon absorptiometry) were performed 9 times during the initial study and once at the follow-up examination. Bone mass at menopause (initial measurement), rate of early postmenopausal bone loss, and the subsequent rate of bone loss over 10 years were thus determined. In addition, the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1989. Information about risk factors was assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of alcohol and caffeine, smoking habits, and physical activity). Lactation, oral contraceptive use, and dietary calcium intake above 1500 mg per day was associated with significantly increased bone mass at menopause. The number of pregnancies reduced the rate of early postmenopausal bone loss, whereas moderate alcohol consumption reduced the subsequent rate of bone loss. Smoking significantly reduced femoral bone mineral density. In conclusion, the present prospective study showed that some of the examined putative risk factors positively influenced bone mass at menopause, especially calcium intake, whereas the postmenopausal bone loss was virtually unaffected. Assessment of risk factors in postmenopausal women thus seems to have limited value for reducing future risk of osteoporosis.

  4. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. 412.73 Section 412.73 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. (a) Costs on a per discharge basis. The intermediary will determine... and before October 1, 1983. (c) Updating base-year costs—(1) For Federal fiscal year 1984. The...

  5. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. 412.73 Section 412.73 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. (a) Costs on a per discharge basis. The intermediary will determine... and before October 1, 1983. (c) Updating base-year costs—(1) For Federal fiscal year 1984. The...

  6. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. 412.73 Section 412.73 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. (a) Costs on a per discharge basis. The intermediary will determine... and before October 1, 1983. (c) Updating base-year costs—(1) For Federal fiscal year 1984. The...

  7. Tumors in domestic animals examined during a ten-year period (1980 to 1989) at Miyazaki University.

    PubMed

    Rostami, M; Tateyama, S; Uchida, K; Naitou, H; Yamaguchi, R; Otsuka, H

    1994-04-01

    During the ten years from 1980 to 1989 inclusive, a total of 468 (16.1%) tumors were found in 2,907 pathological samples from domestic animals, collected from Southern Kyushu, around Miyazaki City. In this study, canine tumors were collected most commonly (340/468 cases, 73%). In small animals, the skin and mammary gland were associated particularly with tumorigenetic hazards. In cattle, high incidence of leukemia and mesothelioma was found. These tendencies were almost the same as those we reported for the preceding ten-year period, although the number of cases of tumor was higher in this study.

  8. No Outbreak of Vancomycin and Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcal Pneumonia over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococci can cause wound infections and community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, among a range of illnesses. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been rapidly increasing as a cause of infections worldwide in recent decades. Numerous reports indicate that S. aureus and MRSA are becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them very dangerous. Therefore, this study retrospectively investigated the resistance to antimicrobial agents in all hospitalized patients suffering from community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia due to S. aureus and MRSA. Methods Information from the study groups suffering from either community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or MRSA was gathered by searching records from 2004 to 2014 at the HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany. The findings of antibiotic resistance were analyzed after the evaluation of susceptibility testing for S. aureus and MRSA. Results Total of 147 patients (63.9%, 95% CI 57.5%–69.8%), mean age 67.9 ± 18.5 years, with pneumonia triggered by S. aureus, and 83 patients (36.1%, 95% CI 30.2%–42.5%), mean age 72.3 ± 13.8 years, with pneumonia due to MRSA. S. aureus and MRSA developed no resistance to vancomycin (P = 0.019 vs. < 0.0001, respectively) or linezolid (P = 0.342 vs. < 0.0001, respectively). MRSA (95.3%) and S. aureus (56.3%) showed a high resistance to penicillin. MRSA (87.7%) was also found to have a high antibiotic resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, compared to S. aureus (9.6%). Furthermore, MRSA compared to S. aureus, respectively, had increased antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin (90.1% vs. 17.0%), cefazolin (89.7% vs. 10.2%), cefuroxime (89.0% vs. 9.1%), levofloxacin (88.2% vs. 18.4%), clindamycin (78.0% vs. 14.7%), and erythromycin (76.5% vs. 20.8%). Conclusion No development of resistance was found to vancomycin and linezolid in patients with pneumonia caused by S. aureus and MRSA. PMID

  9. An analysis of glaucoma patients seen at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a five year period: 1986 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, S

    1998-03-01

    The records of all the glaucoma patients seen at the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a five year period were analysed. The racial, age and sex distribution of patients with primary open angle glaucoma and primary angle closure glaucoma was determined. The causes of secondary glaucoma were analysed. As no previous records of glaucoma statistics are available in Malaysia, it is hoped that these findings will form an initial mosaic to build on in the future.

  10. Fever in returned travelers: review of hospital admissions for a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Tobin, S; Brown, G V; Torresi, J

    2001-09-01

    We reviewed 232 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary-care hospital under the care of an infectious diseases unit for management of febrile illness acquired overseas. A total of 53% presented to hospital within 1 week of return and 96% within 6 months. Malaria was the most common diagnosis (27% of patients), followed by respiratory tract infection (24%), gastroenteritis (14%), dengue fever (8%), and bacterial pneumonia (6%). Pretravel vaccination may have prevented a number of admissions, including influenza (n=11), typhoid fever (n=8) and hepatitis A (n=6). Compared to those who had not traveled to Africa, those who had were 6 times more likely to present with falciparum than nonfalciparum malaria. An itinerary that included Asia was associated with a 13-fold increased risk of dengue, but a lower risk of malaria. Palpable splenomegaly was associated with an 8-fold risk of malaria and hepatomegaly with a 4-fold risk of malaria. As a cause of fever, bacterial pneumonia was > or =5 times more likely in those who were aged >40 years.

  11. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  12. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.

  13. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  14. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  15. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  16. Epidemic of fractures during a period of snow and ice: has anything changed 33 years on?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzani, Waheeb; Adam Maliq Mak, Danial; Hodgson, Paul; Williams, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We reproduced a frequently cited study that was published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) in 1981 assessing the extent of ‘snow-and-ice’ fractures during the winter period. Setting This study aims to provide an insight into how things have changed within the same emergency department (ED) by comparing the findings of the BMJ paper published 33 years ago with the present date. Participants As per the original study, all patients presenting to the ED with a radiological evidence of fracture during three different 4-day periods were included. The three 4-day periods included 4 days of snow-and-ice conditions and two control 4-day periods when snow and ice was not present; the first was 4 days within the same year, with a similar amount of sunshine hours, and the second was 4 days 1 calendar year later. Primary and secondary outcome measures To identify the frequency, distribution and pattern of fractures sustained in snow-and-ice conditions compared to control conditions as well as comparisons with the index study 33 years ago. Results A total of 293 patients with fractures were identified. Overall, there was a 2.20 (CI 1.7 to 3.0, p <0.01) increase in risk of fracture during snow-and-ice periods compared to control conditions. There was an increase (p <0.01) of fractures of the arm, forearm and wrist (RR 3.2 (CI 1.4 to 7.6) and 2.9 (CI 1.5 to 5.4) respectively). Conclusions While the relative risk was not of the magnitude 33 years ago, the overall number of patients presenting with a fracture during snow-and-ice conditions remains more than double compared to control conditions. This highlights the need for improved understanding of the impact of increased fracture burden on hospitals and more effective preventative measures. PMID:27630066

  17. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis in the Volta River Basin Area over a period of five years of vector control.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1984-03-01

    The results of an ophthalmological evaluation conducted in seven West African savannah villages before and after 5 years of vector control, were analysed to determine the effect of an interrupted or greatly reduced transmission of Onchocerca volvulus on the evolution of ocular onchocerciasis. Cross-sectional data showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis in five of the villages, and the rates of irreversible ocular lesions and blindness were generally lower after 5 years of vector control. A longitudinal study of a defined population showed that the ocular status of most patients with ocular onchocerciasis remained stable or improved over the 5 year period, particularly in lightly infected cases. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis showed a deterioration in a minor proportion, restricted to cases of already existing severe lesions, resulting in blindness. A comparison of ophthalmic data from adjacent areas without vector control, indicates that a five year period of vector control may reduce the risk of developing eye lesions or blindness due to onchocerciasis by 50%. PMID:6608814

  18. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis in the Volta River Basin Area over a period of five years of vector control.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1984-03-01

    The results of an ophthalmological evaluation conducted in seven West African savannah villages before and after 5 years of vector control, were analysed to determine the effect of an interrupted or greatly reduced transmission of Onchocerca volvulus on the evolution of ocular onchocerciasis. Cross-sectional data showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis in five of the villages, and the rates of irreversible ocular lesions and blindness were generally lower after 5 years of vector control. A longitudinal study of a defined population showed that the ocular status of most patients with ocular onchocerciasis remained stable or improved over the 5 year period, particularly in lightly infected cases. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis showed a deterioration in a minor proportion, restricted to cases of already existing severe lesions, resulting in blindness. A comparison of ophthalmic data from adjacent areas without vector control, indicates that a five year period of vector control may reduce the risk of developing eye lesions or blindness due to onchocerciasis by 50%.

  19. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  20. 2.4 m offset dual reflector antenna for a transportable 20/30 GHz earth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Harald

    1990-11-01

    An offset dual-reflector antenna for transportable and stationary earth stations operating in the 20/30-GHz band is described. The principles of dual-reflector systems are outlined, and emphasis is placed on the problem of reflector-profile errors and their influence on the radiation characteristics of the antenna. With a 2.4-m circular aperture, the antenna achieves a gain of 55.9 dB at 29.75 GHZ at the feed-horn input interface; this value corresponds to an antenna efficiency of 70 percent. The main-reflector and subreflector spillovers are considered, and a complete feed system is presented. Measured azimuth radiation patterns are assessed, and it is noted that the subreflector spillover is eliminated by using a metal box enclosing the feed/subreflector unit.

  1. Television viewing and changes in body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness over a two-year period in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Maria Paula; Martins, Júlio

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was twofold (1), to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing with BMI and CRF both at baseline and over a 2-year period, and (2) to examine the prospective relationship of baseline TV viewing and changes (Delta) on BMI and CRF over a 2-year period. Data were collected in a sample of 135 (64 girls) rural children ages 7 yr-old from elementary schools in Fundão, Portugal. Obesity status was obtained by the age-sex specific BMI cut points and CRF by a 9 min run test. TV viewing was also analyzed and children were assigned as one of two groups: the low TV watching (LTV), and high TV watching (HTV), users based upon them reported to spend less or more than 2 h/day watching TV, respectively. Logistic regression showed that those who were assigned to HTV group were 2.4 times (OR= 2.48; p = .04) more likely to be classified as unfit at time 1. Further the data showed that the LTV were more likely (OR= 0.36; p = .02) to be classified in high DeltaCRF change over time. The findings of this study suggest that there was a significant inverse association between times spent watching TV and CRF but not BMI over a 2-yr period.

  2. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  3. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  4. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  5. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  6. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  7. From methadone to buprenorphine: changes during a 10 year period within a national opioid maintenance treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Riksheim, Marianne; Gossop, Michael; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the most widely used treatment for opioid dependence. Maintenance programmes differ in various aspects and may also change over time. This paper investigates the changes in treatment practices within a national OMT programme during a 10 year period (2002-2011), especially with regard to the prescribing of methadone and buprenorphine. Data (n=34,001) were collected by annual assessments questionnaires. In 2002, only 16% of the OMT patients received buprenorphine as their maintenance medication. By 2011 this percentage had increased significantly (p<.001) to 50.3%. In the same period the number of patients more than tripled (from 1,984 to 6,640, p<.001), and programme attrition rates decreased (p=.020). This relatively rapid shift is a part of the increasing reliance of addiction medicine upon a range of medications administered by different routes which has not been previously charted within a national treatment programme.

  8. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan.

  9. Decline of semen quality among 10 932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine; Loundou, Anderson Dieudonné; Romain, Fanny; Achard, Vincent; Courbière, Blandine; Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Durand, Philippe; Guichaoua, Marie-Roberte

    2012-07-01

    Semen from 10 932 male partners of infertile couples was analysed and sperm parameter trends were evaluated at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007. After 3-6 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of seminal fluid volume, pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility and detailed morphology of spermatozoa were performed. Sperm parameters were analysed on the entire population and in men with normal total numeration (≥40 million per ejaculate). The whole population demonstrated declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5% per year), total sperm count (1.6% per year), total motility (0.4% per year), rapid motility (5.5% per year) and normal morphology (2.2% per year). In the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count, the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed. Our results clearly indicate that the quality of semen decreased in this population over the study period.

  10. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  11. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil.

  12. Surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-isolates in a neonatal intensive care unit over a one year-period.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Lutz Thomas; Heeg, Peter; Goelz, Rangmar

    2004-07-01

    Outbreaks of gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can be life-threatening to pre-term infants, which are highly susceptible to serious infections with bacteria. Forty-two ventilated neonates in the NICU of the University Children's Hospital of Tuebingen were found to be colonized (n = 40) or infected (n = 2) with P. aeruginosa within a sampling period of one year. To investigate the colonization patterns and identify potential outbreak sources, epidemiological investigations, environmental surveillance and typing by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the recovered isolates were performed. The investigation demonstrated a genetically related cluster of P. aeruginosa isolates during the surveillance period in 39 neonates and a second cluster at the end of the period in two neonates. A third strain representing a genetically distinct group was found in only one patient. Environmental investigations demonstrated the presence of P. aeruginosa in the ventilation equipment of 22 patients: binasal prongs (n = 22), water reservoir (n = 9), and heater (n = 1). In one case, P. aeruginosa was found in breast milk. Other environmental investigations revealed no P. aeruginosa. Although no evidence for a unique source was found, a series of intervention steps were initiated by the NICU personnel, medical microbiologists and infection control experts. The intervention steps included reinforced training of health care staff and a change from chemical to thermal disinfection of binasal prongs. Implementation of these measurements successfully stopped the recurrent occurrence of P. aeruginosa colonization.

  13. The prescribing of lipid lowering drugs during a 1-year period: analysis of 7490 health insurance files.

    PubMed

    Krappweis, J; Aumann, D; Rentsch, A; Kirch, W

    2000-03-01

    A study of prescription patterns by office-based physicians was conducted to analyse the use of lipid lowering drugs (LLD) in a Germany area of 1,768,874 inhabitants during a 1-year period. The prescription database consisted of health insurance files from a random sampling of persons (n=7490) belonging to a large statutory health insurance organization during 1993-1994. During the study period LLD were prescribed to about 2.8% of the study population. Fibrates (43.7%) were the most frequently prescribed drugs followed by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (29.5%) and nicotinic acid with derivatives (21.7%). The prevalence of treatment rose with increasing age peaking among 60- to 69-year-olds (7.5%). More than two-thirds of the patients were not treated continuously, receiving LLD for less than 6 months. Thus, in patients being treated with LLD, the therapy seems to be ineffective due to the short episodes of drug administration. The presence of hyperlipidaemia plus additional risk factors such as hypertension led to a higher rate of LLD prescriptions than that for hyperlipidaemia alone. Only half of the patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction and hyperlipidaemia received LLD. Furthermore, patients with hyperlipidaemia and additional risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease (CHD), in whom administration of LLD has often been shown to be effective, were by far too infrequently treated with these drugs. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Fungal epidemiology and diversity in cystic fibrosis patients over a 5-year period in a national reference center.

    PubMed

    Ziesing, S; Suerbaum, S; Sedlacek, L

    2016-11-01

    The knowledge on prevalence rates of yeasts and moulds in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Germany is scarce. The aim of this report is to give an overview of the diversity and epidemiology of fungal species in CF patients. Over a 5-year period, all fungal isolates cultured from microbiological specimen from CF patients were recorded. Beside standard bacteriological culture media two fungal media were used for cultivation. Species were identified by microscopy, biochemical profiling, MALDI-TOF analysis or DNA sequencing methods. In sum, 25,975 clinical samples from CF patients were analyzed. About 75% of CF patients were colonized by yeasts, mainly Candida albicans (38%) and Candida dubliniensis (12%). In 35% of the patients Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus: 29%) were detected, followed by Exophiala dermatitidis and Scedosporium/Lomentospora complex isolates (4% each). Data for other fungal species are shown. Over a 5-year period, the epidemiology of fungal species detected in CF patients was relatively constant. Clinical microbiology laboratories should carefully monitor samples from CF patients for newly occurring fungal pathogens. PMID:27364649

  15. HST AND OPTICAL DATA REVEAL WHITE DWARF COOLING, SPIN, AND PERIODICITIES IN GW LIBRAE 3-4 YEARS AFTER OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gaensicke, Boris T. E-mail: mukadam@astro.washington.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    Since the large amplitude 2007 outburst which heated its accreting, pulsating white dwarf, the dwarf nova system GW Librae has been cooling to its quiescent temperature. Our Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra combined with ground-based optical coverage during the third and fourth year after outburst show that the fluxes and temperatures are still higher than quiescence (T = 19,700 K and 17,300 K versus 16,000 K pre-outburst for a log g = 8.7 and d = 100 pc). The K{sub wd} of 7.6 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} determined from the C I {lambda}1463 absorption line, as well as the gravitational redshift implies a white dwarf mass of 0.79 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun }. The widths of the UV lines imply a white dwarf rotation velocity v sin i of 40 km s{sup -1} and a spin period of 209 s (for an inclination of 11 deg and a white dwarf radius of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm). Light curves produced from the UV spectra in both years show a prominent multiplet near 290 s, with higher amplitude in the UV compared to the optical, and increased amplitude in 2011 versus 2010. As the presence of this set of periods is intermittent in the optical on weekly timescales, it is unclear how this relates to the non-radial pulsations evident during quiescence.

  16. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A; Davies, L; Hale, R; Gallagher, JE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity. Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72%) took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%), followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%). Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted. PMID:23118545

  17. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  18. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  19. Comparison between visual clinical examination and the replica method for assessments of sealant retention over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Lu; Fan, Ming-Wen; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-06-01

    To compare the levels of agreement and the survival rates of sealant retention for different sealing materials over a 2-year period assessed using the visual clinical examination and replica methods, sealant retention data were obtained by visual clinical examination and from replicas of the same sealed tooth at baseline and at 0.5-, 1- and 2-year evaluation points in 407 children and were compared for agreement using kappa coefficients. Survival curves of retained sealants on occlusal surfaces were created using modified categorisation (fully retained sealants and those having all pits and fissures partly covered with the sealant material versus completely lost sealants that included pit and fissure systems that had ≥1 pit re-exposed) according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The kappa coefficient for the agreement between both assessment methods over the three evaluation time points combined was 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.41). More sealant retention was observed from replicas than through visual clinical examination. Cumulative survival curves at the three evaluation times were not statistically significantly higher when assessed from replicas (P=0.47). Using the replica method, more retained sealant material was observed than through visual clinical examination during the 2-year period. This finding did not result in a difference in the survival rates of sealants assessed by the two assessment methods. When replicas cast in die stone are used for assessing sealant retention, the level of reliability of the data is higher than that of data obtained through the commonly used visual clinical examination, particularly if such assessments are conducted over time.

  20. Advanced HIV Disease at Enrolment in HIV Care: Trends and Associated Factors over a Ten Year Period in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Pe, Reaksmey; Chim, Bopha; Thai, Sopheak; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Early HIV diagnosis and enrolment in care is needed to achieve early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Studies on HIV disease stage at enrolment in care from Asian countries are limited. We evaluated trends in and factors associated with late HIV disease presentation over a ten-year period in the largest ART center in Cambodia. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of program data including all ARV-naïve adults (> 18 years old) enrolling into HIV care from March 2003-December 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We calculated the proportion presenting with advanced stage HIV disease (WHO clinical stage IV or CD4 cell count <100 cells/μL) and the probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment. Factors associated with late presentation were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results From 2003–2013, a total of 5642 HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV care. The proportion of late presenters decreased from 67% in 2003 to 44% in 2009 and 41% in 2013; a temporary increase to 52% occurred in 2011 coinciding with logistical/budgetary constraints at the national program level. Median CD4 counts increased from 32 cells/μL (IQR 11–127) in 2003 to 239 cells/μL (IQR 63–291) in 2013. Older age and male sex were associated with late presentation across the ten-year period. The probability of ART initiation by six months after enrolment increased from 22.6% in 2003–2006 to 79.9% in 2011–2013. Conclusion Although a gradual improvement was observed over time, a large proportion of patients still enroll late, particularly older or male patients. Interventions to achieve early HIV testing and efficient linkage to care are warranted. PMID:26606057

  1. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecem.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D C; Cooley, J R

    2000-08-01

    Acoustic mate-attracting signals of related sympatric, synchronic species are always distinguishable, but those of related allopatric species sometimes are not, thus suggesting that such signals may evolve to "reinforce" premating species isolation when similar species become sympatric. This hypothesis predicts divergences restricted to regions of sympatry in partially overlapping species, but such "reproductive character displacement" has rarely been confirmed. We report such a case in the acoustic signals of a previously unrecognized 13-year periodical cicada species, Magicicada neotredecim, described here as a new species (see Appendix). Where M. neotredecim overlaps M. tredecim in the central United States, the dominant male call pitch (frequency) of M. neotredecim increases from approximately 1.4 kHz to 1.7 kHz, whereas that of M. tredecim remains comparatively stable. The average preferences of female M. neotredecim for call pitch show a similar geographic pattern, changing with the call pitch of conspecific males. Magicicada neotredecim differs from 13-year M. tredecim in abdomen coloration, mitochondrial DNA, and call pitch, but is not consistently distinguishable from 17-year M. septendecim; thus, like other Magicicada species, M. neotredecim appears most closely related to a geographically adjacent counterpart with the alternative life cycle. Speciation in Magicicada may be facilitated by life-cycle changes that create temporal isolation, and reinforcement could play a role by fostering divergence in premating signals prior to speciation. We present two theories of Magicicada speciation by life-cycle evolution: "nurse-brood facilitation" and "life-cycle canalization."

  2. Alpha omega alpha election and medical school thesis publication: relationship to subsequent publication rate over a twenty-year period.

    PubMed

    Chusid, M J; Havens, P L; Coleman, C N

    1993-01-01

    To determine the importance of academic and research success during medical school upon subsequent academic activity, a computerized literature search was performed using the names of the 79 surviving members of the Yale Medical School Class of 1970. Individuals elected to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) during the third year of school had significantly more publications (mean 101.7 +/- 69.6) between 1970 and 1990 than those elected during the fourth year (mean 28.3 +/- 48.0, p = 0.01). Both had significantly more publications than non-AOA members (mean 11.1 +/- 19.4, p = 0.02). Publication of the student's medical school thesis was also associated with a greater number of publications than thesis non-publication (mean 22.1 +/- 37.5 vs 14.4 +/- 30.0, p = 0.005). These studies demonstrate that, at least at the institution studied, election to AOA and publication of the results of a research project were associated with increased publication rates in the medical field over the 20-year period following medical school graduation.

  3. Evaluation of the eight-year period of compulsory measles vaccination in the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR).

    PubMed

    Sejda, J

    1979-01-01

    The object of the study is the evaluation of a more than 8-year period of compulsory vaccination against measles in the CSR. So far, a total of 1,850,000 children have been vaccinated. A pronounced decrease has been achieved in morbidity while mortality and lethality reached zero values as early as in 1973. Changes occur in the epidemiological characteristic of measles manifested primarily by the shift of the age distribution of notified cases into older age groups, by continuous prolongation of interepidemic intervals and by gradual disappearances of typical seasonal incidence. Regular immunological surveys have become the most efficient tools in epidemiological surveillance of this infection and in monitoring the vaccination programme. The results of immunological surveys indeed led to the introduction in 1975 of so-called second vaccination compulsory for children starting the first year of school attendance. Up to the present, a total of 24,000 cases of measles have been recorded in children vaccinated earlier, i.e., 1.5% of the total of vaccinated children. It can be expected that measles as a mass disease will be eliminated from the territory of the CSR in the next few years.

  4. Do Autistic Symptoms Persist across Time? Evidence of Substantial Change in Symptomatology over a 3-Year Period in Cognitively Able Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent and nature of changes in symptomatology in cognitively able children with autism over a 3-year period. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition involved in an earlier study (M age = 5 years, 7 months) were followed and reassessed 3 years later (M age = 8 years, 4 months). Scores on the…

  5. Changes in Post-Operative Complication and Mortality Rates after Lung Cancer Resection in the 20-Year Period 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeki; Suehisa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed post-operative complication and mortality rates from 1995 through 2014 and evaluated the changes in those rates across that 20-year period. Two thousand and three hundred sixteen patients with lung cancer underwent resection at our institution between 1995 and 2014. This timespan was divided into four 5-year periods. Each patient's age, Charlson comorbidity index score, and extent of surgery in each 5-year period were summarized, and the changes in these factors over the 20-year span were evaluated. The complication and mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year period, and the changes in those rates over the 20-years were evaluated. The number of patients with higher Charlson comorbidity index scores increased during the 20-year period. Of the 455 patients who developed complications, 97 developed life-threating complications. There were 16 post-operative deaths and 23 in-hospital deaths. There were no significant changes in the complication rate or mortality rate during the 20-year period. Both rates were significantly correlated with the extent of resection. Although the number of patients with comorbidities increased in the 20-year period, the post-operative complication and mortality rates, as well as in-hospital mortality, did not change significantly.

  6. Bacteraemia caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci in North Queensland: changing trends over a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Siew, D-A; Proud, M; Buettner, P; Norton, R

    2011-08-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) are usually the predominant species in cases of bacteraemia caused by β haemolytic streptococci (BHS). An increasing worldwide incidence of invasive disease from non-group A BHS has been reported. Little is known about the changing trends in invasive disease caused by BHS in Australia. North Queensland has a relatively large indigenous population, who experience significantly higher rates of group A-related disease than the non-indigenous population. This prospective study examined changing trends of disease from large colony BHS that group with A, B, C and G antisera over a 14-year period at the single large tertiary referral hospital in the area. We identified 392 bacteraemic episodes caused by BHS. GAS were most commonly isolated (49%), with adjusted rates remaining stable over the period. There was a significant increase in the incidence of non-neonatal bacteraemia caused by group B streptococci (GBS) over the study period (r = 0.58; p 0.030), largely driven by infection in older, non-indigenous women. Rates of bacteraemia caused by group C streptococci also experienced a modest, but significant, increase over time (r = 0.67; p 0.009). GAS, which had no predominant emm type, were seen most commonly in indigenous subjects (52%). Mortality rates ranged from 3.2% (group G) to 10.3% (group C), with a rate of 7.9% associated with group A disease. The marked rise in GBS disease has been noted worldwide, but the relatively low incidence in indigenous Australian patients has not been described before, despite the burden of well-recognized risk factors for GBS disease within this group.

  7. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Carmen; Ferri, Francisca; Sogorb, Miguel Angel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    This study measured inhalation exposure to 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers in the leatherwear industry in Spain, examined the changes in those exposures over a 5-year period, and documented local exhaust ventilation practices that affected exposure. In collaboration with an occupational risk prevention company, air samples were collected from 849 workers' personal breathing zones using personal air pumps with activated charcoal tubes. VOCs were analyzed using a GC/MS-optimized method modified in our laboratory from that proposed by Spanish authorities (INSHT). Airborne concentrations were compared with occupational exposure limit (OEL) values from the European authorities. The most frequently detected VOCs were acetone (98.1%), toluene (94.8%), n-hexane (71.2%) and other C6-C7 branched alkyl hydrocarbons (97.5%). Other frequently detected VOCs were MEK (64.9%), ethylacetate (60.7%), and cyclohexane (29.3%). Benzene was detected in 24.6% of samples. Although all the samples were taken while workers performed tasks judged to have the highest VOC exposure potential, only 14% of samples showed excessive aggregate exposure, and chemical-specific OELs were exceeded in a relatively small number of cases: 7.2% for n-hexane, 2.8% for toluene, 0.6% for acetone, and 0.4% for hexane isomers. Over the study period, a diminished use of n-hexane in solvent formulations and an increased use of branched hexane and heptane isomers were observed. Six factors relating to work location conditions and types were evaluated. Most high-exposure cases were associated with three task types. The presence of local exhaust ventilation was an important exposure control, but significant exposures despite the use of local exhaust were observed. Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented. PMID:23016600

  8. Gastrointestinal manifestations of postnatal cytomegalovirus infection in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit over a five year period.

    PubMed

    Cheong, J L Y; Cowan, F M; Modi, N

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen cases of postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit population over a five year period. Eleven of these infants had gastrointestinal signs at the time of presentation. These ranged from minor and transient (abdominal distension and enteral feed intolerance) to severe and life threatening (protein losing enteropathy, diarrhoea, and hypernatraemic dehydration). An initial diagnosis of necrotising enterocolitis was common, but no infant showed intestinal or hepatic portal pneumatosis. The gestational age of the infants was 24-38 weeks. All had received fresh maternal breast milk. It is suggested that CMV enteritis is added to the spectrum of clinical manifestations of postnatal CMV infection. Signs suggestive of necrotising enterocolitis with atypical features should prompt investigations for CMV infection.

  9. [Clinical statistics on inpatient operations during a 27-year period at the Department of Urology, Mitsui Memorial Hospital].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Nishimura, Y; Tominaga, T

    1998-12-01

    Statistical observations of the inpatient operations at our department during the 27-year period from 1970 to 1996 revealed the following: A total of 9,287 operations were performed, comprising 7,488 males and 1,799 females. Operations for urolithiasis numbered 3,646 (39.3%) which was the most frequent, followed by operations for urological malignancies, 2,038 (21.9%) and for prostatic hyperplasia, 1,596 (17.2%). In the last decade, the number of operations for malignancies, prostatic hyperplasia, and especially for urolithiasis has increased. However the number of operations on pediatric cases has shown a marked decrease. Thanks to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic medical modalities, including ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, endoscope and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, the frequency of early cancer has thus increased, and the surgical procedure of choice has dramatically shifted to minimally invasive surgery.

  10. Genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses in Cambodia during a three-year period reveals novel genetic types.

    PubMed

    Naughtin, Monica; Sareth, Rith; Sentilhes, Anne-Charlotte; Vong, Sirenda; Joffret, Marie-Line; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Deubel, Vincent; Delpeyroux, Francis; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Acute respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity during early childhood in developing countries. Human rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infections in humans, which can range in severity from asymptomatic to clinically severe disease. In this study we collected 4170 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients hospitalised with influenza-like illness in two Cambodian provincial hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Samples were screened for 18 respiratory viruses using 5 multiplex PCRs. A total of 11.2% of samples tested positive for human rhinoviruses (HRV). VP4/2 and VP1 regions were amplified and sequenced to study the distribution of rhinoviruses genotypes and species in Cambodia during this three-year period. Five novel genotypes, 2 species A, 2 species B and 1 species C were identified based on VP1 sequences. Co-infections with other viruses were demonstrated.

  11. Detecting trends in landscape pattern metrics over a 20-year period using a sampling-based monitoring programme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Stehman, S.V.; Sohl, T.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Temporal trends in landscape pattern metrics describing texture, patch shape and patch size were evaluated in the US Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Ecoregion. The landscape pattern metrics were calculated for a sample of land use/cover data obtained for four points in time from 1973-1992. The multiple sampling dates permit evaluation of trend, whereas availability of only two sampling dates allows only evaluation of change. Observed statistically significant trends in the landscape pattern metrics demonstrated that the sampling-based monitoring protocol was able to detect a trend toward a more fine-grained landscape in this ecoregion. This sampling and analysis protocol is being extended spatially to the remaining 83 ecoregions in the US and temporally to the year 2000 to provide a national and regional synthesis of the temporal and spatial dynamics of landscape pattern covering the period 1973-2000.

  12. Factors attributed to fatal occupational accidents in a period of 5 years preceding the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Katsakiori, Panagiota; Manatakis, Emmanuel; Goutsos, Stavros; Athanassiou, George

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors attributed to occupational fatalities occurring in the region of East Attica, Greece, in all industry types over a 5-year period preceding the 2004 Olympic Games. Questionnaires, based on the attribution theory, were completed by labor inspectors and were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results showed that most accidents occurred in the construction industry due to large-scale civil works, which took place in East Attica prior to the 2004 Olympic Games. Poor work practices arising from lack of orientation and job training, performance pressure and workers' inexperience associated with knowledge- and skill-based errors were revealed by the questionnaire as the most common factors attributed to occupational fatalities. Our findings help to identify areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage safety in Greece. PMID:18954538

  13. [Three outbreaks of brucellosis in a one-year period investigated by the occupational health service in Ciudad Real (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Castell Monsalve, Juan; Gutiérrez Avila, Gonzalo; Ruiz Valdepeñas, María Asunción

    2009-01-01

    We describe 3 outbreaks of brucellosis investigated by our Occupational Health Service in a 1-year period. Two of these outbreaks, with 2 cases each, occurred in 2 cheese factories and the third outbreak, also with 2 cases, occurred in a cattle laboratory belonging to the local government. In both cheese factories, numerous opportunities for the workers to become infected were found. The greatest risk was considered to be the area for unloading milk, while failure to use personal protection equipment by workers, deficiencies in the laboratories, and the lack of effective separation between areas were also potential risk factors. In the cattle laboratory, we found at least 13 major risk factors that could allow brucellosis transmission. In Spain, there is a substantial risk of Brucella infection in laboratories or dairy factories and current preventive measures are ineffective.

  14. Genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses in Cambodia during a three-year period reveals novel genetic types.

    PubMed

    Naughtin, Monica; Sareth, Rith; Sentilhes, Anne-Charlotte; Vong, Sirenda; Joffret, Marie-Line; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Deubel, Vincent; Delpeyroux, Francis; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Acute respiratory viral infections are a major cause of morbidity during early childhood in developing countries. Human rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of upper respiratory tract infections in humans, which can range in severity from asymptomatic to clinically severe disease. In this study we collected 4170 nasopharyngeal swabs from patients hospitalised with influenza-like illness in two Cambodian provincial hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Samples were screened for 18 respiratory viruses using 5 multiplex PCRs. A total of 11.2% of samples tested positive for human rhinoviruses (HRV). VP4/2 and VP1 regions were amplified and sequenced to study the distribution of rhinoviruses genotypes and species in Cambodia during this three-year period. Five novel genotypes, 2 species A, 2 species B and 1 species C were identified based on VP1 sequences. Co-infections with other viruses were demonstrated. PMID:26231720

  15. The presence of Matthew effects in Dutch primary education, development of language skills over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low starting levels students make more progress than in schools with higher starting levels. On the other hand, the analyses do show a widening gap between students with well educated and poorly educated parents. The gap between delayed and accelerated students was found to increase as well, but the initial disadvantage of boys was found to disappear. PMID:21772060

  16. Arsenic accumulation in a paddy field in Bangladesh: seasonal dynamics and trends over a three-year monitoring period.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-04-15

    Shallow groundwater, often rich in arsenic (As), is widely used for irrigation of dry season boro rice in Bangladesh. In the long term, this may lead to increasing As contents in rice paddy soils, which threatens rice yields, food quality, and human health. The objective of this study was to quantify gains and losses of soil As in a rice paddy field during irrigation and monsoon flooding over a three-year period. Samples were collected twice a year on a 3D-sampling grid to account for the spatially heterogeneous As distribution within the soil. Gains and losses of soil As in different depth segments were calculated using a mass-balance approach. Annual As input with irrigation water was estimated as 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Within the top 40 cm of soil, the mean As accumulation over three years amounted to 2.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1), implying that on average 2.0 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost from the soil. Seasonal changes of soil As showed that 1.05 to 2.1 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost during monsoon flooding. The remaining As-loss (up to 0.95 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) was attributed to downward flow with percolating irrigation water. Despite these losses, we estimate that total As within the top 40 cm of soil at our field site would further increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 by the year 2050 under current cultivation practices. PMID:20235529

  17. Stable Isotopic Composition of Columbia and Snake River Waters Over A 16-Year Period Yield Unexpected Contrasts With Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landwehr, J. M.; Coplen, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from three U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sites in the Columbia River Basin: (1) on the Columbia River at Northport near the international boundary (12400520); (2) on the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge near Priest Rapids Dam (12472900), which is downstream from Northport, but above the confluence of the Snake River; and (3) on the Snake River at Burbank (13353200), which is just above the confluence with the Columbia River. Samples were collected bimonthly from 1984 through 1987 and monthly from 1997 through 2000. As expected, the average stable hydrogen and oxygen composition among the sites increased with decreasing latitude (with δ2HVSMOW-SLAP = -133, -130, and -123 ‰ and δ18OVSMOW-SLAP = -17.6, -17.2, and -16.2 ‰, respectively). During the two three-year sampling periods separated by a decade, the average δ2H and δ18O values for each site are identical within analytical uncertainty (± 1 ‰ and ± 0.1‰, respectively). However, all three sites experienced lower annual flows during the earlier (1980s) sampling period than during the latter one, as well as slightly more negative average LC-excess values and lower slopes of the respective water lines. All three sites are downstream from dams that affect annual discharges; nevertheless, at all three sites, maximum monthly flows occur in the May-June period and minimal flows in the August-September period, consistent with a hydrologic regime influenced by cold season precipitation. A model (OIPC) prediction of the isotopic composition of precipitation at each site suggests that the most negative delta values would occur in January (e.g. δ2H = -127 ‰ near the international boundary and -104 ‰ at the site near Burbank) and the most positive delta values in September (e.g. corresponding δ2H = -77‰ and -70‰). Consistent with the occurrence of highest flows during the May-June time period and with the prediction of

  18. FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODES IN A TEN-YEAR PERIOD - SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ankica; Katović, Sandra Kojić

    2015-09-01

    A wide spectrum of diseases including reactive processes, infections, lymphomas and metastatic tumors can cause enlargement of lymph nodes. The present study on 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy was conducted in the Department of Cytology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, during a 10-year period. Of 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy, 1624 were males and 2438 were females, age range from several months to 85 years. Of 4062 fine needle aspiration procedures, 232/4062 (5.7%) samples were nondiagnostic. Lymph node aspirates were benign in 2640/3830 (69%) and malignant in 1190/3830 (31%) cases. Hematologic disease (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was diagnosed in 482/1190 (40.5%) and metastases in 708/1190 (59.5%) cases. Of 482 patients with hematologic disease, 48/482 (10%) had Hodgkin lymphomas and 434/482 (90%) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. In the group of malignant lymphadenopathy, there were 212/708 (30%) metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 177/708 (25%) metastatic adenocarcinomas, 149/708 (21%) metastases of other carcinomas, and 170/708 (24%) metastases of other malignant tumors. The present study confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology of enlarged head and neck lymph nodes to be an excellent first-line method to investigate the nature of the lesions. PMID:26666101

  19. Hospitalization Incidence, Mortality, and Seasonality of Common Respiratory Viruses Over a Period of 15 Years in a Developed Subtropical City

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K.S.; Tam, Wilson W.S.; Lee, Tsz Cheung; Hon, Kam Lun; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Mok, Hing Yim; Wong, Martin C.S.; Leung, Ting Fan; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Yeung, Apple C.M.; Ho, Wendy C.S.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Hui, David S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Information on respiratory viruses in subtropical region is limited. Incidence, mortality, and seasonality of influenza (Flu) A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1/2/3 in hospitalized patients were assessed over a 15-year period (1998–2012) in Hong Kong. Male predominance and laterally transversed J-shaped distribution in age-specific incidence was observed. Incidence of Flu A, RSV, and PIV decreased sharply from infants to toddlers; whereas Flu B and ADV increased slowly. RSV conferred higher fatality than Flu, and was the second killer among hospitalized elderly. ADV and PIV were uncommon, but had the highest fatality. RSV, PIV 2/3 admissions increased over the 15 years, whereas ADV had decreased significantly. A “high season,” mainly contributed by Flu, was observed in late-winter/early-spring (February–March). The “medium season” in spring/summer (April–August) was due to Flu and RSV. The “low season” in late autumn/winter (October–December) was due to PIV and ADV. Seasonality varied between viruses, but predictable distinctive pattern for each virus existed, and temperature was the most important associating meteorological variable. Respiratory viruses exhibit strong sex- and age-predilection, and with predictable seasonality allowing strategic preparedness planning. Hospital-based surveillance is crucial for real-time assessment on severity of new variants. PMID:26579810

  20. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly. PMID:23380908

  1. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  2. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  3. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep

  4. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal.

  5. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  6. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  7. Causes of death in Japanese diabetics: A questionnaire survey of 18,385 diabetics over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Nigishi; Nakamura, Jiro; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Kasuga, Masato; Kikkawa, Ryuichi; Toyota, Takayoshi

    2010-04-22

    We collated and analysed data from hospital records regarding the cause of death of 18,385 patients with diabetes who died in 282 medical institutions throughout Japan over the 10-year period between 1991 and 2000. Autopsy was carried out in 1750 cases. The most frequent cause of death in all 18,385 cases was malignant neoplasia, accounting for 34.1% of cases, followed by vascular diseases (including diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases) in 26.8%, infections in 14.3%, and then diabetic coma in 1.2%. The most common malignancy was liver cancer, accounting for 8.6% of all the deaths. Of the deaths from vascular diseases, diabetic nephropathy was the cause of death in 6.8% of cases, and the frequency as cause of death for ischemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases were similar at 10.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Myocardial infarction accounted for almost all the deaths from ischemic heart diseases, whereas deaths from cerebral infarction were 2.2-fold as common as those from cerebral hemorrhage. In the analyses of the relationship between age and causes of death in diabetic patients who underwent autopsy, the overall mortality rate as a result of vascular diseases increased with age, although the mortality rates from diabetic nephropathy and cerebrovascular diseases increased little from the fifth decade of life. The mortality rate from ischemic heart diseases increased with age, however, and was higher than the other forms of vascular diseases from the sixth decade of life, accounting for approximately 50% of vascular deaths in the eighth decade. Malignant neoplasia was the most frequent cause of death from the fifth decade of life, and was extremely common in the seventh decade, accounting for 46.3% of all the deaths. The mortality rate from infections varied little between age groups from the fifth decade of life. In the analyses of glycemic control and the age at the time of death, lifespans were 2.5 years shorter in

  8. Characteristics of the spatio-temporal network of cattle movements in France over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhagat Lal; Ezanno, Pauline; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2014-11-01

    A good knowledge of the specificities of the animal trade network is highly valuable to better control pathogen spread on a large regional to transnational scale. Because of their temporal dynamical nature, studying multi-annual datasets is particularly needed to investigate whether structural patterns are stable over the years. In this study, we analysed the French cattle movement network from 2005 to 2009 for different spatial granularities and temporal windows, with the three-fold objective of exploring temporal variations of the main network characteristics, computing proxies for pathogen spread on this network, which accounts for its time-varying properties and identifying specificities related to the main types of animals and farms (dairy versus beef). Network properties did not qualitatively vary among different temporal and spatial granularities. About 40% of the holdings and 80% of the communes were directly interconnected. The width of the aggregation time window barely impacted normalised distributions of indicators. A period of 8-16 weeks would suffice for robust estimation of their main trends, whereas longer periods would provide more details on tails. The dynamic nature of the network could be seen through the small overlap between consecutive networks with 65% of common active nodes for only 3% of common links over 2005-2009. To control pathogen spread on such a network, by reducing the largest strongly connected component by more than 80%, movements should be prevented from 1 to 5% of the holdings with the highest centrality in the previous year network. The analysis of breed-wise and herd-wise subnetworks, dairy, beef and mixed, reveals similar trends in temporal variation of average indicators and their distributions. The link-based backbones of beef subnetworks seem to be more stable over time than those of other subnetworks. At a regional scale, node reachability accounting for time-respecting paths, as proxy of epidemic burden, is greater for

  9. Epidemiology of biopsy proven giant cell arteritis in northwestern Spain: trend over an 18 year period

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gay, M; Garcia-Porrua, C; Rivas, M; Rodriguez-Ledo, P; Llorca, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—In Europe giant cell arteritis (GCA) is more common in Scandinavian countries than in southern regions. Epidemiological studies on GCA in other more distant countries have indicated a progressive increase in incidence. A regular cyclical pattern in incidence of GCA over 20 years has been reported in Olmsted County (Minnesota, USA). In contrast, no cyclical fluctuation has been recently reported in Sweden. To investigate further the epidemiology of GCA in southern Europe the trend in incidence and fluctuations of this vasculitis over 18 years in the Lugo region of northwestern Spain were examined.
METHODS—A retrospective study of biopsy proven GCA diagnosed between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 1998 at a single hospital for a well defined population of almost 250 000 people. Annual incidence was calculated for the whole group of patients and for men and women separately. Monthly variations, annual peaks of incidence, and trend in the incidence of biopsy proven GCA with and without polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) were also examined.
RESULTS—One hundred and sixty one Lugo residents were diagnosed with biopsy proven GCA between 1981 and 1998. The average annual incidence for the population aged 50 and older was 10.24/100 000 (men 11.00/100 000, women 9.57/100 000). A progressive increase in the incidence in both men and women was seen. In men there was an annual increase of 8% (95% CI 4% to 13%; p<0.0001). In women the annual increase was 11% (95% CI 5% to 17%; p<0.0001). The overall annual increase for men and women was 10% (95% CI 6% to 14%; p<0.0001). No seasonal pattern or peaks in the incidence were seen. During the period 1981-94 GCA was more common in men than in women. In contrast, during the last years of study the increase in incidence was higher in women. In women the annual ratio of incidence of GCA with PMR/incidence of GCA without PMR was generally higher than 1. However, in men the annual ratio was initially 1

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  11. Orbit optimization and time delay interferometry for inclined ASTROD-GW formation with half-year precession-period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-05-01

    ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [astrodynamical space test of relativity using optical devices] optimized for gravitational wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about the ecliptic plane in source position determination, we have changed the basic formation into slightly inclined formation with half-year precession-period. In this paper, we optimize a set of 10-year inclined ASTROD-GW mission orbits numerically using ephemeris framework starting at June 21, 2035, including cases of inclination angle with 0° (no inclination), 0.5°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.0°, 2.5°, and 3.0°. We simulate the time delays of the first and second generation TDI configurations for the different inclinations, and compare/analyse the numerical results to attain the requisite sensitivity of ASTROD-GW by suppressing laser frequency noise below the secondary noises. To explicate our calculation process for different inclination cases, we take the 1.0° as an example to show the orbit optimization and TDI simulation.

  12. Coulomb stress changes over a 660-year period in central Italy: Implications for understanding fault interactions and earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedmore, L. N. J.; Faure Walker, J.; Roberts, G.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Sammonds, P. R.; Cowie, P. A.; Gregory, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    A record of 27 historical earthquakes in central Italy extending back to 1349 AD on faults with known geological slip-rates enables us to investigate the effect of Coulomb stress interactions between faults over long time scales. Modeling the effect of these interactions between active faults in low strain-rate regions is challenging due to a paucity of long earthquake records and poorly constrained long-term strain rates, yet this is key if we are to understand the effect of these interactions on earthquake occurrence. The central Apennines, Italy, with 27 well constrained historical earthquakes over 660 years and over 100 measurements of fault slip rate, provides a natural laboratory for testing models of fault interaction and determining how Coulomb stress interactions between faults affect the timing and location of future earthquakes. The central Apennines has parallel sets of NW-SE striking active normal faults. Since 1349, earthquakes have clustered along the northeast side of the fault system whereas Holocene averaged strain-rates are more evenly distributed across strike. We model the Coulomb stress changes caused by each of the 27 events and resolve stresses on all faults in the region. Our modeling includes interseismic loading over this period, with stress accumulating on shear zones beneath the seismogenic portion of each fault constrained by the measurements of fault slip-rate, and measurements of fault kinematics from frictional wear striae on bedrock fault scarps. We show that earthquakes occurred on faults where the net accumulation of stress was positive over the timescale modeled. Co-seismic Coulomb stress increases on the order of 0.01-0.1 MPa along strike appear to occasionally trigger large earthquakes yet are more often eclipsed by interseismic loading stresses on the order of 10-3 MPa/yr. Importantly, the effect of across strike co-seismic Coulomb stress decreases is more pervasive and can cause changes in earthquake recurrence of 102

  13. Temporal trends of young-of-year fishes in Lake Erie and comparison of diel sampling periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Bur, M.T.; Adams, J.V.

    2007-01-01

    We explored temporal trends of young-of-year (YOY) fishes caught in bottom trawl hauls at an established offshore monitoring site in Lake Erie in fall during 1961–2001. Sampling was conducted during morning, afternoon, and night in each year. Catches per hour (CPH) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) YOY were relatively low and exhibited no temporal trend. This result was consistent with the species’ intolerance to Lake Erie’s adverse winter water temperatures. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) YOY decreased sharply after 1991, which was consistent with recent oligotrophication of the lake. Following the establishment in 1979 and rapid increase of white perch (Morone americana) YOY, white bass (Morone chrysops) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) YOY decreased. Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) YOY decreased during 1986–1991, but recovered to previous levels during 1991–2001. The recovery coincided with the resurgence of mayflies (Ephemoptera) in the lake. CPH of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiner (N. atherinoides) YOY exhibited no temporal trend between 1961 and the late 1970s to early 1980s. CPH of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) YOY decreased during 1961–1988, and walleye (Sander vitreum) YOY increased overall during the time series. These observations were consistent with published studies of adults in the region. CPH of 4 of the 10 species of YOY considered were greatest during night. CPH for walleye YOY was higher in the morning than in the afternoon, but there was no significant difference between night and morning abundances. The results suggest that (1) CPH of YOY fishes may be a useful monitoring tool for Lake Erie, and (2) offshore monitoring programs that do not include night sampling periods may underestimate recruitment for several common species.

  14. Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish; Ogloff, James R P; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Ferguson, Murray

    2009-02-01

    Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory - Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies.

  15. [Publishing--weighty characteristic of scientific productivity (analysis of scientific publications of 15-years period since Chernobyl catastrophe)].

    PubMed

    Bebeshko, V H; Bazyka, D A; Chumak, A A; Zapisochnyĭ, O Z

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a complex analysis of scientific reports of the RCRM for the last 15-years since Chernobyl holocaust. One may notice considerable growth of circulation and quality coefficient of publication of scientific research. The tendency shape of the publications over a period of 1986-2001 looks like a straight line and dynamics of references on RCRM publications--an exponential curve. Degree of scientific effort connected with priority directions of the RCRM considerably exceed similar indices in the world. Studies of immunological and hematological irradiation effects, radiation shielding of population, radiation impact on a fetus and offspring are being carried out most intensively nowadays. The article highlights the innovations in the work of the center as a leading part of the research of the RCRM closely tied with the Chernobyl tragedy and its medical consequences, urgent need to improve and develop methodical and directive documents to make better health care management of Ukrainian people suffered from Chernobyl disaster. The above-mentioned consequences and accumulated experience of their resolution having global character, are not only important for Ukraine, but also have an international value.

  16. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  17. 50 years return period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-08-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or on long-term applications with positive results. New standards like CENELEC EN 50341-1 (2012) take into account for the overhead line design characteristic loads, i.e. 50 years return period loads. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model as described in ISO 12494 annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a POT (Peak Over Threshold) method.

  18. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained. PMID:26440699

  19. Congenital myopathies--clinical features and frequency of individual subtypes diagnosed over a 5-year period in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Maggi, L; Scoto, M; Cirak, S; Robb, S A; Klein, A; Lillis, S; Cullup, T; Feng, L; Manzur, A Y; Sewry, C A; Abbs, S; Jungbluth, H; Muntoni, F

    2013-03-01

    The congenital myopathies are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders mainly defined on the basis of characteristic histopathological features. We analysed 66 patients assessed at a single centre over a 5 year period. Of the 54 patients where muscle biopsy was available, 29 (54%) had a core myopathy (central core disease, multi-minicore disease), 9 (17%) had nemaline myopathy, 7 (13%) had myotubular/centronuclear myopathy, 2 (4%) had congenital fibre type disproportion, 6 (11%) had isolated type 1 predominance and 1 (2%) had a mixed core-rod myopathy. Of the 44 patients with a genetic diagnosis, RYR1 was mutated in 26 (59%), ACTA1 in 7 (16%), SEPN1 in 7 (16%), MTM1 in 2 (5%), NEB in 1 (2%) and TPM3 in 1 (2%). Clinically, 77% of patients older than 18 months could walk independently. 35% of all patients required ventilatory support and/or enteral feeding. Clinical course was stable or improved in 57/66 (86%) patients, whilst 4 (6%) got worse and 5 (8%) died. These findings indicate that core myopathies are the most common form of congenital myopathies and that more than half can be attributed to RYR1 mutations. The underlying genetic defect remains to be identified in 1/3 of congenital myopathies cases. PMID:23394784

  20. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Safi, H; Aznar, J; Palomares, J C

    1997-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Seville, Spain, was studied by using computer-assisted analysis of the IS6110 fingerprint in order to determine the current situation and to evaluate the human-to-human transmission of this pathogen. One hundred seventy-six isolates from 175 patients among the 205 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) were cultured and analyzed. One hundred nine patients (62%) were infected with genetically different isolates, and 67 isolates (38%) were grouped into 19 clusters. These results demonstrate that the level of clustering of strains in Seville is intermediate between those in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological relatedness was shown for isolates from only 10 of these clusters. Active and high transmission rates exist in children and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, while in non-HIV-infected adults this transmission rate is moderate. Although transmission from children to adults is uncommon, the probability of transmission from HIV-infected patients to young adults not infected with HIV may be higher. On the basis of these observations, we predict a constant rise in the rate of TB transmission among HIV-infected patients and probably in young adult patients not infected with HIV if measures for the effective prevention of TB among the HIV-infected population are not implemented. PMID:9316891

  2. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  3. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  4. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  5. Effects of Denture Cleansers on Heat-Polymerized Acrylic Resin: A Five-Year-Simulated Period of Use.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Carolina Noronha Ferraz; Sorgini, Danilo Balero; Oliveira, Viviane de Cássia; Macedo, Ana Paula; Lovato, Cláudia Helena Silva; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated color stability, surface roughness and flexural strength of acrylic resin after immersion in alkaline peroxide and alkaline hypochlorite solutions, simulating a five-year-period of use. Sixty disc-shaped (16 x 4 mm) and 60 rectangular specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3 mm) were prepared from heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550) and assigned to 3 groups (n = 20) of immersion (20 min): C1: distilled water; AP: warm water and one alkaline peroxide tablet; SH: 0.5% NaOCl solution. Color data (∆E) were determined by a colorimeter and also quantified according to the National Bureau of Standards units. A rugosimeter was used to measure roughness (μm) and the flexural strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn tests (color stability and surface roughness) and by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (flexural strength). For all tests was considered α = 0.05. AP {0.79 (0.66;1.42)} caused color alteration significantly higher than C1 {0.45 (0.37;0.57)} and SH {0.34 (0.25;0.42)}. The mean ∆Ε values quantified by NBS were classified as "trace" for C1 (0.43) and SH (0.31) and "slight" for AP (0.96). SH {-0.015 (-0.023;0.003)} caused significantly higher ΔRa than the C1 {0.000 (-0.004;0.010)} and AP {0.000 (-0.009;0.008)} groups. There was no statistically significant difference among the solutions for flexural strength (C1: 84.62 ± 16.00, AP: 85.63 ± 12.99, SH: 84.22 ± 14.72). It was concluded that immersion in alkaline peroxide and NaOCl solutions simulating a five-year of 20 min daily soaking did not cause clinically significant adverse effects on the heat-polymerized acrylic resin.

  6. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region. PMID:25772530

  7. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region.

  8. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  9. 42 CFR 457.611 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year after FY 2008.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fiscal year after FY 2008. 457.611 Section 457.611 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... a fiscal year after FY 2008. The amount of a final allotment for a fiscal year after FY 2008, as... of availability, beginning with the fiscal year of the final allotment and ending with the end of...

  10. 42 CFR 457.611 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year after FY 2008.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fiscal year after FY 2008. 457.611 Section 457.611 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... a fiscal year after FY 2008. The amount of a final allotment for a fiscal year after FY 2008, as... of availability, beginning with the fiscal year of the final allotment and ending with the end of...

  11. 42 CFR 457.611 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year after FY 2008.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fiscal year after FY 2008. 457.611 Section 457.611 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... a fiscal year after FY 2008. The amount of a final allotment for a fiscal year after FY 2008, as... of availability, beginning with the fiscal year of the final allotment and ending with the end of...

  12. 42 CFR 457.611 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year after FY 2008.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fiscal year after FY 2008. 457.611 Section 457.611 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... a fiscal year after FY 2008. The amount of a final allotment for a fiscal year after FY 2008, as... of availability, beginning with the fiscal year of the final allotment and ending with the end of...

  13. 20 CFR 1002.101 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include... Section 1002.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND...-year period runs as to each employer independently, even if those employers share or co-determine...

  14. 20 CFR 1002.101 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include... Section 1002.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND...-year period runs as to each employer independently, even if those employers share or co-determine...

  15. 20 CFR 1002.101 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include... Section 1002.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND...-year period runs as to each employer independently, even if those employers share or co-determine...

  16. Identification of drought phases in a 110-year record from Western Mediterranean basin: Trends, anomalies and periodicity analysis for Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Fernández-González, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    The Iberian Peninsula (IP), located in a transition area between temperate and subtropical latitudes, has marked temporal and spatial variability of precipitation between its various climatic zones. Therefore, the peninsula is particularly sensitive to climate change owing to frequent periods of precipitation deficit together with societal dependence on water. In this study, we address meteorological droughts of the peninsula between 1901 and 2010, using the Global Precipitation Climatology Center database. First, we carried out a statistical classification of the peninsula according to annual precipitation cycle. The spatiotemporal variability of droughts was evaluated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) by determining the evolution of areas affected by severe and extreme drought. Subsequently, we calculated the overall trend of precipitation and anomalies to investigate whether an observed drought increase is attributable to a decrease of precipitation or an increase of precipitation extremes. Finally, we examined periodicities of precipitation anomalies via wavelet analysis, relating these to large-scale modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results show an increase in the area affected by severe and extreme drought, particularly on Atlantic-facing slopes. The mainland areas have longer and more intense periods of drought, with an average SPI of - 0.52 and 4-month duration. Over the 110 years analyzed, we observed weak trends of annual precipitation in the extreme northwest and southern IP. However, in the last decades of the series, long periods of strong negative anomalies are seen, interspersed with years of strong positive anomalies, suggesting an increase in precipitation pattern extremes. Finally, the relationship between the NAO index and precipitation anomalies on the Atlantic seaboard is highlighted. Thus, in both series we found a 5-6-year periodicity in their first years, with a diminishing cycle period reaching a

  17. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VIII. The eighth year (2015-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamás; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D.; Miguel, Enrique de; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Babina, Julia V.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B.; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V.; Antipin, Sergey V.; Zubareva, Alexandra M.; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M.; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N.; Bolt, Greg; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (˜0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN-15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts.

  18. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  19. Unexpected sudden death due to recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip; Gojanović, Marija Definis

    2012-06-01

    The article deals with 17 sudden deaths which occurred during recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period: from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011. The sample is taken out from the total number of 61 sudden deaths in men during or immediately after sport or recreational exercise. Included are also sudden deaths of 8 foreigners spending holidays at the Croatian Adriatic Coast. In all of them forensic medicine autopsy was done. Thirteen males from Croatia died during recreational swimming. Three of them were aged 15-29 yrs: one had signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the second suffered from chronic myopericarditis with left ventricular aneurysm, and the third had cardiomegaly and blood alcohol level of 1.7 per thousand. Five were aged 30-64 yrs: four of them have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 15-18-18-22 mm, and one with left ventricular hypertrophy drowned suddenly, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia. The fifth suffered stroke and drowned. Five elderly men, aged 65-85 yrs, have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis or myocardial scars, and three of them had left ventricular hypertrophy of 19 mm. Four males died during recreational diving. One aged 26yrs drowned, at autopsy he had left ventricular hypertrophy of 17 mm. Three males were middle-aged: two had coronary atherosclerosis, two of them had a severe degree of coronary atherosclerosis and one had coronary atherosclerosis of medium degree but with myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 18 mm. Seven male foreigners died, five of them during swimming: two aged 30-64 and two aged 65-85. They all have had coronary atherosclerosis: one of them had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall, and one hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as well. One middle-aged and one elderly man died during diving, and both had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall. One elderly foreign

  20. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  1. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. IV. The Fourth Year (2011-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Miller, Ian; Noguchi, Ryo; Akasaka, Chihiro; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nakazato, Takuma; Nomoto, Takashi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ono, Rikako; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Stein, William; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Takagi, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuya; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Pickard, Roger D.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Littlefield, Colin; Sabo, Richard; Ruiz, Javier; Krajci, Thomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Oksanen, Arto; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Monard, Berto; Shears, Jeremy; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pietz, Jochen; Katysheva, Natalia; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Malanushenko, Viktor; Martinelli, Fabio; Denisenko, Denis; Stockdale, Chris; Starr, Peter; Simonsen, Mike; Tristram, Paul J.; Fukui, Akihiko; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Paxson, Kevin B.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Kryachko, Timur V.; Samokhvalov, Andrey V.; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Satovski, Boris L.; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Muyllaert, Eddy; Gerke, Vladimir; MacDonald, Walter, II; Linnolt, Michael; Maeda, Yutaka; Hautecler, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The mass-ratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods.

  2. Recharge and Groundwater Use in the North China Plain for Six Irrigated Crops for an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers. PMID:25625765

  3. Recharge and groundwater use in the North China Plain for six irrigated crops for an eleven year period.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers.

  4. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes-TB/ALL. 31.10-21a Section 31.10-21a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than...

  6. How One Period Casts Shadows on Another: Exploring Year 8 Encounters with Multiple Interpretations of the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Dan Smith was concerned that his pupils were drawing on oversimplified generalisations about different periods of the past when they were considering why interpretations change over time. This led him to consider how pupils' contextual knowledge and chronological fluency might be used more explicitly in order to avoid weak generalisations about…

  7. Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

  8. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or the Supplemental Complex Repository... scanned into the Image File Wrapper system (IFW) or the Supplemental Complex Repository for Examiners... Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or...

  9. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  10. Loss of Plant Biodiversity Over a Seven-Year Period in Two Constructed Wetlands in Central New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Miranda A.; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  11. Loss of plant biodiversity over a seven-year period in two constructed wetlands in Central New York.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Miranda A; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-05-01

    Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

  12. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain.

  13. Monitoring Project CANAL: An Overview of Year 4 Training (September 1991 through February 1992). Progress Report. Third Quarter, Year 4 Report (Period Ending May 31, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Mary E.; Kurtz, Norman R.

    An evaluation review was done of the training activities of the Creating a New Approach to Learning Project (Project CANAL) during the first half of Year 4 of the project. The review covered types of training opportunities that were available, observations on participation by members of the groups for whom the training was designed, some…

  14. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  15. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... occur within one award year; (b) The institution must determine for each TEACH Grant recipient the...

  16. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... occur within one award year; (b) The institution must determine for each TEACH Grant recipient the...

  17. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

  18. Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

  19. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing.

  20. An investigation to model radar backscatter from ridged first year sea ice for the period ending December 31, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. L. W.; Stoughton, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the microwave scatterometer to meter scale roughness of first year sea ice was investigated. An empirical, one dimensional model was developed to predict the back scattered power from ridged first year sea ice of known surface topography, by interpreting the surface as a series of angular facets and summing the proportional power from each facet. The model is evaluated by comparing the predicted values to scatterometer measurements obtained during NASA's Sea Ice Radar Experiment (SIRE). The input to the model is surface slope, which for SIRE was calculated from the ice topography, as measured by an airborne laser profiler. The correlation between the predicted and the measured power is .62 to .68. It is concluded that the model adequately describes the backscatter from regions of first year sea ice whose dimensions are of a few tens of meters.

  1. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  2. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  3. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  4. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1.

  5. Clinico-pathological analysis of renal cell carcinoma demonstrates decreasing tumour grade over a 17-year period

    PubMed Central

    Nason, Gregory J.; McGuire, Barry B.; Kelly, Michael E.; Murphy, Theodore M.; Looney, Aisling T.; Byrne, Damien P.; Mulvin, David W.; Galvin, David J.; Quinlan, David M.; Lennon, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents about 3% of adult malignancies in Ireland. Worldwide there is a reported increasing incidence and recent studies report a stage migration towards smaller tumours. We assess the clinico-pathological features and survival of patients with RCC in a surgically treated cohort. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all nephrectomies carried out between 1995 and 2012 was carried out in an Irish tertiary referral university hospital. Data recorded included patient demographics, size of tumour, tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, operative details and final pathology. The data were divided into 3 equal consecutive time periods for comparison purposes: Group 1 (1995–2000), Group 2 (2001–2006) and Group 3 (2007–2012). Survival data were verified with the National Cancer Registry of Ireland. Results: In total, 507 patients underwent nephrectomies in the study period. The median tumour size was 5.8 cm (range: 1.2–20 cm) and there was no statistical reduction in size observed over time (p = 0.477). A total of 142 (28%) RCCs were classified as pT1a, 111 (21.9%) were pT1b, 67 (13.2%) were pT2, 103 (20.3%) were pT3a, 75 (14.8%) were pT3b and 9 (1.8%) were pT4. There was no statistical T-stage migration observed (p = 0.213). There was a significant grade reduction over time (p = 0.017). There was significant differences noted in overall survival between the T-stages (p < 0.001), nuclear grades (p < 0.001) and histological subtypes (p = 0.022). Conclusion: There was a rising incidence in the number of nephrectomies over the study period. Despite previous reports, a stage migration was not evident; however, a grade reduction was apparent in this Irish surgical series. We can demonstrate that tumour stage, nuclear grade and histological subtype are significant prognosticators of relative survival in RCC. PMID:24839483

  6. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  7. Stability of narcissistic personality disorder: tracking categorical and dimensional rating systems over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Vater, Aline; Ritter, Kathrin; Strunz, Sandra; Ronningstam, Elsa F; Renneberg, Babette; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Personality disorders are characterized as temporally stable patterns of symptoms (APA, 2000). However, evidence on the stability of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is generally lacking. This study tracked the prevalence and remission rates of individual criteria for NPD over the course of 2 years. In addition, the stability of dimensional personality pathology in patients with NPD (assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, DAPP-BQ) was assessed over time. A sample of 96 patients with a diagnosis of NPD was recruited at baseline. Forty patients participated in the follow-up assessment 2 years later. Our results indicate a moderate remission rate (53%) for NPD as a categorical diagnosis. However, single NPD criteria differed in their prevalence and temporal stability, similar to findings for other personality disorders. Moreover, scores on dimensional subscales of the DAPP-BQ remained stable over time. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  8. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden – repeated surveys over a 25-year period

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study female students’ sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Design Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Setting Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Population Female university students (n = 359). Methods Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Main outcome measures Sexual and contraceptive behavior. Results In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p < 0.001), and experience of anal sex increased from 39% to 46% (n = 136 in 2009 vs. n = 165 in 2014: p = 0.038), and 25% (n = 41 in 2014) always used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students’ knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Conclusions Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. PMID:25619646

  9. Case report: Successful treatment of recurrent chordoma and bilateral pulmonary metastases following an 11-year disease-free period

    PubMed Central

    Erkmen, Cherie P.; Barth, Richard J.; Raman, Vignesh

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chordomas are rare but aggressive tumors due to local recurrence and distant metastases. They originate commonly in the sphenooccipital and sacrococcygeal regions, and metastasize to the lungs, bone, skin, liver, and lymph nodes. They occur more frequently in men and people over the age of 40. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 28 year-old female presented with sacrococcygeal chordoma for which she received wide local excision and adjuvant radiation therapy. She enjoyed an unusual disease-free survival for 11 years until a routine surveillance scan of the pelvis identified local recurrence. Further work up revealed bilateral pulmonary metastases. She underwent local excision of the recurrent tumor and video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) wedge resection of pulmonary metastases. She also received adjuvant radiation therapy to the recurrent resection bed. Two years later, she remains free of disease and symptoms. DISCUSSION Chordomas are commonly insensitive to chemotherapy and radiation, making surgery the most successful therapeutic modality. However, there are few guidelines on the surveillance and treatment of recurrent chordoma. We report success with aggressive surgical resection of recurrence and metastasis as well as adjuvant radiation therapy. CONCLUSION The prolonged survival of our patient underscores the importance of (1) aggressive surgical resection of chordoma, whether primary, recurrent, or metastatic, with adjuvant radiation therapy, (2) minimization of surgical seeding of tumor, and (3) diligent cancer surveillance. PMID:24907541

  10. Microcalcifications Detected as an Abnormality on Screening Mammography: Outcomes and Followup over a Five-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa; Bicknell, Anne M; Hazan, Georges J; Flegg, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study reviewed the outcome of women attending a breast screening program recalled for assessment of microcalcifications and examined the incidence of a breast carcinoma detected during the following five years in any of the women who were given a benign diagnosis at assessment. Method. A retrospective study consisted of 235 clients attending an Australian BreastScreen program in 2003, who were recalled for investigation of microcalcifications detected on screening mammography. Records for the following five years were available for 168 women in the benign outcome group including those who did not require biopsy at initial assessment. Results. Malignant disease was detected in 26.0% (n = 146) of the women who underwent biopsy. None of the women in the benign outcome group, with available five-year follow-up records, developed a subsequent breast cancer, arising from the calcifications initially recalled in 2003. Conclusions. This study highlights the effectiveness of an Australian screening program in diagnosing malignancy in women with screen detected microcalcification. This has been achieved by correctly determining 38% (n = 235) of the women as benign without the need for biopsy or early recall. A low rate of open surgical biopsies was performed with no cancer diagnoses missed at the time of initial assessment. PMID:24194985

  11. Microcalcifications Detected as an Abnormality on Screening Mammography: Outcomes and Followup over a Five-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, Anne M.; Hazan, Georges J.; Flegg, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study reviewed the outcome of women attending a breast screening program recalled for assessment of microcalcifications and examined the incidence of a breast carcinoma detected during the following five years in any of the women who were given a benign diagnosis at assessment. Method. A retrospective study consisted of 235 clients attending an Australian BreastScreen program in 2003, who were recalled for investigation of microcalcifications detected on screening mammography. Records for the following five years were available for 168 women in the benign outcome group including those who did not require biopsy at initial assessment. Results. Malignant disease was detected in 26.0% (n = 146) of the women who underwent biopsy. None of the women in the benign outcome group, with available five-year follow-up records, developed a subsequent breast cancer, arising from the calcifications initially recalled in 2003. Conclusions. This study highlights the effectiveness of an Australian screening program in diagnosing malignancy in women with screen detected microcalcification. This has been achieved by correctly determining 38% (n = 235) of the women as benign without the need for biopsy or early recall. A low rate of open surgical biopsies was performed with no cancer diagnoses missed at the time of initial assessment. PMID:24194985

  12. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a ten-year period in a primate model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B.; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M.; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D.; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R.; Merrell, D. Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as stains in which babA was deleted were unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  13. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  14. Switching TNF antagonists in patients with chronic arthritis: an observational study of 488 patients over a four-year period

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the survival of infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab in patients who have switched among tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists for the treatment of chronic arthritis. BIOBADASER is a national registry of patients with different forms of chronic arthritis who are treated with biologics. Using this registry, we have analyzed patient switching of TNF antagonists. The cumulative discontinuation rate was calculated using the actuarial method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression models were used to assess independent factors associated with discontinuing medication. Between February 2000 and September 2004, 4,706 patients were registered in BIOBADASER, of whom 68% had rheumatoid arthritis, 11% ankylosing spondylitis, 10% psoriatic arthritis, and 11% other forms of chronic arthritis. One- and two-year drug survival rates of the TNF antagonist were 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. There were 488 patients treated with more than one TNF antagonist. In this situation, survival of the second TNF antagonist decreased to 0.68 and 0.60 at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Survival was better in patients replacing the first TNF antagonist because of adverse events (hazard ratio (HR) for discontinuation 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.84)), and worse in patients older than 60 years (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.97–2.49)) or who were treated with infliximab (HR 3.22 (95% CI 2.13–4.87)). In summary, in patients who require continuous therapy and have failed to respond to a TNF antagonist, replacement with a different TNF antagonist may be of use under certain situations. This issue will deserve continuous reassessment with the arrival of new medications. PMID:16507128

  15. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death due to physical exercise in Croatia in a 27-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with the sudden cardiac death during physical exercise in males in Croatia. The data are a part of a retrospective study dealing with 69 sudden death due to physical activity in men in Croatia during 27 years: from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 2010. Three of them suddenly died during training and two of them died during recreational physical exercise, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia due to hyperthrophic cardiomyopathy. One had an obstructive form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with i.v. septum of 40 mm and four had a non-obstructive forms of hyperthrophic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular wall of 18-20-22-25 mm. First athlete was a short trails runner, aged 24, with no any previous physical discomforts, who suddenly collapsed and died during training. The second athlete was a soccer player aged 18, with no any previous physical discomfort, who suddenly collapsed and died during training. The third aged 15, was a school boy, basketball player, with no any previous physical discomfort, who collapsed and died during training. Two aged 25 and 34, were with no physical discomfort during exercise and died suddenly during recreational soccer games. A sudden cardiac death due to physical exercise in young athletes in Croatia suffered of hyperthropic cardiomyopathy reached 0.06/100 000 yearly (p = 0.00000) in 27 years, in teenagers 0.26/100 000 (p = 0.00226), in teenagers suffered of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reached 0.10/100 000 (p = 0.00000), in all young athletes suffered of other heart diseases reached 0.19/100 000 (p = 0.00005), and in the total male population aged 15 or more, engaged in sports and recreational physical exercise: 0.71/100.0000 (p = 0.00001).

  16. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  17. A Perspective on the Intended Science Curriculum in Iceland and its `Transformation' over a Period of 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorolfsson, Meyvant; Finnbogason, Gunnar E.; Macdonald, Allyson

    2012-11-01

    In recent decades, a consensus has emerged among educators and scientists that all compulsory school students need good science education. The debate about its purpose and nature as a school subject in an emerging information society has not been as conclusive. To further understand this, it helps to examine how the science curriculum has transformed and what forces have shaped it as a core curricular area over time. This article sheds light on the transformation of the science curriculum for compulsory schools in Iceland in force from 1960 to 2010. Using criteria based on curriculum ideologies regarding the function of learners, instructors and subject matter in the learning process and the orientation of content and product versus process and development, it offers findings from content analysis of the intended science curriculum. The official curriculum was studied and conceptualised as it has evolved over time. The curriculum developers appear to have been striving for a compromise between conflicting views, resulting in what the authors of this article conceive as a 'kaleidoscopic quilt' of ideas over the period studied.

  18. Clonal Analysis of Meningococci during a 26 Year Period Prior to the Introduction of Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Christopher B.; Diggle, Mathew A.; Davies, Robert L.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a public health burden in the UK and elsewhere. Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, isolated in Scotland between 1972 and 1998, were characterised retrospectively to examine the serogroup and clonal structure of the circulating population. 2607 isolates causing invasive disease were available for serogroup and MLST analysis whilst 2517 were available for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis only. Serogroup distribution changed from year to year but serogroups B and C were dominant throughout. Serogroup B was dominant throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until serogroup C became dominant during the mid-1980s. The increase in serogroup C was not associated with one particular sequence type (ST) but was associated with a number of STs, including ST-8, ST-11, ST-206 and ST-334. This is in contrast to the increase in serogroup C disease seen in the 1990s that was due to expansion of the ST-11 clonal complex. While there was considerable diversity among the isolates (309 different STs among the 2607 isolates), a large proportion of isolates (59.9%) were associated with only 10 STs. These data highlight meningococcal diversity over time and the need for ongoing surveillance during the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines. PMID:25615448

  19. [1984-1994: Ten years of skin flaps. Development of transfer techniques. New methods of autoplasty described during this period].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1995-10-01

    Ten years of flaps represent a little and a lot. It is little compared to the 2600 years since the first flap in plastic surgery: the Susruta Indian flap, but it is a lot in view of the phenomenal acceleration of this speciality since the Second World War. In 1994 alone, more than two hundred references are listed under the heading "new flaps". As it is impossible to be exhaustive, the author has chosen to focus on two main aspects: a theoretical review of new transfer techniques, dealing successively with: the principles of reverse flow flaps, venous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps, so-called "extracorporeal" transfers, reverse flow YV technique; and practical aspects based on a review of eighteen autoplasties or donor sites selected for their surgical value, their reproductibility and their innovative nature. The author's objective is not to present a technical treatise, but rather to make the reader aware of several key points or even, in some cases, the very existence of these autoplasties. This paper is designed to be didactic, with extensive references, in order to act as a practical guide. It also demonstrates, as if there were any need, to what extent plastic surgery is able to create new solutions and the essential value of continuing research.

  20. The Natural Course of Intermittent Exotropia over a 3-year Period and the Factors Predicting the Control Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Jeremy J S W; Chong, Gabriela S L; Ko, Simon T C; Yam, Jason C S

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of intermittent exotropia and the factors affecting its control has been unclear. We aim to report the natural course of our cohort of 117 Chinese children with intermittent exotropia and to identify baseline parameters that may have predictive value in the control deterioration of the disease. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, compliance to orthoptic exercise, angle of deviation fusional convergence parameters and Newcastle Control Score were recorded for all children at baseline and at 3 years apart. Patients were divided into two groups according to the change in control over the 3 years: group 1 included patients who had no deterioration or had improvement in disease control; and group 2 were those who had deteriorated control or had undergone surgery. There were 77 patients (66%) in group 1 and 40 (34%) patients in group 2. Comparing the baseline parameters of the two groups, group 1 had statistically significantly smaller angle of deviation, larger fusional reserve, larger fusional recovery, and higher fusional reserve ratio (p < 0.05). Other baseline parameters were similar between the two groups. The baseline fusional parameters may have predictive value in determining the control of intermittent exotropia.

  1. The Natural Course of Intermittent Exotropia over a 3-year Period and the Factors Predicting the Control Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeremy J. S. W.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Yam, Jason C.S.

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of intermittent exotropia and the factors affecting its control has been unclear. We aim to report the natural course of our cohort of 117 Chinese children with intermittent exotropia and to identify baseline parameters that may have predictive value in the control deterioration of the disease. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, compliance to orthoptic exercise, angle of deviation fusional convergence parameters and Newcastle Control Score were recorded for all children at baseline and at 3 years apart. Patients were divided into two groups according to the change in control over the 3 years: group 1 included patients who had no deterioration or had improvement in disease control; and group 2 were those who had deteriorated control or had undergone surgery. There were 77 patients (66%) in group 1 and 40 (34%) patients in group 2. Comparing the baseline parameters of the two groups, group 1 had statistically significantly smaller angle of deviation, larger fusional reserve, larger fusional recovery, and higher fusional reserve ratio (p < 0.05). Other baseline parameters were similar between the two groups. The baseline fusional parameters may have predictive value in determining the control of intermittent exotropia. PMID:27257120

  2. Turn on, fade out - methane exchange in a coastal fen over a period of six years after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Glatzel, Stephan; Hahn, Juliane; Koch, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Koebsch, Franziska

    2016-04-01

    The rewetting of drained peatlands is widely regarded as an adequate measure for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, especially in NE Germany, many peatlands are being rewetted. Our knowledge about greenhouse gas exchange associated with rewetting is mainly based on short-term experiments or space-for-time substitutions. These approaches do not consider the transient character of ecosystem acclimatization to flooding by rewetting. Moreover data in this regard on coastal peatland ecosystems are sparse. Here, we present 7 years of data on CH4-exchange in a coastal fen after rewetting by flooding. On the site „Rodewiese", which is located within the NSG "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" in the Northeast of Rostock, NE Germany, we have established a long term research observatory addressing atmospheric C-exchange. The site is part of the TERENO network. Since summer 2009 we determine CH4 fluxes with closed chambers distributed widely across the study site and CO2-exchange with eddy covariance as well as ancillary data on vegetation, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. This talk addresses the CH4-exchange over time whereas CO2-exchange data are presented by Koebsch et al. in the same session. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Flooding increased methane release rates to extremely high levels of up to 4.3 t ha‑1 a‑1 for sedge stands and 2.7 t ha‑1 a‑1 on average, which amounts to 75.6 t ha‑1 a‑1 in CO2-equivalents. Thereafter, the averaged annual CH4 emissions decreased asymptotically and where at an average of 0.5 t ha‑1 a‑1 (14 t ha‑1 a‑1 in CO2-equivalents) in 2015. Factoring in the NEE of the growing season (from Eddy measurements) suggests that the system may be slightly above neutral with respect to

  3. Turn on, fade out - methane exchange in a coastal fen over a period of six years after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Glatzel, Stephan; Hahn, Juliane; Koch, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Koebsch, Franziska

    2016-04-01

    The rewetting of drained peatlands is widely regarded as an adequate measure for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, especially in NE Germany, many peatlands are being rewetted. Our knowledge about greenhouse gas exchange associated with rewetting is mainly based on short-term experiments or space-for-time substitutions. These approaches do not consider the transient character of ecosystem acclimatization to flooding by rewetting. Moreover data in this regard on coastal peatland ecosystems are sparse. Here, we present 7 years of data on CH4-exchange in a coastal fen after rewetting by flooding. On the site „Rodewiese", which is located within the NSG "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" in the Northeast of Rostock, NE Germany, we have established a long term research observatory addressing atmospheric C-exchange. The site is part of the TERENO network. Since summer 2009 we determine CH4 fluxes with closed chambers distributed widely across the study site and CO2-exchange with eddy covariance as well as ancillary data on vegetation, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. This talk addresses the CH4-exchange over time whereas CO2-exchange data are presented by Koebsch et al. in the same session. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Flooding increased methane release rates to extremely high levels of up to 4.3 t ha-1 a-1 for sedge stands and 2.7 t ha-1 a-1 on average, which amounts to 75.6 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents. Thereafter, the averaged annual CH4 emissions decreased asymptotically and where at an average of 0.5 t ha-1 a-1 (14 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents) in 2015. Factoring in the NEE of the growing season (from Eddy measurements) suggests that the system may be slightly above neutral with respect to the greenhouse

  4. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  5. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  6. Interpersonal victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, and change in adolescent substance use prevalence over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McCart, Michael R; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of age) participating in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (N = 3,906) and the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (N = 3,423). Results revealed significant declines in adolescents' use of cigarettes and alcohol between 1995 and 2005; use of marijuana and hard drugs remained stable. Of importance, declines in nonexperimental cigarette use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of victimization and declines in alcohol use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of PTSD.

  7. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  8. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages.

  9. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (aged 12 to 17 years) participating in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (NSA; N = 3,906) and the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R; N = 3,423). Results revealed significant declines in adolescents' use of cigarettes and alcohol between 1995 and 2005; use of marijuana and hard drugs remained stable. Importantly, declines in non-experimental cigarette use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of victimization and declines in alcohol use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of PTSD. PMID:21229450

  10. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  11. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  12. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  13. Evaluation of macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: single center experience over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Kenan; Yücel, Gözde; Sinoplu, Ada Bulut; Şahin, Sezgin; Adroviç, Amra; Kasapçopur, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, laboratory properties of patients with macrophage activation syndrome and treatment outcomes. Material and Methods: The data of the patients who were diagnosed with macrophage activation syndrome secondary to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis between June 2013–May 2014 were evaluated by screening patient records. Results: Ten patients with macrophage activation syndrome were followed up in one year. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was found to be 7.6±4.5 years. The most common clinical finding at presentation (80%) was increased body temperature. Hepatosplenomegaly was found in half of the patients. The most common hematological finding (90%) was anemia. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was found to be 71.8±36.2 mm/h, whereas it was measured to be lower (31.2±25.2 mm/h) at the time of the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome. Increased ferritin level was found in all of our patients (the mean ferritin level was found to be 23 957±15 525 ng/mL). Hypertriglyceridemia was found in nine patients (90%). The mean triglyceride level was found to be 397±332 mg/dL. Systemic steroid treatment was administered to all patients. Cyclosporine A was given to eight patients (80%), canakinumab was given to four patients (40%) and anakinra was given to five patients (50%). Plasmapheresis was performed in two patients. Improvement was found in all patients except for one patient. The patient in whom no improvement was observed showed a chronic course. Conclusions: The diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome should be considered in presence of sudden disturbance in general condition, resistant high fever and systemic inflammation findings in children with active rheumatic disease. Complete recovery can be provided with early and efficient treatment in macrophage activation syndrome which develops secondary to systemic juvenil idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26884689

  14. The Comparative Study of Body Mass Index Distribution Among Preschool Children in a 7 Years Period in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamreza, Veghari; Mohsen, Saeedi

    The main objective of this study is the comparison of Body Mass Index distribution among preschool children between 1997 and 2004. Using cluster and simple sampling chose 20 villages and 20 persons completed the questionnaires and measured their weight and height. The sample size was 3154 (stage 1 = 1585 cases and stage 2 = 1569 cases). Data of two stages was added to the file and was analyzed by spss.win soft-war. NCHS standard was used for comparison. The BMI percentiles by NCHS standard were used to classify subjects as follows: under weight, < 5th BMI percentiles; healthy weight, 5th-84th BMI percentiles; overweight, 85th-94th BMI percentiles; or obese, 95th = BMI percentiles. Gorgan a capital city and located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian Sea. In spite of boy=s weight increased about 0.1 kg, but height increased about 3.4 cm in second stage and t-test is significant between two stage by height (p< 0.001). Girl=s weight didn=t have any change, but height increased about 2.7 cm. t-test is significant between two stages by height (p< 0.001). The prevalence of obesity and overweight declined 17.36 and 4.7% respectively after 7 years. There is a statistical significant between two stages by obesity index (p< 0.05). The most outstanding results of this study is unvarying of weight and dramatically improving of height. The prevalence of obesity and overweight significantly declined after 7 years. Some health strategy that carried out by health managers in this area can caused this situation. Other studies are necessary for following the physical growth pattern in future.

  15. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese hospital over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Fengzhi; Kang, Jianbang; Wang, Xinchun; Yin, Donghong; Dang, Wen; Duan, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci are common causes of bloodstream and nosocomial infections, and their multi-drug resistance is an increasingly serious problem. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data about Gram-positive cocci from in-patients (January 2006 and December 2013) at the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China, were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated Gram-positive cocci was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2009 guidelines. The prevalence of drug resistance was determined, as well as correlation coefficients for various drugs between the resistance rate and year of sample collection. A total of 7789 Gram-positive cocci isolates were found, including 2576 (33%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 1477 (19%) Staphylococci aureus, 1343 (17%) Enterococcus faecalis, and 1139 (15%) Enterococcus faecium. The proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) were 31.5% (465/1477) and 61.6% (1587/2576), respectively. Among all isolates, MRS had much higher drug resistance rate than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci (P<0.05). E. faecalis had a higher multi-drug resistance rate than E. faecium (P<0.01). Interestingly, MRSA resistance rates declined over the years, showing a negative correlation coefficient for all drugs, with significance for levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (P<0.05), but not sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (P=0.057) and gentamicin (P=0.186). These results indicated that Staphylococci were the predominant Gram-positive cocci isolated. There was a trend of decreasing MRSA in the population studied.

  16. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  17. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2005. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2004-11-15

    care institution items and services to the beneficiary's home. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to the physician self-referral prohibition, discusses payment for set-up of portable x-ray equipment, discusses the third five-year refinement of work RVUs, and solicits comments on potentially misvalued work RVUs. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2004 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2005. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2005 is 1.5 percent, the initial estimate for the sustainable growth rate for CY 2005 is 4.3, and the conversion factor for CY 2005 is $37.8975.

  18. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains.

  19. A 2-year-old Japanese girl with TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome: A case report of the youngest diagnosed proband in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, Junko; Wago, Masakuni; Okada, Satoshi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Takei, Syuji; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-09-01

    We report a 2-year-old girl with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) who is the youngest proband diagnosed in Japan. Recurrent fever had started at her 6 months of age, and she had the familial history of recurrent fever, suggesting underlying genetic disorder, in her father and grandfather. Careful clinical observation of characteristics of fever with disease course and the familial history of recurrent fever may lead to diagnosis of TRAPS in early infancy.

  20. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains. PMID:22749243

  1. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity.

  2. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. PMID:22311146

  3. High Genetic Stability of the Begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Southern Spain Over an 8-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campos, S; Díaz, J A; Monci, F; Bejarano, E R; Reina, J; Navas-Castillo, J; Aranda, M A; Moriones, E

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT The evolution of the plant single-stranded DNA virus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) has been monitored for 8 years after its appearance in southern Spain. Variation within three genomic regions of 166 TYLCSV isolates collected from three locations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. According to SSCP, the intergenic region (IR) was the most variable. Low genetic diversity was found within the population and geographical or temporal differences were not evident. Nucleotide sequences of specific genomic regions of haplotypes identified by SSCP indicated close relationships among them. Therefore, the Spanish TYLCSV population appears to represent a single, undifferentiated population. The analysis of IR sequences for a subsample of 76 randomly chosen isolates confirmed the limited genetic diversity revealed by the SSCP analysis. A tendency to a lineal increase in diversity over time was observed in Málaga and Almería subpopulations; however, no accumulation of mutations in single isolates was evident. Negative selection to variation seems to operate to conserve certain regions of the genome. Thus, the low genetic diversity found in the studied TYLCSV population might be the result of a founder effect with subsequent selection against less fit variants arising by mutation.

  4. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was <10 x 10(9)/l in 7 cases, and only 1 patient had a history of head trauma. Seven children were on treatment prior to or at the time of occurrence of ICH and all were treated by pharmacotherapy. Two children died shortly afterwards due to late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  5. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P < 0.05). The number of patients with wild-type measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P < 0.05); conversely, the absence of these symptoms was noted in most patients with vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles. PMID:24858606

  6. Evaluating changes in stream fish species richness over a 50-year time-period within a landscape context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Tracy, Bryn H.; Hogue, Gabriela M.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, streams and rivers are facing a suite of pressures that alter water quality and degrade physical habitat, both of which can lead to changes in the composition and richness of fish populations. These potential changes are of particular importance in the Southeast USA, home to one of the richest stream fish assemblages in North America. Using data from 83 stream sites in North Carolina sampled in the 1960’s and the past decade, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate relationships between species richness and catchment land use and land cover (e.g., agriculture and forest cover). In addition, we examined how the rate of change in species richness over 50 years was related to catchment land use and land cover. We found a negative and positive correlation between forest land cover and agricultural land use and average species richness, respectively. After controlling for introduced species, most (66 %) stream sites showed an increase in native fish species richness, and the magnitude of the rate of increase was positively correlated to the amount of forested land cover in the catchment. Site-specific trends in species richness were not positive, on average, until the percentage forest cover in the network catchment exceeded about 55 %. These results suggest that streams with catchments that have moderate to high (>55 %) levels of forested land in upstream network catchments may be better able to increase the number of native species at a faster rate compared to less-forested catchments.

  7. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.

  8. Composition and sources of organic matter in atmospheric PM 10 over a two year period in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Wang, Tieguan; Zhang, Yanping; Zhong, Ningning; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2009-08-01

    The solvent-extractable organic compounds of atmospheric PM 10 samples, collected over two years beginning in 2003 at urban and suburban sites of Beijing, were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The elemental carbon (EC) contents were determined and ranged from 4.3 to 42 μg m - 3 . Organic compounds in total extracts were identified and included unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and series of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); saccharides, alkanedioic acids, steroids, and other biomarkers and source tracers. The seasonal variations of their relative abundances are discussed. The abundance order for the major molecular classes in the particulate organic matter (POM) was the following: UCM > saccharides > n-alkanoic acids > n-alkanes > n-alkanols > PAHs > hydroxy-PAHs > other biomarker tracers. Based on the genetic significance of the molecular tracers, the dominant sources of POM are proposed for the two sampling sites. The emissions from fossil fuel use (both coal and petroleum products), biomass combustion, other pyrolysis sources, higher plant wax, and secondary products contribute > 98.0% of the POM mass. The fossil fuel use (average = 65% of POM) is the largest contributor and derives mainly from vehicular traffic.

  9. Ocular Manifestations of Venomous Snake Bite over a One-year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Praveen Kumar, K V; Kasturi, Nirupama; Ahuja, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ocular manifestations in snake-bite injuries are quite rare. However, the unusual presentations, diagnosis and their management can pose challenges when they present to the ophthalmologist. Early detection of these treatable conditions can prevent visual loss in these patients who are systemically unstable and are unaware of their ocular condition. To address this, a study was conducted with the aim of identifying the various ocular manifestations of snake bite in a tertiary care center. Methods This is a one-year institute-based prospective study report of 12 snake bite victims admitted to a tertiary hospital with ocular manifestations between June 2013 to June 2014, which provides data about the demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, ocular manifestations, and their outcomes. Results Twelve cases of snake bite with ocular manifestations were included of which six were viper bites, three were cobra bites and three were unknown bites. Six patients presented with bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (50%), two patients had anterior uveitis (16.6%) of which one patient had concomitant optic neuritis. One patient had exudative retinal detachment (8.3%), one patient had thrombocytopenia with subconjunctival hemorrhage (8.3%) and two patients had external ophthalmoplegia (16.6%). Conclusions Bilateral angle closure glaucoma was the most common ocular manifestation followed by anterior uveitis and external ophthalmoplegia. Snake bite can result in significant ocular morbidity in a majority of patients but spontaneous recovery with anti-snake venom, steroids and conservative management results in good visual prognosis. PMID:26240510

  10. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  11. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  12. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams. PMID:26339996

  13. Structural Mechanics Predictions Relating to Clinical Coronary Stent Fracture in a 5 Year Period in FDA MAUDE Database.

    PubMed

    Everett, Kay D; Conway, Claire; Desany, Gerard J; Baker, Brian L; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular stents are the mainstay of interventional cardiovascular medicine. Technological advances have reduced biological and clinical complications but not mechanical failure. Stent strut fracture is increasingly recognized as of paramount clinical importance. Though consensus reigns that fractures can result from material fatigue, how fracture is induced and the mechanisms underlying its clinical sequelae remain ill-defined. In this study, strut fractures were identified in the prospectively maintained Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE), covering years 2006-2011, and differentiated based on specific coronary artery implantation site and device configuration. These data, and knowledge of the extent of dynamic arterial deformations obtained from patient CT images and published data, were used to define boundary conditions for 3D finite element models incorporating multimodal, multi-cycle deformation. The structural response for a range of stent designs and configurations was predicted by computational models and included estimation of maximum principal, minimum principal and equivalent plastic strains. Fatigue assessment was performed with Goodman diagrams and safe/unsafe regions defined for different stent designs. Von Mises stress and maximum principal strain increased with multimodal, fully reversed deformation. Spatial maps of unsafe locations corresponded to the identified locations of fracture in different coronary arteries in the clinical database. These findings, for the first time, provide insight into a potential link between patient adverse events and computational modeling of stent deformation. Understanding of the mechanical forces imposed under different implantation conditions may assist in rational design and optimal placement of these devices. PMID:26467552

  14. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  15. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  16. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  17. Differential Movement Patterns of Juvenile Tengmalms Owls (Aegolius funereus) during the Post-Fledging Dependence Period in Two Years with Contrasting Prey Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Štastný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29) and 2011 (n = 10) and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22) and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6). Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011) and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011). The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm’s owls. PMID:23843981

  18. Differential movement patterns of juvenile Tengmalms owls (Aegolius funereus) during the post-fledging dependence period in two years with contrasting prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Štastný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29) and 2011 (n = 10) and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22) and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6). Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011) and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011). The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm's owls. PMID:23843981

  19. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males x¯= 43.9, 40.7; females x¯= 37.9, 33.9). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  20. Ground-level ozone in urban Beijing over a 1-year period: Temporal variations and relationship to atmospheric oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Li, Yunting; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Dong, Xin; Sun, Ruiwen; Huan, Ning; Pan, Libo

    2015-10-01

    Regional ozone pollution has become a major environmental concern in China, especially in densely populated and economically vibrant regions such as North China, including Beijing. To address this issue, surface ozone and its precursors (CO, NO, and NO2) from December 2012 to November 2013 at 12 sites in urban Beijing and 2 sites in suburban Beijing were analyzed. The annual average concentrations of O3, CO, NO, and NO2 in urban Beijing were 45.5 ± 50.2 μg m- 3, 1.5 ± 1.3 mg m- 3, 27.3 ± 42.7 μg m- 3, and 58.3 + 32.0 μg m- 3, respectively. The concentration of ozone was highest during summer, whereas concentrations of its precursors were highest during winter. Diurnal variations in ozone presented as a single-peak curve, with the peak appearing at about 15:00-16:00. Diurnal variations in most ozone precursors showed bimodal curves; the first peak appeared at about 08:00-09:00, and the second peak appeared at night. Hourly concentrations of ozone on the weekend were higher than those on weekdays between 11:00 and 24:00 in urban Beijing, which was suggestive of a significant weekend effect. This may be because NO inhibition on the weekend is weaker than that on weekdays during the ozone formation phase. Diurnal variations in OX (NO2 + O3) showed a single peak, which appeared at 15:00 or 16:00. The results of correlation analysis among OX, O3, and NO2 suggested that OX was mainly controlled by O3 during the day and by NO2 during the night throughout the year. OX was controlled by NO2 during both the day and night during winter due to the low concentration of O3. The regional transport of ozone along the upwind direction was found in a typical ozone pollution event in summer in Beijing.

  1. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males [Formula: see text]; females [Formula: see text]). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  2. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males [Formula: see text]; females [Formula: see text]). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  3. Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Pneumonia at a Single University Hospital Center in Germany over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. The development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing globally due to the overuse of antibiotics. This article examines, retrospectively, the antibiotic resistance in patients with community-acquired versus nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa or multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Methods Data from patients with community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and MDR P. aeruginosa were collected from the hospital charts at the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, between January 2004 and August 2014. An antibiogram was created from all study patients with community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa or MDR P. aeruginosa. Results A total of 168 patients with mean age 68.1 ± 12.8 (113 [67.3% males and 55 [32.7%] females) were identified; 91 (54.2%) had community-acquired and 77 (45.8%) had nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa. Patients with community-acquired versus nosocomial-acquired pneumonia had a mean age of 66.4 ± 13.8 vs. 70.1 ± 11.4 years [59 vs. 54 (64.8% vs. 70.1%) males and 32 vs. 23 (35.2% vs. 29.9%) females]. They included 41 (24.4%) patients with pneumonia due to MDR P. aeruginosa: 27 (65.9%) community-acquired and 14 (34.1%) nosocomial-acquired cases. P. aeruginosa and MDR P. aeruginosa showed a very high resistance to fosfomycin (community-acquired vs. nosocomial-acquired) (81.0% vs. 84.2%; 0 vs. 85.7%). A similar resistance pattern was seen with ciprofloxacin (35.2% vs. 24.0%; 70.4% vs. 61.5%), levofloxacin (34.6% vs. 24.5%; 66.7% vs. 64.3%), ceftazidime (15.9% vs. 30.9; 33.3% vs. 61.5%), piperacillin (24.2% vs. 29.9%; 44.4% vs. 57.1%), imipenem (28.6% vs. 27.3%; 55.6% vs. 50.0%), piperacillin and tazobactam (23.1% vs. 28.6%; 44.4% vs. 50.0%), tobramycin (28.0% vs. 17.2%; 52.0% vs. 27

  4. Report of data on children with non-typhi Salmonella gastroenteritis in a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Öznur; Biçer, Suat; Ugraş, Meltem; Çöl, Defne; Giray, Tuba; Çiler Erdag, Gülay; Gürol, Yeşim; Yilmaz, Gülden; Yalvaç, Zerrin; Vitrinel, Ayça; Kaspar, Çigdem

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. between January 2010 and October 2012 were evaluated. Differences between the groups for categorical variables were estimated with a chi-square or Fisher exact test; for continuous variables with two independent samples a t test was used. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Sixty-seven children, 39 (58.2%) males and 28 (41.8%) females aged between 1 - 16 years (mean ± SD: 4.64 ± 2.91), were diagnosed with acute bacterial gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. The main serotypes are Salmonella enteritidis (85%) and Salmonella typhimurium (7.5%). The presenting symptoms were diarrhoea (95.5%), fever (61.1%), vomiting (34.3%), abdominal pain (32.8%), loss of appetite (7.4%) and malaise (7.4%). Fever and dehydration (moderate and/or severe) were detected in 11 (16.4%) patients. The mean leukocyte count was 10.930/μL [95% confidence interval (CI), SD: ± 5.710/μL], neutrophil count was 7.880/μL (95% CI, SD: ± 4.960/μL), CRP was 64.16 mg/L (95% CI, SD: ± 76.24 mg/L), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 34.72 mm/hour (95% CI, SD: ± 13.64 mm/h). Stool microscopy was positive for leukocytes in 18 patients (26.8%). The definitive diagnosis was made with positive stool culture (n = 65) and/or PCR test (n = 4). Viral antigen positivity was detected in 10 patients (14.9%), evaluated as viral co-infection and false positive results. Antibiotic therapy and hospitalization were required in 26 (38.8%) and 23 (34.3%) patients, respectively. Salmonella carriage was detected in one patient (1.5%). Bloody diarrhoea

  5. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  6. Trends in the prevalence of heart diseases over a ten-year period from single-center observations based on a large echocardiographic database.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Pan, Wen-zhi; Wan, Quan; Cheng, Lei-lei; Shu, Xian-hong; Pan, Cui-zhen; Qian, Ju-ying; Ge, Jun-bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in the incidence of heart disease in China during recent years. Using a large echocardiography database in our center, we analyzed trends in the prevalence of several common heart diseases from Dec. 2003. This study retrospectively analyzed the echocardiographic database in our Department from 2003 to 2012. A total of 385 682 cases were included in the study. The prevalence of rheumatic heart disease decreased over the 10-year period, from 4.04% in 2003 to 3.06% in 2012 (P<0.01). Infective endocarditis also decreased, from a mean prevalence of 0.37% in July 2003 to 0.27% in Dec. 2008 (P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which includes 20% apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20% hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, was about 1.8%. The prevalence of the three most common adult congenital heart diseases (CHDs) decreased by about 10% from July 2003 to Dec. 2008 (all P<0.001). The prevalence of moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) decreased during the 10-year period (P<0.001), but there was no change in the prevalence of severe PAH or LVSD (P>0.05). The present study indirectly demonstrates that the prevalence of several common heart diseases in China has declined in recent years.

  7. Surveillance of primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori at centres in England and Wales over a six-year period (2000-2005).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, S A; Teare, E L; Davies, K; Owen, R J

    2007-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a key factor in the failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, yet few sentinel schemes exist to monitor trends in resistance at local, national or international levels. This study aimed, over a six-year period, to monitor resistance levels of H. pylori in England and Wales to the four antibiotics used in its treatment. A total of 1,310 isolates from Gwynedd in north Wales and from mid-Essex in south-east England were collected from 2000 to 2005 and tested for susceptibilities to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Overall, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 28.6% and 8.3% in Gwynedd and significantly higher (36.3%, p=0.0031, and 12.7%, p=0.0112) in mid-Essex. Rates of resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin increased in both areas over this six-year period. Resistance rates were higher in female compared with male patients (38.1% vs 26.6% for metronidazole, p<0.0001, and 12.9% vs 7.5% for clarithromycin, p=0.0024), and were higher in patients <45 years compared with those ?45 years (44.0% vs 29.0% for metronidazole, p=0.0002, and 15.0% vs 9.4% for clarithromycin, p=0.0233). This study highlights the importance of antibiotic resistance surveillance in H. pylori for providing information on local resistance rates for test and treat strategies. PMID:17991408

  8. Two-year follow-up period showing the natural history of a superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma arising in a long segment of Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Junya; Ozawa, Soji; Kazuno, Akihito; Nitta, Miho; Ninomiya, Yamato; Tomita, Sakura

    2016-10-01

    A 55-year-old woman experienced gastrointestinal dysfunction caused by scleroderma. An initial endoscopy revealed an erosive lesion in a long segment of Barrett's esophagus, and a biopsy led to a diagnosis of ectopic gastric mucosa. Two years later, an irregular, elevated tumor developed at the same site. This tumor was suspected of having invaded the submucosal layer. A second biopsy led to a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent a thoracoscopic esophagectomy. The resected specimen revealed an invasive tumor front that had invaded the deep layer of a duplicated muscularis mucosae. Intraepithelial neoplasia partially surrounded the tumor. This lesion was thought to have developed into an adenocarcinoma according to the orderly sequence of metaplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and finally adenocarcinoma over a 2-year period. The present case suggests that erosive lesions in Barrett's esophagus should be strictly followed up by endoscopy, even if a biopsy does not reveal any neoplastic findings. PMID:27590624

  9. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683

  10. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Stefania; Piet, Jurgen; Muzzi, Alessandro; Keijzers, Wendy; Comandi, Sara; De Tora, Lisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie; Comanducci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection.

  11. Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p < 0.05). Most injuries were electrical burns. Conclusion High rate of accidents in summer may be due to the warm weather or insufficient professional skills in seasonal workers. Shift workers are at risk of sleep complaints leading to a high rate of work injuries. Acquiring knowledge about safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary. PMID:24106647

  12. Disease severity of 100 patients with systemic sclerosis over a period of 14 years: using a modified Medsger scale

    PubMed Central

    Geirsson, A; Wollheim, F; Akesson, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess organ involvement according to a modified Medsger severity scale and its relation to outcome and prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis.
METHODS—One hundred consecutive patients observed in Lund with systemic sclerosis were followed up for a period of 14 years. The mean follow up time was 7.7 years. Initial assessment and an annual evaluation was performed for each patient, with a mean visit frequency of 5.6 per patient.
RESULTS—Age at referral, high total skin score, truncal skin involvement, low vital capacity, low static lung compliance, low Cr-EDTA clearance, and ECG abnormalities at the initial assessment predict poor outcome. A severity scoring system for five organ systems indicates a slow progression of organ dysfunction after recruitment into the study. The female: male ratio was 2:1, the mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.3 (range 3-82), and the mean age at recruitment was 47.2 years (range 17-82). Thirty patients died during the follow up period at the mean age of 61.3 years (range 33-85). The causes of death were directly related to systemic sclerosis in at least 10 patients, infections in six, cancers in nine, and other causes in four patients. The standardised mortality ratio was 3.5 and 3.7 for men and women, respectively.
CONCLUSION—A high severity score for function of vital organs was shown to predict shortened survival. In this study a severity score based on simple clinical assessment variables was able to predict poor outcome from extensive skin changes, ECG changes, and compromised lung and renal function. Organ dysfunction mainly became manifest during the first five years of the disease, whereafter organ function remained largely stable.

 PMID:11709453

  13. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  14. Cloud fraction statistics in the baltic sea area over a period of ten years determined from Meteosat IR data for validating the climate model BALTIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Fischer, J.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of the DEKLIM (German Climate Research Programme) project BALTIMOS (BALTEX-Integral Model System) an algorithm for cloud detection using Meteosat thermal infrared data has been developed. The derived cloud mask was converted in fractional cloud cover of a climate model grid. From these data several statistical quantities have been derived, desigened to validate according climate model parameters of the regional model BALTIMOS (1/6°) driven by reanalyses. The analyzed region covers the whole baltic area, investigating a period of 10 years. The underlying data basis consists of hourly Meteosat thermal infrared, water vapour and visible data in the period from January 1992 to December 2001. Referring to the determination of the cloud mask, a mono spectral method for the Meteosat thermal infrared channel was developed. This method allows a uniform detection quality without discontinuities between day and night. It is based on a recursive algorithm, determining an assumed clear sky brightness temperature for each pixel, that is compared to the actual measurement. Comparisons with one year synoptical observations from 819 stations all over the baltic region has approved the efficiency and quality of the developed method. The detection certainty was 87% for cloud covered and 83% for cloud free cases, while 11% of all data have been classified as undecided. Several statistical quantities of the fractional cloud cover, like the mean diurnal cycles depending on the selected region, the anual cycles depending on the selected daytime or the moving average of the cloud coverage for the whole region over the period of 10 years have already been calculated.

  15. An analysis of intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) catheter-related infection in a university hospital in Japan over a ten year period (1982-1991).

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Y; Daimon, Y; Oota, T; Morinaga, S; Kashii, T; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, M

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow changes in clinical characteristics of IVH catheter-related infections, 183 patients were analyzed in whom microorganisms had been isolated from the tips of IVH catheters over a ten year period (1982-1991) in our university hospital. In 183 patients, the male to female ratio was 2.4, the internal medicine departments (Int. Med. Depts.) to surgical departments (Surg. Depts.) ratio was 0.49, 58% of the patients were over 60 years old, 27% had surgical procedures within 30 days before isolation of organisms, and 44% died before discharge. Malignancies were the highest in number for underlying diseases. The same strains of microorganisms as tip cultures were isolated from blood in around 48% of cases in which blood cultures were employed. In the first 5 years (n = 71) and the latter 5 years (n = 112), the proportion of patients form the Int. Med. Depts. increased from 21 to 40% (p < 0.01), and the proportion of Gram positive bacteria from 44 to 64% (p < 0.01). Their antibiotic sensitivity was, as a whole, slightly lower in the latter 5 years. Among Gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has shown a tendency to increase (11 to 35%). Clinical features were different depending on the kinds of organisms or types of underlying diseases. Measures against IVH catheter-related infections are discussed.

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis "Podhrastovi" in ten-year period (from 1998 to 2007).

    PubMed

    Cukić, Vesna; Ustamujić, Aida; Lovre, Vladimir; Zutić, Hasan; Genjac, Sadika; Masić-Zecević, Mina

    2008-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common primary malign tumour of pleura. The aim of this study was to evaluate cases of MPM diagnosed and treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis "Podhrastovi" during ten-year period (1998-2007). Study is retrospective. The patients were analysed according to age, sex, histopathologic type of the tumour, cantonal distribution in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and regimen of treatment. MPM presented 0,72% (0-1,56% per year) of all hospitalised malignant patients, and the greatest number of registered cases was in the year of 2007. The series included 16 male (57,14%) and 12 female (42,86%). Cases over 64 years old were the most frequent (14-50%) than 45-54 years (7- not 25%). Histopathology types of hospitalised cases of MPM: epitheloid form (8- 28,57%); sarcomatoid form (2- 7,14 %); other forms (18-64,29%). The most patients came from Canton Sarajevo (12-42,86%); ZE-DO canton (8-28,57%) and the UNA-SANA canton (5-17,86%). The therapy applied: chemotherapy (11-39,29%); radiotherapy (3-10,71%); chemotherapy + radiotherapy (4-14,29%); symptomatic therapy (10-35,71 %).

  17. An analysis of intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) catheter-related infection in a university hospital in Japan over a ten year period (1982-1991).

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Y; Daimon, Y; Oota, T; Morinaga, S; Kashii, T; Nakagawa, K; Kobayashi, M

    1993-01-01

    In order to follow changes in clinical characteristics of IVH catheter-related infections, 183 patients were analyzed in whom microorganisms had been isolated from the tips of IVH catheters over a ten year period (1982-1991) in our university hospital. In 183 patients, the male to female ratio was 2.4, the internal medicine departments (Int. Med. Depts.) to surgical departments (Surg. Depts.) ratio was 0.49, 58% of the patients were over 60 years old, 27% had surgical procedures within 30 days before isolation of organisms, and 44% died before discharge. Malignancies were the highest in number for underlying diseases. The same strains of microorganisms as tip cultures were isolated from blood in around 48% of cases in which blood cultures were employed. In the first 5 years (n = 71) and the latter 5 years (n = 112), the proportion of patients form the Int. Med. Depts. increased from 21 to 40% (p < 0.01), and the proportion of Gram positive bacteria from 44 to 64% (p < 0.01). Their antibiotic sensitivity was, as a whole, slightly lower in the latter 5 years. Among Gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa has shown a tendency to increase (11 to 35%). Clinical features were different depending on the kinds of organisms or types of underlying diseases. Measures against IVH catheter-related infections are discussed. PMID:8110988

  18. [Smoking habits in France among general practitioners and the general male population over a twenty-five year period (1966-1991)].

    PubMed

    Fréour, P; Tessier, J F

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys are presented regarding smoking habits among two populations: the general practitioners in France since 1966 to 1991 and the general population of adult men in the same period of time. We add some European and foreign surveys in the same groups of population. These data show a regular and rather slow reduction of percentage of smokers during the last 25 years. We can see, in general, the behaviour of the general practitioners are in advance comparing with the general population of ten to twenty years. If we compare the French data with the foreign one we can see that France is not in a very good situation regarding the decreasing tendency of smoking among the general practitioners and in the general population. This study justify the strengthening of the fight against smoking among adults and doctors. We remind that the very roots of the tabagism are in the youth: specific studies might take in account this core problem. PMID:8319110

  19. [Corpse disposal by embedding it in concrete--a rare form of preserving a body over a period of 5 years and 10 months].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Final disposal of a homicide victim in concrete is rare. Often missing persons are reported to the police, but the right of adults to determine their whereabouts can make it very difficult to locate them. A 40-year-old woman had been missing for 5 years and 10 months. She was found by the police in the cellar of the family's house, packed in airtight plastic film and embedded in concrete. The husband admitted to have killed her by manual strangulation after an argument during which she fell on the head. His statements were confirmed by the findings obtained from the very well preserved body. The autopsy results were generally consistent with manual strangulation. The literature does not contain many case reports on this rare method of disposing of a body. In the reported case, the postmortem period was remarkably long and the corpse was in a good state of preservation.

  20. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone.

  1. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country. PMID:27570345

  2. Evolutionary trajectory of channel planforms in the middle Garonne River (Toulouse, SW France) over a 130-year period: Contribution of mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Mélodie; Labenne, Amaury; Carozza, Jean-Michel; Valette, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological essay for defining evolutionary trajectories of channel planforms and to examine the channel change in the middle Garonne River (southwest France) over a 130-year period. The study focuses on a reach of ~ 90 km situated downstream from the city of Toulouse. A set of four historical maps (1868, 1940s, 1970s, and 2000s) is used to build a geomorphometric diachronic database. Data processing through mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows distinction between four homogeneous zones within the study reach, depending on their evolutionary trajectories. Channel behavior in the upstream and median zones evolved as of the beginning of the study period (narrowing of the fluvial area, colonization by vegetation, and removal of alluvial bars), likely owing to punctual anthropogenic actions. The downstream zone is characterized by stabilization of the channel and alluvial bar removal over the second half of the twentieth century, coinciding with the campaign undertaken by French local authorities between 1960 and 1984 to protect river banks. The role of climate transition between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the onset of the Global Warming period (GW) is also discussed. Results generally are consistent with the chronology established for most European rivers.

  3. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (<31 weeks) as well as in term infants and despite a simultaneous fall in perinatal and early neonatal mortality in the preterm group. Analysing the subtypes of CP we found a significant increase in the numbers as well as the rate of unilateral CP with a simultaneous fall in the numbers as well as the rate of bilateral CP. The explanation of this rise is not obvious. A change from bilateral periventricular lesions to unilateral is a possibility, but no major change in the neonatal handling could be documented. Regarding associated impairments, developmental delay/learning disabilities as well as motor function assessed by ability to walk (unassisted/assisted), both have changed toward higher percentage of children with unassisted walking and in need of special education.

  4. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) and its outcome in the Patients who were Admitted to a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, over a 10-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Sheybani, F.; Arabikhan, H.R.; Naderi, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The effective cure rate of acyclovir emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment in reducing the considerable mortality and the morbidity in patients with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). Methods: The demographic as well as clinical features, the lab data and the neuroimaging findings of the patients with HSE, which were confirmed by Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) PCR and/or brain MRI, were reviewed and analyzed statistically over a 10-year period. Results: Over a 10-year period, the characteristics of 45 patients with HSE were reviewed. 34 (76%) out of the 45 patients showed positive CSF HSV-1 PCR results. 8 (18%) had a normal CSF analysis and a CSF/blood glucose ratio of less than 0.5 was observed in 13 (29%) patients, while 14% had PMN-dominant pleocytosis. 68% of the patients for whom brain MRI was performed, had temporal lobe involvement. While 37 (83%) patients recovered completely, 6 (13%) survived with sequelae, and 2 (4%) died. Conclusion: Because of the increasing number of atypical forms of HSE and the great impact of an early diagnosis and treatment on a favourable outcome, the acyclovir therapy should be administrated for any type of febrile encephalopathy of unknown aetiology, until HSE can be excluded. PMID:24086858

  5. Sensing propagation events and fade statistics at C-band for two over-water, line-of-sight propagation paths over a one year period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Dockery, G. Daniel; Musiani, Bert H.

    1992-01-01

    We examine signal fading statistics over a year period corresponding to two over-water, line-of-site, propagation links in the mid-Atlantic coast of the US. These links are comprised of a transmitter on a tower at Parramore Island, VA operating at 4.7 GHz sending simultaneous cw signals to two receiver systems located on a lighthouse and a lookout tower on Assateague Beach, VA at distances of 44 and 39 km, respectively. The receiving sites are separated by approximately 5 km. Cumulative fade distributions corresponding to yearly, monthly, and diurnal time scales were derived. Fade duration statistics correspond to sustained attenuation events were also derived. These events, which were arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20 dB for durations of two hours or more, are believed to be generally due to subrefraction. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawindsonde data during two sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction, where the refractivity-height profile had a positive lapse rate. The efficacy of employing the links as indicators of real time conditions of atmospheric propagation was also demonstrated by a telephone call-up procedure which enabled displays of time series of the fading at remote locations to be generated.

  6. Greenland ice cores tell tales on the extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the warm climate Eemian period 130.000 - 115.000 years BP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2012-12-01

    A new Greenland ice core has been drilled. The first results from the NEEM ice core are presented and then combined with the results from the other deep ice cores from the Greenland Ice Sheet. All the ice cores drilled though the Greenland ice sheets have been analyzed and the results show that all the ice cores contain ice from the last interglacial, the Eemian, near the base. Is it thus clear that the Greenland Ice Sheet did exist 124.000 years ago in the previous warm climate period where it was more than 5 deg C warmer over Greenland. The difference between the Eemian and the Holocene stable oxygen isotope values have been combined with an ice sheet flow model constrained by the ice core results and internal radio echo sounding layers to estimate the volume of the Greenland Ice Sheet 124.000 years ago. The results show that South Greenland has not been ice free during the Eemian period and that the sea level contribution from the Greenland Ice Sheet has been 2.0 +-0.5 m.

  7. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.

    2015-08-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.

  8. Increased plasma DPP4 activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese over a 4-year period: possible associations with inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Chen, T; Liu, Y; Gao, Y; Tian, H

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether increased dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity predicts new-onset hypertension in Chinese patients. A prospective study was conducted for 1884 adults (804 men/1080 women) aged 18-70 years without hypertension. Participants were examined in 2007 (baseline) and 2011 (follow-up) and circulating DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R) concentration, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters were measured. After a 4-year follow-up, 296 individuals developed hypertension with an incidence of 39 per 1000 patient years. In multiple linear regression analyses, baseline DPP4 activity was an independent predictor of an increase in M6P-R, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress parameters over a 4-year period (all P < 0.01). Cox proportional hazards models revealed that DPP4 activity independently predicted the risk of developing hypertension (relative risk 2.68 (95% confidence interval 1.71-4.21) P < 0.01). Our results indicate that DPP4 activity is an important predictor of hypertension onset in apparently healthy Chinese individuals. This finding may have important implications for understanding the effects of DPP4 in promoting inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  9. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: declining trends over a period of five years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for the recipient. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, risk factors and trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors over a period of five years at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2003 and December 2007 was conducted. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Results From the total of 6361 consecutive blood donors, 607 (9.5%) had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 50 (0.8%) had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.8%, 4.7%, 0.7%, and 1.3% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV - syphilis 19 (38%) and HIV - HBV 17 (34%). The seropositivity of HIV was significantly increased among female blood donors, first time donors, housewives, merchants, soldiers, drivers and construction workers. Significantly increased HBV seropositivity was observed among farmers, first time donors and age groups of 26 - 35 and 36 - 45 years. Similarly, the seroprevalence of syphilis was significantly increased among daily labourers and construction workers. Statistically significant association was observed between syphilis and HIV infections, and HCV and HIV infections. Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. Conclusions A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors' blood using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure

  10. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-Acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark: A Descriptive Analysis of Nationwide Prescriptions during a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long-acting BZD (half-life >10 hr), compared to short-acting BZD in Denmark during a 10-year period. Descriptive analysis of total sales data from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, to individuals in the primary healthcare sector, of all BZD and Z drugs in the period of 2003-2013. Prescription data derive from all community and hospital pharmacies in Denmark. The prescribing of long-acting BZD was reduced from 25.8 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 8.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 66%. The prescribing of short-acting BZD was reduced from 26.1 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 16.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 37%. Prescription data in this study did not include information about indications for initiating treatments. In addition, due to compliance problems, some of the prescribed drugs may not have been consumed according to the prescription. The observed reduction in BZD use was correlated to the introduction of new national guidelines on prescription of addictive drugs, but this study was not designed to detect a causal relationship. The prescribing of long-acting BZD decreased considerably more than the prescribing of short-acting BZD in the 10-year period. PMID:25382355

  11. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  12. Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates recovered from children with diarrhea during a 4-year period (2007 to 2010) in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Lucia; Sanchez, Samanta; Zambrana, Silvia; Iñiguez, Volga; Wiklund, Gudrun; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sjöling, Asa

    2013-04-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. This study aimed to characterize ETEC strains isolated from Bolivian children aged <5 years according to enterotoxin profile, colonization factors (CFs), suggested virulence genes, and severity of disease. A total of 299 ETEC isolates recovered from children with diarrhea and 55 ETEC isolates from children without diarrhea (controls) were isolated over a period of 4 years. Strains expressing heat-labile toxin (LT) or heat-stable toxin (ST) alone were about equally common and twice as common as ETEC producing both toxins (20%). ETEC strains expressing human ST (STh) were more common in children aged <2 years, while ETEC strains expressing LT plus STh (LT/STh) were more frequent in 2- to 5-year-old children. Severity of disease was not related to the toxin profile of the strains. CF-positive isolates were more frequently identified in diarrheal samples than in control samples (P = 0.02). The most common CFs were CFA/I and CS14. CFA/I ETEC strains were more frequent in children aged <2 years than CS1+CS3 isolates and CS14 isolates, which were more prevalent in 2- to 5-year-old children. The presence of suggested ETEC virulence genes (clyA, eatA, tia, tibC, leoA, and east-1) was not associated with disease. However, east-1 was associated with LT/STh strains (P < 0.001), eatA with STh strains (P < 0.001), and tia with LT/STh strains (P < 0.001). A minor seasonal peak of ETEC infections was identified in May during the cold-dry season and coincided with the peak of rotavirus infections; this pattern is unusual for ETEC and may be important for vaccination strategies in Bolivia.

  13. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  14. Absence of trends in relative risk estimates for the association between Black Smoke and daily mortality over a 34 years period in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Paul; Ameling, Caroline; Marra, Marten; Cassee, Flemming R.

    A major issue in air pollution epidemiology is whether the associations that are found in the statistical analyses on the health effects of air pollution reflect real causal associations of single components or mixtures thereof, or just reflect statistical associations that are mainly the result of the high correlation between the separate components, one of them being the true causal factor. In a previous analysis on the relationship between daily SO 2 levels and daily mortality in The Netherlands [Buringh, E., Fischer, P., Hoek, G., 2000. Is SO 2 a causative factor for the PM-associated mortality risks in The Netherlands? Inhal. Toxicol. 12 (Suppl. 1), 55-60.], it was shown that the statistical significant association between daily variation in SO 2 and daily mortality did not reflect a causal relation. Black Smoke levels in The Netherlands have decreased 4-fold during the 34 years in the period 1972-2006 (annual average from 27 μg m -3 to 6 μg m -3). This large decrease in concentrations enabled us to use the same approach for this component as was done earlier for SO 2 to assess whether a decreasing trend in Black Smoke levels in The Netherlands is associated with an increasing trend in mortality relative risks or not. We used daily averaged Black Smoke (BS) data from 1972 to 2006. In the first two decades (1970-1990) only sparse data were available. Based on the availability of the data, we selected data from 1972 to 1974 and from 1982 to 1984 because during these two periods continuous daily measurement series were available. For the later years (1989-2006) data covering the whole of The Netherlands were available, giving a total of 24 years of daily data. Data on daily total mortality counts (excluding external causes), cardiovascular mortality and respiratory mortality for the whole population of The Netherlands were analyzed with regard to daily Black Smoke levels using generalized additive Poisson regression models (GAM). Period specific relative risk

  15. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  16. [Analysis of non-confraternity sports accidents in the surgical department of a former district hospital during the period of 2 years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, Ch; Raschka, S; Peikert, T

    2009-12-01

    This epidemiological study analyses all n = 1,659 outpatient and inpatient non-confraternity sports accidents treated during a 2-year period in a former district hospital. The largest share with 40.6% is soccer, followed by cycling (15%), general fitness sports (7.6%), outdoor sports (6.5%), winter sports (5.5%), and riding (5.2%). Soccer injuries rise steadily until the age of 30. Of 86 horse riding accidents a total of 68 involved women, but only 18 men (ratio 8 : 2). 53% of the horse riding accidents among women concern the age group between 10 and 20 years. 70.6% (79%) of the athletes under (over) 20 years were male, 29.4% (21%) female (p < 0.05). Topographically the lower extremities represent the most affected body region in all sports (runners 84.4%, soccer players 60.2%). Most accidents occur on a Sunday. The most common diagnosis is contusion, most commonly in martial arts (60.8%), followed by horse riding (51%). There is an astonishing dominance of soccer accidents given the fact that this study records all athletes, not just club athletes, unlike insurance studies. Important preventive measures would be a comprehensive biological training prophylaxis and the provision of communication of age-specific accident prevention proposals for the mainly affected sports. PMID:20052829

  17. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  18. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  19. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  20. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  1. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  2. Risk for Sleep Disorder Measured during Students' First College Semester May Predict Institutional Retention and Grade Point Average over a 3-Year Period, with Indirect Effects through Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a validated survey to assess freshmen college students' sleep patterns and risk for sleep disorders and then examined associations with retention and grade point average (GPA) over a 3-year period. Students at risk for a sleep disorder were more likely to leave the institution over the 3-year period, although this…

  3. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Clark, J. D.; Hamme, W. Van; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  4. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  5. Evidence of a dominant lineage of Vibrio cholerae-specific lytic bacteriophages shed by cholera patients over a 10-year period in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Seed, Kimberley D; Bodi, Kip L; Kropinski, Andrew M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are hypothesized to contribute to the seasonality and duration of cholera epidemics in Bangladesh. However, the bacteriophages contributing to this phenomenon have yet to be characterized at a molecular genetic level. In this study, we isolated and sequenced the genomes of 15 bacteriophages from stool samples from cholera patients spanning a 10-year surveillance period in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Our results indicate that a single novel bacteriophage type, designated ICP1 (for the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh cholera phage 1) is present in all stool samples from cholera patients, while two other bacteriophage types, one novel (ICP2) and one T7-like (ICP3), are transient. ICP1 is a member of the Myoviridae family and has a 126-kilobase genome comprising 230 open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of ICP1 and related isolates from this time period indicates a high level of genetic conservation. The ubiquitous presence of ICP1 in cholera patients and the finding that the O1 antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serves as the ICP1 receptor suggest that ICP1 is extremely well adapted to predation of human-pathogenic V. cholerae O1.

  6. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P

    2015-10-01

    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  7. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P

    2015-10-01

    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  8. Environmentally Driven Increases in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Pima Indians and Non-Pimas in Mexico Over a 15-Year Period: The Maycoba Project

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-Romero, Julian; Valencia, Mauro E.; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Knowler, William C.; Ravussin, Eric; Bennett, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been attributed to the interaction between lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition to these diseases. We compared the prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians, presumed to have a high genetic predisposition to these diseases, to those in their non-Pima neighbors, both of whom over a 15-year period experienced a transition from a traditional to a more modern lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity in Mexican Pimas (n = 359) and non-Pima Mexicans (n = 251) were determined in 2010 using methods identical to those used in 1995. RESULTS During this 15-year period, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was unchanged in Pima men (5.8% in 1995 vs. 6.1% in 2010) yet increased in non-Pima men from 0.0 to 8.6% (P < 0.05). Diabetes prevalence tended to increase in both Pima women (9.4 vs. 13.4%) and non-Pima women (4.8 vs. 9.5%). Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all groups (6.6 vs. 15.7% in Pima men; 8.5 vs. 20.5% in non-Pima men; 18.9. vs 36.3% in Pima women; 29.5 vs. 42.9% in non-Pima women). CONCLUSIONS Type 2 diabetes prevalence increased between 1995 and 2010 in non-Pima men, and to a lesser degree in women of both groups, but it did not increase in Pima men. Prevalence of obesity increased among Pimas and non-Pimas of both sexes. These changes occurred concomitantly with an environmental transition from a traditional to a more modernized lifestyle. PMID:26246457

  9. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements.

  10. Wilms' tumour in Malaysian children: a histopathological study of cases encountered at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over a 22-year period.

    PubMed

    Cheah, P L; Looi, L M; Lin, H P

    1992-12-01

    Formerly thought to have a constant incidence rate throughout the world, Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) has been shown to be less common among Asian children. A retrospective demographic and morphological study of Wilms' tumour histologically diagnosed over a 22-year period at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was conducted to assess for inherent demographic and morphological differences between tumours in Malaysian children and those of Western populations. Thirty-seven cases of histologically proven Wilms' tumour qualified for inclusion in this study. 19 patients were Chinese, 13 Malay, 4 Indian and 1 Anglo-asian. 21 were male and 16 were female (M:F ratio = 1.3:1). Their ages ranged from 1 month to 4 years. 70.3% of the patients were below 2 years of age. 36 cases had unilateral and 1 bilateral tumours. Of unilateral tumours, 19 involved the left kidney and 17 the right. Histological assessment, based on criteria of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group, revealed 20 (52.6%) tumours with a mixed pattern while 8 (21.1%) showed epithelial, 7 (18.4%) blastemal and 3 (7.8%) stromal-predominant patterns. Anaplasia was observed in only 2 tumours (5.3%). There was no obvious difference in age range and sex distribution, laterality of tumours and incidence of anaplasia between this and Western studies. No ethnic predilection was observed. A notably larger percentage of cases were below 2 years of age. Also, a larger proportion of epithelial-predominant and a lower proportion of blastemal-predominant tumours was observed compared with patterns reported from Western populations.

  11. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  12. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  13. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  14. [Homicide in the elderly. A study of homicide in the aged based on an Aachen autopsy sample of the 10-year period 1976-1985].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1989-01-01

    Investigations on the peculiarities of homicides of the elderly are missing in the German literature up to the present date. Therefore we undertook an evaluation of the case files collected at the Aachen Institute of Forensic Medicine from the ten-year-period 1976-1985. Among 3736 autopsies we found 183 cases of homicide with 35 victims of 60 years and older. We collected peculiarities of modus operandi related to victim, suspect and offence and compared the data with such from police criminal statistics and partially with German population statistics. Two types of homicide of the elderly can be differentiated: One is independent of the victim's age whereas the other exploits the living conditions in the higher age (living alone, socially isolated, ailing, helpless etc.) For these latter cases the name "Gerontocide" is proposed. The paper deals with the peculiar difficulties of criminal investigation and clarification in such cases, resulting on the one hand from the lack of suspicion if elderly people die, on the other hand from the more difficult detection of causal relationship between offence and death--especially in the presence of severe illness of the victim.

  15. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  16. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  17. Child mortality in a West African population protected with insecticide-treated curtains for a period of up to 6 years.

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, D. A.; Cousens, S. N.; Cuzin-Ouattara, N.; Nebié, I.; Ilboudo-Sanogo, E.; Esposito, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of insecticide-treated curtains (ITC) on all-cause child mortality (6-59 months) over a period of six years. To determine whether initial reductions in child mortality following the implementation of ITC are sustained over the longer term or whether "delayed" mortality occurs. METHODS: A rural population of ca 100 000 living in an area with high, seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission was studied in Burkina Faso. Annual censuses were conducted from 1993 to 2000 to measure child mortality. ITC to cover doors, windows, and eaves were provided to half the population in 1994 with the remainder receiving ITC in 1996. Curtains were re-treated or, if necessary, replaced annually. FINDINGS: Over six years of implementation of ITC, no evidence of the shift in child mortality from younger to older children was observed. Estimates of the reduction in child mortality associated with ITC ranged from 19% to 24%. CONCLUSIONS: In our population there was no evidence to suggest that initial reduction in child mortality associated with the introduction of insecticide-treated materials was subsequently compromised by a shift in child mortality to older-aged children. Estimates of the impact of ITC on child mortality in this population range from 19% to 24%. PMID:15042229

  18. Comparing the Epica and Vostok dust records during the last 220,000 years: stratigraphical correlation and provenance in glacial periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Petit, J.-R.; Maggi, V.; Revel-Rolland, M.; Michard, A.; Jagoutz, E.; Grousset, F.

    2004-06-01

    A new aeolian dust record from the first 2200 m of the EPICA-Dome C ice core (75°06'S, 123°21'E) covering about 220,000 years of climatic history is compared to the Vostok (78°28'S, 106°48'E) ice core [Nature 399 (1999) 429]. The two dust profiles are very similar and several common dust events allow to establish stratigraphical links. The late Quaternary period is characterized at both sites, and likely overall East Antarctic plateau, by high dust input during glacial periods. In the EPICA-Dome C ice core, the dust flux rises by a factor of ˜25, ˜20 and ˜12 in glacial stages 2, 4 and 6 with respect to interglacial periods (Holocene and stage 5.5). The magnitude and pattern of changes are comparable in the Vostok ice core. In this study, the geographical origin of ice core dust (ICD) in cold periods has been investigated at both sites through 87Sr/ 86Sr versus 143Nd/ 144Nd isotopic tracers, following the previous studies of Grousset et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 111 (1992) 175] and Basile et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 146 (1997) 573]. The new data and the existing ones allow to define the isotopic fields for dust at the two Antarctic sites that are almost identical and restricted into the 0.708< 87Sr/ 86Sr<0.711 and -5< ɛNd(0)<+5 ranges. This suggests a common geographical provenance for dust at Vostok and Dome C and for all the glacial periods of the late Pleistocene. To decipher the ICD provenance, more than 50 samples of loess and aeolian deposits, sands and fluvioglacial sediments from the Potential Source Areas (PSAs) of the Southern Hemisphere have been collected. However, the methodology has been refined with respect to former studies. First, the isotopic fractionation that can occur in function of grain size has been taken into account, and the PSA's signature has been defined in the <5 μm size range, within which fine-grained dust reaching Antarctica is found. Moreover, a possible contribution from carbonates on the samples from PSAs has

  19. Attitude toward own aging in midlife and early old age over a 12-year period: examination of measurement equivalence and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Miche, Martina; Elsässer, Valerie C; Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2014-09-01

    The Attitude Toward Own Aging Subscale (ATOA) is a frequently used measure of subjective aging. Although ATOA in midlife might assume a preparatory role for psychosocial adjustment in old age, research has been dominated by a focus on older adults. To enable a comparison of developmental trajectories of ATOA between middle-aged and young-old adults, we tested measurement invariance between age groups and over a 12-year study period. In addition, personality variables, health dimensions, and sociodemographic variables were investigated as predictors of developmental trajectories of ATOA. Data came from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE) with 2 birth cohorts (1930-1932: n = 500; 1950-1952: n = 501) followed over 12 years. Data analyses were conducted with confirmatory factor analysis for ordered-categorical variables and latent growth models. Support for the assumption of partial measurement invariance of ATOA was found in each age group, but not between age groups. Latent growth models revealed a steady decline in ATOA for young-old individuals, whereas ATOA trajectories in midlife were characterized by interindividual variation. Health variables predicted level of ATOA in the young-old. In midlife ATOA were shaped by a variety of factors. Future studies should be conducted with an awareness of differential item functioning of the ATOA scale across age groups. Furthermore, our results point to a greater modifiability of aging attitudes in middle-aged compared with young-old individuals, thus highlighting the importance of the midlife years in shaping developmental trajectories into old age.

  20. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  1. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D; Kahler, Charlene M

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000-2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000-05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010-14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44-91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  2. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T.; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000–2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000–05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010–14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44–91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  3. Antipsychotic prescribing in care homes before and after launch of a national dementia strategy: an observational study in English institutions over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Szczepura, Ala; Owen, David W; Palmer, Thomas; Muhammad, Tariq; Clark, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations between the launch of the National Dementia Strategy (NDS) and antipsychotic prescribing in long-term residential care (LTC) in England. Setting and participants Retrospective analysis of prescribing patterns in 616 LTC institutions (31 619 residents) following launch of the NDS, using information from electronic medicines management system. Primary and secondary outcome measures Antipsychotic prescribing point prevalence (PP) for all residents in a cross section of LTC settings over a 4-year period following NDS launch. Secondary outcomes included dosages, length of treatment and use of recommended second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) versus first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Associations between facility-level PP values and institutional characteristics, resident demographics were explored. Variations across geographical areas examined. Prescription net ingredient costs calculated. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in overall prescribing rates over the 4-year period (Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test p=0.60), and there was no significant shift towards newer SGAs (KS test p=0.32). Dosages were above the maximum indicated in only 1.3% of cases, but duration of prescribing was excessive in 69.7% of cases. Care homes in the highest prescribing quintile were more likely to be located in a deprived area (rate ratio (Q5/Q1) RR=5.89, 95% CI 4.35 to 7.99), registered for dementia (RR=3.38, 95% CI 3.06 to 3.73) and those in the lowest quintile were more likely to be served by a single general practitioner (GP) practice (RR=0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63); p<0.001 all. A sixfold variation in PP levels was observed between geographical areas. The average annual expenditure on antipsychotics was £65.6 per person resident (2012 prices). Conclusions The NDS in England was not associated with reduced PP levels or the types of antipsychotic prescribing in care homes. Further research is needed to explore why. Clear

  4. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  5. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship. PMID:24784325

  6. The Vaginal Microbiota over an 8- to 10-Year Period in a Cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Donovan, Brock; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge; Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Gilbert, Douglas; Burgad, Derick; Spear, Greg T.

    2015-01-01

    Background We identified predominant vaginal microbiota communities, changes over time, and how this varied by HIV status and other factors in a cohort of 64 women. Methods Bacterial DNA was extracted from reposited cervicovaginal lavage samples collected annually over an 8–10 year period from Chicago Women’s Interagency HIV Study participants: 22 HIV-negative, 22 HIV-positive with stable infection, 20 HIV-positive with progressive infection. The vaginal microbiota was defined by pyrosequencing of the V1/V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Scheduled visits included Bacterial vaginsosis (BV) screening; clinically detected cases were referred for treatment. Hierarchical clustering identified bacterial community state types (CST). Multinomial mixed effects modeling determined trends over time in CST, by HIV status and other factors. Results The median follow-up time was 8.1 years (range 5.5–15.3). Six CSTs were identified. The mean relative abundance (RA) of Lactobacillus spp. by CST (with median number of bacterial taxa) was: CST-1–25.7% (10), CST-2–27.1% (11), CST-3–34.6% (9), CST-4–46.8% (9), CST-5–57.9% (4), CST-6–69.4% (2). The two CSTs representing the highest RA of Lactobacillus and lowest diversity increased with each additional year of follow-up (CST-5, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.62 [95% CI: 1.34–1.94]; CST-6, aOR = 1.57 [95 CI: 1.31–1.89]), while the two CSTs representing lowest RA of Lactobacillus and higher diversity decreased with each additional year (CST-1, aOR = 0.89 [95% CI: 0.80–1.00]; CST-2, aOR = 0.86 [95% CI: 0.75–0.99]). There was no association between HIV status and CST at baseline or over time. CSTs representing lower RA of Lactobacillus were associated with current cigarette smoking. Conclusions The vaginal microbial community significantly improved over time in this cohort of women with HIV and at high risk for HIV who had regular detection and treatment referral for BV. PMID:25675346

  7. Preventive Health Perspective in Sports Medicine: The Trend at the Use of Medications and Nutritional Supplements during 5 Years Period between 2003 and 2008 in Football

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcu, Ethem; Burgazlı, Kamil Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medication and nutritional supplement use in male Football Super League players and to observe the long term changes of players’ attitudes during 5 years period (4 seasons). Study Design: Retrospective study. Material and Methods: Review and analysis of 4176 doping control forms -declaration reports- about players’ medication intake including; Super League, UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League matches. Team physician was asked to document all medications and nutritional supplements taken by the Football Super League players in the last 72 hours before each match. Results: A total intake of 5939 substances were documented, of which almost half 49.2% (n=2921) were classified as medications and 50.8% (n=3018) were nutritional supplements. The average consumption per player was 1.42 substance/match; 0.70 were medications and 0.72 of nutritional supplements. The supplements used most frequently were NSAIDs 24.6% (n=1460) accounting for almost one in four of all reported supplements. Diclofenac Sodium was the most frequently reported active pharmaceutical ingredient. Second most frequently used supplements were vitamins (22.2%). The average drug consumption reported per player has been increasing every passing year. It was 0.7 substance/match/player (0.4 medication; 0.3 nutritional supplement) in 2003–2004 season; was increased to 1.8 substance/match (0.8 medication; 1.0 nutritional supplement) in 2006–2007 season. Conclusion: The trends seen in this survey point to an overuse of NSAIDs and vitamins in comparison with other medications, amoung Turkish Super League football players (p<0.001). The use of NSAIDs has increased but the medication groups did not differ significantly between seasons, in terms of distribution. This increasing use of medications especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements is alarming and needs to be argued. PMID:25207073

  8. Incidence of Emergency Department Visits for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Recent 6-Year Period in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Michael J.; Kripalani, Sunil; Zhu, Yuwei; Storrow, Alan B.; Dittus, Robert S.; Harrell, Frank E.; Self, Wesley H.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and longitudinal trends of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) presenting to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) are currently unknown. Efforts to use effective treatments for cardiovascular disease may decrease ED STEMI presentation. We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis of STEMI visits to EDs between 2006 and 2011 using the Nationwide ED Sample (NEDS), the largest source of U.S. ED data, to determine the incidence of patients with STEMIs presenting to U.S. EDs. We included adult ED visits with an ICD-9CM diagnosis of STEMI and calculated incidence rates for STEMI ED visits using U.S. census population data. Incidence calculations were stratified by age group, geographic region, and year. From 2006–2011, there was a mean of 258,106 STEMIs presenting to EDs per year, declining from 300,466 in 2006 to 227,343 in 2011. Incidence of ED STEMI visits per 10,000 adults declined from 10.1 (95% CI 9.8, 10.8) in 2006 to 7.3 (95% CI 6.8, 7.8) in 2011. The Midwest had the highest rate of ED STEMIs at 10.0 (95% CI 9.2, 10.8) and the West had the lowest with 6.6 (95% CI 6.1, 7.0). The incidence of STEMI decreased for all age groups during the study period. In conclusion, we report the first national estimates of STEMI presentation to U.S. EDs, which demonstrate decreasing incidence across all age groups and all geographic regions between 2006 and 2011. A declining STEMI incidence may affect the quality and timeliness of STEMI care. Continued national STEMI surveillance is needed to guide healthcare resource allocation. PMID:25465931

  9. Changes in the types of liver diseases requiring hepatic resection: a single-institution experience of 9016 cases over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwui-Dong; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jin Cheon; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To understand the changing demands for hepatic resection (HR), we collected data regarding HR performed in a tertiary centre over a period of 10 years. Methods We carried out extensive search of institutional databases to identify HR cases performed between January 2005 and December 2014. A study cohort of 9,016 patients were divided into 5 disease categories, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), intrahepatic duct stone disease (IHDS), colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), and uncommon/rare diseases (URD). Results There were 5,661 (62.8%) HCC cases, followed by 1441 (16.0%) CRLM, 942 (10.5%) ICC, 638 (7.1%) IHDS and 334 (3.7%) URD. The number of annual HR cases gradually increased from 443 in 2005 to 1,260 in 2015. Annual HCC cases also gradually increased, but the annual proportion of HCC cases fluctuated narrowly between 58.3% and 70.2%. Annual CRLM cases increased rapidly, and their proportion increased progressively from 4.7% to 20.5%. Annual ICC cases increased slowly, and their annual proportion fluctuated between 7.2% and 15.6%. Annual IHDS cases decreased slowly, and their annual proportion decreased progressively from 17.2% to 3.4%, while annual URD cases fluctuated, with annual proportions varying between 2.3% and 5.6%. Conclusions Annual cases of HR increased over the last 10 years in a tertiary center probably due to a center-specific centralization effect. The number of CRLM cases increased rapidly; those of HCC and ICC increased gradually, and those of IHDS declined gradually. We believe that these results reflect real changes in the types of liver disease requiring HR. PMID:27212990

  10. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  11. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  12. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  13. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department.

  14. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana, base period water years 1937-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.; Hull, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of streamflow characteristics (monthly mean flow that is exceeded 90, 80, 50, and 20 percent of the time for all years of record and mean monthly flow) were made and are presented in tabular form for 312 sites in the Missouri River basin in Montana. Short-term gaged records were extended to the base period of water years 1937-86, and were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at 100 sites. Data from 47 gaged sites were used in regression analysis relating the streamflow characteristics to basin characteristics and to active-channel width. The basin-characteristics equations, with standard errors of 35% to 97%, were used to estimate streamflow characteristics at 179 ungaged sites. The channel-width equations, with standard errors of 36% to 103%, were used to estimate characteristics at 138 ungaged sites. Streamflow measurements were correlated with concurrent streamflows at nearby gaged sites to estimate streamflow characteristics at 139 ungaged sites. In a test using 20 pairs of gages, the standard errors ranged from 31% to 111%. At 139 ungaged sites, the estimates from two or more of the methods were weighted and combined in accordance with the variance of individual methods. When estimates from three methods were combined the standard errors ranged from 24% to 63 %. A drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at seven ungaged sites. The reliability of the drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was estimated to be about equal to that of the basin-characteristics method. The estimate were checked for reliability. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics from gaged records were considered to be most reliable, and estimates at sites with actual flow record from 1937-86 were considered to be completely reliable (zero error). Weighted-average estimates were considered to be the most reliable estimates made at ungaged sites. (USGS)

  15. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years – The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, H. Susan J.; Pas, L. Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Proper, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. Methods From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load. PMID:26752695

  16. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of <4kg/d at least 30d before expected calving date and were dried off. Milk yield was recorded and EB was calculated from wk -8 to 9 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken weekly from wk -3 to 8 relative to calving. Liver samples were taken in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. At the onset of lactation, cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or

  17. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  18. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  19. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = -0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted.

  20. Criminal convictions among dependent heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment: a longitudinal national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bukten, Anne; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Stangeland, Per; Gossop, Michael; Willersrud, Astrid B; Waal, Helge; Havnes, Ingrid; Clausen, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates frequency and types of criminal convictions among a national sample of heroin users during a 3-year period prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). All heroin users (N = 3,789) in Norway who applied for and were eligible for OMT (1997-2003) were included. The OMT records were cross-linked to Norwegian crime statistics. During observation, 24,478 convictions were recorded among 60.9% of the sample. Differences of criminal convictions were found within the group; a large proportion (39.1%) had no convictions, whereas 10% of the sample was responsible for 37.8% of all convictions. Convictions for acquisitive crimes and drug crimes were the most common. Variations in the cohort's individual crime sequences were found. The heavy involvement of heroin users with the criminal justice system provides an opportunity to intervene with dependent offenders. Coordination between treatment providers and police or courts can play an important role in improving outcomes through better access to treatment.

  1. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = -0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  2. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Invasive Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a Spanish Hospital over a Nine-Year Study Period, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Soriano, Francisco; Hernández, Marta; Stessl, Beatrix; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenicity, invasiveness, and genetic relatedness of 17 clinical Listeria monocytogenes stains isolated over a period of nine years (2006–2014). All isolates were phenotypically characterised and growth patterns were determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined in E-tests. Invasion assays were performed with epithelial HeLa cells. Finally, L. monocytogenes isolates were subtyped by PFGE and MLST. All isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics (β-haemolysis and lecithinase activity), and three types of growth curve were observed. Bacterial recovery rates after invasion assays ranged from 0.09% to 7.26% (1.62 ± 0.46). MLST identified 11 sequence types (STs), and 14 PFGE profiles were obtained, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity. Genetic studies unequivocally revealed the occurrence of one outbreak of listeriosis in humans that had not previously been reported. This outbreak occurred in October 2009 and affected three patients from neighbouring towns. In conclusion, the molecular epidemiological analysis clearly revealed a cluster (three human cases, all ST1) of not previously reported listeriosis cases in northwestern Spain. Our findings indicate that molecular subtyping, in combination with epidemiological case analysis, is essential and should be implemented in routine diagnosis, to improve the tracing of the sources of outbreaks. PMID:26539467

  4. [POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ANALYSIS OF SCREENING IN PREGNANT WOMEN FOR DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER COMMON CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS OVER A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS].

    PubMed

    Hachmerian M; Angelova L; Ivanov St; Kovachev E

    2016-01-01

    Maternal biochemical screening and the new non-invasive prenatal screening tests as well as prenatal diagnostic tests as tools to fight serious chromosomal diseases have their possibilities and limitations. The article presents analysis of the results in 7 201 pregnant women: 4426 first trimester and 2775 second trimester biochemical screening, together with 994 calculated integrated risks performed in the Laboratory of medical genetics in 2013 and 2014 year. A matter of mass screening in both periods is the criterion of efficiency--financially justified reasons on the basis of comparison "sensitivity" of different approaches. First trimester screening revealed 5 (71.42%) cases of chromosomal disease and 1 (14.28%) case with large congenital anomaly. From second trimester biochemical screening 3 (60%) cases were revealed. Chromosomal pathology in pregnant women with calculated integrated risk was found in 7 (70%) cases. From a total of 22 screened pregnant women with prenatal or postnatal verified diagnosis of Down syndrome, Edvards, Patau or Turner, highest detection rate is found in first trimester screening--6 of 7 (85.7%). Contingent approach is most widely used in Europe and we confidently recommend it. PMID:27514138

  5. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977

  6. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  7. [POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ANALYSIS OF SCREENING IN PREGNANT WOMEN FOR DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER COMMON CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS OVER A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS].

    PubMed

    Hachmerian M; Angelova L; Ivanov St; Kovachev E

    2016-01-01

    Maternal biochemical screening and the new non-invasive prenatal screening tests as well as prenatal diagnostic tests as tools to fight serious chromosomal diseases have their possibilities and limitations. The article presents analysis of the results in 7 201 pregnant women: 4426 first trimester and 2775 second trimester biochemical screening, together with 994 calculated integrated risks performed in the Laboratory of medical genetics in 2013 and 2014 year. A matter of mass screening in both periods is the criterion of efficiency--financially justified reasons on the basis of comparison "sensitivity" of different approaches. First trimester screening revealed 5 (71.42%) cases of chromosomal disease and 1 (14.28%) case with large congenital anomaly. From second trimester biochemical screening 3 (60%) cases were revealed. Chromosomal pathology in pregnant women with calculated integrated risk was found in 7 (70%) cases. From a total of 22 screened pregnant women with prenatal or postnatal verified diagnosis of Down syndrome, Edvards, Patau or Turner, highest detection rate is found in first trimester screening--6 of 7 (85.7%). Contingent approach is most widely used in Europe and we confidently recommend it.

  8. Intra-host evolution of multiple genotypes of hepatitis C virus in a chronically infected patient with HIV along a 13-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Culasso, A C A; Baré, P; Aloisi, N; Monzani, M C; Corti, M; Campos, R H

    2014-01-20

    The intra-host evolutionary process of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was analyzed by phylogenetic and coalescent methodologies in a patient co-infected with HCV-1a, HCV-2a, HCV-3a and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) along a 13-year period. Direct sequence analysis of the E2 and NS5A regions showed diverse evolutionary dynamics, in agreement with different relationships between these regions and the host factors. The Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses of the E2 sequences (cloned) yielded different intra-host evolutionary patterns for each genotype: a steady state of a "consensus" sequence for HCV-1a; a pattern of lineage splitting and extinction for HCV-2a; and a two-phase (drift/diversification) process for HCV-3a. Each genotype evolving in the same patient and at the same time presents a different pattern apparently modulated by the immune pressure of the host. This study provides useful information for the management of co-infected patients and provides insights into the mechanisms behind the intra-host evolution of HCV.

  9. [Analysis of sports injuries covered by German occupational accident insurance associations at a former district hospital over a period of six years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Raschka, S; Hellstern, M

    2008-09-01

    An epidemiological analysis was carried out of 1,126 sports injuries covered by German occupational accident insurance at a small regional hospital over a period of six years, of which 86.6% were allotted to the sport at schools. The types of sport most frequently involved were general fitness sports (n = 486), soccer (n = 137), volleyball (n = 126), gymnastics (n = 125) and basketball (n = 121). In the general fitness sports (n = 228 women/girls, n = 258 men/boys), bruising injuries dominated (47%), followed by sprains (29%), mostly involving the upper extremities (53%). In soccer injuries (proportion of woman = 15%), bruising and injuries to the lower extremities ranked first. Falls (33%) and sprains (31%) were the most common gymnastics injuries. Injuries to the upper extremities were most common in volleyball and basketball with 72% and 68% respectively. The distribution of these sports injuries more or less mirrors the distribution of sports disciplines at schools and institutions like the Federal Border Police. Sporting activity here should include preventive elements such a proprioceptive training.

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p < 0.01), which lead to the conclusion that (NH4)2SO4 was a major compound present in this area. The 3-day backward trajectories of air mass arriving at Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the

  11. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  12. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    PubMed Central

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P < 0.05). Most of the accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  13. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995-2009).

    PubMed

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17-20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.

  15. Molecular Epidemiology over an 11-Year Period (2000 to 2010) of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Bacteremia in a Centralized Canadian Region

    PubMed Central

    Peirano, Gisele; van der Bij, Akke K.; Gregson, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    A study was designed to assess the importance of sequence types among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) in a centralized Canadian region. A total of 197 patients with incident infections were identified; the majority presented with community-onset urosepsis, with a significant increase in the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli during the later part of the study. The majority of E. coli isolates produced either CTX-M-15 or CTX-M-14. We identified 7 different major sequence types among 91% of isolates (i.e., the ST10 clonal complex, ST38, ST131, ST315, ST393, ST405, and ST648) and provided insight into their clinical and molecular characteristics. ST38 was the most antimicrobial-susceptible sequence type and predominated during 2000 to 2004 but disappeared after 2008. ST131 was the most antimicrobial-resistant sequence type, and the influx of a single pulsotype of this sequence type was responsible for the significant increase of ESBL-producing E. coli strains since 2007. During 2010, 49/63 (78%) of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to ST131, and this sequence type had established itself as a major drug-resistant pathogen in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, posing an important new public health threat within our region. We urgently need well-designed epidemiological and molecular studies to understand the dynamics of transmission, risk factors, and reservoirs for E. coli ST131. This will provide insight into the emergence and spread of this multiresistant sequence type. PMID:22162555

  16. 50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-11-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or long-term applications with positive results. New standard like CENELEC EN 580341-1 (2012) take into account characteristic loads, i.e. 50-year return-period loads, for the overhead line design. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model, as described in ISO 12494 standard (2001), annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method. A practical method to determine the 90% confidence intervals of those characteristic values is given. As it is demonstrated that there is only one value of the ice class (IC) masses proposed by ISO 12494 in each confidence interval, characteristic loads can be easily expressed in terms of ICs. That method shows that ICs ranging from R1 (0.5 kg m-1) to R5 (5 kg m-1) could be used for overhead line design in France.

  17. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  18. [Oral findings in severely handicapped patients participating in the periodic dental check-up system for five years--dental caries, gingival recessions and hyperplasias, periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, T; Kasahara, H; Hosaka, K; Itou, A; Nohara, S; Hiraide, Y; Kawashima, S; Watanabe, T

    1990-01-01

    In March 1987, we investigated the quality of oral hygiene, and the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in 140 severely handicapped patients who had been hospitalized in two national sanatorium. All of the patients had participated under the Matsumoto Dental College Hospital Periodic Dental Check-up System for five years. The results were as follows: 1. The teeth of all the subjects had been brushed by the sanatorium nursing staff twice per day. The prevailing brushing technique was the horizontal method. 2. 37.5% of the subjects showed complete adaptability to the tooth brushing by the nursing staff. However, 2.1% showed no adaptability whatsoever. 3. The mean value of the OHI-S was 1.53. The labial surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth showed the lowest OHI-S value, while the mandibular left posterior teeth showed the highest. 4. The DMF-T was estimated to be 12.51 (DMFT ratio = 48.2%). The average D-T was 2.07 +/- 4.03, and the average F-T was 8.43 +/- 7.22. 5. 19.3% of the patients were diagnosed with gingival hyperplasia, and 10.7% had local gingival recessions. 1) Of the patients who had taken Phenytoin daily, 35.5% were diagnosed with hyperplasia. 2) Most local gingival recessions were found on the labial gingiva of the mandibular anterior teeth. A relationship was determined to exist the local recession and the horizontal brushing method. 6. 89.2% of the patients suffered from periodontal diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  20. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  1. The use of laboratory-determined ion exchange parameters in the predictive modelling of field-scale major cation migration in groundwater over a 40-year period.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Harriet F; Tellam, John H; Parker, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate quantitatively cation concentration changes as estuary water invades a Triassic Sandstone aquifer in northwest England. Cation exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients for Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were measured in the laboratory using standard techniques. Selectivity coefficients were also determined using a method involving optimized back-calculation from flushing experiments, thus permitting better representation of field conditions; in all cases, the Gaines-Thomas/constant cation exchange capacity (CEC) model was found to be a reasonable, though not perfect, first description. The exchange parameters interpreted from the laboratory experiments were used in a one-dimensional reactive transport mixing cell model, and predictions compared with field pumping well data (Cl and hardness spanning a period of around 40 years, and full major ion analyses in approximately 1980). The concentration patterns predicted using Gaines-Thomas exchange with calcite equilibrium were similar to the observed patterns, but the concentrations of the divalent ions were significantly overestimated, as were 1980 sulphate concentrations, and 1980 alkalinity concentrations were underestimated. Including representation of sulphate reduction in the estuarine alluvium failed to replicate 1980 HCO(3) and pH values. However, by including partial CO(2) degassing following sulphate reduction, a process for which there is 34S and 18O evidence from a previous study, a good match for SO(4), HCO(3), and pH was attained. Using this modified estuary water and averaged values from the laboratory ion exchange parameter determinations, good predictions for the field cation data were obtained. It is concluded that the Gaines-Thomas/constant exchange capacity model with averaged parameter values can be used successfully in ion exchange predictions in this aquifer at a regional scale and over extended time scales, despite the numerous assumptions inherent in

  2. The use of laboratory-determined ion exchange parameters in the predictive modelling of field-scale major cation migration in groundwater over a 40-year period.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Harriet F; Tellam, John H; Parker, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate quantitatively cation concentration changes as estuary water invades a Triassic Sandstone aquifer in northwest England. Cation exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients for Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were measured in the laboratory using standard techniques. Selectivity coefficients were also determined using a method involving optimized back-calculation from flushing experiments, thus permitting better representation of field conditions; in all cases, the Gaines-Thomas/constant cation exchange capacity (CEC) model was found to be a reasonable, though not perfect, first description. The exchange parameters interpreted from the laboratory experiments were used in a one-dimensional reactive transport mixing cell model, and predictions compared with field pumping well data (Cl and hardness spanning a period of around 40 years, and full major ion analyses in approximately 1980). The concentration patterns predicted using Gaines-Thomas exchange with calcite equilibrium were similar to the observed patterns, but the concentrations of the divalent ions were significantly overestimated, as were 1980 sulphate concentrations, and 1980 alkalinity concentrations were underestimated. Including representation of sulphate reduction in the estuarine alluvium failed to replicate 1980 HCO(3) and pH values. However, by including partial CO(2) degassing following sulphate reduction, a process for which there is 34S and 18O evidence from a previous study, a good match for SO(4), HCO(3), and pH was attained. Using this modified estuary water and averaged values from the laboratory ion exchange parameter determinations, good predictions for the field cation data were obtained. It is concluded that the Gaines-Thomas/constant exchange capacity model with averaged parameter values can be used successfully in ion exchange predictions in this aquifer at a regional scale and over extended time scales, despite the numerous assumptions inherent in

  3. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  4. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  5. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... updated as follows: (A) For the first 51 days of the hospital's cost reporting period, by zero percent. (B) For the next 132 days of the hospital's cost reporting period, by 2.7 percent. (C) For the remainder... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of the hospital-specific rate...

  6. Variations in abundance, genome size, morphology, and functional role of the virioplankton in Lakes Annecy and Bourget over a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xu; Ram, Angia Siram Pradeep; Colombet, Jonathan; Jacquet, Stéphan

    2014-01-01

    We sampled the surface waters (2-50 m) of two deep peri-alpine lakes over a 1-year period in order to examine (1) the abundance, vertical distribution, genome size, and morphology structures of the virioplankton; (2) the virus-mediated bacterial mortality; and (3) the specific genome size range of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phytoplankton viruses. Virus-like particle (VLP) concentrations varied between 4.16 × 10(7) (January) and 2.08 × 10(8) part mL(-1) (May) in Lake Bourget and between 2.7 × 10(7) (June) and 8.39 × 10(7) part mL(-1) (November) in Lake Annecy. Our flow cytometry analysis revealed at least three viral groups (referred to as virus-like particles 1, 2, and 3) that exhibited distinctive dynamics suggestive of different host types. Phage-induced bacterial mortality varied between 6.1% (June) and 33.2% (October) in Lake Bourget and between 7.4% (June) and 52.6% (November) in Lake Annecy, suggesting that viral lysis may be a key cause of mortality of the bacterioplankton. Virioplankton genome size ranged from 27 to 486 kb in Lake Bourget, while it reached 620 kb in Lake Annecy for which larger genome sizes were recorded. Our analysis of pulsed field gel electrophoresis bands using different PCR primers targeting both cyanophages and algal viruses showed that (1) dsDNA viruses infecting phytoplankton may range from 65 to 486 kb, and (2) both cyanophage and algal "diversity" were higher in Lake Annecy. Lakes Annecy and Bourget also differed regarding the proportions of both viral families (with the dominance of myoviruses vs. podoviruses) and infected bacterial morphotypes (short rods vs. elongated rods), in each of these lakes, respectively. Overall, our results reveal that (1) viruses displayed distinct temporal and vertical distribution, dynamics, community structure in terms of genome size and morphology, and viral activity in the two lakes; (2) the Myoviridae seemed to be the main cause of bacterial mortality in both lakes and this

  7. Use of genotyping based clustering to quantify recent tuberculosis transmission in Guadeloupe during a seven years period: analysis of risk factors and access to health care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and to identify transmission chains and risk factors by prospective molecular typing in conjunction with conventional epidemiological investigations in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe. Methods The study included all the culture-positive TB cases (1 clinical isolate per patient; n = 129) diagnosed between a seven year period (April 4th, 1999 to December 31st, 2005). Prospective molecular typing was performed using spoligotyping and VNTRs, and a subset of 44 M. tuberculosis isolates found to be clustered was retrospectively typed using 12-loci MIRUs. Data were compared using the SITVIT2 database, followed by analysis of risk factors in function of clustering of the isolates and available demographic and socioeconomic data. Results The study sample was characterized by a majority of new cases (87.4%); a moderate proportion of drug-resistance (7.8%); a high level of immigration (51.2% foreign-born) originating from high TB/HIV incidence neighboring islands such as Haiti or Dominican Republic; lower socioeconomic conditions (70.7% of jobless, average income 824 EUR/month); and a significantly higher proportion of TB/HIV co-infected cases (38.2% vs. 8.5%; p < 0.001), and extrapulmonary disease (18.2% vs. 4.8%; p < 0.02) among migrants as compared to French patients. The study revealed an important delay in access to healthcare with a median delay of 74.5 days between the 1st symptoms and clinical suspicion of TB. Prospective molecular typing based on spoligotyping and 5-loci VNTRs showed that evolutionary recent Euro-American lineages predominated in Guadeloupe (91.5% of isolates). In conjunction with epidemiological data, it allowed to estimate a recent transmission rate of 18.6%, which was close to the rate of 16.7% estimated using retrospective 12-loci MIRU typing. Although a higher proportion of cases in older age-group were apparently linked

  8. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  9. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  10. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... years old that carry certain oil cargoes-TB/ALL. 31.10-21a Section 31.10-21a Shipping COAST GUARD... gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As used... years old. (2) Regaugings: (i) Midbodies of double hull tank vessels, or single hull tank vessels...

  11. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  12. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  13. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  15. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  16. Business Education Index, 1999. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published During the Year 1999. Volume 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This publication comprises an index of business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of business education periodicals and those related to business education published during 1999. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching over the broad business education spectrum. Subject entries (pages…

  17. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  18. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  19. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...