Science.gov

Sample records for 20-30 year period

  1. 29 CFR 20.30 - Multiple debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Multiple debts. 20.30 Section 20.30 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 20.30 Multiple debts. When collecting multiple debts by administrative offset, agencies should apply the recovered amounts to those debts,...

  2. Physics 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Physics 20-30 is an academic program that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science disciplines; (2) to provide…

  3. Chemistry 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Chemistry 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  4. Biology 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Biology 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  5. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  6. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  7. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  8. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  9. 28 CFR 20.30 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.30 Applicability. The provisions of this subpart of the regulations apply to the III System and the FIRS, and to duly authorized local, state,...

  10. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for depth. 42.20-30 Section 42.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-30 Correction for depth. (a) Where D exceeds L 1/15 the freeboard shall be increased by...

  11. 46 CFR 42.20-30 - Correction for depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for depth. 42.20-30 Section 42.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Freeboards § 42.20-30 Correction for depth. (a) Where D exceeds L 1/15 the freeboard shall be increased by...

  12. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  13. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  14. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  15. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  16. 15 CFR 30.20-30.24 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 30.20-30.24 Section 30.20-30.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §§ 30.20-30.24...

  17. Antennas for 20/30 GHz and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Harry; Wong, William C.; Hamada, S. Jim

    1989-01-01

    Antennas of 20/30 GHz and higher frequency, due to the small wavelength, offer capabilities for many space applications. With the government-sponsored space programs (such as ACTS) in recent years, the industry has gone through the learning curve of designing and developing high-performance, multi-function antennas in this frequency range. Design and analysis tools (such as the computer modelling used in feedhorn design and reflector surface and thermal distortion analysis) are available. The components/devices (such as BFN's, weight modules, feedhorns and etc.) are space-qualified. The manufacturing procedures (such as reflector surface control) are refined to meet the stringent tolerance accompanying high frequencies. The integration and testing facilities (such as Near-Field range) also advance to facilitate precision assembling and performance verification. These capabilities, essential to the successful design and development of high-frequency spaceborne antennas, shall find more space applications (such as ESGP) than just communications.

  18. Marketing 20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Marketing 20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section contains introductory information on the Marketing 20-30 curriculum, including course objectives and a flowchart of the modules in the marketing course. Planning the course…

  19. The 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    Rain attenuation in the 20/30 GHz bands, and the resultant impact on system user costs were estimated for a variety of satellite communication system concepts. Results of previous and current NASA Lewis contractual and in-house studies on system design are reported as well as market studies conducted to evaluate the concepts and test their relevancy against forecasted market needs. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity.

  20. Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

  1. General Music 10-20-30. Guide to Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lorraine, Ed.

    In Canada's province of Alberta, senior high school General Music 10-20-30 is a sequence of courses for students who are interested in a broad spectrum of musical experiences within a nonperformance-based environment but not interested in specializing in choral or instrumental performance. General Music 10, 20, and 30 courses are offered for 3 or…

  2. Physics 20-30 Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Physics 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Physics 20, explaining the program philosophy and the selection and sequencing of topics. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around the science themes are described, as well as…

  3. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his teaching…

  4. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  5. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  6. Quasi-periodicities at Year-like Timescales in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.; Treves, A.

    2016-03-01

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  7. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  8. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  9. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER...

  11. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals

    PubMed Central

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora. PMID:28069962

  12. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    PubMed

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  13. Penetrating keratoplasty: indications over a 10 year period

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yousuf, N; Mavrikakis, I; Mavrikakis, E; Daya, S M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the indications for penetrating keratoplasty (PK) at the Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, UK, a tertiary referral centre, over a 10 year period. Methods: Records of all patients who underwent PK at our institution between 1990 and 1999 were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 1096 procedures performed in this period, 784 records were available for evaluation (72%). Results: Regrafting was the most common indication, accounting for 40.9% of all cases. Keratoconus was the second most common indication (15%), followed by Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (9.3%), pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (7.6%), and viral keratitis (5.9%), which included both herpes simplex and herpes zoster and showed a statistically significant decreasing trend using regression analysis (p<0.005). Among the regraft subgroup, viral keratitis accounted for 21.2% as the underlying primary diagnosis. The most common cause for graft failure in the regraft subgroup was endothelial failure (41.8%). Conclusion: Regrafting is the leading indication for PK; viral disease—although declining—is the leading primary diagnosis. PMID:15258012

  14. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.30 Food and Drug Administration Freedom...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  17. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  18. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  3. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  5. Saturn's planetary period oscillations observed during 10 years of Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provan, Gabrielle; Andrews, David; Cowley, Stanley; Dougherty, Michele

    2014-05-01

    Planetary period oscillations (PPOs) with periods close to Saturn's rotational period are ubiquitous throughout Saturn's magnetospheric system. Here we review the observational studies of PPOs determined from magnetospheric magnetic field data throughout the Cassini mission to date. As first shown using radio data, two oscillatory systems are present, one associated with the northern polar region and the other with the southern. We show that within the northern (southern) open-field polar region only the northern (southern) PPO oscillations are detected. However, within the equatorial 'core' region of Saturn's magnetosphere (dipole L ≤ 12), the two oscillations are superposed and interfere. The PPO periods are shown to lie in the range ~10.6 to 10.8 h, are persistently shorter north than south to date, and undergo a strong seasonal cycle together with the oscillation amplitudes. We discuss these observations in relation to theoretical models that have been proposed to explain them, and emphasize the importance of continued measurement of their properties during the Cassini solstice mission.

  6. Changes in schoolgirls' body measurements during a 30 year period.

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2003-01-01

    Two data-sets containing the anthropometric measurements of Estonian schoolgirls aged 7-18 were analysed, one (set A) from the late sixties, size 1627 and the other (set K) from the late nineties, size 1546. In all data sets 8 measurements--three height, three breadth measures, chest circumference and mass--were measured using the same methodology, as well as BMI was calculated. The means of all the characteristics in age groups (size 100-150 individuals) were calculated and growth curves of means were approximated using polynomial least squares approximation. The maximal velocity points were found and the growth intensities in different body build groups were compared. It was proved that the usage of cross-sectional data for estimating growth curves is suitable for estimating the velocity of acceleration in different age groups. We found that the height of Estonian girls has increased during the last 30 years by about 4-5%, the breadth measurements--by about 1-2%, chest circumference up to 8% and BMI has decreased by 3-5%. The changes are quite modest in pre-puberty, most significant for girls aged 12-16 and smaller again for girls aged 17 and more. The maximal growth velocity has shifted for all characteristics to the earlier time. Comparison of different body build groups showed that the small girls of the sixties are quite similar to small girls in the nineties, but the differences are greater in the case of large and pycnomorphic girls.

  7. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  8. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  9. 10-20-30 training increases performance and lowers blood pressure and VEGF in runners.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of training by the 10-20-30 concept on performance, blood pressure (BP), and skeletal muscle angiogenesis as well as the feasibility of completing high-intensity interval training in local running communities. One hundred sixty recreational runners were divided into either a control group (CON; n = 28), or a 10-20-30 training group (10-20-30; n = 132) replacing two of three weekly training sessions with 10-20-30 training for 8 weeks and performance of a 5-km run (5-K) and BP was measured. VO2max was measured and resting muscle biopsies were taken in a subgroup of runners (n = 18). 10-20-30 improved 5-K time (38 s) and lowered systolic BP (2 ± 1 mmHg). For hypertensive subjects in 10-20-30 (n = 30), systolic and diastolic BP was lowered by 5 ± 4 and 3 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, which was a greater reduction than in the non-hypertensive subjects (n = 102). 10-20-30 increased VO2max but did not influence muscle fiber area, distribution or capillarization, whereas the expression of the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was lowered by 22%. No changes were observed in CON. These results suggest that 10-20-30 training is an effective and easily implemented training intervention improving endurance performance, VO2max and lowering BP in recreational runners, but does not affect muscle morphology and reduces muscle VEGF.

  10. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R.P.; King, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  11. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; King, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  12. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    PubMed

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  13. 6-Year Periodicity and Variable Synchronicity in a Mass-Flowering Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11–47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants. PMID:22163279

  14. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  15. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific data and evidence as may be necessary to establish the suitability of such materials or methods of... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods...

  16. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  17. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  18. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  19. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ∼11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  20. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  1. Geodetic Constraints on Mantle Q at Periods from a Fortnight to 18.6 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, D.; Wahr, J.; Desai, S.

    2002-12-01

    Seismic observations have provided numerous constraints on the earth's spherically-averaged mantle anelasticity at periods of tens of minutes and shorter. Meanwhile, post-glacial rebound and other geodynamic studies provide information at periods of a few thousand years and longer. However, constraints at intermediate periods are scarce. Such constraints could be useful in trying to connect the seismic anelastic models with the longer-period visco-elastic behavior. Here we will describe constraints on anelasticity in this intermediate range of periods as obtained from earth tide and earth rotation observations. We discuss results from: (1) VLBI observations of the monthly and fortnightly tidal variations in rotation rate; (2) satellite laser ranging observations of the 18.6-year tidal variations in the earth's gravitational field; and (3) astrometric and geodetic observations of the 14-month Chandler Wobble period and damping. We find that these observations are consistent with a nearly frequency-independent mantle Q stretching from seismic periods all the way out to the 14-month Chandler Wobble period; but that Q appears to decrease significantly between 14-months and 18.6-years.

  2. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder.

  3. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Hendrick, Timothy P

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  4. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  5. THE FIRST KINEMATIC DETERMINATION OF MILLION-YEAR PRECESSION PERIOD OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, B. P.; Li, Y. P.; Zhang, H. C.

    2011-06-20

    Short precession periods like the 164 day period of SS433 can be well determined by observations of timescales longer or much longer than the precession period. However, this does not work for sources with precession periods of millions of years. This Letter utilizes the particular morphologies of X-shaped sources, so that the three-dimensional kinematics of lobes can be obtained. Thus, for the first time, the million-year precession period of X-shaped sources by an observer on the Earth can be determined elegantly: 6.1 {+-} 1.5 Myr, 1.8 {+-} 0.5 Myr, and 3.2 {+-} 1.2 Myr for 3C52, 3C223.1, and 4C12.03, respectively. The result naturally explains the asymmetry displayed in the morphology of these sources, and the effect of propagation time on the diversity of morphologies is well demonstrated. The precession period may originate from long-term effects of a binary supermassive black hole system, which is a potential source of gravitational wave radiation.

  6. Evolution of Salmonella Cerro on a dairy farm over an eight-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cerro, frequently isolated from dairy cattle and an occasional pathogen of humans, was recurrently isolated over an eight-year period on a dairy farm in south-central Pennsylvania. The genomes of 18 S. Cerro isolates recovered directly from the feces of in...

  7. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  8. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period..., Mobility Division, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. If any changes to the system occur after the... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  9. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period..., Mobility Division, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. If any changes to the system occur after the... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  10. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period..., Mobility Division, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. If any changes to the system occur after the... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period..., Mobility Division, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. If any changes to the system occur after the... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  12. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the relevant cell locations and coverage of the system at the end of the five year build-out period..., Mobility Division, 445 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20554. If any changes to the system occur after the... triplicate, additional maps and/or data as necessary to insure that the cell locations and coverage of...

  13. First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodgate, Sheila D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the methods that have been developed to blend descriptive chemistry and principles in a first-year chemistry course. The key is active teaching of the subject using the periodic table as a template. Inorganic chemistry is taught using a group approach: developing trends that help teaching and learning become obvious if all elements of…

  14. Ozone pollution during heat wave periods over last 15 years in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.; Jefimow, M.

    2012-04-01

    Periods characterized with the high ozone concentrations are usually associated with very high air temperature and antycyclonic conditions or meridional circulation. A 15-year (1997 - 2011) maximum daily temperature records from GSOD NOAA archive was analyzed for 20 stations in Central Europe. For each year the number of days with the maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and 30oC was calculated. For years with a positive anomaly of the number of the hot days the data were analyzed to identify exact dates and the duration of such events. This allows classification of the high temperature period as "heat waves" (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 30oC lasting at least 3 consecutive days) and hot weather periods (periods with maximum temperature exceeding 25oC and high daily average temperature). These two types of high temperature are usually associated with different air masses inflow - subtropical from the south or transformed polar from westerly directions. This indicates also the differences in contribution of transboundary transport of ozone and its precursors. For selected high temperature episodes the ozone pollution was assessed based on AirBase (1997-2009) and national database (2010-2011). The analysis covered the 8-hour running average and daily maximum concentration of ozone near the surface. Also, the contribution to the SOMO35 index during selected episodes will be calculated as a diagnostic for adverse health effects. Since the two analyzed types of hot weather periods have different origin in terms of synoptic scale situation, an attempt will be made to answer whether there are differences in the intensity of ozone episodes during selected hot weather periods. The outcome from the study will be useful for the interpretation of modelling results for air quality in future climate.

  15. Spurious One-Month and One-Year Periods in Visual Observations of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Visual observations of variable stars, when time-series analyzed with some algorithms such as DC-DFT in vstar, show spurious periods at or close to one synodic month (29.5306 days), and also at about a year, with an amplitude of typically a few hundredths of a magnitude. The one-year periods have been attributed to the Ceraski effect, which was believed to be a physiological effect of the visual observing process. This paper reports on time-series analysis, using DC-DFT in vstar, of visual observations (and in some cases, V observations) of a large number of stars in the AAVSO International Database, initially to investigate the one-month periods. The results suggest that both the one-month and one-year periods are actually due to aliasing of the stars' very low-frequency variations, though they do not rule out very low-amplitude signals (typically 0.01 to 0.02 magnitude) which may be due to a different process, such as a physiological one. Most or all of these aliasing effects may be avoided by using a different algorithm, which takes explicit account of the window function of the data, and/or by being fully aware of the possible presence of and aliasing by very low-frequency variations.

  16. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, M. ); Fluegeman, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  17. A multi-purpose satellite service at 20/30 GHz - Opportunities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Leslie

    1992-03-01

    The suitability of developing high-frequency bands is evaluated with particular attention given to the use of the 20/30-GHz band for satellite voice, data, and video communications. Crowding in the C- and Ku-band frequencies allocated to fixed-satellite services is examined in the light of continuing growth, and the benefits of establishing general-satellite services (GSSs) are listed. NASA's ACTS program and private GSS systems are delineated and shown to offer high-data-rate fixed-communications antennas and technologies suitable for multiple services. The Norstar satellite is described as an example of a GSS system, and the technical characteristics are given. In spite of technical, operational, and regulatory challenges presented by the development of GSS systems, a GSS allocation can enable the International Telecommunications Union to be proactive in its spectrum/orbit allocations.

  18. [Epidemiology of neuroblastoma in Brittany over a 10-year period (1980-1989)].

    PubMed

    Blanchot, I; Bergeron, C; Roussey, M; De Parscau, L; Le Gall, E

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of a retrospective epidemiologic study on neuroblastoma in Brittany, a region of France characterized by an homogeneous sedentary population living on a granitic ground. During a period of 10 years (1980-1989), 48 cases of neuroblastoma were observed, which gives an incidence of 7.92 cases per million of children under 15 years. There were 25 boys and 23 girls and 20 infants under 1 year (41%). The localisation was abdominal in 39 cases (81%). Among the 28 children older than 1 year, 25 (89%) had stage III and stage IV neuroblastomas, half of them with metastases. We conclude that the incidence and the clinical presentation of neuroblastoma in Brittany are similar to those reported in other countries.

  19. On the degree of stability of measured hypnotizability over a 25-year period.

    PubMed

    Piccione, C; Hilgard, E R; Zimbardo, P G

    1989-02-01

    Conducted a longitudinal study of hypnotizability, as measured by the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form A, that yielded a relatively high degree of stability in hypnotic responsiveness over repeated testings spanning a 25-year period. The 50 Ss were retested in 1985, after tests when they were students, between 1958-1962 and again in 1970. The statistically significant stability coefficients were .64 (10-year retest), .82 (15-year retest), and .71 (25-year retest). The means did not change significantly, and the median change in the scores of individuals was only 1 point on the 12-item scale. A set of score measures and their intercorrelations are insufficient to resolve the issue of why stability occurs. The stability of hypnotizability over time compares favorably with that of other measures of individual differences.

  20. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  1. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  2. Esthetic restorations: observations and insights gained over a 5-year period demonstrated with three case reports.

    PubMed

    Obama, Tadakazu

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two prosthodontically treated patient cases that were observed over a period of at least 5 years after treatment. The evaluation, diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment stages were critically reviewed and reassessed from different perspectives. The conclusions drawn from this evaluation were subsequently implemented in a third clinical case. To ensure the long-term success of a restoration, certain biologic and mechanical principles must be observed, and the appropriate prosthodontic treatment must be chosen accordingly.

  3. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  4. Red Light Curve of MWC349 in the Years 1967-1981: Possible Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, Regina A.; Kogan, Leonid R.; Strelnitski, Vladimir

    2000-06-01

    The results of a red photographic photometry of the variable masing star MWC 349 are presented for 14 years, 1967-1981. Fourteen plates from the Harvard Damon collection were selected for the photometry. The plates were measured with the Cuffey iris photometer of the Maria Mitchell Observatory and were calibrated with the aid of two standard stars, both brighter than MWC 349. The magnitude of MWC 349 was then determined by extrapolation, assuming that the star is on the linear part of the calibration curve. In spite of larger errors, our results are in good agreement with one photoelectric observation made during the period covered. The obtained red light curve is indicative of periodic light variations. A combined Fourier-least-squares analysis gives a probable period of T=9.1+/-0.3 yr. The deduced period and phase of variations are not incompatible with the subsequent photoelectric photometry of Bergner et al. Possible mechanisms responsible for the periodic light variations are briefly discussed.

  5. Multi-Year Analysis of Short-Period Gravity Waves Over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kasey; Nielsen, Kim; Negale, Michael; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Taylor, Michael; Chandran, Amal; Harvey, Lynn

    2014-05-01

    We present a four-year analysis of short period gravity waves measured by an airglow imager situated in Poker Flat, Alaska (65 N, 147 W). The imager is the cornerstone of the mesospheric airglow imaging and dynamics (MAID) project. This project is a collaborative effort between Utah Valley University, University of Alaska, Fairbanks and Utah State University, and employs the NICT Rayleigh Lidar System together with support observations from the co-located MF Radar and the NSF sponsored Poker Flat ISR. The overarching goal of the project is to characterize the waves, their variability, and how stratospheric weather impacts the observed wave field. A recent study utilizing two years of data (2011-2012) showed a preponderance for eastward propagating waves, which is in stark contrast to other polar sites that have shown dominant westward motions. Furthermore, the study revealed a significant year to year variability in the observed phase speeds. In the study presented here, two years of additional data have been analyzed to further investigate the year to year variability and correlate the observed wave parameters to stratospheric weather phenomena including the Aleutian low, the polar vortex, and sudden stratospheric warming events.

  6. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  7. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  8. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  9. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years.

    PubMed

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S

    2013-09-26

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change.

  10. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods

    PubMed Central

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. Objective To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. Methods This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. Results There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. Conclusion The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions. PMID:26559984

  11. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  12. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-03-05

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats.

  13. Performance of passive cooled hospital complexes in India over a period of 55 years

    SciTech Connect

    Perrill, C.V.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports the Thoburn-Perrill research on climate-oriented buildings and their walk-through air-conditioning tunnels, along with a record of their living and working in these houses and hospitals over a period of 55 years. Also, it provides a short description of much larger, radioactive fall-out shelter tunnels constructed as refuges for patients and hospital workers. The research is based on the Heat-Decay curve developed by Professor W.C. Thoburn in 1940. The tunnel system allowed the conventional air-conditioning system to be downsized by 80%. The operating costs were 20% of the conventional equipment.

  14. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  15. Treatment trends during a thirteen-year period in a student pediatric dentistry clinic.

    PubMed

    Bimstein, E; Eidelman, E

    1997-01-01

    This manuscript reports the treatment trends in a pediatric dentistry clinic from 1980 to 1992 and discusses their implication in clinical teaching. Analysis of the records of the senior year pediatric dentistry students indicated: no significant change with time in the patients/student ratio, the number of preformed crowns, pulpotomies, and pulpectomies by student or by patient; a significant decrease in the number of one-surface and > or = 2-surface restorations by student and by patient; a significant increase in the number of pit-and-fissure sealants and preventive resin restorations by student and by patient. During the thirteen-year period, the students performed an average of 7.3 one-surface; 12.9 > or = 2-surface restorations; 5.5 preformed crowns; 6.4 pit-and-fissure sealants; 2.4 pulpotomies. There was a significant increase with time in the number of students who performed pit-and-fissure sealants.

  16. Yucca mountain - From 10,000 to 1-Million year compliance period

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, R.G.

    2007-07-01

    Two plus years ago a U.S. Federal Court of Appeals (the Court) ruled that EPA had not followed the recommendation of the National Academy of Science (NAS) with regard to the 10,000 year period of regulatory compliance. In response to that ruling EPA went back to the drawing board in 2005 and issued a draft rule that it believed complied with the Court's ruling and the intent of the NAS recommendation. The result is a recommendation to cause there to be compliance out to 1- million years. It is the author's belief that thinking in terms of 1-million years is absurd, not based upon scientific information, and just results in yet another delay for an environmental program sorely needed by this country, especially in light of the nuclear power renaissance emerging at this time around the world. So, the Yucca Mountain Project is at yet another critical juncture. It is facing a decision to either clear the political and regulatory issues and move ahead; continue to be stalled costing the nation billions of wasted dollars; or be moth balled until a solution is reached. The Department of Energy has announced that waste acceptance will be delayed until at least 2017 and it is hard to comprehend why the project should continue to be funded at current levels. It is the author's opinion that only Congress can clear these obstacles so the project can move forward in a safe and efficient manner. This paper will present the history of the ever increasing compliance period for Yucca Mountain; the need to reevaluate the regulatory strategy; the events that have occurred in the history of man and geologically in a million year time span; the absence of a mechanism for enforcing such regulations; the approach other countries are taking on this issue; the absurdity of trying to protecting people thousand of generations in the future from radiation doses that our generation is already exposed to from mostly natural causes, and lastly proposes a rational compliance period and regulatory

  17. Regulatory Perspective on Implementation of a Dose Standard for a One-Million Year Compliance Period

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, Timothy

    2007-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is governed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The EPA has the responsibility for setting public health and safety and environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain and it is the NRC's responsibility to implement those standards in its regulations to ensure public health and safety and the environment are protected. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as the developer of the potential repository, must submit a license application to the NRC to seek approval to construct the repository. DOE must comply with NRC's regulations for NRC to authorize construction and license operation of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 2005, EPA issued proposed revised standards and NRC issued proposed revised regulations for conducting performance assessment beyond 10,000 years up to 1 million years. The challenge for the EPA and NRC is to develop standards and regulations that provide an appropriate method for evaluating the safety of the potential repository given the unprecedented time period to be analyzed and the inherent uncertainties in estimating the future evolution of the Yucca Mountain site and the containment of the waste in the waste packages. A fundamental aspect of the proposed EPA standard is the specified approach for limiting undue speculation on future behavior of the site by constraining the features, events, and processes that need to be considered in the performance assessment. EPA proposed to limit the assessment of specific features, events, and processes in the period after 10,000 years to effects on the repository system that are most relevant (i.e., ignoring lesser or secondary effects that may add to speculation and uncertainties but would not be expected to have a significant effect on peak dose over a 1 million year period). For

  18. Windsurfing vs kitesurfing: Injuries at the North Sea over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Christiaan J A; Commandeur, Joris P; Weber, Rik I K; Haverkamp, Daniel; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze all windsurfing and kitesurfing (kiteboarding) injuries presented at our coastal hospital over a 2-year period. METHODS Twenty-five windsurfers (21 male; aged 31 ± 8 years) and 32 kitesurfers (23 male; aged 29 ± 11 years) presented at our hospital during the 2-year study period. Various injury data were recorded, including transport to hospital and treatment. After a median follow-up of 16 mo (range, 7-33 mo), 18 windsurfers (72%) and 26 kitesurfers (81%) completed questionnaires on the trauma mechanisms, the use of protective gear, time spent on windsurfing or kitesurfing, time to return to sports, additional injuries, and chronic disability. RESULTS Most patients sustained minor injuries but severe injuries also occurred, including vertebral and tibial plateau fractures. The lower extremities were affected the most, followed by the head and cervical spine, the upper extremities, and the trunk. The injury rates were 5.2 per 1000 h of windsurfing and 7.0 per 1000 h of kitesurfing (P = 0.005). The injury severity was the same between groups (P = 1.0). Less than 30% of the study population used protective gear. Kitesurfers had a higher number of injuries, and required transport by ambulance, inpatient hospital stay and operative treatment more often than windsurfers, but these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The median time to return to windsurfing and kitesurfing was 5 and 4 wk, respectively (P = 0.79). Approximately one-third of the patients in each group experienced chronic symptoms. CONCLUSION Kitesurfing results in a significantly higher injury rate than windsurfing in the same environmental conditions but the severity of the injuries does not differ. PMID:28032034

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus activity and climate parameters during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Sirimi, Natalia; Miligkos, Michael; Koutouzi, Foteini; Petridou, Evi; Siahanidou, Tania; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during long periods and the factors that determine seasonality are not well studied. In order to correlate the RSV epidemic activity with climate parameters, we conducted a retrospective study of children (0-14 year) who were hospitalized because of respiratory tract infection and had an RSV test performed in the major tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece during a 12-year period (2002-2013). Daily data regarding temperature and humidity were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. A total of 2030/7516 (27%) children were tested positive for RSV infection. Among RSV positive children 1945/2030 (95.8%) were infants <1 year. A peak of RSV activity was measured in years 2002, 2003, and 2006 (>35% positive). The RSV season in our area spanned from December to April, with higher incidence during January through March. The peak monthly RSV incidence was observed during February with mean temperature 10.34 °C and mean relative humidity 69.16%. Regarding climate conditions, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between monthly RSV activity and mean monthly relative humidity (rho = 0.66, P-value = 0.02), whereas a negative correlation was found with mean monthly temperature (rho = -0.81, P-value = 0.002). However, in the multivariable analysis, only the effect of mean monthly temperature remained statistically significant (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.80). Further understanding of RSV seasonality in different geographic areas would be important in order to timely implement preventing strategies with immunoprophylaxis or future RSV vaccines.

  20. THREE FUNDAMENTAL PERIODS IN AN 87 YEAR LIGHT CURVE OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR MWC 560

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-15

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  1. Parenteral iron therapy: a single institution's experience over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Laman, Christopher A; Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2005-11-01

    Many patients require parenteral iron therapy for optimal correction of anemia, including cancer patients who require erythropoietic drugs. Available parenteral iron therapy options include iron dextran, iron gluconate, and iron sucrose. The purpose of this study is to summarize our institution's experience with parenteral iron therapy over a 5-year period, with a focus on comparative safety profiles. All patients receiving parenteral iron therapy over this period were included in the analysis. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the adverse event rates of each product. A total of 121 patients received 444 infusions of parenteral iron over this period. Iron dextran was the most commonly used product (85 patients) and iron sucrose was the least used (2 patients). Iron gluconate was used by 34 patients. Overall adverse event rates per patient with iron dextran and iron gluconate were 16.5% and 5.8%, respectively (P = .024). Premedication with diphenhydramine and acetaminophen before infusions of iron dextran reduced adverse event rates per infusion from 12.3% to 4.4% (P = .054). Test doses of iron dextran were used 88% of the time for initial infusions of iron dextran. All adverse events for all parenteral iron products were mild or moderate. There were no serious adverse events and no anaphylaxis was observed. Our results suggest that, if test doses and premedications are used, iron dextran is an acceptable product to treat iron deficiency.

  2. Anatomical and subjective success rates of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy over a seven-year period.

    PubMed

    Beshay, N; Ghabrial, R

    2016-11-01

    PurposeEndonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (END-DCR) is a relatively novel approach that has recently been shown in some studies to provide similar success rates to the more traditional external approach for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). However, a range of success rates using this approach are reported within the literature and the majority of oculoplastic surgeons are still favouring the external approach. The purpose of this study was to review the anatomical and subjective success rates of END-DCRs performed over a 7-year period.Patients and methodsWe provide a review of the success rates of 288 END-DCRs for the treatment of acquired NLDO performed over a 7-year period by a single oculoplastic surgeon in Sydney, Australia. We describe the operative technique used and define anatomical success as demonstrated patency of the nasolacrimal drainage system at 10 weeks postoperatively while subjective success is defined as complete resolution or significant improvement of symptoms as reported by patients at the same time point.ResultsIn our study, we were able to demonstrate that out of 288 END-DCRs, an average anatomical success rate of 89.6% and an average subjective success rate of 81.3% were achievable.ConclusionsWe conclude that the success rates using our endonasal approach remain similar to those obtained using the external approach, as reported within the literature, and may be considered as a primary treatment option for acquired NLDO.

  3. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  4. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  5. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  6. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  7. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  8. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Papers That Have Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or the Supplemental Complex Repository... comments on a proposal to establish a retention period of one year for patent-related papers that have been... the paper would have otherwise occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into IFW...

  9. 77 FR 26232 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... 447 RIN 0938-AO53 Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for... Federal Register entitled ``Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5- Year Period... read ``July 2, 2012''. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.778, Medical...

  10. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  11. Antibiotic Consumption During a 4-year Period in a Community Hospital with an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Fernandez, Eliezer Alemán; Guerrero, Yaquelín Batista; Serrano, Ramon N. Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. Methods This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012–2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD). Results The consumption of antimicrobials in 2012 was 171.3 DBD, and increased to 252.7 DBD in 2013, 229.1 DBD in 2014, and 184.7 DBD in 2015. Cephalosporins use reduced from 98.2 DBD in 2013 to 51.5 DBD in 2015 while the consumption of penicillins increased during the beginning of 2014 with a slight decrease in 2015. Carbapenems consumption during 2014–2015 was lower than previous years, and vice-versa for aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones had a sustained increase with 37.1% increased consumption in 2015 compared to the two previous years. There was an increase in the use of intravenous (IV) (108.5%) and oral azithromycin (55.1%) and the use of oral (152.8%) and IV moxifloxacin (22.9%). Conclusions We observed a decrease in antibiotic use in patients admitted to a community hospital with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but the increase in fluoroquinolones consumption is a concern that requires focused strategies. PMID:27602189

  12. Dengue: An Analysis of Epidemiological Pattern Over a Six Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Preeti; Thakur, Monika; Chander, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dengue is an arboviral infection transmitted among humans by Aedes aegypti, the urban vector and Aedes albopictus as a maintenance vector in sub-urban and rural areas. The diagnosis is routinely established by detection of NS1 antigen and/or by IgM antibodies testing. Dengue infects 50-100 million cases per year worldwide with atleast half million serious cases needing hospitalization. Therefore, it is necessary to keep the surveillance ongoing to timely look out for changes occurring in disease pattern over a geographical area. Aim To study the epidemiological patterns of dengue virus infection in our region over a period of six years. Materials and Methods The present retrospective study was undertaken in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh during time period January 2010 to December 2015 on 10,774 serum samples from patients clinically suspected to be suffering from dengue infection. Samples were selected as per World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. All the samples were processed for the presence of dengue IgM antibodies by μ anti-body-capture Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), MAC ELISA and/or NS1Ag by ELISA as per the instructions of the manufacturer. The data was analysed from the data sheets available. Results During the time period, a total of 10,774 samples were processed and 2,449 (22.7%) samples came out to be positive for dengue virus infection. Marked seasonal variation was noted with 0-2 cases presenting during month of January to July but positivity peaked in post monsoon season in October (>70%) and tapered till December every year. The adult age group (16-45 yrs) showed maximum positivity (83.5%) with males affected more than females. Conclusion The present study clearly shows that our region is endemic for the dengue virus infection and there is need to continuously monitor the transmission of the disease in the community, to plan effective measures, to control the spread of

  13. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ~30 year period

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of {+-} 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations.

  14. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization.

  15. Active longitudes in the period of overlap of 11-year cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mikhalina, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that "active longitudes" for the sunspots of old and new cycles manifest themselves approximately in the same longitudinal intervals and remain for several 11-year cycles. To be more accurate, they vanish in some cycles but then appear again at the same longitudinal intervals in the other cycles. The entire period is characterized by a total of four active longitudes. The old-cycle sunspots observed at low equatorial latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are characterized by a shift by ≈180°, which indicates antipodality of the active longitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In the case of highlatitude sunspots (new-cycle sunspots), the best correlation is observed for the shift of ≈90°. There is supposedly a dependence of the rotation speed of active longitudes on the secular cycle.

  16. Determining Erosion Rates and Processes in the Pro-Glacial Area over a 28-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, I. A.; Huss, M.; Weidmann, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Glacially fed hydropower reservoirs in the Swiss Alps have experienced substantial increases in sedimentation recently. This sedimenation causes reduced reservoir capacity, turbine abrasion and increased need for sediment flushing, all of which reduce the efficiency and economic viability of hydropower in the region. Although the issue is largely attributed to regional glacier retreat, there is a need for greater understanding of the specific processes that contribute to the increased sedimentation. To evaluate these processes, we examine the Griesgletscher catchment, which lies in the central Swiss Alps and its runoff feeds a hydropower reservoir. The recent exposure of the glacier's fore-field (roughly 1986) due to the glacier's retreat beyond the reservoir's margin, along with its simple catchment area make it an ideal location to examine pro-glacial erosion. Here we present a time-series from 1986 to 2014 of digital elevation models (DEM) created from aerial photographs of the Griesgletscher's fore-field from each year except for 2. Comparison of DEMs from subsequent years yields erosion volumes and sediment balance over the 28 year period for the pro-glacial area. Bathymetry of the pro-glacial reservoir for select years allows us to speculate if the erosion of the recently exposed glacier fore-field is the sole source of sediment to the reservoir, or if alternative processes such as increased glacial erosion or mobilization of sub-glacial sediments could contribute. We correlate erosion amounts with runoff volumes from the Griesgletscher and changes in the the glacier's morophology and coverage. Additionally, implimentation of the Glacier Evolution Runoff Model allows us to examine the variability in the glacier's runoff on the hourly to daily scale. By examining these relationships we constrain the processes contributing to the erosion of the Griesgletscher's pro-glacial area.

  17. Survival Trends After Surgery for Acute Subdural Hematoma in Adults Over a 20-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Daniel M.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Adams, Hadie; Bond, Simon J.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine 30-day survival trends and prognostic factors following surgery for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in England and Wales over a 20-year period. Summary of Background Data: ASDHs are still considered the most lethal type of traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear whether the adjusted odds of survival have improved significantly over time. Methods: Using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, we analyzed ASDH cases in the adult population (>16 yrs) treated surgically between 1994 and 2013. Two thousand four hundred ninety-eight eligible cases were identified. Univariable and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, using multiple imputation for missing data. Results: The cohort was 74% male with a median age of 48.9 years. Over half of patients were comatose at presentation (53%). Mechanism of injury was due to a fall (<2 m 34%, >2 m 24%), road traffic collision (25%), and other (17%). Thirty-six per cent of patients presented with polytrauma. Gross survival increased from 59% in 1994 to 1998 to 73% in 2009 to 2013. Under multivariable analysis, variables independently associated with survival were year of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, age, and pupil reactivity. The time interval from injury to craniotomy and direct admission to a neurosurgical unit were not found to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: A significant improvement in survival over the last 20 years was observed after controlling for multiple prognostic factors. Prospective trials and cohort studies are expected to elucidate the distribution of functional outcome in survivors. PMID:27172128

  18. Complications of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma during a 10-year period in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A; Heta, A; Kastrati, B; Dreshaj, Sh

    2008-12-01

    We review and discuss the results of treatments for complications of cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media (CCOM) in a tertiary health care center. In a retrospective study, the medical records of patients with complications of CCOM who had undergone surgical treatment at the ENT Clinic of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo for the period 1994-2004 were reviewed. From a total of 1,803 patients suffering from CCOM, in 91 patients, 55 (60.4%) men and 36 (39.6) women, one or two complications are recorded. The mean age of the subjects was 30 years, and the age range was from 1 to 76 years. Extracranial (EC) complications were observed in 52 cases (57.1%), and intracranial (IC) complications were seen in 29 patients (31.9%). Twelve patients (11%) had multiple complications. For the EC cases, we found that subperiostal mastoidal abscess occurred in 26% of the all patients, facial nerve palsy was seen in 16.48% and labyrinthine fistula occurred in 10%. For the IC cases, meningitis (19.7%) and perisinusal abscess (15.3%) were the most common complications. The most often isolated pathogen from ear swabs was Proteus mirabilis in 33.3% of cases. The most frequent radiological diagnostic procedures were mastoid tip X-rays, which were performed in 77% of the patients, and computed tomography in 24%; magnetic resonance imaging was not performed on any of the patients during the study period. Patients with EC complications were treated in the ENT Clinic, whereas patients with IC complications, after otologic surgical procedures, were transferred to the Neurosurgery Clinic or to the Clinic for Infectious Diseases. In this series, three patients (3.3%) died as a result of complications, while the remaining 96.7% survived. Complications of COM with cholesteatoma can represent life-threatening conditions, and close cooperation between otosurgeons, neurosurgeons and infectious disease specialists is mandatory.

  19. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, AIQ; Castillo, RF; Jimenez, FJ Gomez; Negrillo, AM Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. Subjects and Method: This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 – 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 – 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI ≥ 30]. Results: In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements. PMID:26426172

  20. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  1. Human African trypanosomiasis with 7-year incubation period: clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging findings.

    PubMed

    Wengert, Oliver; Kopp, Marcel; Siebert, Eberhard; Stenzel, Werner; Hegasy, Guido; Suttorp, Norbert; Stich, August; Zoller, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also referred to as "sleeping sickness", is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Diagnosing imported HAT outside endemic areas is difficult and diagnosis is often delayed. We report a case of imported human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense with an unusually long incubation period of at least 7 years. A 33 year old male African patient, a former resident of Cameroon, presented with a 4-month history of progressive personality changes. A few weeks before presentation the patient had first been admitted to a psychiatric ward and received antidepressant treatment, until a lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis and then antibiotic treatment for suspected neuroborreliosis was initiated. The patient continued to deteriorate during antibiotic treatment and became increasingly lethargic. Under antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory treatment, the condition of the patient gradually improved over the following months and he recovered completely after 24 months of follow-up. This well-documented case illustrates typical difficulties in establishing the correct diagnosis outside endemic areas and provides an overview of typical clinical, neuropathological and neuroimaging findings in T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis, guiding the clinician in establishing the correct diagnosis in this rare disease.

  2. International Collaboration and Academic Exchange of the CHAIN Project in this Three Years (Period)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.

    2014-02-01

    We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.

  3. A survey of referral patterns to a paediatric dentistry unit over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R

    1994-12-01

    Following the changes in October 1990 in the payment system for children's dental treatment within the General Dental Service in the UK there has been widespread concern that repercussions would be felt in other branches of dentistry. The aim of this survey was to investigate the referral of children for specialist care to the Department of Child Dental Health in Newcastle upon Tyne after the changes in 1990, so that consultant clinics and the provision of advice and treatment could be targeted more effectively. Information was obtained from the patients' referral letters and from their hospital records between March 1991 and March 1993. There were 513 referrals (excluding those for orthodontic treatment, extractions under general anaesthesia and acute emergencies), the number more than doubling during the 2-year survey period. 83% of these patients lived within 15 miles of the hospital. 84% of these referrals were from general dental practitioners, and the greater proportion were from those who graduated within the previous 4 years. The most common reason for referral involved behaviour problems. Changes in the payment system that occurred in 1990 may have been a contributory factor in explaining these findings.

  4. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  5. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  6. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in aten years period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives to evaluate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates and related factors in HIV-infected pregnant women from a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. Subjects and method cohort of 452 HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Data was collected from recorded files and undiagnosed children were enrolled for investigation. Statistical analysis: qui-square test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney test, ANOVA, risk ratio and confidence intervals. Results MTCT occurred in 3.74%. The study population displayed a mean age of 27 years; 86.5% were found to have acquired HIV through sexual contact; 55% were aware of the diagnosis prior to the pregnancy; 62% were not using HAART. Mean CD4 cell-count was 474 cells/ml and 70.3% had undetectable viral loads in the third trimester. HAART included nevirapine in 35% of cases and protease inhibitors in 55%; Zidovudine monotherapy was used in 7.3%. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37.2 weeks and in 92% by caesarian section; 97.2% received intravenous zidovudine. Use of AZT to newborn occurred in 100% of them. Factors identified as associated to MTCT were: low CD4 cell counts, elevated viral loads, maternal AIDS, shorter periods receiving HAART, other conditions (anemia, IUGR (intra uterine growth restriction), oligohydramnium), coinfecctions (CMV and toxoplasmosis) and the occurrence of labor. Use of HAART for longer periods, caesarian and oral zidovudine for the newborns were associated with a decreased risk. Poor adhesion to treatment was present in 13 of the 15 cases of transmission; in 7, coinfecctions were diagnosed (CMV and toxoplasmosis). Conclusion Use of HAART and caesarian delivery are protective factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Maternal coinfecctions and other conditions were risk factors for MTCT. PMID:22129112

  7. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  8. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In addition to providing... applicant for a space station in the Fixed-Satellite Service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  9. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing provisions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the Fixed-Satellite Service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  10. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  11. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  12. 47 CFR 25.145 - Licensing conditions for the Fixed-Satellite Service in the 20/30 GHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25... covering a specified number of space stations to operate in a specified number of orbital planes. (c) In... applicant for a space station in the fixed-satellite service operating in the 20/30 GHz band if...

  13. An Aeronautical-Mobile 20/30 GHz Satellite-Tracking Antenna for High Data Rate Satcom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A.; Guler, M.

    1995-01-01

    An antenna for use on an aircraft has been developed and tested for transmissions to and from a communications satellite. The antenna operates at 20/30 GHz and a data rate of 512 kbps, and it does not require modifying the shape of the aircraft fuselage.

  14. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  15. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  16. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  17. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  18. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  19. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  20. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-02-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate - air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate) and 2047-2053 (future climate). The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate - air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35-40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). These changes resulted in a ~0.6-1.9 μg m-3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the effects of climate change, but a corresponding analysis of the annual variability showed that these

  1. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Jørgensen, Marianne; Urbonaviciene, Neringa; Tamosiunas, Vytas; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Kadusevicius, Edmundas; Berg, Douglas; Andersen, Leif P

    2013-05-01

    The study evaluated the changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strains with primary resistance to antibiotics during the last 10 years in Lithuania. H. pylori susceptibilities to antibiotics were tested in 89 patients in 1998, in 81 patients in 2001 and in 90 patients in 2007/2008. Susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline was tested using E-test or agar dilution method. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was only tested in 2007/2008. Data about utilization of all authorized and available on market macrolides and clindamycin in Lithuania during 2003-2007 were evaluated using WHO ATC/DDD methodology. A total of 260 H. pylori strains cultured from untreated adult patients were investigated. Primary resistance rates (1998, 2001 and 2007/2008) for metronidazole were 24.7%, 33.3%, and 35.6%, for clarithromycin 1.1%, 3.7%, and 3.3% and for tetracycline 0%, 2.5% and 0% respectively. No cases of amoxicillin resistance have been detected. The resistance rate for ciprofloxacin was 5.6% in 2007/2008. Data of total macrolides and clarithromycin utilization in Lithuania revealed that despite an increase of consumption of these drugs in Lithuania during 2003-2007 in 1.5 times, the total macrolide consumption remains one of the lowest in Europe. We have not observed any significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics during the recent 10-year period. The low resistance rate to clarithromycin might be related to the policy to avoid use of macrolides as first-line treatment for pulmonary and other infections.

  2. Changes in distribution and abundance of mosquito populations in an ecological research tract over a 35-year period.

    PubMed

    Butts, William L

    2004-09-01

    Marked changes in species and numbers of mosquitoes have occurred over a 35-year period. Changes relate to alteration of available larval development sites by beaver (Castor canadensis), variation in winter and spring precipitation, and differences in feeding behaviors.

  3. An analysis of the population growth in the Seventh Five-Year Plan period.

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1991-06-01

    The analysis of the 7th 5-Year, Plan in China indicates 30 million more people than the 1.113 billion targeted for 1990, i.e., total population is 1.143 billion. An average increase of 13.75 million annually between 1980-85 occurred; the average annual births were 20.47 million and deaths were 6.73 million. Between 1985-90, the average increase grew to 17.45 million, with births at 24.95 million and deaths at 7.50 million. There were 4.48 million more births annually in the recent past, attributed to women born during the baby boom in the 1960s. The actual average number of children per couple dropped. 256.47 million women averaged annually were of childbearing ages of 15-49 from 1980-85, and 291.43 million from 1985 to 1990. In the most fecund ages, 20-29 years, the number of women increased by 16.65%, from 86.01 to 100.33 million in 1985-90. The actual 1985 population was 1.05579, and the difference between the expected and the actual in 1985 and the fertility estimates account for the 30 million difference is the 1990 expected and actual population. 10.5 million are due to the estimating error in population and 8 million to the estimating error in fertility. The other 12 million are a result of unanticipated fertility increase. in developing the 7th 5 Year Plan, expectations were too high for the decline in fertility, and unplanned births were not brought under control. The trends in the 1980s were ones of an initial sharp reduction and then narrow ranged fluctuations. The transition was not apparent. There was great eagerness to have a sharp decline because of the overpaid population growth, which was an aspiration not a reality. The 1986-87 period produced millions of unplanned births. Contributing factors were also adjustments made in the family planning policy and ineffective family planning programs.

  4. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  5. [Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD].

    PubMed

    Frölich, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Danish battlefield surgery in the period between the birth of Christ and the year 500 AD is exemplified by a reinterpretation of artefacts found in the sacrificial bogs at Thorsbjerg, Nydam, Ejsbøl, Illerup Adal, Vimose and Kragehul, reinterpreted in the light of classic European and Egyptian archaeological finds and ethno-archaeological parallels against the background of the author's years of experience as a practicing specialist in gynaecology and obstetrics. No surgical instruments from the Iron Age have previously been construed or identified as such in Denmark or Schleswig-Holstein. The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible finding and identificiation of surgical instruments - or what could be construed as a battlefield surgeons instruments - among artefacts deposited in the above-mentioned sacrificial bogs in the Iron Age. In this paper, the term 'surgical instrument' is defined as an instrument used in teh practice of medicine. Material for the study was collected in a review of illustrations in published works about these bog finds, localising these artefacts and examining them at the museums at which they were located. Also examined was museum storage of artefacts that had been excavated in the above-mentioned bogs. In an effort to reinterpret the function of the artefacts, they were compared with known surgical instruments found in the geographical areas controlled by the Greeks and later the Romans and with pictures of artefacts and a few written sources form the same area. They were also compared with ethnographic parallels. The material upon which the paper is based consists of a total of 67 artefacts, each identified as being from one of the above-mentioned bogs. Of these 67 artefacts, 40 can be indentifed and reinterpreted as being surgical instruments and 27 are toilet sets, i.e. tweezers for personal use or sets consisting of tweezers connected by a metal ring to either an ear pick or a nail cutter. Analysis of the artefacts revealed

  6. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  7. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  8. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  9. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Todd E; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known.

  10. Radiation fog chemical composition and its temporal trend over an eight year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Derek J.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation fog samples have been collected at a rural site in Central Pennsylvania from 2007 through 2015 in order to document chemical composition, assess concentration changes over time, and to provide insight into emission sources that influence the region. The collection of samples over multiple years makes this one of the few long duration radiation fog studies that have been completed. During the course of the campaign, 146 samples were obtained and analyzed for pH, major inorganic ions, low molecular weight organic acids, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Ammonium (median concentration = 209 μN), sulfate (69 μN), calcium (51 μN), and nitrate (31 μN) were the most abundant inorganic ions, although these were present at much lower concentrations than for radiation fog studies conducted in other locations. Organic acids, of which formate (20 μM) and acetate (21 μM) were the most abundant, were closer in magnitude to measurements made during previous studies. Organic acids accounted for 15% of TOC, which had a median concentration of 6.6 mgC l-1. The median concentration of TN was 3.6 mgN l-1, 18% of which was determined to be organic nitrogen. Statistically significant decreasing trends from 2007 to 2015 were noted for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, and nitrate. For the same period, an increase in pH was observed. Seasonal trends were identified for a number of species as well. The partitioning of ammonia between the gas and aqueous phases was also investigated and found to deviate significantly from equilibrium.

  11. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS.

  12. Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability.

    PubMed

    Huffard, C L; von Thun, S; Sherman, A D; Sealey, K; Smith, K L

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic forms of the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Sargassum spp. and their conspicuous rafts are defining characteristics of the Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic. Given rising temperatures and acidity in the surface ocean, we hypothesized that macrofauna associated with Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea have changed with respect to species composition, diversity, evenness, and sessile epibiota coverage since studies were conducted 40 years ago. Sargassum communities were sampled along a transect through the Sargasso Sea in 2011 and 2012 and compared to samples collected in the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone from 1966 to 1975. Mobile macrofauna communities exhibited changes in community structure and declines in diversity and evenness within a 6-month time period (August 2011-February 2012). Equivalent declines in diversity and evenness were recorded in the same region (Sargasso Sea, 25°-29°N) in 1972-1973. Recent community structures were unlike any documented historically, whether compared to sites of the same latitude range within the Sargasso Sea, or the broader historical dataset of sites ranging across the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone. Recent samples also recorded low coverage by sessile epibionts, both calcifying forms and hydroids. The diversity and species composition of macrofauna communities associated with Sargassum might be inherently unstable. While several biological and oceanographic factors might have contributed to these observations, including a decline in pH, increase in summer temperatures, and changes in the abundance and distribution of Sargassum seaweed in the area, it is not currently possible to attribute direct causal links.

  13. The Periodical Bank Through 1969 and the First Fiscal Year Annual Report. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Julia A.

    Twelve colleges incorporated under the Associated Colleges of the Midwest (ACM), began a library cooperative program to establish a Periodical Bank. The prime purpose of the Bank is to provide college students and faculty access to a larger number of periodicals than could be provided by their individual libraries. Under the proposed plan, each…

  14. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART... institution shall determine for each ACG or National SMART Grant recipient the award year in which the payment... year; and (6) The institution must assign the payment period for both the ACG or National SMART...

  15. Incidence of Hepatitis C Infection among Prisoners by Routine Laboratory Values during a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Andrés; Gallego, Carlos; Caylà, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the predictive factors through repeated routine laboratory analyses. Methods An observational cohort study was carried out in Quatre Camins Prison, Barcelona. The study included subjects with an initial negative HCV result and routine laboratory analyses containing HCV serology from 1992 to 2011. The incidence of infection was calculated for the study population and for sub-groups by 100 person-years of follow-up (100 py). The predictive factors were determined through Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results A total of 2,377 prisoners were included with a median follow-up time of 1,540.9 days per patient. Among the total population, 117 HCV seroconversions were detected (incidence of 1.17/100 py). The incidence was higher between 1992 and 1995 (2.57/100 py), among cases with HIV co-infection (8.34/100 py) and among intravenous drug users (IDU) without methadone treatment (MT) during follow-up (6.66/100 py). The incidence rate of HCV seroconversion among cases with a history of IDU and current MT was 1.35/100 py, which is close to that of the total study population. The following variables had a positive predictive value for HCV infection: IDU (p<0.001; HR = 7,30; CI: 4.83–11.04), Spanish ethnicity (p = 0.009; HR = 2,03; CI: 1.93–3.44) and HIV infection (p = 0.015; HR = 1.97; CI: 1.14–3.39). Conclusion The incidence of HCV infection among prisoners was higher during the first part of the study and among IDU during the entire study period. Preventative programs should be directed toward this sub-group of the prison population. PMID:24587394

  16. Periodic (18.6-year) and cyclic (11-year) induced drought and flood in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Robert Guinn

    1984-08-01

    Analysis of 102 reent tree-ring chronologies confirms earlier evidence for 18.6-year tidal drought/flood induction (Currie, 1981d, 1984b) and led to discovery of 11-year solar cycle induced drought/flood for western North America. Bistable phasing in terms of geography is found with epohs of maximum in lunar nodal 18.6-year drought in western Canada out of phase with those in the western United States and northern Mexico the past two centuries. Solar drought/flood induction provides one mechanism that appears to have modulated the intensity of nodal drought/flood induction in the latter region, most recently at epoch 1936.1. The above results were confirmed by analysis of yet more voluminous data, and they le to discovery of an example of bistable phasing with respect to time in western Canada during the 17th century. The implications for agriculture of such phenomena, which occur worldwide (Currie, 1984c), are surveyed.

  17. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  18. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  19. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  20. 34 CFR 690.64 - Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... student with funds from the second award year. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under... for a payment period which occurs in two award years. If a student enrolls in a payment period that is... award year; (b)(1) An institution must assign the payment period to the award year in which the...

  1. [Periodic fever, aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenopathy syndrome (PFAPA syndrome) in 4-years old girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, Agnieszka; Rusek-Zychma, Małgorzata; Barć-Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Dagmara

    2007-01-01

    Characteristic feature of PFAPA syndrome is periodic episodes of fever recurring in 21-28 days in infants and young children. Fever is accompanied by aphtosus stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenopathy. Diagnosis of this syndrome are based on typical clinical manifestations, because there are no characteristic changes in laboratory findings. The reason of this syndrome is unknown. We described a case of 4 years old girl with typical manifestations of this syndrome. We excluded others reasons of periodic fever. PFAPA syndrome passed after 2 years of duration after adenothomy.

  2. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  3. Main research accomplishments during the past three-year period. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    During the current funding period the investigators have purified AP endonuclease to yield a peptide Mr=32000. The rat cDNA for S3 has been cloned into E. coli and has been expressed there. Enzyme activities observed appear to be the same as those of UV endonuclease III.

  4. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  5. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  6. Characteristics of Referrals for Gender Dysphoria Over a 13-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Melinda; Fuqua, John; Eugster, Erica A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Our Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic has seen a sharp increase in referrals for gender dysphoria (GD) during recent years. However, the frequency and characteristics of referrals have not been objectively examined. Methods A retrospective chart review of referrals for GD during the past 13 years was performed. Variables analyzed included numbers of referrals per year, patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and hormonal therapy. Timing of referral and eligibility for treatment were measured against established recommendations. Results Of 38 patients, 74% were referred during the last 3 years. Most patients presented late in puberty before a GD-specific psychological evaluation and few were eligible for hormonal treatment at baseline. Over half had psychiatric and/or developmental comorbidities. Conclusions A dramatic increase in referrals for GD since 2002 was confirmed. Enhanced provider education and outreach regarding care of patients with GD are needed. PMID:26903434

  7. CHANGES IN MARRIAGE PATTERNS AMONG THE ARAB COMMUNITY IN ISRAEL OVER A 60-YEAR PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Sharkia, Rajech; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Athamny, Esmael; Khatib, Mohammad; Sheikh-Muhammad, Ahmad; Zalan, Abdelnaser

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends of various types of consanguineous marriage among the Arab community in Israel over a long time period (1948-2007) by religion and educational level. Data were collected by face-to-face interview of 3173 Arab couples living in Israel in 2007 and 2008. The trend in consanguineous marriages was found to decrease significantly over successive time periods, from 42.5% to 30.9% (p=0.001), and the prevalence of first-cousin and closer marriages decreased, from 23% to 12.7%. Consanguinity was found to be significantly related to religion (p=0.001) and wife's level of education (p=0.028).

  8. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  9. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  10. Music Student Teachers: Pre-Student Teaching Concerns and Post-Student Teaching Perceptions over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Dye, Keith G.; Wayman, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In this descriptive study, we examined self-reported concerns of 159 music student teachers pre- and post-student teaching, over a period of 5 years. Resulting comments ("N" = 867) were analyzed on the basis of (a) stages of teacher concern (focus on self, subject matter [music and teaching], and students) modeled after Fuller and Bown…

  11. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  12. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  13. An "Appropriate" Test Taker: The Everyday Classroom during the National Testing Period in School Year Three in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Eva; Sjöberg, Gunnar; Bagger, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from a bigger project where we explore what is taking place in the daily life of classrooms during the national testing period in mathematics for 9-10-year-old children in Sweden. Data were produced by observations, video-recordings and interviews with children. The article shows on a micro level how assessment trends,…

  14. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  15. Retention and readability of radio frequency identification transponders in beef cows over a five-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this study was to evaluate failure (loss or inability to read) of radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags in beef cows over a 2 to 5 year period under ranching conditions. One of 5 types of RFID tags was applied in the ear of a total of 4316 cows on 4 separate ranches. Tags wer...

  16. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  17. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  18. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  19. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  20. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS will... papers that have been scanned into TICRS. See Request for Comments on Establishment of a...

  1. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED)...

  2. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  3. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  4. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  6. Epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the East of ireland in the 25-year period 1984-2008.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Robert; Owens, Miriam; Delany, Caroline; Earley, Michael; McGillivary, Anne; Orr, David J; Duggan, Laura

    2014-07-01

    Objective : To describe the epidemiology of orofacial clefts in the east of Ireland. Design and Setting : A descriptive epidemiologic study on 851 cases of orofacial cleft identified over a 25-year period from 1984 to 2008 from more than 500,000 births. Results : There were 438 (51.5%) cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 413 (48.5%) cases of cleft palate. The total birth prevalence was 16.0 per 10,000 births for all orofacial clefts, 8.2 for cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and 7.8 for cleft palate. Of all cases, 63.7% (542/851) occurred as isolated anomalies, 21.5% (183/851) were associated with multiple anomalies, and 14.8% (126/851) were associated with a syndrome or chromosomal anomaly. A significantly increasing trend over the 25-year period was observed for cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with syndromes or chromosomal anomalies among mothers younger than 35 years but not in those older than 35 years. Conclusion : A slightly higher rate of orofacial clefts was observed in the east of Ireland than was observed in European and multinational studies during the study period, and there were higher rates of cleft palate. The rising trend in the proportion of mothers aged 35 years or older in Ireland is not contributing significantly to orofacial clefts associated with chromosomal syndromes.

  7. Clinicopathological features and surgical outcome of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (experience with 22 patients over a 15-year period)

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; El Hanafy, Ehab; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Ali, Mahmoud Abdelwahab

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinicopathological features and the surgical outcomes of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) over a 15-year period. METHODS This is a retrospective study including 22 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of FL-HCC who underwent hepatectomy over a 15-year period. Tumor characteristics, survival and recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS There were 11 male and 11 female with a median age of 29 years (range from 21 to 58 years). Two (9%) patients had hepatitis C viral infection and only 2 (9%) patients had alpha-fetoprotein level > 200 ng/mL. The median size of the tumors was 12 cm (range from 5-20 cm). Vascular invasion was detected in 5 (23%) patients. Four (18%) patients had lymph node metastases. The median follow up period was 42 mo and the 5-year survival was 65%. Five (23%) patients had a recurrent disease, 4 of them had a second surgery with 36 mo median time interval. Vascular invasion is the only significant negative prognostic factor CONCLUSION FL-HCC has a favorable prognosis than common HCC and should be suspected in young patients with non cirrhotic liver. Aggressive surgical resection should be done for all patients. Repeated hepatectomy should be considered for these patients as it has a relatively indolent course. PMID:28289511

  8. Prediction of Childhood Behavior Problems over a Four-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicht, David J.; And Others

    Path analysis was used to discover predictors of personality, school conduct, and distractibility-hyperactivity problems in this 4-year longitudinal study of 173 rural children. While previous studies had shown that children's behavior disorders are related to sex of child, family disruption, IQ, Bender-Gestalt Test scores, and socioeconomic…

  9. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    PubMed Central

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential. PMID:26644677

  10. An Analysis of WSCH/FTE Over a Three-Year Period, 1974 to 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry C.

    The ratios of Weekly Student Contact Hours (WSCH) to faculty Full-Time Equivalents (FTE) for all community colleges in California are presented. Table 1 ranks WSCH/FTE ratios for the years 1974 through 1976 and indicates that a pattern among the community colleges exists in terms of their highest ratios (statewide mean, 515.6) and lowest ratios…

  11. [The PTFE plastic prosthesis as an arterial replacement: experiences over a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Polterauer, P; Contreras, F; Kretschmer, G; Wagner, O; Piza, F; Waneck, R; Lechner, G; Schemper, M

    1984-03-30

    Unilateral iliac femoral reconstructions with PTFE are yielding good results-similar to those with Dacron, with patency rates of 75, 67, and 65% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively (Kaplan-Meier). PTFE has additional advantages compared with other materials: a) no need of preclotting; b) smooth inner surface-easy thrombectomy in case of thrombosis and c) good handling characteristics. In view of the above-mentioned facts PTFE can be recommended without restriction for unilateral pelvic reconstructions. The functional early results of bilateral aorto-femoral Goretex-Y bifurcation grafts in 50 cases after 2 years are encouraging. Long-term results are still pending. Reports of other groups using this material as aorto-bifemoral substitute are not yet available. The functional results with PTFE for femoro-popliteal grafts are not satisfactory: 35% after 2.5 years. Extra-anatomical bypasses yielded 70% one-year functioning rate. Especially the ring-or spiral-armoured PTFE grafts seem to be suitable for these reconstruction procedures.

  12. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  13. Growth in Coaching Skills over a Three-Year Period: Progress toward Mastery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.

    This study examined cognitive coaching conferences between 1994 and 1997 as teachers practiced their coaching skills. Participants were part of a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education. The cognitive coaching process was used to provide teachers with support in implementing content standards. Coaches participating in the study…

  14. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations. PMID:27800264

  15. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  16. Hostility, Anger and Depression Predict Increases in C3 over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Stephen H.; Jackson, William G.; Suarez, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relation of hostility, anger and depression to 10-year changes in the third (C3) and fourth (C4) complement in 313, apparently healthy male participants enrolled in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), a 20-year study designed to evaluate the health consequences of dioxin exposure. Hostility, depression and anger were assessed using subscales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was administered in 1985. Given the high intercorrelations among these psychological scales, we used a principal component analysis to generate a composite score representing the linear combination of the hostility, anger and depression scales. The dependent variables, C3 and C4 levels, were determined from samples collected in 1992, 1997 and 2002. Regression analyses controlling for age, race, alcohol use, body mass index and cigarette use as well as onset of disease and use of lipid lowering and blood pressure medications during follow-up revealed a significant time X composite score interaction for C3 complement (p < .0003), but not C4. Post-hoc analyses revealed that high composite scores were associated with larger 10-year increases in C3. These observations suggest that men who are hostile and are prone to experience frequent and intense feelings of anger and depression show activation of the complement system, and specifically increases in C3, that may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease. PMID:17321106

  17. Hostility, anger, and depression predict increases in C3 over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Stephen H; Jackson, William G; Suarez, Edward C

    2007-08-01

    We examined the relation of hostility, anger, and depression to 10-year changes in the third (C3), and fourth (C4) complement in 313, apparently healthy male participants enrolled in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), a 20-year study designed to evaluate the health consequences of dioxin exposure. Hostility, depression, and anger were assessed using subscales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), which was administered in 1985. Given the high intercorrelations among these psychological scales, we used a principal component analysis to generate a composite score representing the linear combination of the hostility, anger, and depression scales. The dependent variables, C3 and C4 levels, were determined from samples collected in 1992, 1997, and 2002. Regression analyses controlling for age, race, alcohol use, body mass index, and cigarette use as well as onset of disease, and use of lipid lowering and blood pressure medications during follow-up revealed a significant timexcomposite score interaction for C3 complement (p<.0003), but not C4. Post-hoc analyses revealed that high composite scores were associated with larger 10-year increases in C3. These observations suggest that men who are hostile and are prone to experience frequent and intense feelings of anger, and depression show activation of the complement system, and specifically increases in C3, that may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease.

  18. Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter heilmannii in untreated Bulgarian children over a period of 10 years.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Lazarova, Elena; Jelev, Christo; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan

    2007-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the incidence of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter heilmannii in untreated Bulgarian children from 1996 to 2006, to analyse the performance of diagnostic tests, and to look at H. pylori density in specimens by culture. Antral specimens from children with chronic gastritis (n=513), peptic ulcers (n=54) and other diseases (n=91) were evaluated by direct Gram staining (DGS), in-house rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. The living environment and semi-quantitative H. pylori density were assessed in 188 and 328 children, respectively. H. pylori infection was found in children with ulcers (77.8 %), chronic gastritis (64.5 %) and other diseases (36.3 %). Half (51.4 %) of patients aged 1-5 years and 77.4 % of those aged 16-17 years were H. pylori-positive. Of all children, 328 (49.8 %) showed positive DGS, 184 (28 %) had a positive RUT, and 386 (58.7 %) were culture-positive. Unlike gastric mucus specimens, frozen biopsy specimens provided reliable diagnosis. H. heilmannii was observed in two (0.3 %) children. High H. pylori density (growth into all quadrants of plates) was found in 18 % of 328 children evaluated, involving 31 % of ulcer and 16.7 % of non-ulcer patients. H. pylori infection was more common in rural children with chronic gastritis (91.3 %) than in the remainder (66.7 %). In conclusion, H. pylori infection was common in symptomatic Bulgarian children. The infection prevalence was >77 % in patients aged 16-17 years, in children with a duodenal ulcer, and in rural patients. H. heilmannii infection was uncommon. The performance of the bacterial culture was good. The impact of H. pylori density on the clinical expression and eradication of the infection requires further evaluation. The results highlight the need for routine H. pylori diagnosis in rural children with chronic gastritis.

  19. Activity and mortality among aged persons over an eight-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Markides, K S

    1990-01-01

    The influence of level of activity examined with data from an eight-year (1976 to 1984) longitudinal study of 508 older Mexican Americans and Anglos. Over the study interval, 119 subjects were confirmed to have died. Activity was a significant predictor of mortality at the univariate level. However, when age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and self-rated health were controlled for in the analysis, activity was not a significant predictor of mortality. The popular notion that an active life among elderly persons might lead to extended longevity was not supported by these data.

  20. A Small Satellite Mission Demonstrating Multi-Angular Hyperspectral Applications over a Period of Nine Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Mike

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the CHRIS/PROBA hyperspectral imaging mission that has now completed nearly nine years in orbit and has provided a wealth of unique data for users across the world. The mission has demonstrated, fairly conclusively, that such sophisticated payloads can be implemented successfully on a small satellite platform and provide valuable information over selected target areas. The instrument is the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) developed within the Optical Payload Group (OPG) of Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (formerly the Sira Space Group). The instrument is flying on PROBA, a small agile satellite, which was launched in October 2001. The main purpose of the instrument is to provide detailed spectral information of terrestrial scenes. The unique feature of this platform is that it provides pointing in both across-track and along-track directions, for target acquisition and multi-angle observations, particularly for measurement of the Bi- directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) properties of selected targets. Over the last nine years the Mission has provided the opportunity for users to trial a number of applications covering both land, aerosol and marine scenes and a large body of experience now exists in the use of multi-angular hyperspectral data. Since 2004 over 300 PIs have accessed CHRIS data. This paper summarises a number of the applications showing the value of the data sets and the flexibility of the payload and platform operations to provide unique information

  1. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  3. Epidemiology and clinical features of Shewanella infection over an eight-year period.

    PubMed

    To, Kelvin K W; Wong, Samson S Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Tang, Bone S F; Li, Iris W S; Chan, Jasper F W; Seto, Wai-Kay; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2010-10-01

    Shewanella is a rare human pathogen that can lead to fatal infections. However, clinical information about this bacterium remains scarce. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all patients with laboratory isolates of Shewanella over an 8-y period to assess risk factors, clinical manifestations and outcome. Twenty-nine patients were identified. Shewanella was most commonly isolated from intra-abdominal specimens (48.2%), followed by skin and soft tissue specimens (27.6%), blood (13.8%) and sputum (10.3%). Malignancy, hepatobiliary disease and diabetes mellitus were common underlying diseases. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 20.6%. Shewanella was considered a definite causative pathogen in 7 patients, and a recurrent infection occurred in 2 patients. Colonization of the biliary tract was common. Among co-isolated pathogens, the enteric flora was most represented. All isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime and aminoglycosides, but 1 isolate was resistant to imipenem. In conclusion, Shewanella may become a colonizing bacterium, subsequently causing invasive diseases in patients with an underlying disease.

  4. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W.; Allen, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  5. Forecast of annual temperatures changes in Altai and Northern Mongolia regions for the period 2010-2050 year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, A.; Kalugin, I.; Maksimov, M.; Zolotarev, K.

    2009-04-01

    The method of scanning X-ray fluorescent analysis using synchrotron radiation [1,2] investigated sediment cores of Lake Teletskoe (Mountain Altai) [3] and lake Telmen (Northern Mongolia) [4]. The method of constructing the forecast includes the following steps: 1) Geochemical analysis of lakes bottom sediment cores with resolution 0.1 mm. It corresponds to the time resolution ~ 0.2-0.3 year (sedimentation rates are equal 0.51 mm/year for Teletskoe Lake and 0.64 mm/year for Telmen Lake). 2) Creating a time series of geochemical indicators of climate change. We used the following geochemical proxies: Ti, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo contents and X-ray density. 3) Calibration transfer functions on the regional meteodata during the last 80-120 years. Regression equation such as: climate parameter = function (proxy) were calculated. 4) Reconstruction of climatic parameters on the depth of the core. Annual temperature and precipitation change for the Altai region (0 - 3000 years ago) and Northern Mongolia region (0 - 2000 years ago) have been reconstructed with step 0.2-0.3 year. 5) A Fourier analysis showed the same frequency of climate change for both regions. Have been identified as the main periods (frequency): 2000, 1000, 660, 500, 400, 330, 270, 200, 155, 125, 105, 80, 45, 30 and 10 years. The sum of 15 sinusoid correlates with the reconstruction of annual temperature in the time period of 1000-2000 years, with the coefficient 0.89. 6) Based on the discovered periodicities forecast the environment change for the period 2010-2050 was calculated. According to our estimates at this time is expected sharp fall of annual regional temperature. The study was funded by grant 07-05-92103 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, by grant 91 from the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [1] K. Zolotarev et all. Scanning SR-XRF beamline for analysis of bottom sediments. // Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. in Physics Research, A470 (2001), 1-2 , P.376-379. [2] A. Daryin et all

  6. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Rwanda’s genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer’s exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. Results The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely

  7. Evolution of multiple cell clones over a 29-year period of a CLL patient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhikun; Goldin, Lynn; Liu, Shiping; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Weiyin; Lou, Hong; Yu, Qichao; Tsang, Shirley X.; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Fuqiang; McMaster, MaryLou; Li, Yang; Lin, Xinxin; Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Liqin; Marti, Gerald; Li, Guibo; Wu, Kui; Yeager, Meredith; Yang, Huanming; Xu, Xun; Chanock, Stephen J.; Li, Bo; Hou, Yong; Caporaso, Neil; Dean, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent B-cell malignancy, characterized by recurrent somatic chromosome alterations and a low level of point mutations. Here we present single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analyses of a single CLL patient over 29 years of observation and treatment, and transcriptome and whole-genome sequencing at selected time points. We identify chromosome alterations 13q14−, 6q− and 12q+ in early cell clones, elimination of clonal populations following therapy, and subsequent appearance of a clone containing trisomy 12 and chromosome 10 copy-neutral loss of heterogeneity that marks a major population dominant at death. Serial single-cell RNA sequencing reveals an expression pattern with high FOS, JUN and KLF4 at disease acceleration, which resolves following therapy, but reoccurs following relapse and death. Transcriptome evolution indicates complex changes in expression occur over time. In conclusion, CLL can evolve gradually during indolent phases, and undergo rapid changes following therapy. PMID:27982015

  8. Recurrent diplopia over a 30-year period: natural history of a Lewis and Sumner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Romain; Bouwyn, Jean Paul; Wallon, David; Bedat-Millet, Anne-Laure; Ahtoy, Patrick; Perot, Guillaume; Hannequin, Didier; Maltête, David

    2012-06-01

    We described the case of a patient with recurrent episodes of isolated diplopia over the last 30 years. On her last event, neurological examination revealed not only a right third and sixth cranial nerves involvement, but also a right peripheral facial palsy and a motor weakness on the left ulnar territory. Electrophysiological nerves motor conduction study revealed a conduction block on the left ulnar nerve and a less severe on the right ulnar nerve. Asymmetrical upper limb sensorimotor weakness combined with conduction block and cranial nerves palsy led to a diagnosis of Lewis and Sumner syndrome (LSS). This case is unusual by the presentation of the disease and is, to our knowledge the longer natural disease course of LSS reported. Moreover, it suggests that the recurrent diplopia variant may represent a separate entity with a good prognosis even in absence of invasive treatment.

  9. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  10. An incidental finding of a nodal recurrence of cutaneous malignant melanoma after a 45-year disease-free period.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Jenny; Cozon, Caroline Louise; Liew, Se Hwang

    2014-06-03

    We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who had a nodal recurrence of melanoma 45 years after the primary diagnosis of an extremity cutaneous melanoma. It is believed to be the longest disease-free latency period reported between primary melanoma diagnosis and recurrence to date. Late recurrences of melanoma are rare and recurrence after four decades extremely rare. This article suggests melanoma is a disease with a potentially lifelong risk of recurrence and thus clinicians and patients must be vigilant and aware of this risk, particularly if late recurrences are to be recognised early and management optimised.

  11. Osteocyte density in the peri-implant bone of implants retrieved after different time periods (4 weeks to 27 years).

    PubMed

    Piattelli, Adriano; Artese, Luciano; Penitente, Enrico; Iaculli, Flavia; Degidi, Marco; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Coelho, Paulo G; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    Bone tissue is characterized by a constant turnover in response to mechanical stimuli, and osteocytes play an essential role in bone mechanical adaptation. However, little to no information has been published regarding osteocyte density as a function of implantation time in vivo. The aim of this retrospective histological study was to evaluate the osteocyte density of the peri-implant bone in implants retrieved because of different reasons in a time period from 4 weeks to 27 years. A total of 18 samples were included in the present study. Specimens were divided into 3 groups depending on the loading history of the implants: loading between 4 weeks and 7 months (group 1); loading between 1 and 5 years (group 2); loading between 14 and 27 years (group 3). All the samples were histologically evaluated and osteocyte density was obtained using the ratio of the number of osteocytes to the bone-area (mm(2) ). The osteocyte density values significantly increased in the Group 2 (1-5 years) compared with Group 1 (4 weeks-7 months), and significantly decreased in the Group 3 (14-27 years) compared to Group 2. No significant differences were detected between Group 1 and Group 3. The decrease in osteocyte density observed in samples that were in vivo for long periods of time under loading is possibly because of the fact that once the bone structure is well aligned and biomechanically competent, a lower number of osteocytes are necessary to keep the tissue homeostasis under loading.

  12. No Outbreak of Vancomycin and Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcal Pneumonia over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococci can cause wound infections and community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, among a range of illnesses. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been rapidly increasing as a cause of infections worldwide in recent decades. Numerous reports indicate that S. aureus and MRSA are becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them very dangerous. Therefore, this study retrospectively investigated the resistance to antimicrobial agents in all hospitalized patients suffering from community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia due to S. aureus and MRSA. Methods Information from the study groups suffering from either community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or MRSA was gathered by searching records from 2004 to 2014 at the HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany. The findings of antibiotic resistance were analyzed after the evaluation of susceptibility testing for S. aureus and MRSA. Results Total of 147 patients (63.9%, 95% CI 57.5%–69.8%), mean age 67.9 ± 18.5 years, with pneumonia triggered by S. aureus, and 83 patients (36.1%, 95% CI 30.2%–42.5%), mean age 72.3 ± 13.8 years, with pneumonia due to MRSA. S. aureus and MRSA developed no resistance to vancomycin (P = 0.019 vs. < 0.0001, respectively) or linezolid (P = 0.342 vs. < 0.0001, respectively). MRSA (95.3%) and S. aureus (56.3%) showed a high resistance to penicillin. MRSA (87.7%) was also found to have a high antibiotic resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, compared to S. aureus (9.6%). Furthermore, MRSA compared to S. aureus, respectively, had increased antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin (90.1% vs. 17.0%), cefazolin (89.7% vs. 10.2%), cefuroxime (89.0% vs. 9.1%), levofloxacin (88.2% vs. 18.4%), clindamycin (78.0% vs. 14.7%), and erythromycin (76.5% vs. 20.8%). Conclusion No development of resistance was found to vancomycin and linezolid in patients with pneumonia caused by S. aureus and MRSA. PMID

  13. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  14. Extensional Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S), Chile: geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morata, D.; Aguirre, L.

    2003-12-01

    Lower Cretaceous volcanism in the Coastal Range (29°20'-30°S) of Chile is mainly represented by highly porphyritic (20-30% phenocrysts) lavas with unzoned Ca-rich plagioclase (An 57-54Ab 40-42Or 3-4), clinopyroxene (Wo 40En 43Fs 17), magnetite, and minor idiomorphic, altered olivines. Geochemically, these lavas are characterized by a relative homogeneity with high Al 2O 3 and low MgO contents, and classified as high-K to shoshonitic basaltic andesites to andesites generated in an intra-arc extensional setting due to oblique subduction. Their isotopic geochemistry is characterized by highly homogeneous low initial Sr ratios (( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0˜0.7036) and positive ɛNd values ( ɛNd=+2.9 to +4.7 ( 143Nd/ 144Nd) 0˜0.5127) that are very different from those proposed as representative of 'Andean-type' magmatism. A non-Andean modern setting dominated by subduction associated with intra-arc extension is proposed. On a ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) 0 versus ɛNd diagram, these lavas fit a model mixing curve for which the end members are Pacific MORB and Jurassic plutonic rocks from the Coastal Range. Coeval granitoids from the Coastal Range and lavas from the High Andes plot on the same field. Isotopically depleted mafic magmas could be metasomatized by the subducted sediments, which would increase their LILE content, and then partially contaminated by Jurassic plutonic rocks. The genesis of this magmatism may be related to a global low-spreading rate of 5 cm yr -1 in the southeast Pacific during 125-110 Ma.

  15. Validation of TRMM Satellite Rainfall Products Over Oklahoma for a Three Year Period (1998-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Huffman, G. J.

    2001-12-01

    This study evaluates the level 2 and level 3 rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) based on a distribution of 118 tipping buckets from the Oklahoma Mesonet, which were gridded at 1* X 1*. Monthly gridded rainfall products from the two main precipitation sensors, the passive microwave (TMI-3B31-intermediate) and precipitation radar (PR-3A25) overestimated the gauge rainfall for all three years. The overall three-year bias for this study was 1.25 for the TMI and 1.4 for the PR. A regression analysis of these products resulted in low correlation coefficients. Similar comparisons with the level 3B42 showed a bias of 1.36, but a significantly higher correlation of 0.61. The 3B42 combines TRMM overpass data with estimates from other spaceborne sensors, e.g., SSMI and GOES, which greatly improves the temporal sampling. The sampling of the TRMM satellite is limited to a maximum of two overpasses per day. Rainfall estimates for a given pixel are statistically derived from the unconditional mean rain rate for the month. Probability and cumulative density functions computed for the TMI and PR from the monthly rain estimates resulted in histograms that exhibited different structural features from those generated from gauge data. For 3B31 and 3A25, about thirty percent of the months fall into the first bin, i.e., 0 to 0.5 mm day-1. The rain gauge distribution never exhibited a month of zero to trace rainfall. The rain gauge PDF at the high end never exceeds 8 mm day-1 (240 mm month-1). However,the tail of the 3B31 and 3A25 PDF, extend up to 20 mm hr-1. The frequency of these events is low, but they contribute a significant fraction of the total rainfall (~10%). Statistically, the high end of the histogram balances the low end. The middle region is much flatter compared with the gauge spectrum, which shows a more peaked structure. The PDF and CDF spectrum for the 3B42 are interestingly very similar to the gauge spectrum in all three regions, i

  16. Burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain during a seven-year period (1998–2004)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A thorough epidemiological surveillance and a good understanding of the burden of diseases associated to VZV are crucial to asses any potential impact of a prevention strategy. A population-based retrospective epidemiological study to estimate the burden of herpes zoster requiring hospitalization in Spain was conducted. Methods This study was conducted by using data from the national surveillance system for hospital data, Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD). Records of all patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of herpes zoster (ICD-9-MC codes 053.0–053.9) during a 7-year period (1998–2004) were selected. Results A total of 23,584 hospitalizations with a primary or secondary diagnosis of herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age were identified during the study period. Annually there were 13.4 hospitalizations for herpes zoster per 100,000 population in patients ≥ 30 years of age. The rate increases with age reaching a maximum in persons ≥ 80 years of age (54.3 admissions per 100,000 population >80 years of age). The mean cost of a hospitalization for herpes zoster in adult patients was 3,720 €. The estimated annual cost of hospitalizations for herpes zoster in patients ≥ 30 years of age in Spain was 12,731,954 €. Conclusion Herpes zoster imposes an important burden of hospitalizations and result in large cost expenses to the Spanish National Health System, especially in population older than 50 years of age PMID:19422687

  17. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de Los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients' monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City.Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days.Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD).The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients' monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%.Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national economy.

  18. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients’ monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City. Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days. Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD). The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients’ monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%. Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national

  19. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  20. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis in the Volta River Basin Area over a period of five years of vector control.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1984-03-01

    The results of an ophthalmological evaluation conducted in seven West African savannah villages before and after 5 years of vector control, were analysed to determine the effect of an interrupted or greatly reduced transmission of Onchocerca volvulus on the evolution of ocular onchocerciasis. Cross-sectional data showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis in five of the villages, and the rates of irreversible ocular lesions and blindness were generally lower after 5 years of vector control. A longitudinal study of a defined population showed that the ocular status of most patients with ocular onchocerciasis remained stable or improved over the 5 year period, particularly in lightly infected cases. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis showed a deterioration in a minor proportion, restricted to cases of already existing severe lesions, resulting in blindness. A comparison of ophthalmic data from adjacent areas without vector control, indicates that a five year period of vector control may reduce the risk of developing eye lesions or blindness due to onchocerciasis by 50%.

  1. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  2. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP.

  3. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  4. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. 412.73 Section 412.73 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Federal fiscal year 1982 base period. (a) Costs on a per discharge basis. The intermediary will determine the hospital's estimated adjusted base-year operating cost per discharge by dividing the...

  5. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  6. Patterns of antiplatelet drug use after a first myocardial infarction during a 10‐year period

    PubMed Central

    Yasmina, Alfi; de Boer, Anthonius; Deneer, Vera H.M.; Souverein, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aims of the present study were to assess antiplatelet drug use patterns after a first myocardial infarction (MI) and to evaluate the determinants of antiplatelet nonpersistence. Methods The present study was conducted in 4690 patients from the Utrecht Cardiovascular Pharmacogenetics cohort with a first MI between 1986 and 2010, who were followed for a maximum of 10 years. Medication use and event diagnosis were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Antiplatelet drug users were classified as persistent users (gap between prescriptions ≤90 days), nonpersistent users (>90‐day gap and no refills), and restarters (a new prescription after a >90‐day gap). The association between potential determinants and antiplatelet nonpersistence was analysed using Cox regression. Results The proportions of persistent users decreased from 84.0% at the 1‐year follow‐up to 32.8% at 10 years for any antiplatelet drug, and 77.3% to 27.5% for aspirin; and 39.0% to 6.4% for clopidogrel at 6 years. Most nonpersistent users restarted antiplatelet drugs later, leading to 89.3% overall antiplatelet drug users at 10 years after MI. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.44; 0.32–0.60), hypertension (HR 0.77; 0.60–0.99), hypercholesterolaemia (HR 0.49; 0.39–0.62) and more recent MI diagnosis period (2003–2007: HR 0.69, 0.61–0.79; 2008–2010: HR 0.38, 0.19–0.77, compared to ≤ 2002 period) lowered the risk of antiplatelet nonpersistence, while vitamin K antagonist (VKA) comedication (HR 18.97; 16.91–21.28) increased this risk. Conclusions A large proportion of patients with a first MI still used antiplatelet drugs after 10 years. The frequent discontinuations during this time frame are expected to reduce the effectiveness of antiplatelet drugs as secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, VKA comedication and MI diagnosis period were determinants of antiplatelet nonpersistence. PMID:27662521

  7. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Patients with Diagnosis of Leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina During Six-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Begic, Nedim; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Begic, Zijo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Malignancies in children are second most frequent cause of death after accidents in pediatric age, while leukemias represents 30% of all malignancies of children age. Aim: To present the social and demographic characteristics of patients with a diagnosis of leukemia in Bosnia and Herzegovina during six years period. Patients and Methods: The study included 97 patients (from birth to 18 years old) with diagnosis of acute leukemia. Results: During the aforementioned period at the Pediatric Clinic of University Clinical Centre Sarajevo, 244 patients with the diagnosis of malignancy were treated (99 children were with leukemia (40.6%). Acute leukemia’s were diagnosed in 97 patients and chronic in 2 patients. Out of 97 treated patients with acute leukemia, they almost of all cantons of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brcko District and the Republic Srpska. Patients were usually coming from the Tuzla Canton Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (28 patients). Based on the cytomorphological diagnosis of patients according to the FAB classification, the most was a present ALL-L1 type of acute leukemia’s. Mortality of patients with ALL was 15,3%, while mortality of patient with AML was 36,8%. Conclusion: In Bosnia and Herzegovina, during six year period, the largest number of patients with leukaemia came from Tuzla Canton. The most common age of patients was preschool and school ages. Male sex was dominant in patients with diagnosis AML. According to the FAB classification, ALL-L1 type of acute leukemia was the most common. PMID:28144203

  8. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Due To Three Different Types of Ganglion During a 12-Year Period: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Motohisa; Ishiko, Toshihiro; Sumiya, Masafumi

    A 52-year-old male complained of numbness and radiating pain affecting the plantar region of his left foot. He was found to have recurrent tarsal tunnel syndrome due to posterior tibial nerve compression by 3 different types of ganglion during a 12-year period. To the best of our knowledge, a similar case has not been documented. At the first operation, flexor retinaculum release and simple excision of an epineural ganglion were performed without injuring the nerve fascicles; however, an intrafascicular ganglion developed approximately 2 years later. At the second operation, the ganglion cyst was resected completely to prevent recurrence, despite the risk of nerve fiber injury. The cyst originated from the subtalar joint; thus, the joint was closed, and a free fat graft was placed to prevent adhesion formation. However, an extraneural ganglion occurred about 3 years later. At the third operation, the cyst was resected completely, and a free periosteal graft was used to close the joint more effectively. No recurrence had developed at 6 years after the third operation. The findings of the present case show the need for long-term monitoring of patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by a ganglion owing to the possibility of recurrence related to different ganglion types.

  9. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil.

  10. Multiple glomuvenous malformations presenting in a child: follow-up over a period of 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Petkar, Mahir; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Multiple glomuvenous malformations (GVMs) are a rare condition which usually present in children with only a handful of cases reported in the literature. It is usually congenital and has an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. They may be distributed throughout the body in either a localised, segmental or disseminated pattern. Pain, which is a characteristic feature of glomus tumours, is less often associated with GVMs. In addition, unlike glomus tumours which most commonly occur over acral skin surfaces, GVMs may occur throughout the body. A number of treatment options are available including surgical excision, laser treatments and sclerotherapy. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy with multiple GVMs which were treated with surgical excision and followed him up over a period of 8 years. PMID:23853196

  11. Depressive symptom trajectories over a 6-year period following myocardial infarction: predictive function of cognitive appraisal and coping.

    PubMed

    Kroemeke, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    The association between distinct patterns of depression and coping variables in myocardial infarction (MI) survivors over the long-term is unclear. The study aims to evaluate depressive trajectories and their covariates, including coping and cognitive appraisal, following MI over a period of 6 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed in 200 patients a few days after the first MI, and 1 month, 6 months and 6 years later. Cognitive appraisal and coping were assessed during the first three time points. Three latent depressive trajectories were identified: chronic (high; increasing then decreasing; n = 49), rising (moderate; decreasing then increasing; n = 121) and low (low; decreasing then stabilizing; n = 30). The chronic trajectory was associated with higher negative appraisal and emotion-focused coping. The findings clarify the long-term longitudinal trajectories of post-MI depressive symptoms and their association with coping variables, revealing the unfavorable impact of negative cognition and palliative coping.

  12. Bidecadal variability in the Bering Sea and the relation with 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2010-02-01

    Bidecadal variations are investigated in the Bering Sea, especially in the southeastern basin adjacent to the Aleutian passes, where vertical mixing may be strong because of the diurnal tide. Those variations found in this region are synchronized with the 18.6 year period nodal tidal cycle, and the temporal patterns are similar to ones around the northwestern subarctic Pacific near the Kuril Straits reported by a previous study. Salinity and density in the upper layer are high in the periods when the diurnal tide is strong. In the intermediate layer, layer thickness is large, and isopycnal potential temperature and apparent oxygen utilization are low in the same periods. It is shown that these variations are consistent with the patterns expected from the nodal modulation of vertical mixing, and a simple two-dimensional model, assuming a balance between anomalous vertical mixing and advection of anomaly by the mean current, succeeds to some extent in explaining the variations of the upper layer salinity and isopycnal temperature and apparent oxygen utilization in the intermediate layer.

  13. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  14. Emotional and behavioral characteristics over a six-year period in youths with persistent and nonpersistent dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Judith G; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Manor, Orly; Shalev, Ruth S

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined behavior problems in a matched sample of 58 youths with persistent dyscalculia (PD) and nonpersistent dyscalculia (NPD). Participants were classified as having dyscalculia at age 10-11 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for their children at ages 10-11, 13-14, and 16-17 years, while the youths did so at the last two age periods. Only at age 16-17 years were there significantly more problems, particularly attention problems and externalizing problems, reported by parents for PD youths compared to NPD youths. A higher percentage in the PD group than in the NPD group received scores in the clinical range for externalizing problems. However, the mean levels of behavior problems at this age and the earlier ages were within the normal range for both groups. For youth-reported problems, the only significant difference was for attention problems at 16-17 years. Therapeutic interventions should focus on the academic domain and improving and altering behavioral patterns.

  15. Qualitative Approach and Treatment of Patients with Prostate Cancer in Cantonal Hospital Bihac During Two Years Period

    PubMed Central

    Kardasevic, Amel; Delic-Redzepagic, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Prostate cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in human pathology. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of new cases. Material and methods: In this article, we want to show the number of patients diagnosed and treated due to prostate cancer in the Cantonal Hospital Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, over a two year period. After examining the medical records, we selected 70 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Average age was 70.9 years (51-91 years). The total PSA ranged from 1.6 to 3332 ng/ml. For each patient is determined the PSA ratio f/t PSA, with an average value of 0.13 (0.02 to 0.627). Results: From the data analysis, we concluded that nearly half of the patients (30 patients), came to the urology clinic with advanced disease. The stage of the disease is well correlated with PSA value. Conclusion: The PSA can be considered as a reliable marker in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Regardless of the current controversy on the issue of screening on prostate cancer using the PSA analysis, we believe that the use of this simple test in selected populations is justified for the purpose of early disease detection. PMID:24757406

  16. HST AND OPTICAL DATA REVEAL WHITE DWARF COOLING, SPIN, AND PERIODICITIES IN GW LIBRAE 3-4 YEARS AFTER OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gaensicke, Boris T. E-mail: mukadam@astro.washington.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    Since the large amplitude 2007 outburst which heated its accreting, pulsating white dwarf, the dwarf nova system GW Librae has been cooling to its quiescent temperature. Our Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra combined with ground-based optical coverage during the third and fourth year after outburst show that the fluxes and temperatures are still higher than quiescence (T = 19,700 K and 17,300 K versus 16,000 K pre-outburst for a log g = 8.7 and d = 100 pc). The K{sub wd} of 7.6 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} determined from the C I {lambda}1463 absorption line, as well as the gravitational redshift implies a white dwarf mass of 0.79 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun }. The widths of the UV lines imply a white dwarf rotation velocity v sin i of 40 km s{sup -1} and a spin period of 209 s (for an inclination of 11 deg and a white dwarf radius of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm). Light curves produced from the UV spectra in both years show a prominent multiplet near 290 s, with higher amplitude in the UV compared to the optical, and increased amplitude in 2011 versus 2010. As the presence of this set of periods is intermittent in the optical on weekly timescales, it is unclear how this relates to the non-radial pulsations evident during quiescence.

  17. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life.

    PubMed

    Pivik, R T; Andres, Aline; Tennal, Kevin B; Gu, Yuyuan; Armbya, Narain; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased across time for all groups. Heart period was greater in boys than in girls-particularly in soy-fed infants. Higher vagal tone in girls than in boys was not strongly influenced by diet. At 1 and 2years measures differed among boys (soy-fed>breast-fed) but not among girls. Earlier slowing in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants in the rate of increase in vagal tone during infancy suggests that the timing of this developmental shift is sensitive to early infant diet. Finally, the findings do not indicate atypical development of cardiac activity in soy-fed infants that might be associated with estrogenic compounds in this formula.

  18. Substance Use Disorders in Elderly Admissions to an Academic Psychiatric Inpatient Service over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Dennis; Norrell, Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Objective. There is a paucity of research on substance use disorders (SUDs) in the elderly psychiatric population. This study examines SUDs in a geriatric psychiatry inpatient service over a 10-year period. Methods. Data from 1788 elderly psychiatric inpatients from a ten-year period was collected. Variables collected included psychiatric diagnoses, SUD, number of psychiatric admissions, and length of stay. Those with and without a SUD were compared using Chi-Square or Student's t-test as appropriate using SPSS. Results. 11.7% (N = 210) of patients had a SUD, and the most common substance was alcohol at 73.3% (N = 154) or 8.6% of all admissions. Other SUDs were sedative-hypnotics (11%), opiate (2.9%), cannabis (1%), tobacco (1.4%), and unspecified SUD (38.6%). SUD patients were significantly younger, divorced, male, and less frequently readmitted and had shorter lengths of stay. The most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression (26.1%), bipolar disorder (10.5%), and dementia (17.1%). Conclusions. Over 10% of psychogeriatric admissions were associated with a SUD, with alcohol being the most common. Considering the difficulties in diagnosing SUD in this population and the retrospective study design, the true prevalence in elderly psychiatric inpatients is likely higher. This study adds to sparse literature on SUD in elderly psychiatric patients. PMID:27840765

  19. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  20. Association of the recurrence and canceration rate of vocal leukoplakia with interleukin-10 promoter variants over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Duo; Zhou, Liang; Yang, Yue; Liu, Fei; Tao, Lei; Lu, Li-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion This study indicates that IL-10 promoter polymorphism variants, smoking, and alcohol consumption increase the risk of recurrence and canceration in vocal leukoplakia. Objective This prospective, clinical trial was performed to evaluate the association of interleukin (IL)-10 promoter polymorphism variants and canceration and recurrence rates in vocal leukoplakia (a pre-cancerous laryngeal carcinoma lesion) over a 2-year period. Participants and method Sixty-one post-operative patients with vocal leukoplakia were enrolled in this prospective, observational study and genotyped for the IL-10 promoter gene (IL-10-1082 A/G, -819 T/C and -592 A/C) using pyrosequencing, and responded to a 2-year follow-up survey. Recurrence and canceration rates were used to evaluate the association between the genotype variants and the clinical outcome. Results There was an increased canceration rate in the variant genotype group compared to that in the normal genotype group in the 2-year follow-up period (18.4% vs 0%, p-value = 0.038). Compared with the non-smoker group, the smoker group had a higher recurrence rate of vocal leukoplakia (29.3% vs 5%, p-value =0.044). Likewise, the recurrence rate in the alcohol consumption group was also higher (30.6% vs 8%, p-value =0.034). The percentage of cancerization in the alcohol consumption group was significantly higher than that in the non-alcohol consumption group (19.4% vs 0%, p-value =0.035).

  1. Rotavirus genotypes in children in the Basque Country (northern Spain) over a 13-year period (July 1996-June 2009).

    PubMed

    Cilla, G; Montes, M; Gomariz, M; Piñeiro, L; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2010-08-01

    To describe the circulation dynamics of human rotavirus genotypes in a region of southern Europe over a 13-year period. The G- and P-types of rotavirus isolates of patients aged less than 5 years were analyzed using multiplex, reverse transcription polymerase-chain reaction. Of 1,538 isolates investigated, a combination of individual G- and P-types was obtained in 1,368. The most prevalent combination was G1[P8] (57.5% of the genotyped strains), which circulated in all seasons and predominated in nine out of 13 seasons. The strains G2[P4] (14.4%), G3[P8] (8.3%), G4[P8] (5.5%) and G9[P8] (13.4%) circulated intermittently. G4[P8] strains were frequently detected in the 1990s but only sporadically after 2000. G9[P8] strains emerged from 1997-1998 and became dominant in the winters of 2005-2007. G2[P4] strains were predominant in 2003-2004, before the rotavirus vaccines were commercialized. Unusual combinations of common G- and P-types and the presence of unusual G- and/or P-types (G6[P14], G8[P8], G8[P14] and G12[P8]) were rarely observed (<1%). We found no differences in hospitalization due to distinct genotypes. G-types G1-G4 and G9 represented >99% of circulating rotaviruses over a 13-year period. Therefore, vaccine efficacy in this region can be expected to be high.

  2. Comparison between visual clinical examination and the replica method for assessments of sealant retention over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Lu; Fan, Ming-Wen; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-01-01

    To compare the levels of agreement and the survival rates of sealant retention for different sealing materials over a 2-year period assessed using the visual clinical examination and replica methods, sealant retention data were obtained by visual clinical examination and from replicas of the same sealed tooth at baseline and at 0.5-, 1- and 2-year evaluation points in 407 children and were compared for agreement using kappa coefficients. Survival curves of retained sealants on occlusal surfaces were created using modified categorisation (fully retained sealants and those having all pits and fissures partly covered with the sealant material versus completely lost sealants that included pit and fissure systems that had ≥1 pit re-exposed) according to the Kaplan–Meier method. The kappa coefficient for the agreement between both assessment methods over the three evaluation time points combined was 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35–0.41). More sealant retention was observed from replicas than through visual clinical examination. Cumulative survival curves at the three evaluation times were not statistically significantly higher when assessed from replicas (P=0.47). Using the replica method, more retained sealant material was observed than through visual clinical examination during the 2-year period. This finding did not result in a difference in the survival rates of sealants assessed by the two assessment methods. When replicas cast in die stone are used for assessing sealant retention, the level of reliability of the data is higher than that of data obtained through the commonly used visual clinical examination, particularly if such assessments are conducted over time. PMID:24625469

  3. Expanded Access of Investigational Drugs: The Experience of the Center of Drug Evaluation and Research Over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jarow, Jonathan P.; Lemery, Steven; Bugin, Kevin; Khozin, Sean; Moscicki, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of the Center of Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) with expanded access of investigational drugs. Methods Multiple searches of CDER’s document tracking system were performed to identify the number, type, and indication for all expanded access requests over the 10-year time period of January 2005 through December 2014. An additional search was performed to identify all active commercial investigational drug development programs during that time period and whether or not the clinical program was placed on hold. The two searches were then cross-referenced to identify those commercial investigational drug development programs placed on clinical hold due to serious adverse events occurring within expanded access programs. Results CDER receives over 1000 applications for expanded access each year. The majority are for single patients, roughly evenly split between emergency and nonemergency use. The vast majority, 99.7%, are allowed to proceed. The incidence of clinical holds for all commercial investigational drug development programs is 7.9%, as compared to only 0.2% related to adverse events observed in patients receiving drug treatments under expanded access. Conclusions The expanded access program is viewed as a success from FDA’s perspective based on the large number of applications processed and allowed to proceed each year. However, the actual number of patients and their health care providers that desire drug treatments available under expanded access is not known. It is exceedingly rare for a serious adverse event under expanded access to affect the development program for that drug. PMID:27917324

  4. Remote impacts of the 18.6 year period modulation of localized tidal mixing in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the 18.6 year period modulation of the localized strong tidal mixing on the annual mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the open North Pacific Ocean is analyzed in a numerical experiment using an ocean general circulation model. Oscillatory SST anomalies induced in this model move eastward along the boundary between the subarctic and the subtropical gyres from the western boundary to the central Pacific in about 10 years, with a speed slower than that of the surface currents. Anomalous currents in the upper 300 m play an important role in inducing SST anomalies. These anomalous currents are coupled to subsurface density anomalies and could be related to eastward moving, low-mode (second or higher), baroclinic long Rossby waves. These results suggest that the 18.6 year modulation of localized strong tidal mixing can influence large-scale SST and/or heat flux, and thus climate, as a result of remote impacts associated with changes in the mid-depth density structure, induced locally where mixing is strong, that move horizontally into the open ocean.

  5. Examining perceived stigma of children with newly-diagnosed epilepsy and their caregivers over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Rood, Jennifer E; Schultz, Janet R; Rausch, Joseph R; Modi, Avani C

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: 1) the course of perceived epilepsy-related stigma among children newly diagnosed with epilepsy (n=39) and their caregivers (n=97) over a two-year period, 2) the influence of seizure absence/presence on children and caregivers' perception of epilepsy-related stigma, and 3) the congruence of child and caregiver perception of child epilepsy-related stigma. Participants completed a measure of perceived epilepsy-related stigma at three time points, and seizure status was collected at the final time point. Results indicated that both caregivers (t(1,76)=-2.57, p<.01) and children with epilepsy (t(1,29)=-3.37, p<.01) reported decreasing epilepsy-related stigma from diagnosis to two years postdiagnosis. No significant differences were found in caregiver and child reports of perceived stigma for children experiencing seizures compared with children who have been seizure-free for the past year. Results revealed poor caregiver-child agreement of perceived epilepsy-related stigma at all three time points. These data suggest that while children with epilepsy initially perceive epilepsy-related stigma at diagnosis, their perception of stigma decreases over time. Having a better understanding of the course of epilepsy-related stigma provides clinicians with information regarding critical times to support families with stigma reduction interventions.

  6. Alpha omega alpha election and medical school thesis publication: relationship to subsequent publication rate over a twenty-year period.

    PubMed

    Chusid, M J; Havens, P L; Coleman, C N

    1993-01-01

    To determine the importance of academic and research success during medical school upon subsequent academic activity, a computerized literature search was performed using the names of the 79 surviving members of the Yale Medical School Class of 1970. Individuals elected to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) during the third year of school had significantly more publications (mean 101.7 +/- 69.6) between 1970 and 1990 than those elected during the fourth year (mean 28.3 +/- 48.0, p = 0.01). Both had significantly more publications than non-AOA members (mean 11.1 +/- 19.4, p = 0.02). Publication of the student's medical school thesis was also associated with a greater number of publications than thesis non-publication (mean 22.1 +/- 37.5 vs 14.4 +/- 30.0, p = 0.005). These studies demonstrate that, at least at the institution studied, election to AOA and publication of the results of a research project were associated with increased publication rates in the medical field over the 20-year period following medical school graduation.

  7. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecem.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D C; Cooley, J R

    2000-08-01

    Acoustic mate-attracting signals of related sympatric, synchronic species are always distinguishable, but those of related allopatric species sometimes are not, thus suggesting that such signals may evolve to "reinforce" premating species isolation when similar species become sympatric. This hypothesis predicts divergences restricted to regions of sympatry in partially overlapping species, but such "reproductive character displacement" has rarely been confirmed. We report such a case in the acoustic signals of a previously unrecognized 13-year periodical cicada species, Magicicada neotredecim, described here as a new species (see Appendix). Where M. neotredecim overlaps M. tredecim in the central United States, the dominant male call pitch (frequency) of M. neotredecim increases from approximately 1.4 kHz to 1.7 kHz, whereas that of M. tredecim remains comparatively stable. The average preferences of female M. neotredecim for call pitch show a similar geographic pattern, changing with the call pitch of conspecific males. Magicicada neotredecim differs from 13-year M. tredecim in abdomen coloration, mitochondrial DNA, and call pitch, but is not consistently distinguishable from 17-year M. septendecim; thus, like other Magicicada species, M. neotredecim appears most closely related to a geographically adjacent counterpart with the alternative life cycle. Speciation in Magicicada may be facilitated by life-cycle changes that create temporal isolation, and reinforcement could play a role by fostering divergence in premating signals prior to speciation. We present two theories of Magicicada speciation by life-cycle evolution: "nurse-brood facilitation" and "life-cycle canalization."

  8. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  9. Sport related proximal femoral fractures: a retrospective review of 31 cases treated in an eight year period

    PubMed Central

    Habernek, H.; Schmid, L.; Frauenschuh, E.

    2000-01-01

    In an eight year period, 31 patients with proximal femoral fractures resulting from sports accidents were treated by implantation of either a Gamma nail or a dynamic hip screw. Return to work or sports and the time to bone healing did not differ very much between the treatments. Gamma nailing was clearly the best with regard to stability and time to full mobilisation (4.5 days), but required 39 minutes to perform compared with insertion of a dynamic hip screw (27 minutes). The incidence of complications and malalignments did not differ very much between the two, although, when Gamma nailing was first used in the authors' clinic, more intraoperative complications occurred than with the dynamic hip screw. Stable pertrochanteric fractures may be treated with a dynamic hip screw. Unstable pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures are treated with a Gamma nail at the authors' institution. Key Words: femur; fracture; Gamma nail; dynamic hip screw; skiing; mountain biking PMID:10690452

  10. The presence of Matthew effects in Dutch primary education, development of language skills over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low starting levels students make more progress than in schools with higher starting levels. On the other hand, the analyses do show a widening gap between students with well educated and poorly educated parents. The gap between delayed and accelerated students was found to increase as well, but the initial disadvantage of boys was found to disappear.

  11. [Three outbreaks of brucellosis in a one-year period investigated by the occupational health service in Ciudad Real (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Castell Monsalve, Juan; Gutiérrez Avila, Gonzalo; Ruiz Valdepeñas, María Asunción

    2009-01-01

    We describe 3 outbreaks of brucellosis investigated by our Occupational Health Service in a 1-year period. Two of these outbreaks, with 2 cases each, occurred in 2 cheese factories and the third outbreak, also with 2 cases, occurred in a cattle laboratory belonging to the local government. In both cheese factories, numerous opportunities for the workers to become infected were found. The greatest risk was considered to be the area for unloading milk, while failure to use personal protection equipment by workers, deficiencies in the laboratories, and the lack of effective separation between areas were also potential risk factors. In the cattle laboratory, we found at least 13 major risk factors that could allow brucellosis transmission. In Spain, there is a substantial risk of Brucella infection in laboratories or dairy factories and current preventive measures are ineffective.

  12. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Carmen; Ferri, Francisca; Sogorb, Miguel Angel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    This study measured inhalation exposure to 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers in the leatherwear industry in Spain, examined the changes in those exposures over a 5-year period, and documented local exhaust ventilation practices that affected exposure. In collaboration with an occupational risk prevention company, air samples were collected from 849 workers' personal breathing zones using personal air pumps with activated charcoal tubes. VOCs were analyzed using a GC/MS-optimized method modified in our laboratory from that proposed by Spanish authorities (INSHT). Airborne concentrations were compared with occupational exposure limit (OEL) values from the European authorities. The most frequently detected VOCs were acetone (98.1%), toluene (94.8%), n-hexane (71.2%) and other C6-C7 branched alkyl hydrocarbons (97.5%). Other frequently detected VOCs were MEK (64.9%), ethylacetate (60.7%), and cyclohexane (29.3%). Benzene was detected in 24.6% of samples. Although all the samples were taken while workers performed tasks judged to have the highest VOC exposure potential, only 14% of samples showed excessive aggregate exposure, and chemical-specific OELs were exceeded in a relatively small number of cases: 7.2% for n-hexane, 2.8% for toluene, 0.6% for acetone, and 0.4% for hexane isomers. Over the study period, a diminished use of n-hexane in solvent formulations and an increased use of branched hexane and heptane isomers were observed. Six factors relating to work location conditions and types were evaluated. Most high-exposure cases were associated with three task types. The presence of local exhaust ventilation was an important exposure control, but significant exposures despite the use of local exhaust were observed. Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented.

  13. Analysing sediment production and transfer in a small Mediterranean mountain basin using a 15-year data period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Francesc; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Soler, Montserrat; Nord, Guillaume; Catari, Gusman

    2010-05-01

    Badland landscapes are known to be the main sediment sources in the upper Llobregat basin and particularly in the small Vallcebre research basins (Eastern Pyrenees). The dynamics of these badlands is dominated by physical weathering during winter and by water erosion during intense rainstorms in summer. Nevertheless, as these landscapes represent a small fraction of the basin area, their role as runoff source is only relevant when the basin is dry, but it becomes less important during major rainfall events under wet conditions. Thus, there is a temporal uncoupling between runoff and sediment supply that results in events with a large variety of sediment concentration - discharge relationships at the gauging stations, as well as sediment deposition and erosion phases in the stream channels. The main aim of this work is to analyse the relevance and renewal times of the sediment stored in the stream channels in the Ca l'Isard sub-basin (1.32 km2). Information on stream discharge and suspended sediment loads was taken from a 15-year record at the gauging station, whereas badland erosion for the same period was simulated using the soil erosion model KINEROS2. The model was calibrated and validated using 3-year sediment yield data obtained using containers provided with slot divisors in a 1,240 m2 elementary badland catchment. Other qualitative observations were also used for validation. The results demonstrated that there was a low correlation between badland erosion volumes and stream sediment loads at the event scale; the first were well correlated with rainfall intensities whereas the latter were better correlated with total event precipitations and stream discharges. Badland erosion was simulated as null for some events with large stream sediment loads because de model did not simulate any runoff on the hillslopes. Stream sediment transport was more compulsive than badland erosion, as 90% of the sediment exported from the basin was produced by only 21% of the events

  14. Ameloblastomas: Clinicopathological features from 70 cases diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Filizzola, Andressa-Incerte; Bartholomeu-dos-Santos, Teresa-Cristina-Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastomas are odontogenic tumors that can present some distinct clinicopathological profiles when comparing different populations and studies. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinicopathological features from a series of ameloblastomas diagnosed in a single Oral Pathology service in Brazil in an 8-year period. Study Design: The files were revised and all cases diagnosed as ameloblastomas in the period were retrieved. All hematoxylin and eosin stained histological slides were reviewed and all clinical and radiological information were obtained through a review of the laboratory forms. Data were descriptively analyzed and a comparison was performed with the different ameloblastomas subtypes. Results: Seventy ameloblastomas composed the final sample, including 57 (81%) solid/multicystic, 9 (13%) unicystic, 2 (3%) desmoplastic and 2 (3%) peripheral ameloblastomas. Mean age of the affected patients was in the forth decade of life and there was a slight male predominance. Most tumors presented as multilocular radiolucencies, were located in the posterior mandible and showed the follicular and plexiform histological patterns. There was no difference on the mean age of the patients affected by solid and unicystic ameloblastomas. Conclusions: The present results showed that the clinicopathological features of the ameloblastomas included in this Brazilian sample were similar to the features described in most other worldwide populations. Key words:Ameloblastoma, solid, unicystic, review, epidemiology, histology. PMID:25129244

  15. Arsenic accumulation in a paddy field in Bangladesh: seasonal dynamics and trends over a three-year monitoring period.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-04-15

    Shallow groundwater, often rich in arsenic (As), is widely used for irrigation of dry season boro rice in Bangladesh. In the long term, this may lead to increasing As contents in rice paddy soils, which threatens rice yields, food quality, and human health. The objective of this study was to quantify gains and losses of soil As in a rice paddy field during irrigation and monsoon flooding over a three-year period. Samples were collected twice a year on a 3D-sampling grid to account for the spatially heterogeneous As distribution within the soil. Gains and losses of soil As in different depth segments were calculated using a mass-balance approach. Annual As input with irrigation water was estimated as 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Within the top 40 cm of soil, the mean As accumulation over three years amounted to 2.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1), implying that on average 2.0 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost from the soil. Seasonal changes of soil As showed that 1.05 to 2.1 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost during monsoon flooding. The remaining As-loss (up to 0.95 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) was attributed to downward flow with percolating irrigation water. Despite these losses, we estimate that total As within the top 40 cm of soil at our field site would further increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 by the year 2050 under current cultivation practices.

  16. Stable Isotopic Composition of Columbia and Snake River Waters Over A 16-Year Period Yield Unexpected Contrasts With Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landwehr, J. M.; Coplen, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Surface-water samples were collected from three U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) sites in the Columbia River Basin: (1) on the Columbia River at Northport near the international boundary (12400520); (2) on the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge near Priest Rapids Dam (12472900), which is downstream from Northport, but above the confluence of the Snake River; and (3) on the Snake River at Burbank (13353200), which is just above the confluence with the Columbia River. Samples were collected bimonthly from 1984 through 1987 and monthly from 1997 through 2000. As expected, the average stable hydrogen and oxygen composition among the sites increased with decreasing latitude (with δ2HVSMOW-SLAP = -133, -130, and -123 ‰ and δ18OVSMOW-SLAP = -17.6, -17.2, and -16.2 ‰, respectively). During the two three-year sampling periods separated by a decade, the average δ2H and δ18O values for each site are identical within analytical uncertainty (± 1 ‰ and ± 0.1‰, respectively). However, all three sites experienced lower annual flows during the earlier (1980s) sampling period than during the latter one, as well as slightly more negative average LC-excess values and lower slopes of the respective water lines. All three sites are downstream from dams that affect annual discharges; nevertheless, at all three sites, maximum monthly flows occur in the May-June period and minimal flows in the August-September period, consistent with a hydrologic regime influenced by cold season precipitation. A model (OIPC) prediction of the isotopic composition of precipitation at each site suggests that the most negative delta values would occur in January (e.g. δ2H = -127 ‰ near the international boundary and -104 ‰ at the site near Burbank) and the most positive delta values in September (e.g. corresponding δ2H = -77‰ and -70‰). Consistent with the occurrence of highest flows during the May-June time period and with the prediction of

  17. Bipolar disorder recurrence prevention using self-monitoring daily mood charts: case reports from a 5 year period

    PubMed Central

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission. They recorded self-monitoring daily mood charts using a 5-point Likert scale. Paper-and-pencil mood charts included mood, motivation, thinking speed, and impulsivity. Additionally, they recorded waking time, bedtime, and medication compliance. Fewer manic or depressive episodes including admissions occurred after self-monitoring daily mood charts compared to patients’ admissions in the past 3 years. This study suggests that self-monitoring daily mood in addition to mood stabilizing medication has some effect on recurrence prevention in follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Further studies with rigorous designs and large sample sizes are needed. PMID:28331323

  18. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  19. Effect of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine on glucose metabolism of pancreas and kidney recipients in the late (> 8 years) posttransplant period.

    PubMed

    Havrdova, T; Jedinakova, T; Lipar, K; Skibova, J; Saudek, F

    2011-11-01

    Diabetogenic effects of immunosuppressive agents are of great importance in pancreas or islet transplantation. The aim of our study was to compare the glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic kidney and pancreas recipients on tacrolimus (Tacro) versus cyclosporine-based (Cyclo) immunosuppression in the late posttransplant period. We examined 26 insulin-independent patients with stabile good renal function. They were at least 7 years after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation and with unchanged immunosuppressive therapy for at least 6 years. The mean follow-up in Tacro (n = 13) and Cyclo (n = 13) groups were 9.7 ± 1.9 and 10.9 ± 1.3 years, respectively (P = .08). Fasting glycemia, insulin levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), a standard intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) with coefficient of glucose assimilation (K(G)) calculation and trough Tacro/Cyclo levels were assessed. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-B). Total C-peptide and insulin secretions were calculated as areas under the curves (AUC) from the serum levels during the IVGTT. Tacro and Cyclo groups did not differ in age and body mass index. We did not find any significant difference in any examined parameters of glucose metabolism (fasting glycemia, insulin and C-peptide levels, HbA(1c,) IVGTT with K(G), HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, AUC of C-peptide and AUC of insulin; P > .05). Two patients in the Tacro group and none in the Cyclo group had K(G) <0.8%/min. Seven recipients in the Tacro group and eight in the Cyclo group had the normal glucose tolerance with K(G) ≥ 1.2%/min. Trough Tacro or Cyclo levels did not correlate with any of examined parameters. The use of different types of calcineurin inhibitors in type 1 diabetic pancreas and kidney recipients had no effect on glucose metabolism in the late posttransplant period.

  20. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  1. Cephenemyia stimulator and Hypoderma diana infection of roe deer in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Salaba, Ondrej; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Valek, Petr; Kudrnacova, Marie; Jankovska, Ivana; Bartak, Miroslav; Sulakova, Hana; Langrova, Iva

    2013-04-01

    A survey of naso-pharyngeal and subcutaneous myiasis affecting roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was conducted in the Czech Republic over an 8-year period (1999-2006). A total of 503 bucks and 264 does from six hunting localities were examined. The sampling area comprised predominantly agricultural lowlands and a mountain range primarily covered by forest. Since 1997, the deer have been treated each winter across the board with ivermectin (150 mg/kg, CERMIX® pulvis, Biopharm, CZ). Parasites found were the larvae of Hypoderma diana and Cephenemyia stimulator. There were no significant differences in warble fly infection among captured animals in the individual hunting localities. Overall, 146 (28.8%) of 503 animals (bucks) were infected with Cephenemyia stimulator larvae; body size of the second instar larva reached 13-18 mm. The prevalence ranged from 16.1 to 42.9% per year, and the mean intensity from 6 to 11 larvae per animal. Additionally, a total of 264 roe deer (does) were examined for H. diana larvae, and 77 (29.1%) were found to be positive; body size of the second instar larva reached 17 mm. The prevalence ranged from 18.8 to 50.0% per year, and the mean intensity from 13 to 22 larvae per animal. The results showed that the bot flies, Cephenemyia stimulator as well as H. diana, are common parasites in roe deer in the Czech Republic, and that through the help of treatment (ivermectin), it is possible to keep parasite levels low. The body weights of infected and non-infected H. diana deer did not differ significantly.

  2. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-02-17

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors.

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes emm Types and Clusters during a 7-Year Period (2007 to 2013) in Pharyngeal and Nonpharyngeal Pediatric Isolates.

    PubMed

    Koutouzi, F; Tsakris, A; Chatzichristou, P; Koutouzis, E; Daikos, G L; Kirikou, E; Petropoulou, N; Syriopoulou, V; Michos, A

    2015-07-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance of emm types has important implications, as it can provide baseline information for possible implementation of vaccination. A total of 1,349 GAS pediatric isolates were collected during a 7-year period (2007 to 2013); emm typing was completed for 1,282 pharyngeal (84%) or nonpharyngeal (16%) isolates, and emm clusters and temporal changes were analyzed. Thirty-five different emm types, including 14 subtypes, were identified. The most prevalent emm types identified were 1 (16.7%), 12 (13.6%), 77 (10.9%), 4 (10.8%), 28 (10.4%), 6 (6.8%), 3 (6.6%), and 89 (6.6%), accounting for 82.3% of total isolates. Rheumatogenic emm types comprised 16.3% of total isolates. The emm types 12, 4, and 77 were more prevalent among pharyngeal isolates, and the emm types 1, 89, 6, 75, and 11 were more prevalent among nonpharyngeal isolates. The emm types identified belonged to 13 emm clusters, and the 8 most prevalent clusters comprised 97% of all isolates. There were statistically significant decreases in the prevalence of emm types 12, 4, 5, and 61 and increases in the prevalence of emm types 89, 75, and 11, compared with the period 2001 to 2006. The proposed 30-valent GAS vaccine, which is currently in preclinical studies, encompasses 97.2% of the emm types detected in our study and 97.4% of the erythromycin-resistant strains. In addition, it includes 93.3% of the emm types involved in bacteremia. A much greater diversity of GAS emm types was identified in our area than described previously. Seasonal fluctuations and the introduction of new emm types were observed. Continuous surveillance of emm types is needed in order to evaluate the possible benefits of an M protein-based GAS vaccine.

  4. Epidemiological profile of 239 traumatic spinal cord injury cases over a period of 12 years in Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hong-Yong; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Shi-Qing; Yu, Tie-Qiang; Zhou, Heng-Xing

    2011-01-01

    Study design Hospital-based retrospective review. Objective To describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of traumatic spinal cord injury in Tianjin, China. Setting Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Methods Medical records of 239 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury admitted to a general hospital from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. Variables included gender, age, marital status, occupation, etiology, time of injury, level, and severity of injury. Epidemiological characteristics of different countries were compared. Results Over this period, the mean age of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury was 45.4 ± 14.1 years, and the male/female ratio was 4.6:1. In all, 86.2% were married. The leading cause was fall (52.3%), followed by motor vehicle collision (36.4%). The most common injury site was the cervical spinal cord, accounting for 82.0%. Incomplete tetraplegia made up for 59.4%, followed by complete tetraplegia (22.6%). Eight patients died after operation, six of whom died from respiratory complications. Conclusion The results of this study are in accordance with that of most other developing countries; falls and motor vehicle collisions were the two leading causes, but the mean age was older. Percentage of the aged with traumatic spinal cord injury was increasing. The low-falls group tended to expand over this period. All these data indicated that the preventive programs should focus on the traffic accidents and falls, and more attention should be paid to the aged for the vulnerability to low fall. PMID:21903012

  5. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal.

  6. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  7. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Right Dominant Heart in Fetuses: A Tertiary Center Experience over a 7-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juan; Zhu, Mei; Liang, Hao; Li, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Right dominant heart (RDH) in fetuses can occur with a number of cardiac as well as noncardiac anomalies. Analysis of the enlargement of the right cardiac chamber in the fetus remains a major challenge for sonographers and echocardiographers. The aim of this study was to report the experience with prenatal diagnosis of RDH in the fetuses over a 7-year period. Methods: Fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of RDH from July 2009 to July 2016 were evaluated in two different categories: according to the gestational age, Group I (n = 154, second trimester) and Group II (n = 298, third trimester); and according to the fetal echocardiography diagnosis, Group A (n = 452, abnormal cardiac structure) and Group B (n = 90, normal cardiac structure). Differences in categorical variables were assessed by Chi-square exact test and continuous variables were evaluated by independent Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test depending on parametric or nonparametric nature of the data. Results: Over a 7-year period, 452 fetuses were referred for the assessment of suspected RDH. Left-sided obstructive lesions were observed most frequently in the fetuses with RDH. When comparing Group I with Group II and Group A with Group B, the latter groups exhibited significant differences in the right/left ventricle (RV/LV) ratio (1.435 vs. 1.236, P = 0.002; 1.309 vs. 1.168, P = 0.047), RV width Z-score (1.626 vs. 1.104, P < 0.001; 1.553 vs. 0.814, P = 0.014), and above +2 cutoff percentages (14.3% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.038; 21.5% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.046). Multivariable logistic regression revealed no variables associated with perinatal survival. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that RDH warrants careful attention to the possible presence of a structural cardiac anomaly, especially left-sided obstructive lesions. A diagnosis of RDH is best supported by a combination of the RV Z-score and RV/LV ratio. Most of the fetuses with RDH and structurally normal hearts had favorable outcomes. PMID:28229989

  9. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  10. Orbit optimization and time delay interferometry for inclined ASTROD-GW formation with half-year precession-period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-05-01

    ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [astrodynamical space test of relativity using optical devices] optimized for gravitational wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about the ecliptic plane in source position determination, we have changed the basic formation into slightly inclined formation with half-year precession-period. In this paper, we optimize a set of 10-year inclined ASTROD-GW mission orbits numerically using ephemeris framework starting at June 21, 2035, including cases of inclination angle with 0° (no inclination), 0.5°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.0°, 2.5°, and 3.0°. We simulate the time delays of the first and second generation TDI configurations for the different inclinations, and compare/analyse the numerical results to attain the requisite sensitivity of ASTROD-GW by suppressing laser frequency noise below the secondary noises. To explicate our calculation process for different inclination cases, we take the 1.0° as an example to show the orbit optimization and TDI simulation.

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    PIRES, Fábio Ramôa; RAMOS, Amanda Barreto; de OLIVEIRA, Jade Bittencourt Coutinho; TAVARES, Amanda Serra; da LUZ, Priscilla Silva Ribeiro; dos SANTOS, Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Bartholomeu

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. Objective The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. Material and Methods All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. Results A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001). Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%), alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20%) and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19%) were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091) and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5%) were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004). Conclusions The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients. PMID:24212993

  12. Temporal trends of young-of-year fishes in Lake Erie and comparison of diel sampling periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Bur, M.T.; Adams, J.V.

    2007-01-01

    We explored temporal trends of young-of-year (YOY) fishes caught in bottom trawl hauls at an established offshore monitoring site in Lake Erie in fall during 1961–2001. Sampling was conducted during morning, afternoon, and night in each year. Catches per hour (CPH) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) YOY were relatively low and exhibited no temporal trend. This result was consistent with the species’ intolerance to Lake Erie’s adverse winter water temperatures. Gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) YOY decreased sharply after 1991, which was consistent with recent oligotrophication of the lake. Following the establishment in 1979 and rapid increase of white perch (Morone americana) YOY, white bass (Morone chrysops) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) YOY decreased. Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) YOY decreased during 1986–1991, but recovered to previous levels during 1991–2001. The recovery coincided with the resurgence of mayflies (Ephemoptera) in the lake. CPH of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius) and emerald shiner (N. atherinoides) YOY exhibited no temporal trend between 1961 and the late 1970s to early 1980s. CPH of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) YOY decreased during 1961–1988, and walleye (Sander vitreum) YOY increased overall during the time series. These observations were consistent with published studies of adults in the region. CPH of 4 of the 10 species of YOY considered were greatest during night. CPH for walleye YOY was higher in the morning than in the afternoon, but there was no significant difference between night and morning abundances. The results suggest that (1) CPH of YOY fishes may be a useful monitoring tool for Lake Erie, and (2) offshore monitoring programs that do not include night sampling periods may underestimate recruitment for several common species.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella flexneri serotypes in Israel during a period of three years: 2000-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, V.; Japheth, R.; Yishai, R.; Andorn, N.

    2004-01-01

    This is a surveillance study of the antimicrobial resistance of the S. flexneri group in the context of its serotype diversity. It includes 1422 isolates, which were sent to the National Shigella Reference Centre (NSRC) by hospitals and outpatient clinics in Israel during a 3-year period (2000-2002). The strains were identified and classified according to the prevalence and antigenic structure of their serotypes. All samples were checked for resistance to ampicillin (AMP), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), ceftriaxone (CRO), tetracycline (TE), nalidixic acid (NAL), and chloramphenicol (C) by the disk diffusion method of Bauer et al. There were significant differences in their resistance to the individual antimicrobials with resistance to AMP, TE and C being lower among the strains of serotype 6 than among those of serotypes 2a and 1b. The resistant phenotypes were also serotype-specific. The similarities both in individual and in phenotype resistance between the rare and the prevalent serotypes (but not serotype 6) may be attributed to their antigenic relatedness. The serospecificity of the antimicrobial resistance was not affected by external factors such as seasonality and source (hospital or outpatient laboratory) of the isolates, and the age and sex of the patients. The serotype-specific approach can assist in properly assessing the problem of the antimicrobial resistance of the Shigella flexneri group and may prove useful for the empirical therapy of shigellosis. The observed interdependency between resistance and the antigenic specificity and relatedness of the S. flexneri serotypes requires additional investigation. PMID:15635961

  14. Factors associated with seclusion in a statewide forensic psychiatric service in Australia over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stuart D M; Daffern, Michael; Martin, Trish; Ogloff, James R P; Thomson, Lindsay D G; Ferguson, Murray

    2009-02-01

    Despite seclusion being described as one of the most ethically- and legally-controversial management options available, it remains a widely-used clinical strategy for managing disruptive, aggressive, and violent behaviour. This study sought to determine how frequently seclusion was used, the common characteristics of those secluded and not secluded, and the degree to which the Level of Service Inventory - Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV) could predict seclusion. The study was retrospective, covering the first 2 years of operation of a statewide forensic psychiatry hospital in Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from individual case files, electronic databases, and paper copies of records pertaining to violent incidents and episodes of seclusion. Eighty five (44%) of the 193 patients admitted during this period were secluded. Those secluded were significantly younger and had a more established psychiatric history. LSI-R: SV scores were significantly and positively associated with being secluded. A statistical model containing three LSI-R: SV items, along with age on admission and psychiatric history, achieved an area under the curve of 0.74. Seclusion is used on a regular basis in response to a range of different forms of aggressive behaviour of different severity. The LSI-R: SV demonstrated moderate-to-good accuracy in predicting seclusion and warrants further research using detailed prospective methodologies.

  15. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained.

  16. Clinical learning environments for student nurses: key indices from two studies compared over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Lewin, David

    2007-07-01

    In 1978, a longitudinal study commenced in England to illuminate criteria for the evaluation of hospital wards as clinical learning environments for student nurses. It derived measures to quantify the clinical learning experienced by 71 students in three cohorts in three training hospitals over their entire programme. In 2003, a second study, based in one English School of Health Studies, using clinical placements in three NHS trusts, employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytic survey design with anonymised, self-completion questionnaires, to map the clinical learning of 272 students as part of a quality assurance and enhancement initiative. This paper explores changes over time by comparing data based on five key indices, devised in the first study and revisited in the second. Concepts of clinical learning and supervision are reviewed as part of this changing context and background together with limitations implicit in the comparison. The findings suggest an average 20% improvement in the quality of hospital based clinical learning environments over a 25 year period, based mainly on trained staff personally supervising students more extensively, testing their theoretical knowledge more frequently and spending more time performing practical procedures with them. However, unacceptable variations in clinical learning opportunities persist for some students.

  17. Retrospective analysis of the genetic diversity of Klebsiella oxytoca isolated in Poland over a 50-year period.

    PubMed

    Stojowska, K; Krawczyk, B; Kałuzewski, S; Kur, J

    2009-10-01

    Population genetics analyses and determination of the phylogenetic relationships between strains have proven to be extremely useful approaches, enabling deeper insights into the epidemiological pattern of bacterial species. There is no longitudinal data describing the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca strains that are opportunistic pathogens responsible for an increasing number of multi-resistant infections in hospitals. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of K. oxytoca strains over a 50-year period using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS-PCR) and PCR MP (ang. PCR melting profiles) genotyping methods on a large collection of strains isolated from the patients of several hospitals in Poland. The phylogenetic analysis based on ITS-PCR exhibited six distinct branches. Two main groups, KoX and KoY, with four and two sub-groups within KoX and KoY, respectively, have been identified. Typing by the PCR MP method showed a higher level of genetic diversity. However, all K. oxytoca strains were also divided into six genotype groups (KoA, KoB, KoC, KoD, KoE and KoF). In conclusion, we found that the ITS-PCR and PCR MP methods are useful for the phylogenetic delineation of genetic groups in K. oxytoca.

  18. Eicosanoids mediate nodulation reactions to bacterial infections in adults of two 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim and M. cassini.

    PubMed

    Tunaz, H; Bedick, J C.; Miller, J S.; Hoback, W W.; Rana, R L.; Stanley, D W.

    1999-10-01

    Nodulation is the first and quantitatively most important cellular defense reaction to bacterial infections in insects. Treating adults of the 17-year periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim and M. cassini, with eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors immediately prior to intrahemocoelic injections of the bacterium, Serratia marcescens, sharply reduced the nodulation response to bacterial challenges. Separate treatments with specific inhibitors of phospholipase A(2), cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase reduced nodulation, supporting our view that nodule formation is a multi-step process in which individual steps are separately mediated by lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase products. The inhibitory influence of dexamethasone was apparent by 2 h after injection, and nodulation was significantly reduced, relative to control insects, over the following 14 h. The dexamethasone effects were reversed by treating bacteria-challenged insects with the eicosanoid-precursor polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Low levels of arachidonic acid were detected in fat body phospholipids. These findings in adults of an exopterygote insect species with an unusual life history pattern broaden our hypothesis that eicosanoids mediate cellular immune reactions to bacterial infections in most, if not all, insects.

  19. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P.; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. Aim To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994–2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. Results In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. Conclusions In the last decade (2004–2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced. PMID:25960811

  20. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  1. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  2. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  3. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  4. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes—TB/ALL. (a) As...

  6. Within- and Between-Child Variation in Repeated Urinary Pesticide Metabolite Measurements over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael D.; Spengler, John D.; Lu, Chensheng

    2013-01-01

    estimates of exposure and relative risks. Citation: Attfield KR, Hughes MD, Spengler JD, Lu C. 2014. Within- and between-child variation in repeated urinary pesticide metabolite measurements over a 1-year period. Environ Health Perspect 122:201–206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306737 PMID:24325925

  7. [Hygiene issues in polish academic centres of the period of twenty years of Poland's independence after World War I].

    PubMed

    Jeszke, M; Jeszke, J

    1997-01-01

    Within the discipline as such, among Polish scientists of the period of twenty years of independence after the World War I, there was no agreement as to the understanding of the area of hygiene interests and as to the role of it. On one poend it was placed a concept of hygiene as the remedy towards the basic sanitary inadvertences, covering only narrow segments of relationship between the organism condition and individual environment elements of positive or negative importance for health. This depiction was bringing a hygienist closer to such disciplines as physiology, pathophysiology, toxicology, bacteriology etc., it imposed typically natural point of view and research workshop. On the second end the issue of health has been considered within the broad social and cultural context. In such a meaning hygiene goes beyond the narrow concept of medicine, since the latter has not been able to replace the shortages of civilisation and it has not been interested in issues of cultural adaptation of desired sanitary behaviour. As a matter of fact, both views have been excluding each other, adopting different and "incommensurate" visions of the "world and human being" as well as methodological depictions. In the time under discussion, within Polish territories, a thesis, that individual health has a social dimension, makes a considerable economic value, decides on the defence abilities of state, so it is in the interest of the whole society the care for health of all members of society - was still having virtues of uniqueness. It was going like that despite earlier activity of many outstanding Polish hygienists, giving fruits both in information campaigns planned on a wide scale and civilisation experiments. ...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Germany over a 5-year period (2005-2009).

    PubMed

    Schleicher, X; Higgins, P G; Wisplinghoff, H; Körber-Irrgang, B; Kresken, M; Seifert, H

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the species distribution within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, 376 Acinetobacter isolates were collected prospectively from hospitalized patients at 15 medical centres in Germany during three surveillance studies conducted over a 5-year period. Species identification was performed by molecular methods. Imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by broth microdilution. The prevalence of the most common carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated by oxacillinase (OXA) -multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The molecular epidemiology was investigated by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR; DiversiLab™). Acinetobacter pittii was the most prevalent Acinetobacter species (n = 193), followed by A. baumannii (n = 140), A. calcoaceticus (n = 10) and A. nosocomialis (n = 8). The majority of A. baumannii was represented by sporadic isolates (n = 70, 50%) that showed unique rep-PCR patterns, 25 isolates (18%) clustered with one or two other isolates, and only 45 isolates (32%) belonged to one of the previously described international clonal lineages. The most prevalent clonal lineage was international clone (IC) 2 (n = 34) and IC 1 (n = 6). According to CLSI, 25 A. baumannii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem (MIC ≥ 8 mg/L), all of which produced an OXA-58-like or OXA-23-like carbapenemase. The rate of imipenem susceptibility among A. baumannii isolates decreased from 96% in 2005 to 76% in 2009. All other Acinetobacter isolates were susceptible to imipenem. The population structure of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii in Germany is highly diverse. Imipenem non-susceptibility was strongly associated with the clonal lineages IC 2 and IC 1. These data underscore the high clonality of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates.

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Slovak Patients: over 10-Year Period Review.

    PubMed

    Koscova, Silvia; Zakova Slivarichova, Dana; Tomeckova, Ivana; Melicherova, Katarina; Stelzer, Martin; Janakova, Alzbeta; Kosorinova, Dana; Belay, Girma; Mitrova, Eva

    2016-09-24

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, but rapidly progressive, up to now untreatable and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is difficult; however, it can be facilitated by suitable biomarkers. Aim of the present study is to compare levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (total tau protein, phosphorylated-tau protein, protein 14-3-3 and amyloid beta) in Slovak population of CJD suspect cases, retrospectively in over a 10-year period. One thousand three hundred sixty-four CSF samples from patients with suspect CJD, forming a homogenous group in terms of geographical as well as of equal transport conditions, storage and laboratory processing, were analysed. Definite diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was confirmed in 101 patients with genetic form, and 60 patients with its sporadic form of the disease. Specificity of protein 14-3-3 and total tau in both forms CJD was similar (87 % for P14-3-3/85 % for total tau), sensitivity to P 14-3-3 and total tau was higher in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) (90/95 %) than in genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD) (89/74 %). As expected, the total tau levels were significantly higher in CJD patients than in controls, but there was also significant difference between gCJD and sCJD (levels in gCJD were lower; p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in p-tau and Aβ 1-42 levels neither between both CJD forms nor between CJD patients and control group.

  10. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  11. Recurrent carcinoma of the head and neck: treatment strategies and survival analysis in a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, A; Barth, E L; Kokemueller, H; Wegener, G

    2004-04-01

    Following clinical diagnosis of a recurrent tumor, curative treatment is seldom available. Depending on the size of the recurrent tumor and the patient's general health condition extensive surgical resections and reconstructions are avoided in favor of non-surgical palliative intended treatment modalities. According to the literature location of the tumor, tumor size, as well as R-1- and R-2-resection rates are the most frequent reasons for the development of recurrent tumors. In a retrospective evaluation a population of 1000 patients who were treated for a primary head and neck cancer during the period from 1979 to 1996 were analysed descriptively. Survival probabilities of patients with recurrent tumors were calculated according to the product-limit method by Kaplan-Meier, different treatment concepts were compared and analysed with the log-rank test for significant differences. The largest proportion of primary tumors involved the floor of mouth ( n = 369, 36.9%). A total of 198 patients (19.8%) developed a recurrent cancer; 79.8% of patients experienced a recurrent cancer within two years following primary treatment. Within the group of T1/T2 tumors the incidence of recurrent tumors was 28.9%, whereas the incidence in the T3/T4 group was 44.6%. Tumor infiltration of the resection margins was detected in 12.9%. In line with the literature, tumor infiltration of the resection margins is a relevant prognostic factor, therefore intraoperative frozen section must be recommended. Treatment with curative intention, in particular extensive surgical resections, is seldom possible, and requires always a very intensive discussion with the patient.

  12. 20 CFR 1002.101 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include... Section 1002.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND...-year period runs as to each employer independently, even if those employers share or co-determine...

  13. Identification of drought phases in a 110-year record from Western Mediterranean basin: Trends, anomalies and periodicity analysis for Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Fernández-González, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    The Iberian Peninsula (IP), located in a transition area between temperate and subtropical latitudes, has marked temporal and spatial variability of precipitation between its various climatic zones. Therefore, the peninsula is particularly sensitive to climate change owing to frequent periods of precipitation deficit together with societal dependence on water. In this study, we address meteorological droughts of the peninsula between 1901 and 2010, using the Global Precipitation Climatology Center database. First, we carried out a statistical classification of the peninsula according to annual precipitation cycle. The spatiotemporal variability of droughts was evaluated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) by determining the evolution of areas affected by severe and extreme drought. Subsequently, we calculated the overall trend of precipitation and anomalies to investigate whether an observed drought increase is attributable to a decrease of precipitation or an increase of precipitation extremes. Finally, we examined periodicities of precipitation anomalies via wavelet analysis, relating these to large-scale modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results show an increase in the area affected by severe and extreme drought, particularly on Atlantic-facing slopes. The mainland areas have longer and more intense periods of drought, with an average SPI of - 0.52 and 4-month duration. Over the 110 years analyzed, we observed weak trends of annual precipitation in the extreme northwest and southern IP. However, in the last decades of the series, long periods of strong negative anomalies are seen, interspersed with years of strong positive anomalies, suggesting an increase in precipitation pattern extremes. Finally, the relationship between the NAO index and precipitation anomalies on the Atlantic seaboard is highlighted. Thus, in both series we found a 5-6-year periodicity in their first years, with a diminishing cycle period reaching a

  14. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. II The Second Year (2009-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Makoto; Henden, Arne; Miguel, Enrique De; Miller, Ian; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Kunitomi, Nanae; Takagi, Ryosuke; Nose, Mikiha; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Masi, Gianluca; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Iino, Eriko; Noguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Katsura; Fujii, Daichi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ohtomo, Sachi; Yamashita, Kousei; Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Monard, Berto; Ohshima, Tomohito; Shears, Jeremy; Ruiz, Javier; Imada, Akira; Oksanen, Arto; Nelson, Peter; Gomez, Tomas L.; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Krajci, Thomas; Crawford, Tim; Stockdale, Chris; Richmond, Michael; Morelle, Etienne; Novák, Rudolf; Nogami, Daisaku; Ishioka, Ryoko; Brady, Steve; Simonsen, Mike; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Ringwald, Frederick A.; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pickard, Roger D.; Hynek, Tomáš; Dvorak, Shawn; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy

    2010-12-01

    Continued from Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected the times of superhump maxima for 68 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2009-2010 season. The newly obtained data confirmed the basic findings reported in Kato et al. (ibid.): the presence of stages A-C and the predominance of positive period derivatives during stage B in systems with superhump periods shorter than 0.07 d. There was a systematic difference in the period derivatives for the systems with superhump periods longer than 0.075 d between this study and Kato et al. (ibid.). We suggest that this difference was possibly caused by a relative lack of frequently outbursting SU UMa-type dwarf novae in this period regime in the present study. We recorded a strong beat phenomenon during the 2009 superoutburst of IY UMa. A close correlation between the beat period and the superhump period suggests that the changing angular velocity of the apsidal motion of the elliptical disk is responsible for the variation of the superhump periods. We also described three new WZ Sge-type objects with established early superhumps and one with likely early superhumps. We suggest that two systems, VX For and EL UMa, are WZ Sge-type dwarf novae with multiple rebrightenings. The O - C variation in OT J213806.6+261957 suggests that the frequent absence of rebrightenings in very short-Porb objects can be the result of a sustained superoutburst plateau at the epoch when usual SU UMa-type dwarf novae return to quiescence, preceding a rebrightening. We also present a formulation for a variety of Bayesian extensions to traditional period analyses.

  15. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VIII. The eighth year (2015-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamás; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D.; Miguel, Enrique de; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Babina, Julia V.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B.; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V.; Antipin, Sergey V.; Zubareva, Alexandra M.; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M.; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N.; Bolt, Greg; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (˜0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN-15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts.

  16. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  17. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  18. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. IV. The Fourth Year (2011-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Miller, Ian; Noguchi, Ryo; Akasaka, Chihiro; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nakazato, Takuma; Nomoto, Takashi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ono, Rikako; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Stein, William; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Takagi, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuya; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Pickard, Roger D.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Littlefield, Colin; Sabo, Richard; Ruiz, Javier; Krajci, Thomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Oksanen, Arto; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Monard, Berto; Shears, Jeremy; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pietz, Jochen; Katysheva, Natalia; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Malanushenko, Viktor; Martinelli, Fabio; Denisenko, Denis; Stockdale, Chris; Starr, Peter; Simonsen, Mike; Tristram, Paul J.; Fukui, Akihiko; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Paxson, Kevin B.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Kryachko, Timur V.; Samokhvalov, Andrey V.; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Satovski, Boris L.; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Muyllaert, Eddy; Gerke, Vladimir; MacDonald, Walter, II; Linnolt, Michael; Maeda, Yutaka; Hautecler, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The mass-ratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods.

  19. Recharge and Groundwater Use in the North China Plain for Six Irrigated Crops for an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers. PMID:25625765

  20. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treated as last day of taxable year for purpose of determining taxable income under certain circumstances... general. (2) Effect of election in current year. (3) Amount of loss taken into account in current year. (i... income. (h) Examples. (i) Procedure for making election. (1) In general. (2) When applicable...

  1. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treated as last day of taxable year for purpose of determining taxable income under certain circumstances... general. (2) Effect of election in current year. (3) Amount of loss taken into account in current year. (i... income. (h) Examples. (i) Procedure for making election. (1) In general. (2) When applicable...

  2. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  3. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VII. The seventh year (2014-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Monard, Berto; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Masumoto, Kazunari; Fukushima, Daiki; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Maeda, Kazuki; Mikami, Jyunya; Matsuda, Risa; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Kawabata, Miho; Takenaka, Megumi; Matsumoto, Katsura; de Miguel, Enrique; Maeda, Yutaka; Ohshima, Tomohito; Isogai, Keisuke; Pickard, Roger D.; Henden, Arne; Kafka, Stella; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Otani, Noritoshi; Ishibashi, Sakiko; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Stein, William; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Vanmunster, Tonny; Starr, Peter; Oksanen, Arto; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Babina, Julia V.; Sklyanov, Aleksandr; Novák, Rudolf; Dvorak, Shawn; Michel, Raúl; Masi, Gianluca; Littlefield, Colin; Ulowetz, Joseph; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Golysheva, Polina Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Krushevska, Viktoriia; Ruiz, Javier; Tordai, Tamás; Morelle, Etienne; Sabo, Richard; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Richmond, Michael; Katysheva, Natalia; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Voloshina, Irina B.; Andreev, Maksim V.; Shiokawa, Kazuhiko; Neustroev, Vitaly V.; Sjoberg, George; Zharikov, Sergey; James, Nick; Bolt, Greg; Crawford, Tim; Buczynski, Denis; Cook, Lewis M.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Denisenko, Denis; Nishimura, Hideo; Mukai, Masaru; Kaneko, Shizuo; Ueda, Seiji; Stubbings, Rod; Moriyama, Masayuki; Schmeer, Patrick; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Modic, Robert J.; Paxson, Kevin B.

    2015-12-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 102 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, observed mainly during the 2014-2015 season, and characterized these objects. Our project has greatly improved the statistics of the distribution of orbital periods, which is a good approximation of the distribution of cataclysmic variables at the terminal evolutionary stage, and has confirmed the presence of a period minimum at a period of 0.053 d and a period spike just above this period. The number density monotonically decreased toward the longer period and there was no strong indication of a period gap. We detected possible negative superhumps in Z Cha. It is possible that normal outbursts are also suppressed by the presence of a disk tilt in this system. There was no indication of enhanced orbital humps just preceding the superoutburst, and this result favors the thermal-tidal disk instability as the origin of superoutbursts. We detected superhumps in three AM CVn-type dwarf novae. Our observations and recent other detections suggest that 8% of objects showing dwarf nova-type outbursts are AM CVn-type objects. AM CVn-type objects and EI Psc-type objects may be more abundant than previously recognized. OT J213806, a WZ Sge-type object, exhibited remarkably different features between the 2010 and 2014 superoutbursts. Although the 2014 superoutburst was much fainter, the plateau phase was shorter than the 2010 one, and the course of the rebrightening phase was similar. This object indicates that the O - C diagrams of superhumps can indeed be variable, at least in WZ Sge-type objects. Four deeply eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf novae (ASASSN-13cx, ASASSN-14ag, ASASSN-15bu, and NSV 4618) were identified. We studied long-term trends in supercycles in MM Hya and CY UMa and found systematic variations of supercycles of ˜20%.

  4. Hospital expenditure as a major driver of nurse labour force participation: evidence from a 10-year period in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991-1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991-2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors.

  5. Detecting land cover change over a 20 year time period in the Niagara Escarpment Plan using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Holly

    The Niagara Escarpment is one of Southern Ontario's most important landscapes. Due to the nature of the landform and its location, the Escarpment is subject to various development pressures including urban expansion, mineral resource extraction, agricultural practices and recreation. In 1985, Canada's first large scale environmentally based land use plan was put in place to ensure that only development that is compatible with the Escarpment occurred within the Niagara Escarpment Plan (NEP). The southern extent of the NEP is of particular interest in this study, since a portion of the Plan is located within the rapidly expanding Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The Plan area located in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton represent both urban and rural geographical areas respectively, and are both experiencing development pressures and subsequent changes in land cover. Monitoring initiatives on the NEP have been established, but have done little to identify consistent techniques for monitoring land cover on the Niagara Escarpment. Land cover information is an important part of planning and environmental monitoring initiatives. Remote sensing has the potential to provide frequent and accurate land cover information over various spatial scales. The goal of this research was to examine land cover change in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton portions of the NEP. This was achieved through the creation of land cover maps for each region using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data. These maps aided in determining the qualitative and quantitative changes that had occurred in the Plan area over a 20 year time period from 1986 to 2006. Change was also examined based on the NEP's land use designations, to determine if the Plan policy has been effective in protecting the Escarpment. To obtain land cover maps, five different supervised classification methods were explored: Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Object

  6. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  7. Hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) due to compound heterozygosity for G336S and V377I in a 44-year-old patient with a 27-year history of fever.

    PubMed

    Schlabe, Stefan; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Lohse, Peter; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt

    2016-11-29

    Hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes are a rare, but notable cause of fever of unknown origin. During the last few years, the knowledge of the genetic background has significantly increased. Here, we report a novel pathogenic mutation in the MVK gene as the cause of fever in a 44-year-old male patient with a history of fever over a period of 27 years.

  8. Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics over a Six-Year Period in Youths with Persistent and Nonpersistent Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Judith G.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Manor, Orly; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined behavior problems in a matched sample of 58 youths with persistent dyscalculia (PD) and nonpersistent dyscalculia (NPD). Participants were classified as having dyscalculia at age 10-11 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for their children at ages 10-11, 13-14, and 16-17 years, while the youths did so at the…

  9. How One Period Casts Shadows on Another: Exploring Year 8 Encounters with Multiple Interpretations of the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Dan Smith was concerned that his pupils were drawing on oversimplified generalisations about different periods of the past when they were considering why interpretations change over time. This led him to consider how pupils' contextual knowledge and chronological fluency might be used more explicitly in order to avoid weak generalisations about…

  10. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  11. Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

  12. Use of age-period-cohort models to estimate effects of vehicle age, year of crash and year of vehicle manufacture on driver injury and fatality rates in single vehicle crashes in New South Wales, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Searson, D J

    2015-02-01

    A novel application of age-period-cohort methods are used to explain changes in vehicle based crash rates in New South Wales, Australia over the period 2003-2010. Models are developed using vehicle age, crash period and vehicle cohort to explain changes in the rate of single vehicle driver fatalities and injuries in vehicles less than 13 years of age. Large declines in risk are associated with vehicle cohorts built after about 1996. The decline in risk appears to have accelerated to 12 percent per vehicle cohort year for cohorts since 2004. Within each cohort, the risk of crashing appears to be a minimum at two years of age and increases as the vehicle ages beyond this. Period effects (i.e., other road safety measures) between 2003 and 2010 appear to have contributed to declines of up to about two percent per annum to the driver-fatality single vehicle crash rate, and possibly only negligible improvements to the driver-injury single vehicle crash rate. Vehicle improvements appear to have been responsible for a decline in per-vehicle crash risk of at least three percent per calendar year for both severity levels over the same period. Given the decline in risk associated with more recent vehicle cohorts and the dynamics of fleet turnover, continued declines in per-vehicle crash risk over coming years are almost certain.

  13. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  14. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

  15. Stellar Rotation and Variability in IC 348 and Indication of a 4.75 Year Period for the Unique, Apparently Eclipsing Pre-Main Sequence Star HMW 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordhagen, S. C. J.; Rhode, K. L.; Herbst, W.; Williams, E. C.

    2005-12-01

    During the past two years of a seven-year photometric variability study of the young stellar cluster IC 348, numerous periodically variable T Tauri stars were discovered, bringing the total number of identified periodic variables in IC 348 to 69, or about 45 % of all cluster stars observed by us. This includes data from Herbst, Maley & Williams (2000, AJ 120, 394), Cohen, Herbst & Williams (2004, AJ 127, 1602) and Littlefair et al. (2005 MNRAS 358, 341). In addition to these photometric data, spectra of 30 cluster members were obtained with the WIYN 3.5m telescope and used to calculate radial velocities and v sin i rotation measurements, offering a generally complementary view of stellar rotation in IC 348. A mean heliocentric radial velocity for the cluster has been determined, and two radial velocity outliers discovered, which are possible spectroscopic binaries. The distribution of rotation periods, their relationship to v sin i measurements and the implications of these results for the rotation and radii of pre-main sequence stars in IC 348 will be presented. In addition, we discuss the recent behavior of the peculiar variable HMW 15 (Cohen, Herbst & Williams 2003 ApJ 596, L243), which now appears to be undergoing a periodic eclipse on a time scale of 4.75 years. We discuss possible origins for this extraordinarily long periodicity. S. Nordhagen was an undergraduate summer student at Wesleyan University, sponsored by the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. Their REU program is supported by NSF grant AST-0353997.

  16. The 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle in Pacific Decadal Oscillation reconstructed from tree-rings in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Time-series of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) reconstructed from tree-rings in Western North America is found to have a statistically significant periodicity of 18.6-year period lunar nodal tidal cycle; negative (positive) PDO tends to occur in the period of strong (weak) diurnal tide. In the 3rd and 5th (10th, 11th and 13rd) year after the maximum diurnal tide, mean-PDO takes significant negative (positive) value, suggesting that the Aleutian Low is weak (strong), western-central North Pacific in 30-50°N is warm (cool) and equator-eastern rim of the Pacific is cool (warm). This contributes to climate predictability with a time-table from the astronomical tidal cycle.

  17. Enhanced recognition and recall of new words in 7- and 12-year-olds following a period of offline consolidation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., biscal) and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds were then retested on either the same day or the following day to examine changes in performance after a short delay compared with a longer delay that included sleep. Experiment 2 used two age groups (7- and 12-year-olds), with all participants being retested 24h later. The 12-year-olds accurately recognized the novel nonwords immediately after exposure, as did the 7-year-olds in Experiment 2 (but not in Experiment 1), suggesting generally good initial rates of learning. Experiment 1 revealed improved recognition of the novel nonwords after both short (3- to 4-h) and longer (24-h) delays. In contrast, recall was initially poor but showed improvements only when children were retested 24h later, not after a 3- to 4-h delay. Similar improvements were observed in both age groups despite better overall performance in 12-year-olds. We argue that children, like adults, exhibit offline consolidation effects on the formation of novel phonological representations.

  18. Adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a study of prognostic features and response to treatment over a ten year period.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R. E.; Catovsky, D.; Johnson, S. A.; Gregory, W. M.; Talavera, J. G.; Goldman, J. M.; Galton, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1974 and 1984 69 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were treated with two different protocols. Fifty-four (78%) of the patients entered complete remission (CR); 27 of these then received a consolidation protocol consisting of daunorubicin, cytosine arabinoside and 6-thioguanine, followed by two courses of intravenous methotrexate 500 mg m-2 with folinic acid rescue. All patients received intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation (24 Gy) followed by maintenance therapy with 6-mercaptopurine and methotrexate for at least 2 years. The median survival for all patients was 23 months from the time of presentation with an actuarial 5-year survival of 21%. The actuarial chance of surviving 5 years in CR for patients receiving the consolidation protocol was 38% compared to 19% for patients receiving no consolidation (P = NS). Only patient age and white cell count at presentation were found to influence the chance of achieving CR and the chance of overall survival. The presence or absence of c-ALL antigen did not influence prognosis. Patients younger than 35 years with low white cell counts at presentation (less than 10 X 10(9)1(-1] had a particularly good prognosis but no patient with T-ALL and no patient older than 50 years old at diagnosis survived more than 18 months. PMID:3456786

  19. Peri-implant bone tissues around retrieved human implants after time periods longer than 5 years: a retrospective histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil A; Vantaggiato, Giovanni; Frosecchi, Massimo; Di Chiara, Claudio; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    Only rarely, it is possible to find in the literature histological reports of human retrieved implants, especially after several years of functional loading. These implants can help us in understanding the reactions of peri-implant bone. The aim of this study was to perform a histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant tissues behavior and of the bone-titanium interface in titanium dental implants retrieved from patients after time periods longer than 5 years. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy were searched for human dental implants, retrieved after a loading period of more than 5 years. A total of 8 implants were found: 3 of these had been retrieved after 5 years, 1 after 6 years, one after 10 years, 1 after 14 years, 1 after 18 years, 1 after 22 years. Only the bone to implant contact in the three best threads was evaluated. Compact, mature, lamellar bone, with few and small marrow spaces, was present around the implants. Osteons with Haversian canals were present inside some threads, in close proximity to the interface, at both cortical and trabecular regions. Other osteons had a direction perpendicular to the direction of the long axis of the implants. Numerous reversal lines were present. At higher magnification, no gaps or fibrous, connective tissues were present at the interface. The BIC of the three best threads for all implants varied from 94 to 100 %.In conclusion, within the limitations of the present report histology showed that implants with different surfaces all presented the potential to maintain osseointegration over a long period, with a continuous remodeling at the interface, as indicated by the presence of reversal lines.

  20. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  1. Water-quality in the North Santiam River basin, Oregon-Comparison of water-quality data for water year 2007 with the preceding period of record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, David R.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Bragg, Heather M.; Brooks, Amy M.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality data have been collected in the North Santiam River basin since 1998. During water year 2007, eight monitoring stations were operated throughout the basin. Streamflow data were collected at all but one of these sites. This report presents a comparison of the water-quality and streamflow data collected at each monitoring station from monitor installation through water year 2006 with the data for water year 2007. Data were compiled monthly and annually to identify extreme values by season and for entire periods of study.

  2. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  3. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  4. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss. (2) Net foreign currency loss. (3) Foreign currency gain or loss. (e) Limitation on capital gain... foreign currency loss attributable to the portion of a regulated investment company's taxable year after... (c)(3) of this section shall apply. (2) Net foreign currency loss. The term “net foreign...

  5. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  6. Children's cardiovascular reactivity: stability of racial differences and relation to subsequent blood pressure over a one-year period.

    PubMed

    Murphy, J K; Alpert, B S; Walker, S S; Willey, E S

    1991-07-01

    After measuring blood pressure and heart rate at rest and during a video game procedure in 477 children enrolled in 3rd grade, 434 (91%) children had these measurements repeated a year later in 4th grade. Black children demonstrated greater blood pressure and heart rate reactivity than White children in both years, and an increase in heart rate reactivity from 3rd to 4th grade. Gender effects were inconsistent. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures during the video game were more highly correlated from year-to-year than were the resting measures. Regression analysis indicated that systolic reactivity was significantly related to subsequent systolic pressure at rest, particularly among Black girls. Diastolic reactivity was associated with subsequent resting diastolic pressure only among White children. Associations between reactivity and future blood pressure were independent of initial resting blood pressure. This study suggests that cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress may be one important factor in future level of blood pressure and that the increased heart rate reactivity of Black children may be associated with the prevalence of hypertension among Black adults.

  7. Social Studies Instructional Factors Causing Change in High School Students' Socio-political Attitudes over a Two-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehman, Lee H.

    The paper reports findings of a three year longitudinal study of high school student social and political attitudes. The hypothesis was that openness of social studies classroom climate would be related to change in social and political attitudes toward school and, to a lesser extent, to change in general social and political attitudes. Attitude…

  8. Genomic divergence and lack of introgressive hybridization between two 13-year periodical cicadas support life cycle switching in the face of climate change.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takuya; Ito, Hiromu; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris; Yoshimura, Jin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-11-01

    Life history evolution spurred by post-Pleistocene climatic change is hypothesized to be responsible for the present diversity in periodical cicadas (Magicicada), but the mechanism of life cycle change has been controversial. To understand the divergence process of 13-year and 17-year cicada life cycles, we studied genetic relationships between two synchronously emerging, parapatric 13-year periodical cicada species in the Decim group, Magicicada tredecim and M. neotredecim. The latter was hypothesized to be of hybrid origin or to have switched from a 17-year cycle via developmental plasticity. Phylogenetic analysis using restriction-site-associated DNA sequences for all Decim species and broods revealed that the 13-year M. tredecim lineage is genomically distinct from 17-year Magicicada septendecim but that 13-year M. neotredecim is not. We detected no significant introgression between M. tredecim and M. neotredecim/M. septendecim thus refuting the hypothesis that M. neotredecim are products of hybridization between M. tredecim and M. septendecim. Further, we found that introgressive hybridization is very rare or absent in the contact zone between the two 13-year species evidenced by segregation patterns in single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial lineage identity and head width and abdominal sternite colour phenotypes. Our study demonstrates that the two 13-year Decim species are of independent origin and nearly completely reproductively isolated. Combining our data with increasing observations of occasional life cycle change in part of a cohort (e.g. 4-year acceleration of emergence in 17-year species), we suggest a pivotal role for developmental plasticity in Magicicada life cycle evolution.

  9. Parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status over a 2-year period in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (P<0.001). Compared with the children with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.

  10. Tuberculosis trends over a five-year period at a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Jappar, Suzanna Binte; Low, Su Ying

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB), a potentially fatal infectious disease, poses significant health problems. The objective of this study was to analyse trends among newly diagnosed TB patients seen at the Singapore General Hospital (SGH). METHODS This study was a retrospective case record review of notified TB patients at SGH between 2006 and 2010 (inclusive). RESULTS A total of 1,979 cases of TB were notified over the five years. The number increased from 368 in 2006 to 407 in 2010 (p = 0.51), in tandem with the increasing number of patients seen at the hospital and the rising population in Singapore. Singaporean residents accounted for 82.8% of the cases, while non-Singaporean residents and non-residents made up the remainder. The year-to-year percentage of non-Singaporean residents and non-residents notified remained stable throughout the five years (p = 0.783). The number of male Singaporean residents (70.7%) notified was more than twice that of female Singaporean residents (29.3%). The majority of patients infected with TB (31.9%) were elderly patients aged > 65 years. Although testing for the human immunodeficiency virus increased from 43.8% (2006) to 64.2% (2010), the number detected with coinfection remained stable (14 and 12 patients in 2006 and 2010, respectively). Mortality rates also remained stable at 12.0%. CONCLUSION We cannot afford complacency, as there was no downward trend in the number of notified TB cases at SGH from 2006 to 2010. As the elderly contribute significantly to the TB burden, increased efforts are required to manage this vulnerable population. PMID:26451052

  11. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1.

  12. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  13. Degeneration of the Arnold's prefrontopontocerebellar tract in a case of locked-in syndrome over a 23-year period.

    PubMed

    Cotton, François; Ciancia, Sophie; Tell, Laurence; Lachaise, Laurence; Braun, Marc; Rode, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman has been under observation for a complete locked-in syndrome of vascular origin, since 1984. Her cognitive functions today are still normal. When first diagnosed, a CT-scan was made and 23 years later performed, a cerebral MRI was performed. A focal, bilateral and symmetric atrophy of the dorsomedial prefrontal gyri was clearly shown, contrasting with the non-atrophy of the precentral gyri (motor area), others prefrontal areas, frontopolar gyri and temporal cortices. Degeneration of the corticopontine projection, the first step in the corticopontocerebellar circuit, could explain this selective atrophy. This unique observation leads to the precise in vivo anatomical location of the Arnold tract.

  14. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia during a two-year monitoring period: A case report and literature overview

    PubMed Central

    Klinis, Spyridon; Symeonidis, Athanasios; Karanasios, Dimitrios; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K.

    2017-01-01

    High creatine kinase (CK) levels can be associated with many disorders, including neuromuscular, cardiac, metabolic, endocrine and traumatic. Idiopathic hyperCKemia is a diagnostic dilemma for physicians even though its long-term prognosis is usually benign. We report a case of a Caucasian 61-year-old woman who presented as completely asymptomatic to her general practitioner with a serum CK (sCK) level at 6,122 IU/l. A complete diagnostic evaluation, including physical and laboratory examinations, electromyogram and muscle biopsy were negative for any neuromuscular or other disorder. Two years later the patient remains asymptomatic, active and overall healthy but sCK levels remain elevated, ≤6,591 IU/l (>50-fold higher than normal values). PMID:28123712

  15. [Scanning electron microscopic study of so-called carvable composite filling materials after over one-year functional period].

    PubMed

    Triadan, H

    1979-03-01

    28 class-5 and 16 class-1 fillings were made from the composite material "Epoxydent" on a macaca speciosa monkey and examined with the electron microscope after a 15 months functional period. Statistically significant differences in the size of the marginal space were found to be larger than in comparable composites Adaptic, Concise, Compo-Cap and Cosmic. The spaces were frequently not located on the filling margin but inside, within the filling material. This is attributed to the "carving" technique during the gel phase of setting. The surface shows abrasions and porosities with loss of particles, sometimes fractures and discolored margins with secondary caries. It is not recommended to replace metal fillings by so-called carvable composits.

  16. An unusual recurrence of dysembroplastic neuroepithelial tumours after a seizure-free period of 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nadeem Israr; Khanna, Laxmi; Renjen, Pushpendra Nath; Fernandes, Cecilia Succour

    2013-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs) are grade 1 central nervous tumours, which can be diagnosed judiciously based on clinical features and radiological investigations, having a good prognosis after surgical resection. However, the recurrence of tumours due to variable epileptic zones leading to persistence of seizures can make the management of such cases challenging. We present a case of DNET where the patient had recurrence of the tumour with worsening of seizure activity 8 years after initial surgical resection. PMID:24014330

  17. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden – repeated surveys over a 25-year period

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study female students’ sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Design Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Setting Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Population Female university students (n = 359). Methods Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Main outcome measures Sexual and contraceptive behavior. Results In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p < 0.001), and experience of anal sex increased from 39% to 46% (n = 136 in 2009 vs. n = 165 in 2014: p = 0.038), and 25% (n = 41 in 2014) always used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students’ knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Conclusions Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. PMID:25619646

  18. A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003)

    PubMed Central

    Falagas, Matthew E; Papastamataki, Paraskevi A; Bliziotis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. Methods Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3) the product of the above two parameters, (4) the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5) the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals). Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles), with USA ranking second (19.9%), and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%). The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88). Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas. Conclusion Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research. PMID:16545114

  19. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a ten-year period in a primate model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B.; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M.; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D.; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R.; Merrell, D. Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as stains in which babA was deleted were unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  20. Bone response to dental implants after a 3- to 10-year loading period: a histologic and histomorphometric report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Degidi, Marco; Shibli, Jamil A; Vantaggiato, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to histologically and histomorphometrically analyze the peri-implant tissue reactions and the bone-titanium interface in loaded Ankylos implants retrieved after loading periods of longer than 1 year. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti- Pescara were searched for Ankylos implants retrieved from humans after a loading period of longer than 1 year. A total of four implants were found: one had been retrieved after 3 years (Friadent plus surface), two after 3.5 years (Friadent plus surface), and one after 10 years (Deep Profile surface). All implants had been loaded; two had been loaded immediately. One implant was retrieved after fracture, one was retrieved after fracture of the superstructure, and the other two were retrieved because of bone resorption with or without infection. Compact bone with few small marrow spaces was present around the three implants retrieved after 3 and 3.5 years; trabecular bone was present around the implant retrieved after 10 years. The bone-implant contact of the three best threads was 35% for the implant retrieved after 10 years, 99% for the implant retrieved after 3 years, and 100% for the implants retrieved after 3.5 years. No untoward effects were present at the interface, and a high bone-implant contact was present around the implants with the microstructured surface. The data show that these implants had the potential to maintain osseointegration under long-term function with continuous and ongoing bone remodeling.

  1. Do autistic symptoms persist across time? Evidence of substantial change in symptomatology over a 3-year period in cognitively able children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the extent and nature of changes in symptomatology in cognitively able children with autism over a 3-year period. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition involved in an earlier study (M age  =  5 years, 7 months) were followed and reassessed 3 years later (M age  =  8 years, 4 months). Scores on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; M. Rutter, A. Bailey, & C. Lord, 2003 ) decreased significantly over time in all symptom domains but especially in the social domain, and correlational findings suggested the presence of 2 distinct developmental trajectories-social communication and repetitive behaviors-that interact across time. Furthermore, 7 children (19% of sample) made substantial changes to the extent that they failed to meet criteria on diagnostic instruments (the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic [ADOS-G; C. Lord, M. Rutter, P. C. DiLavore, & S. Risi, 1999 ] and the SCQ) 3 years later. Children showing diagnostic discontinuity were distinguishable from those who fulfilled ADOS-G criteria only in terms of the age at which they began receiving intervention. The presence of a significant proportion of children showing considerable progress over the 3-year period challenges assumptions of diagnostic continuity and highlights the potential long-term benefits of early intervention.

  2. Switching TNF antagonists in patients with chronic arthritis: an observational study of 488 patients over a four-year period

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the survival of infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab in patients who have switched among tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists for the treatment of chronic arthritis. BIOBADASER is a national registry of patients with different forms of chronic arthritis who are treated with biologics. Using this registry, we have analyzed patient switching of TNF antagonists. The cumulative discontinuation rate was calculated using the actuarial method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression models were used to assess independent factors associated with discontinuing medication. Between February 2000 and September 2004, 4,706 patients were registered in BIOBADASER, of whom 68% had rheumatoid arthritis, 11% ankylosing spondylitis, 10% psoriatic arthritis, and 11% other forms of chronic arthritis. One- and two-year drug survival rates of the TNF antagonist were 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. There were 488 patients treated with more than one TNF antagonist. In this situation, survival of the second TNF antagonist decreased to 0.68 and 0.60 at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Survival was better in patients replacing the first TNF antagonist because of adverse events (hazard ratio (HR) for discontinuation 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.84)), and worse in patients older than 60 years (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.97–2.49)) or who were treated with infliximab (HR 3.22 (95% CI 2.13–4.87)). In summary, in patients who require continuous therapy and have failed to respond to a TNF antagonist, replacement with a different TNF antagonist may be of use under certain situations. This issue will deserve continuous reassessment with the arrival of new medications. PMID:16507128

  3. Reproductive parameters over a 37-year period of free-ranging female Borneo orangutans at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre.

    PubMed

    Kuze, Noko; Sipangkui, Symphorosa; Malim, Titol Peter; Bernard, Henry; Ambu, Laurentius N; Kohshima, Shiro

    2008-04-01

    We analysed the reproductive parameters of free-ranging female orangutans at Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) on Borneo Island, Sabah, Malaysia. Fourteen adult females produced 28 offspring in total between 1967 and 2004. The average censored interbirth interval (IBI) (i.e. offspring was still alive when mother produced a next offspring) was 6 years. This was shorter than censored IBIs reported in the wild but similar to IBIs reported for those in captivity. The nonparametric survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method) revealed a significantly shorter IBI at SORC compared with wild orangutans in Tanjung Putting. The infant (0-3 years) mortality rate at SORC of 57% was much higher than rates reported both in the wild and captivity. The birth sex-ratio was significantly biassed toward females: 24 of the 27 sex-identified infants were females. The average age at first reproduction was 11.6 years, which is younger than the age in the wild and in captivity. The high infant mortality rate might be caused by human rearing and increased transmission of disease due to frequent proximal encounters with conspecifics around the feeding platforms (FPs). This young age of first reproduction could be because of the uncertainty regarding estimated ages of the female orangutans at SORC. It may also be affected by association with other conspecifics around FPs, which increased the number of encounters of the females with males compared with the number of encounters that would take place in the wild. Provision of FPs, which improves the nutritional condition of the females, caused the shorter IBI. The female-biassed birth sex-ratio can be explained by the Trivers and Willard hypothesis. The female-biassed sex ratio could be caused by the mothers being in poor health, parasite prevalence and/or high social stress (but not food scarcity) due to the frequent encounters with conspecifics around FPs.

  4. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings.

  5. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  6. Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (FPTC): a Retrospective Analysis in a Sample of the Bulgarian Population for a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Vidinov, Kalin; Nikolova, Dragomira

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there are numerous reports indicating the presence of familial papillary carcinoma. Unfortunately, no genetic defect can be linked directly to the disease. In this study, we set the goal to make a retrospective analysis of the cases with papillary carcinoma in the Department of Endocrine Surgery for the past 10 years, to compare the characteristics of sporadic and familial forms of the disease and to find families with hereditary papillary carcinoma. The study included 810 patients treated for thyroid cancer in the Department of Endocrine Surgery, USBALE "Acad. Iv. Penchev" Hospital, between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015. We used chi square test to determine statistical significant difference. The data analysis and interpretation was performed on SPSS 20.0. Both groups had similar demographic distribution. We found that 587 patients have sporadic papillary carcinoma, while 147 have a relative with thyroid pathology in the first degree of kinship. In 8 patients, there was a blood relative with thyroid cancer. When we compared the two groups, we found statistically significant difference only in tumor size. There was no significant difference in aggressiveness of the thyroid cancer (multifocality and lymph node metastasis). When analyzing the results, we identified 147 patients with a family history of thyroid disease (20%). In 8 patients (5.44%), we found at least one relative with papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, our study does not demonstrate any difference in the aggressiveness of familial and sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  7. Clonal analysis of meningococci during a 26 year period prior to the introduction of meningococcal serogroup C vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Christopher B; Diggle, Mathew A; Davies, Robert L; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a public health burden in the UK and elsewhere. Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, isolated in Scotland between 1972 and 1998, were characterised retrospectively to examine the serogroup and clonal structure of the circulating population. 2607 isolates causing invasive disease were available for serogroup and MLST analysis whilst 2517 were available for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis only. Serogroup distribution changed from year to year but serogroups B and C were dominant throughout. Serogroup B was dominant throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until serogroup C became dominant during the mid-1980s. The increase in serogroup C was not associated with one particular sequence type (ST) but was associated with a number of STs, including ST-8, ST-11, ST-206 and ST-334. This is in contrast to the increase in serogroup C disease seen in the 1990s that was due to expansion of the ST-11 clonal complex. While there was considerable diversity among the isolates (309 different STs among the 2607 isolates), a large proportion of isolates (59.9%) were associated with only 10 STs. These data highlight meningococcal diversity over time and the need for ongoing surveillance during the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines.

  8. [1984-1994: Ten years of skin flaps. Development of transfer techniques. New methods of autoplasty described during this period].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1995-10-01

    Ten years of flaps represent a little and a lot. It is little compared to the 2600 years since the first flap in plastic surgery: the Susruta Indian flap, but it is a lot in view of the phenomenal acceleration of this speciality since the Second World War. In 1994 alone, more than two hundred references are listed under the heading "new flaps". As it is impossible to be exhaustive, the author has chosen to focus on two main aspects: a theoretical review of new transfer techniques, dealing successively with: the principles of reverse flow flaps, venous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps, so-called "extracorporeal" transfers, reverse flow YV technique; and practical aspects based on a review of eighteen autoplasties or donor sites selected for their surgical value, their reproductibility and their innovative nature. The author's objective is not to present a technical treatise, but rather to make the reader aware of several key points or even, in some cases, the very existence of these autoplasties. This paper is designed to be didactic, with extensive references, in order to act as a practical guide. It also demonstrates, as if there were any need, to what extent plastic surgery is able to create new solutions and the essential value of continuing research.

  9. Review of injuries over a one year period among 87,134 adults studying at an open university in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karen; McClure, Rod; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Bain, Christopher; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Countries need epidemiological information about population injury statistics to devise preventive strategies. To generate such information we estimated the one-year incidence and distribution of injury in a group of 87,134 adult Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University distance-learning students residing throughout Thailand. Those who participated joined the study by filling out a baseline questionnaire in 2005 which included a one-year recall of injuries serious enough to interfere with daily activities and/or require medical treatment. The more serious injuries were categorised by location, mechanism and intentionality. We collected sociodemographic information about the participants. Nearly 22% of participants reported at least one injury during the previous 12 months. Males, those with lower income and the less educated, had higher injury rates. Home injuries were more common among females. Sports, road and workplace injuries were more common among males. Transport injuries decreased with age and falls increased with age. Most injuries were unintentional. Injury rates among Thai adults are high. We identified at risk groups by injury mechanism and setting. Before interventions can be devised more research is needed regarding exposure and vulnerability in at risk socio-demographic groups.

  10. CT image quality over time: comparison of image quality for six different CT scanners over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Roa, Ana Maria A; Andersen, Hilde K; Martinsen, Anne Catrine T

    2015-03-08

    UNSCEAR concluded that increased use of CT scanning caused dramatic changes in population dose. Therefore, international radiation protection authorities demand: 1) periodical quality assurance tests with respect to image quality and radiation dose, and 2) optimization of all examination protocols with respect to image quality and radiation dose. This study aimed to evaluate and analyze multiple image quality parameters and variability measured throughout time for six different CT scanners from four different vendors, in order to evaluate the current methodology for QA controls of CT systems. The results from this study indicate that there is minor drifting in the image noise and uniformity and in the spatial resolution over time for CT scanners, independent of vendors. The HU for different object densities vary between different CT scanner models from different vendors, and over time for one specific CT scanner. Future tests of interphantom and intraphantom variations, along with inclusion of more CT scanners, are necessary to establish robust baselines and recommendations of methodology for QA controls of CT systems, independent of model and vendor.

  11. Turn on, fade out - methane exchange in a coastal fen over a period of six years after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Glatzel, Stephan; Hahn, Juliane; Koch, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Koebsch, Franziska

    2016-04-01

    The rewetting of drained peatlands is widely regarded as an adequate measure for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, especially in NE Germany, many peatlands are being rewetted. Our knowledge about greenhouse gas exchange associated with rewetting is mainly based on short-term experiments or space-for-time substitutions. These approaches do not consider the transient character of ecosystem acclimatization to flooding by rewetting. Moreover data in this regard on coastal peatland ecosystems are sparse. Here, we present 7 years of data on CH4-exchange in a coastal fen after rewetting by flooding. On the site „Rodewiese", which is located within the NSG "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" in the Northeast of Rostock, NE Germany, we have established a long term research observatory addressing atmospheric C-exchange. The site is part of the TERENO network. Since summer 2009 we determine CH4 fluxes with closed chambers distributed widely across the study site and CO2-exchange with eddy covariance as well as ancillary data on vegetation, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. This talk addresses the CH4-exchange over time whereas CO2-exchange data are presented by Koebsch et al. in the same session. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Flooding increased methane release rates to extremely high levels of up to 4.3 t ha-1 a-1 for sedge stands and 2.7 t ha-1 a-1 on average, which amounts to 75.6 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents. Thereafter, the averaged annual CH4 emissions decreased asymptotically and where at an average of 0.5 t ha-1 a-1 (14 t ha-1 a-1 in CO2-equivalents) in 2015. Factoring in the NEE of the growing season (from Eddy measurements) suggests that the system may be slightly above neutral with respect to the greenhouse

  12. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  13. Interpersonal victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, and change in adolescent substance use prevalence over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McCart, Michael R; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of age) participating in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (N = 3,906) and the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (N = 3,423). Results revealed significant declines in adolescents' use of cigarettes and alcohol between 1995 and 2005; use of marijuana and hard drugs remained stable. Of importance, declines in nonexperimental cigarette use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of victimization and declines in alcohol use were significantly greater among youth without versus with a history of PTSD.

  14. Ciguatera incidence in the US Virgin Islands has not increased over a 30-year time period despite rising seawater temperatures.

    PubMed

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Grattan, Lynn M; Cook, Robert L; Smith, Tyler B; Anderson, Donald M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-05-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature.

  15. Legionella pneumonia cases over a five-year period: a descriptive, retrospective study of outcomes in a UK district hospital.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Rowell, Sam; Peel, Alex; Puli, Deeksha; Guleri, Achyut; Sharma, Rashmi

    2013-04-01

    As the recent outbreaks in Edinburgh and Camarthen, UK, have shown, Legionella pneumonia (LP) remains a significant public health problem, which is not only confined to those who have travelled abroad. In both outbreaks and sporadic cases, diagnosis can go unrecognised. We reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcome of LP cases over five years in a district general hospital in northwest England. Over half of LP cases were UK acquired and 'classic' clinical features were common. Clinical criteria for diagnosing LP were confirmed, but few sputum samples were sent to reference laboratories, limiting further essential epidemiological mapping of UK cases. Following current UK community-acquired pneumonia guidance would have missed nearly one quarter of LP cases in our series, potentially leading to further morbidity and mortality.

  16. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  17. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  18. A survey of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies during a 10-year period (2000-2009) in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok Young; Cho, Eun Joo; Lee, Jin Hyo; Han, Sun Hee; Park, Yong Sang

    2010-09-01

    This study has been conducted to estimate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water supplies in the Metropolitan area of Seoul, South Korea, for 10 years from 2000 to 2009. Water samples were collected quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River and its largest stream and 6 conventional Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) serving drinking water for 10 million people of Seoul. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 22.5% of intake water samples and arithmetic mean was 0.65 oocysts/10 L (range 0-22 oocysts/10 L). Although the annual mean of oocyst number was as low as 0.04-1.90 oocysts/10 L, 3 peaks in 2004 and 2007 were observed and the pollution level was a little higher in winter. The lowest density was observed at Paldang intake and the pollution level increased at Kuui and Jayang intakes. At the end of the largest stream, oocysts were found in 70% of collected samples (mean 5.71 oocysts/10 L) and it seemed that its joining the Han River resulted in the increase at Kuui intake and downstream. Oocyst removal by physical process exceeded 2.0-2.3 log and then all finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Cryptosporidium in each 100 L sample for 10 years. These results suggested that domestic wastewater from the urban region could be a source of Cryptosporidium pollution and separating sewage systems adjacent to the intakes could be meaningful for some intakes having weakness related to parasitological water quality.

  19. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  20. Prevalence of multidrug resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese hospital over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruiqin; Wang, Fengzhi; Kang, Jianbang; Wang, Xinchun; Yin, Donghong; Dang, Wen; Duan, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci are common causes of bloodstream and nosocomial infections, and their multi-drug resistance is an increasingly serious problem. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci in a Chinese population. In this retrospective study, data about Gram-positive cocci from in-patients (January 2006 and December 2013) at the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China, were reviewed. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolated Gram-positive cocci was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2009 guidelines. The prevalence of drug resistance was determined, as well as correlation coefficients for various drugs between the resistance rate and year of sample collection. A total of 7789 Gram-positive cocci isolates were found, including 2576 (33%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 1477 (19%) Staphylococci aureus, 1343 (17%) Enterococcus faecalis, and 1139 (15%) Enterococcus faecium. The proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococci (MRS) were 31.5% (465/1477) and 61.6% (1587/2576), respectively. Among all isolates, MRS had much higher drug resistance rate than methicillin-sensitive Staphylococci (P<0.05). E. faecalis had a higher multi-drug resistance rate than E. faecium (P<0.01). Interestingly, MRSA resistance rates declined over the years, showing a negative correlation coefficient for all drugs, with significance for levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin (P<0.05), but not sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (P=0.057) and gentamicin (P=0.186). These results indicated that Staphylococci were the predominant Gram-positive cocci isolated. There was a trend of decreasing MRSA in the population studied. PMID:26309609

  1. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  2. Phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses of human metapneumovirus in Buenos Aires (Argentina) for a three-year period (2009-2011).

    PubMed

    Velez Rueda, Ana Julia; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana; Viegas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus, which belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and has been classified as a member of the Pneumovirus genus, is genetically and clinically similar to other family members such as human respiratory syncytial virus. A total of 1146 nasopharyngeal aspirates from pediatric patients with moderate and severe acute lower respiratory tract infections, hospitalized at the Ricardo Gutierrez Childreńs Hospital (Buenos Aires, Argentina), were tested by real time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus. Results showed that 168 (14.65%) were positive. Thirty-six of these 168 samples were randomly selected to characterize positive cases molecularly. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the G and F genes showed that genotypes A2 and B2 cocirculated during 2009 and 2010 and that only genotype A2 circulated in 2011 in Argentina. Genotype A2 prevailed during the study period, a fact supported by a higher effective population size (Neτ) and higher diversity as compared to that of genotype B2 (10.9% (SE 1.3%) vs. 1.7% (SE 0.4%), respectively). The phylogeographic analysis of the G protein gene sequences showed that this virus has no geographical restrictions and can travel globally harbored in hosts. The selection pressure analysis of the F protein showed that although this protein has regions with polymorphisms, it has vast structural and functional constraints. In addition, the predicted B-linear epitopes and the sites recognized by previously described monoclonal antibodies were conserved in all Argentine sequences. This points out this protein as a potential candidate to be the target of future humanized antibodies or vaccines.

  3. [Anatomical repair of transposition of the great vessels in the neonatal period. 5 years' experience. 246 patients].

    PubMed

    Planche, C; Bruniaux, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Binet, J P

    1989-01-01

    In the period between april 1984 and march 1989, 246 newborn children with transposition of the great vessels benefited from anatomical repair of their heart disease. 221 children had simple transposition with normal interventricular septa. These were aged 2 to 23 days (mean age 7.8 +/- 3.5 standard deviation). 25 had transposition of the great vessels associated with a large interventricular septum defect. These were aged 7 to 30 days (mean age 18 +/- 8.3 S.D.). Associated lesions included a small interventricular septum defect in 20 cases which was not treated at the time of the operation; tricuspid insufficiency in 3 cases; and isthmic coarctation of the aorta in 10 cases. According to Yacoub's classification relative to the anatomical distribution of the coronary arteries, all the children fell into the following groups: type A, 172 cases; type B, 8 cases; type C, 12 cases; type D, 40 cases; type E, 14 cases. Preoperative catheterization was carried out in all the children. 96% benefited from Rashkin's atrioseptostomy, 90% had a prostaglandin infusion continuing through surgery. The surgical technique included the use of continuous extracorporal circulation at 20 degrees C, without circulatory arrest. Protection of the myocardium was ensured during aortic clamping by injecting of a crystalloid cardioplegia-inducing solution. The main steps of surgical repair were repositioning of the coronary arteries onto the ancient aortic stump and reconstruction of a pulmonary shunt. Repositioning of the coronary arteries was carried out in accordance with Yacoub's technique in all cases except for the 10 first patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma with marked endoscopic morphological changes in Barrett's esophagus over a long follow-up period of 15 years.

    PubMed

    Iwaya, Yugo; Yamazaki, Tomoo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is unclear. We herein describe a case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC) in which we could closely observe marked morphological changes in BE over a long follow-up period of 15 years. A man in his seventies received routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and was diagnosed as having reflux esophagitis and short-segment BE. The BE gradually became elongated, and BAC was detected 9 years following the initial EGD examination with continued administration of a proton pump inhibitor. We witnessed that BE elongated sporadically over time and mucosal breaks of reflux esophagitis were detectable several years before elongation. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for BAC and has been monitored by EGD every year thereafter. These remarkable morphological changes may be representative of the natural history of BE and aid in deciding long-term disease management.

  5. [Reasons for abolishing the Massage Department of the Imperial Academy of Medicine in the 5(th) year of Longqing Period of the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In the 5th year of the Longqing Period (1571) of the Ming Dynasty, with the abolishment of the Massage and Zhuyou Departments (the latter with a primitive witch doctor, who was dominant in administering incantations, prayers, fortune telling and medicine), the number of departments of the Imperial Academy of Medicine was reduced from thirteen to eleven. In the Jiaqing Period, Taoists occupied some positions in the Imperial Academy of Medicine. Some of them became imperial doctors or even the president, which resulted in Emperor Jiaqing pursuing immortality and neglecting duty on national affairs for more than 20 years. The abolishment of the Massage Department was associated with the official system of reform developed by Emperor Longqing and the prime minister, Gao Gong. Against the background of official reform, they also advanced bold reform in the two departments which Taoists occupied.

  6. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity.

  7. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains.

  8. Association of genetic polymorphisms with serum estrogens measured multiple times during a 2-year period in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Galina; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Kaaks, Rudolf; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2005-06-01

    There is evidence that circulating estrogens are associated with breast cancer risk. In this study of premenopausal women, we explored the association of polymorphisms in genes in the estrogen synthesis and metabolism pathways with serum and urinary levels of estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) and with the urinary ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1)/16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1). This analysis included 220 women, who were participants in a 2-year randomized soy intervention. Blood specimens were collected in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle an average of 4.4 times over 2 years. Overnight urinary specimens were collected on the same cycle day, only at baseline. Levels of E1, E2, 2-OHE1, and 16alpha-OHE1 were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The DNA samples were analyzed by PCR/RFLP for the COMT Val158Met, CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2B, CYP1A2*1F, CYP1B1 Val432Leu, and CYP17 T27C polymorphisms. We applied mixed models to investigate the relations between genotypes and repeated serum hormone measurements and generalized linear models to assess associations between genotypes and urinary estrogen metabolites. The CYP1A2 C allele was significantly associated with lower serum E2 levels; in CC genotype carriers, serum E2 levels were 26.3% lower than in homo- and heterozygous common allele carriers combined (P = 0.01). CYP1A2*1F also affected the urinary 2-OHE1/16alpha-OHE1 ratio; carriers of the variant C allele had a markedly lower ratio than individuals with the AA genotype (1.37 versus 1.76; P = 0.002). These data suggest that CYP1A2*1F is associated with lower circulating levels of E2, and that it may be a susceptibility locus for breast cancer.

  9. Missed Opportunities: Evolution of Patients Leaving without Being Seen or against Medical Advice during a Six-Year Period in a Swiss Tertiary Hospital Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Trueb, Lionel; Gonin, Philippe; Hugli, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The study aimed at describing the evolution over a 6-year period of patients leaving the emergency department (ED) before being seen (“left without being seen” or LWBS) or against medical advice (“left against medical advice” or LAMA) and at describing their characteristics. Methods. A retrospective database analysis of all adult patients who are admitted to the ED, between 2005 and 2010, and who left before being evaluated or against medical advice, in a tertiary university hospital. Results. During the study period, among the 307,716 patients who were registered in the ED, 1,157 LWBS (0.4%) and 1,853 LAMA (0.9%) patients were identified. These proportions remained stable over the period. The patients had an average age of 38.5 ± 15.9 years for LWBS and 41.9 ± 17.4 years for LAMA. The median time spent in the ED before leaving was 102.4 minutes for the LWBS patients and 226 minutes for LAMA patients. The most frequent reason for LAMA was related to the excessive length of stay. Conclusion. The rates of LWBS and LAMA patients were low and remained stable. The patients shared similar characteristics and reasons for leaving were largely related to the length of stay or waiting time. PMID:25013794

  10. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  11. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P < 0.05). The number of patients with wild-type measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P < 0.05); conversely, the absence of these symptoms was noted in most patients with vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles.

  12. [Development of the sensitivity to antibiotics in strains of Neisseria gonorrhea isolated in Touraine over a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Pinon, G; Quentin, R; Laudat, P; Vargues, R

    1985-06-01

    347 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Touraine, France, from December 1978 to March 1984 were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics using an agar dilution method. Percentage of strains with a penicillin G MIC = 0.06 micrograms/ml rose from 58% in 78-80 to 69% in 82-84. Consistent amoxicillin MICs were found throughout the survey (MIC 50: 0.125 and MIC 90: 0.5 micrograms/ml). Three penicillinase-producing strains were recovered from patients contaminated outside the study area. For tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol and spectinomycin, variations of MICs 50 and 90 did not exceed one dilution either way. For spiramycin, MICs 50 and 90 fell from 2 and 8 micrograms/ml respectively in 78-80 to 1 and 2 micrograms/ml in 82-84. Our findings show that susceptibility of Gonococci to the main antibiotics used for treating gonococcal infections in our area has not changed significantly over the last five years. Moreover, implantation and diffusion of penicillinase-producing strains has failed to occur.

  13. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  14. [Various Salmonella serotypes isolated at a sewage purification plant in a smaller city over a one-year period].

    PubMed

    Schüsseler, G; Sobotta, B; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O

    1986-04-01

    A one-year-study was carried out in the waste-water treatment plant of Plön (population equivalents 60,000), which has a mechanical and a biological purification and an additional chemical flocculation. Samples were taken at five different places in the plant and examined for Salmonella by use of membrane-filtration and MPN-method. 2,611 Salmonella-strains, representing 23 species, were isolated and serologically typed from samples taken at ten days. S. typhi-murium was found most frequently (Table 1, Fig. 1). The largest spectrum of different types was located in the activated sludge-basin and at the outlet of the chemical flocculation (Table 2). No correlation could be established between the qualitative findings and the Salmonella-counts or other parameter like temperatures. All the ten species that have been officially reported to cause salmonellosis in man were also isolated from the sewage (Table 5). Findings of other Salmonella-serotypes are attributed to unreported human infections and animals or other sources.

  15. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.

  16. Ocular Manifestations of Venomous Snake Bite over a One-year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Praveen Kumar, K V; Kasturi, Nirupama; Ahuja, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ocular manifestations in snake-bite injuries are quite rare. However, the unusual presentations, diagnosis and their management can pose challenges when they present to the ophthalmologist. Early detection of these treatable conditions can prevent visual loss in these patients who are systemically unstable and are unaware of their ocular condition. To address this, a study was conducted with the aim of identifying the various ocular manifestations of snake bite in a tertiary care center. Methods This is a one-year institute-based prospective study report of 12 snake bite victims admitted to a tertiary hospital with ocular manifestations between June 2013 to June 2014, which provides data about the demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, ocular manifestations, and their outcomes. Results Twelve cases of snake bite with ocular manifestations were included of which six were viper bites, three were cobra bites and three were unknown bites. Six patients presented with bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (50%), two patients had anterior uveitis (16.6%) of which one patient had concomitant optic neuritis. One patient had exudative retinal detachment (8.3%), one patient had thrombocytopenia with subconjunctival hemorrhage (8.3%) and two patients had external ophthalmoplegia (16.6%). Conclusions Bilateral angle closure glaucoma was the most common ocular manifestation followed by anterior uveitis and external ophthalmoplegia. Snake bite can result in significant ocular morbidity in a majority of patients but spontaneous recovery with anti-snake venom, steroids and conservative management results in good visual prognosis. PMID:26240510

  17. Yeast population dynamics in spontaneous fermentations: comparison between two different wine-producing areas over a period of three years.

    PubMed

    Torija, M J; Rozès, N; Poblet, M; Guillamón, J M; Mas, A

    2001-09-01

    Yeast ecology, biogeography and biodiversity are important and interesting topics of research. The population dynamics of yeasts in several cellars of two Spanish wine-producing regions was analysed for three consecutive years (1996 to 1998). No yeast starter cultures had been used in these wineries which therefore provided an ideal winemaking environment to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenous yeast populations. Non-Saccharomyces yeast species were identified by RFLPs of their rDNA, while Saccharomyces species and strains were identified by RFLPs of their mtDNA. This study confirmed the findings of other reports that non-Saccharomyces species were limited to the early stages of fermentation whilst Saccharomyces dominated towards the end of the alcoholic fermentation. However, significant differences were found with previous studies, such as the survival of non-Saccharomyces species in stages with high alcohol content and a large variability of Saccharomyces strains (a total of 112, all of them identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with no clear predominance of any strain throughout all the fermentation, probably related to the absence of killer phenotype and lack of previous inoculation with commercial strains.

  18. Evaluating changes in stream fish species richness over a 50-year time-period within a landscape context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler; Tracy, Bryn H.; Hogue, Gabriela M.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, streams and rivers are facing a suite of pressures that alter water quality and degrade physical habitat, both of which can lead to changes in the composition and richness of fish populations. These potential changes are of particular importance in the Southeast USA, home to one of the richest stream fish assemblages in North America. Using data from 83 stream sites in North Carolina sampled in the 1960’s and the past decade, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate relationships between species richness and catchment land use and land cover (e.g., agriculture and forest cover). In addition, we examined how the rate of change in species richness over 50 years was related to catchment land use and land cover. We found a negative and positive correlation between forest land cover and agricultural land use and average species richness, respectively. After controlling for introduced species, most (66 %) stream sites showed an increase in native fish species richness, and the magnitude of the rate of increase was positively correlated to the amount of forested land cover in the catchment. Site-specific trends in species richness were not positive, on average, until the percentage forest cover in the network catchment exceeded about 55 %. These results suggest that streams with catchments that have moderate to high (>55 %) levels of forested land in upstream network catchments may be better able to increase the number of native species at a faster rate compared to less-forested catchments.

  19. Developmental Trajectories of Youth Conduct Problems: Testing Later Development and Related Outcomes in a 12-Year Period.

    PubMed

    López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula

    2016-10-06

    Developmental heterogeneity of youth conduct problems has been widely assumed, leading to the identification of distinctive groups at particular risk of more serious problems later in development. The present study intends to expand the main results of a prior study focused on identifying developmental trajectories of conduct problems (Stable-low, Stable-high, and Decreasing), by analyzing their developmental course and related outcomes during middle/late adolescence and early adulthood. Two follow-up studies were conducted 10 and 12 years after the initial study with 115 and 122 youths respectively (mean = 17.29 and 19.18). Overall results underline that the Early-onset persistent group showed the highest risk-profile; the Childhood-limited group revealed a moderate level of later maladjustment; and the Adolescence-onset group, currently identified, showed a significant peak of risk particularly in middle/late adolescence. These findings provide a more comprehensive representation of youth conduct problems, and open new means of discussion in terms of preventive intervention.

  20. Switching to less expensive blindness drug could save medicare part B $18 billion over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Tavag, Mrinalini; Zacks, David; Stein, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased and now accounts for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. The two drugs have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse-event rates; however, at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010-20) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, savings would amount to $18 billion for Medicare Part B and nearly $5 billion for patients. With an additional $6 billion savings in other health care expenses, the total savings would be almost $29 billion. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes.

  1. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  2. Structural Mechanics Predictions Relating to Clinical Coronary Stent Fracture in a 5 Year Period in FDA MAUDE Database

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Kay D.; Conway, Claire; Desany, Gerard J.; Baker, Brian L.; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stents are the mainstay of interventional cardiovascular medicine. Technological advances have reduced biological and clinical complications but not mechanical failure. Stent strut fracture is increasingly recognized as of paramount clinical importance. Though consensus reigns that fractures can result from material fatigue, how fracture is induced and the mechanisms underlying its clinical sequelae remain ill-defined. In this study, strut fractures were identified in the prospectively maintained Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE), covering years 2006–2011, and differentiated based on specific coronary artery implantation site and device configuration. These data, and knowledge of the extent of dynamic arterial deformations obtained from patient CT images and published data, were used to define boundary conditions for 3D finite element models incorporating multimodal, multi-cycle deformation. The structural response for a range of stent designs and configurations was predicted by computational models and included estimation of maximum principal, minimum principal and equivalent plastic strains. Fatigue assessment was performed with Goodman diagrams and safe/unsafe regions defined for different stent designs. Von Mises stress and maximum principal strain increased with multimodal, fully reversed deformation. Spatial maps of unsafe locations corresponded to the identified locations of fracture in different coronary arteries in the clinical database. These findings, for the first time, provide insight into a potential link between patient adverse events and computational modeling of stent deformation. Understanding of the mechanical forces imposed under different implantation conditions may assist in rational design and optimal placement of these devices. PMID:26467552

  3. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  4. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  5. Differential Movement Patterns of Juvenile Tengmalms Owls (Aegolius funereus) during the Post-Fledging Dependence Period in Two Years with Contrasting Prey Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Štastný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29) and 2011 (n = 10) and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22) and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6). Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011) and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011). The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm’s owls. PMID:23843981

  6. Differential movement patterns of juvenile Tengmalms owls (Aegolius funereus) during the post-fledging dependence period in two years with contrasting prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Štastný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29) and 2011 (n = 10) and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22) and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6). Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011) and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011). The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm's owls.

  7. [Various Salmonella serotypes isolated at a sewage purification plant in a large city over a one-year period].

    PubMed

    Sobotta, B; Schüsseler, G; Gerhardt, G G; Teitge, E; Gundermann, K O

    1986-04-01

    The paper offers the results of a one-year-survey of Salmonella-serotypes in a municipal sewage-purification plant with a capacity of roughly 70,000 m3 per day. Findings of a quantitative study had shown Salmonella-maxima in the activated-sludge-basin. This suggested specialized Salmonella-serotypes, resident in this part of the plant as a possible explanation which was to be verified by this study. On ten days samples were taken from the inlet, and the outlet of the primary-sedimentation-tank, the outlet of the activated-sludge-basin and the effluent of the final sedimentation-basin. A combination of membrane-filtration and MPN-Method with a fifefold enrichment in 2.5% tetrathionate was applied for salmonella isolation. Plating was done on malachit-green-chinablue-lactose-agar followed by serological typing. 1,587 strains representing 38 different serotypes (Table 1) were identified with S. typhi-murium (Fig. 1) accounting for 36% of the isolations followed by S. bovis-morbificans, S. hadar (Fig. 2) and S. panama. None of the serotypes found showed a preference of a special sampling point. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of Salmonella in the plant seems to depend on the Salmonella contents of the entering waste water mainly. The greatest variety of Salmonella-serotypes was located in the activated-sludge-basin (Table 2) where oxygen-enrichment seems to result in the best ecological conditions for Salmonella survival. 3.3% of 722 strains examined did not produce hydrogen-sulphide (Table 3) and some showed damaged flagella-antigens. As a possible explanation toxic influences in the sewage are discussed. The epidemiological links between findings of Salmonella in sewage and in man of the same area are established and results differing in some aspects explained by the high rate of unknown infections. The existence of an autochthonous Salmonella-population in the sewage plant could not be proved.

  8. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males x¯= 43.9, 40.7; females x¯= 37.9, 33.9). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  9. Chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant microorganisms in a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation unit over a 9-year period

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Elisa Teixeira; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Marchi, Ana Paula; da Silva, Mariama Tomaz; Filho, José Ulysses Amigo; Alves, Tânia; Guimarães, Thais; Levin, Anna S.; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health care associated infections (HAIs) are currently among the major challenges to the care of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 2% chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on the incidence of colonization and infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens, and to evaluate their CHG minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) after the intervention. A quasi-experimental study with duration of 9 years was conducted. VRE colonization and infection, HAI rates, and MDR gram-negative infection were evaluated by interrupted time series analysis. The antibacterial susceptibility profile and mechanism of resistance to CHG were analyzed in both periods by the agar dilution method in the presence or absence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and presence of efflux pumps (qacA/E, qacA, qacE, cepA, AdeA, AdeB, and AdeC) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The VRE colonization and infection rates were significantly reduced in the postintervention period (P = 0.001). However, gram-negative MDR rates in the unit increased in the last years of the study. The CHG MICs for VRE increased during the period of exposure to the antiseptic. A higher MIC at baseline period was observed in MDR gram-negative strains. The emergence of a monoclonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone was observed in the second period. Concluding, CHG bathing was efficient regarding VRE colonization and infection, whereas no similar results were found with MDR gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27861350

  10. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  11. Trends in the prevalence of heart diseases over a ten-year period from single-center observations based on a large echocardiographic database.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Pan, Wen-zhi; Wan, Quan; Cheng, Lei-lei; Shu, Xian-hong; Pan, Cui-zhen; Qian, Ju-ying; Ge, Jun-bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in the incidence of heart disease in China during recent years. Using a large echocardiography database in our center, we analyzed trends in the prevalence of several common heart diseases from Dec. 2003. This study retrospectively analyzed the echocardiographic database in our Department from 2003 to 2012. A total of 385 682 cases were included in the study. The prevalence of rheumatic heart disease decreased over the 10-year period, from 4.04% in 2003 to 3.06% in 2012 (P<0.01). Infective endocarditis also decreased, from a mean prevalence of 0.37% in July 2003 to 0.27% in Dec. 2008 (P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which includes 20% apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20% hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, was about 1.8%. The prevalence of the three most common adult congenital heart diseases (CHDs) decreased by about 10% from July 2003 to Dec. 2008 (all P<0.001). The prevalence of moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) decreased during the 10-year period (P<0.001), but there was no change in the prevalence of severe PAH or LVSD (P>0.05). The present study indirectly demonstrates that the prevalence of several common heart diseases in China has declined in recent years.

  12. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    PubMed

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  13. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  14. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683

  15. Numerical study on the impact of the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle on water masses in the subarctic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2012-05-01

    A series of numerical experiments is performed to test the hypothesis that temporal variations in localized strong tidal mixing related to the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle induce water mass variations. It is suggested that enhanced mixing around the Bering Sea, as that around the Okhotsk Sea, have an impact on water masses broadly in the North Pacific including the Bering Sea and the Okhotsk Sea. Oscillatory tidal mixing with a 18.6-year period reproduces water mass variations in salinity and isopycnal potential temperature around the subarctic North Pacific that are qualitatively consistent with observed variations. When the amplitude of oscillatory vertical diffusivity is 15% of the long-term mean (and even when the amplitude is as small as 3 cm2/s, as obtained for a long-term mean of 20 cm2/s), the amplitude of the salinity variation near regions of strong mixing is smaller than but on the same order of magnitude as that observed. The induced salinity anomaly spreads broadly, over a distance of several hundreds of kilometers, by mean currents with a short lag time of less than 3 years, and is suggested to influence the model winter mixed layer over broad regions. These results support the hypothesis stated above and suggest that it is necessary to clarify spatial and temporal variations in tidal mixing to reproduce both the mean states of and temporal variations in water masses of the subarctic North Pacific.

  16. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  17. The incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration and Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased in patients operated for benign goiter over a 31-year period.

    PubMed

    Ott, Johannes; Meusel, Moritz; Schultheis, Andrea; Promberger, Regina; Pallikunnel, Shannon Joan; Neuhold, Nikolaus; Hermann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have increased over the last several decades. Since there is a lack of recent studies in the literature that evaluate this phenomenon on a histological basis, we aimed to assess the incidence of lymphocytic thyroid infiltration (LTI) in our large surgical patient collective over a 31-year period. In our study, a total of 1,050 patients who had undergone uni- or bilateral thyroid surgery for benign goiter were included (150 patients in each group, during 1979 to 2009). The stored histological sections of the removed thyroid specimens were re-analyzed, including routine grading of LTI severity on a scale of 0-4, according to Williams and Doniach. Positive correlations were seen for the incidences of LTI grading (0-4) (r = 0.077, p = 0.013) and HT (r = 0.044, p = 0.078) over the years. Furthermore, when comparing the years 1979-1989 and 1994-2009, i.e., before and after the second iodine prophylaxis had been introduced in Austria, a higher incidence of HT was found for the later years (2 out of 450, 0.4%, vs. 6 out of 600, 1.0%, respectively; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the incidence of LTI and HT has increased substantially over the last 31 years.

  18. Surveillance and molecular characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a hospital water distribution system over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Crago, B; Ferrato, C; Drews, S J; Louie, T; Ceri, H; Turner, R J; Roles, A; Louie, M

    2014-05-01

    A three-year surveillance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a hospital water distribution system was conducted at a facility located in southern Alberta. NTM was not present in any intake water samples, but was found in 106/183 (58%) of endpoint samples across 15 sites over the study period. Two different species of NTM were identified, Mycobacterium gordonae (88/183) and Mycobacterium avium (34/183); with only one strain of each M. gordonae and M. avium found. Given the sensitive nature of a healthcare facility, attention should be paid to minimize potential impact of NTM from potable water sources on patient health.

  19. Mortality coefficients among personnel of radiochemical plants of {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes}-Combine for 40-year period of observation

    SciTech Connect

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Komleva, N.S.; Baisogolov, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    The results of the epidemiological research, conducted among the personnel of the radiochemical plants of {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes}. Combine are as follows: during the 40-year-period of observation the mortality rate from all and separate causes, except age, is lower, than the expected one, which is calculated on the basis of the National Statistics. Oncological mortality rate is reliably higher, than the expected one, which is conditioned by the high frequency of lung cancer and leucaemia. Internal {alpha}-irradiation plays the leading role in the induction of lung cancer, and the increase of mortality rate from leukemia is closely connected with external {gamma}-irradiation.

  20. [To maintain or to withdraw life support? Variations on the methods of ending life in a pediatric intensive care unit over a period of 6 years].

    PubMed

    Vernaz, S; Casanova, L; Blanc, F; Lebel, S; Ughetto, F; Paut, O

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, forgoing live-support (FLS) is allowed by the French law (known as the Leonetti law) for end-of-life patients only. This study aims at describing the variations over time in the use of the following methods to end life: FLS, brain death and cardiopulmonary resuscitation failure (CPR failure). It is a single retrospective study from 2007 to 2012. The Cochran-Armitage trend test is used in the statistical analysis. Over six years, 263 of the 5100 children who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit died, which represents a 5.2% mortality rate. FLS increased yearly from 31% of the deaths in 2007, to 71% in 2012 (P=0.0008). The rate of CPR failure decreased over the same period (P=0.0015). The rate of brain death remained constant. Following to the Leonetti law, FLS increase, and palliative cares develop without any increase of mortality.

  1. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone.

  2. Evolutionary trajectory of channel planforms in the middle Garonne River (Toulouse, SW France) over a 130-year period: Contribution of mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Mélodie; Labenne, Amaury; Carozza, Jean-Michel; Valette, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological essay for defining evolutionary trajectories of channel planforms and to examine the channel change in the middle Garonne River (southwest France) over a 130-year period. The study focuses on a reach of ~ 90 km situated downstream from the city of Toulouse. A set of four historical maps (1868, 1940s, 1970s, and 2000s) is used to build a geomorphometric diachronic database. Data processing through mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows distinction between four homogeneous zones within the study reach, depending on their evolutionary trajectories. Channel behavior in the upstream and median zones evolved as of the beginning of the study period (narrowing of the fluvial area, colonization by vegetation, and removal of alluvial bars), likely owing to punctual anthropogenic actions. The downstream zone is characterized by stabilization of the channel and alluvial bar removal over the second half of the twentieth century, coinciding with the campaign undertaken by French local authorities between 1960 and 1984 to protect river banks. The role of climate transition between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the onset of the Global Warming period (GW) is also discussed. Results generally are consistent with the chronology established for most European rivers.

  3. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.

    2015-08-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.

  4. Possible explanation linking 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle with bi-decadal variations of ocean and climate in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Osafune, Satoshi; Tatebe, Hiroaki

    2006-04-01

    Bi-decadal climate variation is dominant over the North Pacific on inter-decadal timescale; however the mechanism has not been fully understood. We here find that the bi-decadal variations in the North Pacific climate and intermediate waters possibly relate to the 18.6-year period modulation of diurnal tide. In the period of strong diurnal tide, tide-induced diapycnal mixing makes surface salinity and density higher and the upper-layer shallower along the Kuril Islands and the east coast of Japan. Simple model results suggest that the coastal depth adjustment by baroclinic Kelvin waves enhances the thermohaline circulation, the upper-layer poleward western boundary current and associated heat transport by about 0.05PW. This could also explain the warmer SST in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension regions, where positive feedback with Aleutian Low might amplify the bidecadal variations. The 18.6-year tidal cycle hence could play a role as a basic forcing for the bi-decadal ocean and climate variations.

  5. Bidecadal variability in the intermediate waters of the northwestern subarctic Pacific and the Okhotsk Sea in relation to 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2006-05-01

    On the basis of historical oceanographic data, we investigated the long-term variations of the intermediate waters in the four regions in the northwestern subarctic Pacific: Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, Upstream Oyashio and East Kamchatka Current. We found bidecadal oscillations in these water properties that are synchronized with the 18.6-year period nodal cycle. In periods when the diurnal tide is strong, the following characteristics are found: Apparent oxygen utilization and phosphate are low in Oyashio and Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The thickness of the intermediate layers is large, and thus potential vorticity is correspondingly low, in Oyashio, Okhotsk Sea Mode Water, and Upstream Oyashio. Around the mesothermal (temperature maximum) water, isopycnal potential temperature are low in the areas on the Pacific side, and high in the intermediate layer of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water. The mixing ratio of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water in the Upstream Oyashio water is high. These bidecadal oscillations can be explained by changes in the vertical mixing around the Kuril Straits induced by the diurnal tide whose amplitude is modulated with the 18.6-year nodal cycle. Higher sea surface salinity water around the Kuril Straits caused by stronger tidal mixing is possibly transported northward along the cyclonic Okhotsk Sea Gyre, and possibly enhances the formation of the dense shelf water. This makes apparent oxygen utilization, phosphate, and potential vorticity lower in Okhotsk Sea Mode Water and Oyashio.

  6. Sensing propagation events and fade statistics at C-band for two over-water, line-of-sight propagation paths over a one year period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Dockery, G. Daniel; Musiani, Bert H.

    1992-01-01

    We examine signal fading statistics over a year period corresponding to two over-water, line-of-site, propagation links in the mid-Atlantic coast of the US. These links are comprised of a transmitter on a tower at Parramore Island, VA operating at 4.7 GHz sending simultaneous cw signals to two receiver systems located on a lighthouse and a lookout tower on Assateague Beach, VA at distances of 44 and 39 km, respectively. The receiving sites are separated by approximately 5 km. Cumulative fade distributions corresponding to yearly, monthly, and diurnal time scales were derived. Fade duration statistics correspond to sustained attenuation events were also derived. These events, which were arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20 dB for durations of two hours or more, are believed to be generally due to subrefraction. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawindsonde data during two sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction, where the refractivity-height profile had a positive lapse rate. The efficacy of employing the links as indicators of real time conditions of atmospheric propagation was also demonstrated by a telephone call-up procedure which enabled displays of time series of the fading at remote locations to be generated.

  7. Atypical femoral fractures in Italy: a retrospective analysis in a large urban emergency department during a 7-year period (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, Mario; Giusti, Andrea; Girasole, Giuseppe; Abbate, Barbara; Verzicco, Ignazio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) seen in a large emergency department in Italy. It was a retrospective study of all men and women aged 40 years or older admitted to the Emergency Department of Parma University Hospital for a femoral fracture. Cases were identified in the hospital database with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 820 or 821 or text strings. All the radiographic images of fractures not clearly identified as proximal or condylar were retrieved and evaluated by three independent reviewers. Fractures were considered as atypical if all three reviewers agreed on at least four of five major features defined by the 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria. In the 7-year period (2007-2013), with a total follow-up of 1,383,154 patient-years, we found 22 AFFs in 21 patients, accounting for 7.1% of low-trauma subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures and 0.6% of all femoral fractures. The incidence was very low (1.6 in 100,000 patient-years in both sexes combined). In contrast, the incidence of classic fractures of the proximal end of the femur was at least two orders of magnitude higher (typical/atypical rate ratio 152). Bisphosphonate use was reported in 13 patients (62%; mean treatment duration 9 years; range 5-14 years). Among 286 patients with typical subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures, 20 were being treated with bisphosphonate (7%; odds ratio 22; 95% confidence interval 8-58; p < 0.001). This study confirms the very low incidence of AFFs in the largest Italian cohort of patients to date. Even though the risk is higher in patients treated with bisphosphonates, AFFs are very rare, and typical femoral fractures are at least 100-fold more frequent.

  8. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  9. Ground-based atmospheric water vapor monitoring system with spectroscopy of radiation in 20-30 GHz and 50-60 GHz bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Takeo; Tajima, Osamu; Araki, Kentaro; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel ground-based meteorological monitoring system. In the 20{30 GHz band, our system simultaneously measures a broad absorption peak of water vapor and cloud liquid water. Additional observation in the 50{60 GHz band obtains the radiation of oxygen. Spectral results contain vertical profiles of the physical temperature of atmospheric molecules. We designed a simple method for placing the system atop high buildings and mountains and on decks of ships. There is a simple optical system in front of horn antennas for each frequency band. A focused signal from a reflector is separated into two polarized optical paths by a wire grid. Each signal received by the horn antenna is amplified by low-noise amplifiers. Spectra of each signal are measured as a function of frequency using two analyzers. A blackbody calibration source is maintained at 50 K in a cryostat. The calibration signal is led to each receiver via the wire grid. The input path of the signal is selected by rotation of the wire grid by 90°, because the polarization axis of the reflected path and axis of the transparent path are orthogonal. We developed a prototype receiver and demonstrated its performance using monitoring at the zenith.

  10. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

  11. Effect of copper, zinc, and manganese supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, and performance in grazing beef cattle over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Ahola, J K; Baker, D S; Burns, P D; Mortimer, R G; Enns, R M; Whittier, J C; Geary, T W; Engle, T E

    2004-08-01

    Crossbred, multiparous beef cows (n = 178 in Year 1; n = 148 in Year 2) were used to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, and performance in grazing cattle in eastern Colorado over a 2-yr period. Cows were stratified by expected calving date, age, BW, BCS, and liver mineral status and assigned to the following treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn); 2) organic (ORG; 50% organic and 50% inorganic Cu, Zn, and Mn); and 3) inorganic (ING; 100% inorganic CuSO4, ZnSO4, and MnSO4). Free-choice mineral feeders were used to provide current NRC-recommended concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn from 82 d (Year 1) and 81 d (Year 2) before the average calving date of the herd through 110 d (Year 1) and 135 d (Year 2) after calving. At the end of Year 1, supplemented cows had greater liver Cu (P < 0.01), Zn (P < 0.05), and Mn (P < 0.01) concentrations compared with controls, whereas liver Cu concentration was greater (P < 0.01) in ORG vs. ING cows. At the end of Year 2, supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations relative to controls, whereas control cows had greater (P < 0.02) liver Mn concentration than did supplemented cows. In Year 1, pregnancy rate to AI in control cows did not differ (P = 0.47) from supplemented cows, but there was a trend (P < 0.08) for pregnancy rate to be higher for ORG than ING cows. In Year 2, supplemented cows had a higher (P < 0.02) pregnancy rate to AI than controls. In both years, when cows were inseminated after an observed estrus, supplemented cows had a higher (P < 0.04) pregnancy rate than did controls. Also, for both years, overall 60-d pregnancy rate tended (P = 0.10) to be higher for supplemented cows than for controls. In Year 1, kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed was greater (P < 0.02) in controls than in supplemented cows, and kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed was greater (P < 0.01) in ING than ORG treatments. However, in Year 2

  12. Risk for Sleep Disorder Measured during Students' First College Semester May Predict Institutional Retention and Grade Point Average over a 3-Year Period, with Indirect Effects through Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a validated survey to assess freshmen college students' sleep patterns and risk for sleep disorders and then examined associations with retention and grade point average (GPA) over a 3-year period. Students at risk for a sleep disorder were more likely to leave the institution over the 3-year period, although this…

  13. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  14. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2003, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, Andrew C.; Kerestes, John F.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2003, including: discharge records of 163 gaging stations; stage for 187 gaging stations; precipitation for 140 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 40 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 65 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 36 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data at 162 stations in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2003, including continuous water-level records of 156 ground-water wells and periodic records at 130 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  15. [Analysis of non-confraternity sports accidents in the surgical department of a former district hospital during the period of 2 years].

    PubMed

    Raschka, Ch; Raschka, S; Peikert, T

    2009-12-01

    This epidemiological study analyses all n = 1,659 outpatient and inpatient non-confraternity sports accidents treated during a 2-year period in a former district hospital. The largest share with 40.6% is soccer, followed by cycling (15%), general fitness sports (7.6%), outdoor sports (6.5%), winter sports (5.5%), and riding (5.2%). Soccer injuries rise steadily until the age of 30. Of 86 horse riding accidents a total of 68 involved women, but only 18 men (ratio 8 : 2). 53% of the horse riding accidents among women concern the age group between 10 and 20 years. 70.6% (79%) of the athletes under (over) 20 years were male, 29.4% (21%) female (p < 0.05). Topographically the lower extremities represent the most affected body region in all sports (runners 84.4%, soccer players 60.2%). Most accidents occur on a Sunday. The most common diagnosis is contusion, most commonly in martial arts (60.8%), followed by horse riding (51%). There is an astonishing dominance of soccer accidents given the fact that this study records all athletes, not just club athletes, unlike insurance studies. Important preventive measures would be a comprehensive biological training prophylaxis and the provision of communication of age-specific accident prevention proposals for the mainly affected sports.

  16. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  17. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  18. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a 5-year analysis of the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Vajdana; Petrović, Oleg; Petrov, Bozo; Bjelanović, Vedran; Naletilić, Mladenka

    2009-12-01

    Hypertensive disorders are among the most common complications in pregnancy and a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in mothers with hypertensive disorders, as well as the adequacy of prenatal care during the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study included a total of 542 pregnancies with hypertensive disorders during 5-year study period (1995-1999) and 1559 randomly selected controls. Data on risk factors, adverse perinatal outcomes (for singleton pregnancies only) and prenatal care on pregnant women were extracted from the medical records and compared with controls. Chi-square test and crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used in statistical analysis. The average five-year incidence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders was 6.5% and it was significantly higher in 1995, the last year of the war, than in the postwar period (1996-1999) (p = 0.02). Factors significantly associated with hypertensive pregnancy disorders were maternal age > 34, nulliparity, multifetal gestation and male newborn (p < 0.001; except p = 0.002 for male newborn). Severe forms of hypertensive disorders were significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: preterm birth (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.08-6.3), cesarean delivery (OR 9.2, 95% CI 5.4-15.6), fetal growth restriction (OR 63.8, 95% CI 34.8-117.0), and stillbirth (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.1-14.1). Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders had significantly lower number of prenatal care visits than controls (p < 0.001). There was a high proportion of normally formed macerated stillbirths in the study (27 out of 30 or 90%) and in the control group (10 out of 12 or 83%). In conclusion, severity of the disorder and adequacy of prenatal care are strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome related to hypertensive pregnancy disorders.

  19. Evidence of a dominant lineage of Vibrio cholerae-specific lytic bacteriophages shed by cholera patients over a 10-year period in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Seed, Kimberley D; Bodi, Kip L; Kropinski, Andrew M; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Lytic bacteriophages are hypothesized to contribute to the seasonality and duration of cholera epidemics in Bangladesh. However, the bacteriophages contributing to this phenomenon have yet to be characterized at a molecular genetic level. In this study, we isolated and sequenced the genomes of 15 bacteriophages from stool samples from cholera patients spanning a 10-year surveillance period in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Our results indicate that a single novel bacteriophage type, designated ICP1 (for the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh cholera phage 1) is present in all stool samples from cholera patients, while two other bacteriophage types, one novel (ICP2) and one T7-like (ICP3), are transient. ICP1 is a member of the Myoviridae family and has a 126-kilobase genome comprising 230 open reading frames. Comparative sequence analysis of ICP1 and related isolates from this time period indicates a high level of genetic conservation. The ubiquitous presence of ICP1 in cholera patients and the finding that the O1 antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) serves as the ICP1 receptor suggest that ICP1 is extremely well adapted to predation of human-pathogenic V. cholerae O1.

  20. Optimum detection times for bacteria and yeast species with the BACTEC 9120 aerobic blood culture system: evaluation for a 5-year period in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-02-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used.

  1. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Clark, J. D.; Hamme, W. Van; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  2. Use of Medicines from the Group of Benzodiazepines in the Period of 2003-2013 Year in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Petrushevska, Tatjana; Velik Stefanovska, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of benzodiazepines in the period of 2003-2013 year in the Republic of Macedonia (MKD). METHOD: The study was cross sectional and analyzes the available data on the use of benzodiazepines in the country. This study used several sources of data: Statistical Reports of the United Nations regarding the consumption of psychotropic substances; data from the Ministry of Health associated with the use of benzodiazepines (BZD), derived from reports of Ministry of Health stakeholders; Data extracted from the database of the Ministry of Health in the electronic database “My term” and Analysis of reports of Health Insurance Fund. RESULTS: The analysis for the period 2003-2013 showed that the most consumed drug in MKD from the group of BZD is Diazepam, with 54.8 and predominantly is use of diazepam of 5 mg with 59 %. According to the Health Insurance Fund, Diazepam is second most prescribed medicaments of all medicaments with marketing authorization in MKD. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of BZD in MKD is particularly high. Limited number of studies was performed for this kind of drugs relating to their effects; differences in use between genders; adult population. There is need for additional focused research that will contribute to developing a full picture of the situation. PMID:27275214

  3. Optimum Detection Times for Bacteria and Yeast Species with the BACTEC 9120 Aerobic Blood Culture System: Evaluation for a 5-Year Period in a Turkish University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-01-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11,156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3,676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used. PMID:12574291

  4. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of two preseasonal regimens of glutaraldehyde modified, tyrosine-adsorbed parietaria pollen extract over a period of three years in monosensitive patients.

    PubMed

    Negro, J M; Wheeler, A W; Hernández, J; Youlten, L J; Pascual, A; García-Sellés, F J; Pagán, J A; López-Sánchez, J D; Miralles, J C; Sarrió, F; Milán, J M; Contreras, L G; Vidal, D

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy over a period of three years (1988-90) of two preseasonal dosage regimens of a Parietaria allergoid (Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria) in patients who were only sensitive to this pollen. Fifty patients were included (14 men and 36 women, age: mean, 28 years; range, 14-47 years). Twenty five patients (group A) were treated each january with the basic course of Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria. This consisted of injecting subcutaneously 0.5 ml from each of three vials, with one week between each injection. A further injection using the vial with the highest dose was given one week later. Each january and february, twenty five patients (group B) were treated with the basic course of Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria, repeating the last dose five times, with one week between each injection. Immunotherapy with a tyrosine-adsorbed Parietaria judaica allergoid is an effective method for mitigating nasal (p < 0.0001), bronchial (p < 0.005), conjunctival (p < 0.001) and palatal itching symptoms (p < 0.0001) in patients who are sensitive to this pollen. Sensitivity to Parietaria pollen, as verified by skin test and nasal challenge, decreased during immunotherapy (p < 0.001). Histamine release by peripheral blood basophils decreased during the course of the study, falling from 43.5 ng/ml to 12.3 ng/ml in group A and from 42.9 ng/ml to 10.0 ng/ml in group B; during the second and third years, IgG levels were increased one and four months after starting treatment with the extract, while this was not the case after ten months; IgE levels were also increased. Finally, overall tolerance to this immunotherapy product was good in almost all patients.

  6. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 1: Continuous water-level, streamflow, water-quality data, and periodic water-quality data, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, Brian E.; Kerestes, John F.; Hickey, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins.

  7. Environmentally Driven Increases in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Pima Indians and Non-Pimas in Mexico Over a 15-Year Period: The Maycoba Project

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-Romero, Julian; Valencia, Mauro E.; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Knowler, William C.; Ravussin, Eric; Bennett, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been attributed to the interaction between lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition to these diseases. We compared the prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians, presumed to have a high genetic predisposition to these diseases, to those in their non-Pima neighbors, both of whom over a 15-year period experienced a transition from a traditional to a more modern lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity in Mexican Pimas (n = 359) and non-Pima Mexicans (n = 251) were determined in 2010 using methods identical to those used in 1995. RESULTS During this 15-year period, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was unchanged in Pima men (5.8% in 1995 vs. 6.1% in 2010) yet increased in non-Pima men from 0.0 to 8.6% (P < 0.05). Diabetes prevalence tended to increase in both Pima women (9.4 vs. 13.4%) and non-Pima women (4.8 vs. 9.5%). Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all groups (6.6 vs. 15.7% in Pima men; 8.5 vs. 20.5% in non-Pima men; 18.9. vs 36.3% in Pima women; 29.5 vs. 42.9% in non-Pima women). CONCLUSIONS Type 2 diabetes prevalence increased between 1995 and 2010 in non-Pima men, and to a lesser degree in women of both groups, but it did not increase in Pima men. Prevalence of obesity increased among Pimas and non-Pimas of both sexes. These changes occurred concomitantly with an environmental transition from a traditional to a more modernized lifestyle. PMID:26246457

  8. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements.

  9. Time trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in urban Guangzhou over a 12-year period (2000-2011): declines in both incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Shen, Ji-Chuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an uncommon disease in most countries but occurs with much greater frequency in southern China. This study aimed to examine the secular trends of NPC in urban Guangzhou over the time period of 2000-2011 using data from the Guangzhou Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates of NPC were calculated by the direct method using the WHO World Standard Population (1960) as the reference. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. A total of 7,532 new cases of NPC and 3,449 related deaths were registered. In both genders, the peak incidence occurred in the 50- to 59-year age group, and this age distribution pattern remained similar throughout. The AAPC in NPC incidence rates was -3.26% (95% CI: -5.4%--1.1) for males and -5.74% (95% CI: -8.9%--2.5) for females, resulting in a total decrease of 39.3% (from 22.14 to 13.44 per 100,000 population) for males and 48.6% (from 10.1 to 5.18 per 100,000 population) for females over this 12-year period. The AAPCs in NPC mortality rates were -4.62% (95%CI: -3.5%--5.7) for males and -6.75% (95% CI: -5.2%--8.3) for females, resulting in a total decrease of -46.1% (from 12.1 to 6.54 per 100,000 population) for males and 51.7% (from 4.14 to 2.00 per 100,000 population) for females. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates of NPC declined during 2000-2011 in urban Guangzhou but remained high. Future efforts to improve prevention, early detection and treatment strategies are needed.

  10. Mini dental implants for long-term fixed and removable prosthetics: a retrospective analysis of 2514 implants placed over a five-year period.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, Todd E; Shatkin, Samuel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Oppenheimer, Adam J

    2007-02-01

    Over the past decade, endosseous implants of increasingly smaller diameters have been introduced into the field of dentistry. Small diameter implants (SDIs) are generally 2.75 mm to 3.3 mm in diameter. They are frequently used in cases of limited alveolar anatomy Mini dental implants (MDIs) are smaller than their SDI counterparts, with diameters ranging from 1.8 mm to 2.4 mm. They are suitable for long-term use-a task for which the device was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The following study describes the authors' experience with MDIs under this indication. Over a 5-year period, 2514 MDIs were placed in 531 patients. The mean duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. The implants supported fixed (1278) and removable prostheses (1236), with nearly equal placement in the mandible and maxilla (1256 and 1258, respectively). The overall implant survival was 94.2%. Based on a Cox proportional hazards model, statistically significant predictors of failure include use in removable prostheses (hazard ratio = 4.28), the posterior maxilla (3.37), atrophic bone (3.32), and cigarette smokers (2.28). Implant failures (145) were attributed to mobility with or without suppuration (19% vs 81%, respectively). The mean failure time for these implants was approximately 6.4 months (193+/-42 days). This temporally correlates with the osseointegration period. A learning curve was established for this procedure, and implant survival improved with placement experience. Based on these results, the authors have devised treatment guidelines for the use of MDIs in long-term fixed and removable prostheses. MDIs are not a panacea; however, proper training enables the general dentist to successfully implement MDIs into clinical practice.

  11. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  12. Observation and modelling of turbulent mixing in the Kuril and Aleutian Straits and impact of its 18.6-year period tidal cycle on ocean and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Itoh, S.; Hasumi, H.; Komatsu, K.; Osafune, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kaneko, H.; Ikeya, T.; Konda, S.; Nishioka, J.; Nakatsuka, T.; Katsumata, K.; Tatebe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hiroe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Direct turbulent observations in the Kuril Straits and Aleutian Straits reveal that tide-induced strong vertical mixing corresponds to strong shear of combined diurnal tidal and/or mean currents and significantly modifies the water-mass and potential vorticity distribution. Bi-decadal variability synchronized with 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle were found in various parts of the ocean and climate indices: water-mass variability in the subarctic North Pacific, especially near the strong diurnal tide regions as Kuril Straits and Aleutian Islands, and in long-term climate indices as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in proxy-reconstructed records. In low-frequency part of the PDO and SOI records, negative (positive)-PDO and positive (negative)-SOI tend to occur in the 4-6-th (10-12-th) year after the maximum diurnal tide, which is consistent with the climate model experiments with locally enhanced vertical mixing around Kuril Straits showing that tidal mixing and its variability could generate bi-decadal variability in ocean and climate. Ocean and climate model experiments with parameterized tidal mixing explain some of the water-mass modifications and bi-decadal variability of water-masses and climate.

  13. Peri-implant bone response around a human hydroxyapatite-coated implant retrieved after a 10-year loading period: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Malchiodi, Luciano; Quaranta, Alessandro; Ghensi, Paolo; Piattelli, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents a histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the peri-implant tissues of a HA-coated implant retrieved due to peri-implantitis after a 10-year loading period. The implant was retrieved with a trephine and treated to obtain thin ground sections. At low-power magnification mostly compact, mature bone with small marrow spaces could be observed at the interface with the implant. The coating was always present in the areas where bone was detected, the bone was always in close contact with the coating, and there was no detachment between the metal and coating or between the coating and bone. Areas of bone remodeling were demonstrated by the presence of many secondary osteons and reversal lines close to the implant surface. The bone-implant contact percentage was 36.3% ± 1.2%. The percentage of the implant surface covered by the HA coating without bone, where bone may have detached during retrieval, was 32.6% ± 2.8%. This HA-coated implant, continued to demonstrate more than adequate BIC after many years of function and the potential to maintain osseointegration in the long term.

  14. Child mortality in a West African population protected with insecticide-treated curtains for a period of up to 6 years.

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, D. A.; Cousens, S. N.; Cuzin-Ouattara, N.; Nebié, I.; Ilboudo-Sanogo, E.; Esposito, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of insecticide-treated curtains (ITC) on all-cause child mortality (6-59 months) over a period of six years. To determine whether initial reductions in child mortality following the implementation of ITC are sustained over the longer term or whether "delayed" mortality occurs. METHODS: A rural population of ca 100 000 living in an area with high, seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission was studied in Burkina Faso. Annual censuses were conducted from 1993 to 2000 to measure child mortality. ITC to cover doors, windows, and eaves were provided to half the population in 1994 with the remainder receiving ITC in 1996. Curtains were re-treated or, if necessary, replaced annually. FINDINGS: Over six years of implementation of ITC, no evidence of the shift in child mortality from younger to older children was observed. Estimates of the reduction in child mortality associated with ITC ranged from 19% to 24%. CONCLUSIONS: In our population there was no evidence to suggest that initial reduction in child mortality associated with the introduction of insecticide-treated materials was subsequently compromised by a shift in child mortality to older-aged children. Estimates of the impact of ITC on child mortality in this population range from 19% to 24%. PMID:15042229

  15. Prospective study of telephone calls to a hotline for infectious disease consultation: analysis of 7,863 solicited consultations over a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Gennai, S; François, P; Sellier, E; Vittoz, J-P; Hincky-Vitrat, V; Pavese, P

    2011-04-01

    To respond to the increasing requests of non-infectious disease physicians for access to infectious diseases expertise, a hotline was created in the infectious diseases consultation (IDC) unit of the Grenoble university-affiliated hospital (GUH). This study describes the patterns of solicited consultations provided by the hotline during a 1-year period. We conducted a prospective study of consecutive solicited IDCs requested by physicians in 2008. A total of 7,863 consultations were requested by physicians over 1 year; 4,407 (56.0%) by ambulatory physicians, 2,933 (37.3%) by GUH physicians, and 523 (6.7%) by physicians in public or private hospitals. The majority of consultations were requested via cell phone (58.7%). The main reasons for requesting a consultation were related to antimicrobial treatment for hospital-based physicians and prophylaxis for ambulatory physicians (p < 0.001). Recommendations to perform diagnostic or monitoring tests were less frequent in ambulatory medicine (16%) than in the GUH (59%) or other hospitals (63%, p < 0.001). The route of consultation for patients with nosocomial infections was more likely to be formal (p < 0.001). The activity of the IDC hotline attests to an important need for such expertise consultation, both in hospitals and in ambulatory medicine.

  16. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Molluscum Contagiosum Treated at the University Dermatology Clinic Maribor in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Trčko, Katarina; Poljak, Mario; Križmarić, Miljenko; Miljković, Jovan

    2016-06-01

    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a common skin pathogen in both adults and children. In this prospective study, we clinically evaluated consecutive patients with molluscum contagiosum (MC) who had been examined during a 5-year period at the second-largest dermatology clinic in Slovenia and described their main demographic and clinical characteristics, concomitant diseases, and treatment success. The study included 188 patients, of which 121 (64%) were men and 67 (36%) were women. A total of 135 (72%) patients were adults, with lesions that were most commonly located in the anogenital region (98%) and were probably sexually acquired. Two adult patients were diagnosed with concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty-three (28%) patients were children with a mean age of 5.7 years, most commonly presenting with lesions on the torso and extremities (85%). In adults, the infection most commonly occurred in male patients, while in children it was slightly more common in female patients. At presentation, 58% of patients had more than 5 MC lesions. A total of 30% of the included children had concomitant atopic dermatitis. We did not observe an increased occurrence of MCV infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. All patients were treated with curettage of the lesions. The cure rate at the first follow-up visit after 2 months was relatively high (63%), and recurrences were not associated with the number or site of lesions at presentation or with concomitant atopic dermatitis.

  17. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  18. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems.

  19. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA): a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Andrea; Thoma, Ruedi; Vretou, Evangelia; Psarrou, Evgenia; Kaiser, Carmen; Doherr, Marcus G; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) specific for Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E) showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination) are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined. PMID:17903243

  20. Radionuclide concentration variations in the fuel and residues of oil shale-fired power plants: Estimations of the radiological characteristics over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2016-10-19

    Several multi-day samplings were conducted over a 2-year period from an oil shale-fired power plant operating with pulverized fuel type of boilers that were equipped with either novel integrated desulphurization system and bag filters or with electrostatic precipitators. Oil shale, bottom ash and fly ash samples were collected and radionuclides from the (238)U and (232)Th series as well as (40)K were determined. The work aimed at determining possible variations in the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides within the collected samples and detect the sources of these fluctuations. During the continuous multi-day samplings, various boiler parameters were recorded as well. With couple of exceptions, no statistically significant differences were detected (significance level 0.05) between the measured radionuclide mean values in various ash samples within the same sampling. When comparing the results between multiple years and samplings, no statistically significant variations were observed between (238)U and (226)Ra values. However, there were significant differences between the values in the fly ashes when comparing (210)Pb, (40)K, (228)Ra and (232)Th values between the various samplings. In all cases the radionuclide activity concentrations in the specific fly ash remained under 100 Bq kg(-1), posing no radiological concerns when using this material as an additive in construction or building materials. Correlation analysis between the registered boiler parameters and measured radionuclide activity concentrations showed weak or no correlation. The obtained results suggest that the main sources of variations are due to the characteristics of the used fuel. The changes in the radionuclide activity concentrations between multiple years were in general rather modest. The radionuclide activity concentrations varied dominantly between 4% and 15% from the measured mean within the same sampling. The relative standard deviation was however within the same range

  1. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  2. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  3. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D; Kahler, Charlene M

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000-2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000-05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010-14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44-91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  4. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T.; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000–2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000–05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010–14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44–91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  5. The Vaginal Microbiota over an 8- to 10-Year Period in a Cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Donovan, Brock; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge; Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Gilbert, Douglas; Burgad, Derick; Spear, Greg T.

    2015-01-01

    Background We identified predominant vaginal microbiota communities, changes over time, and how this varied by HIV status and other factors in a cohort of 64 women. Methods Bacterial DNA was extracted from reposited cervicovaginal lavage samples collected annually over an 8–10 year period from Chicago Women’s Interagency HIV Study participants: 22 HIV-negative, 22 HIV-positive with stable infection, 20 HIV-positive with progressive infection. The vaginal microbiota was defined by pyrosequencing of the V1/V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Scheduled visits included Bacterial vaginsosis (BV) screening; clinically detected cases were referred for treatment. Hierarchical clustering identified bacterial community state types (CST). Multinomial mixed effects modeling determined trends over time in CST, by HIV status and other factors. Results The median follow-up time was 8.1 years (range 5.5–15.3). Six CSTs were identified. The mean relative abundance (RA) of Lactobacillus spp. by CST (with median number of bacterial taxa) was: CST-1–25.7% (10), CST-2–27.1% (11), CST-3–34.6% (9), CST-4–46.8% (9), CST-5–57.9% (4), CST-6–69.4% (2). The two CSTs representing the highest RA of Lactobacillus and lowest diversity increased with each additional year of follow-up (CST-5, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.62 [95% CI: 1.34–1.94]; CST-6, aOR = 1.57 [95 CI: 1.31–1.89]), while the two CSTs representing lowest RA of Lactobacillus and higher diversity decreased with each additional year (CST-1, aOR = 0.89 [95% CI: 0.80–1.00]; CST-2, aOR = 0.86 [95% CI: 0.75–0.99]). There was no association between HIV status and CST at baseline or over time. CSTs representing lower RA of Lactobacillus were associated with current cigarette smoking. Conclusions The vaginal microbial community significantly improved over time in this cohort of women with HIV and at high risk for HIV who had regular detection and treatment referral for BV. PMID:25675346

  6. Association between maternal depressive symptoms in the early post-natal period and responsiveness in feeding at child age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne A; Wilson, Jacinda L; Jansen, Elena; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression is a known risk factor for poor outcomes for children. Pathways to these poor outcomes relate to reduced maternal responsiveness or sensitivity to the child. Impaired responsiveness potentially impacts the feeding relationship and thus may be a risk factor for inappropriate feeding practices. The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships between self-reported maternal post-natal depressive symptoms at child age 4 months and feeding practices at child age 2 years in a community sample. Participants were Australian first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial when infants were 4 months old. Complete data from 211 mothers (of 346 allocated) followed up when their children were 2 years of age (51% girls) were available for analysis. The relationship between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score (child age 4 months) and child feeding practices (child age 2 years) was tested using hierarchical linear regression analysis adjusted for maternal and child characteristics. Higher EPDS score was associated with less responsive feeding practices at child age 2 years: greater pressure [β = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04-0.32, P = 0.01], restriction (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.001-0.28, P = 0.05), instrumental (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.005-0.27, P = 0.04) and emotional (β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01-0.29, P = 0.03) feeding practices (ΔR(2) values: 0.02-0.03, P < 0.05). This study provides evidence for the proposed link between maternal post-natal depressive symptoms and lower responsiveness in child feeding. These findings suggest that the provision of support to mothers experiencing some levels of depressive symptomatology in the early post-natal period may improve responsiveness in the child feeding relationship.

  7. Antipsychotic prescribing in care homes before and after launch of a national dementia strategy: an observational study in English institutions over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Szczepura, Ala; Owen, David W; Palmer, Thomas; Muhammad, Tariq; Clark, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations between the launch of the National Dementia Strategy (NDS) and antipsychotic prescribing in long-term residential care (LTC) in England. Setting and participants Retrospective analysis of prescribing patterns in 616 LTC institutions (31 619 residents) following launch of the NDS, using information from electronic medicines management system. Primary and secondary outcome measures Antipsychotic prescribing point prevalence (PP) for all residents in a cross section of LTC settings over a 4-year period following NDS launch. Secondary outcomes included dosages, length of treatment and use of recommended second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) versus first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Associations between facility-level PP values and institutional characteristics, resident demographics were explored. Variations across geographical areas examined. Prescription net ingredient costs calculated. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in overall prescribing rates over the 4-year period (Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test p=0.60), and there was no significant shift towards newer SGAs (KS test p=0.32). Dosages were above the maximum indicated in only 1.3% of cases, but duration of prescribing was excessive in 69.7% of cases. Care homes in the highest prescribing quintile were more likely to be located in a deprived area (rate ratio (Q5/Q1) RR=5.89, 95% CI 4.35 to 7.99), registered for dementia (RR=3.38, 95% CI 3.06 to 3.73) and those in the lowest quintile were more likely to be served by a single general practitioner (GP) practice (RR=0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63); p<0.001 all. A sixfold variation in PP levels was observed between geographical areas. The average annual expenditure on antipsychotics was £65.6 per person resident (2012 prices). Conclusions The NDS in England was not associated with reduced PP levels or the types of antipsychotic prescribing in care homes. Further research is needed to explore why. Clear

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Corticosteroid Treatment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and/or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis over a Period of 10 Years in Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Roongpisuthipong, Wanjarus; Prompongsa, Sirikarn; Klangjareonchai, Theerawut

    2014-01-01

    Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are uncommon and life-threatening drug reaction associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Objective. We studied SJS and/or TEN by conducting a retrospective analysis of 87 patients treated during a 10-year period. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients with a diagnosis of SJS and/or TEN based on clinical features and histological confirmation of SJS and/or TEN was not available at the Department of Medicine, Vajira hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from two groups from 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012. Results. A total of 87 cases of SJS and/or TEN were found, comprising 44 males and 43 females whose mean age was 46.5 years. The average length of stay was 17 days. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and allopurinol were the major culprit drugs in both groups. The mean SCORTEN on admission was 2.1 in first the group while 1.7 in second the group. From 2008 to 2012, thirty-nine patients (76.5%) were treated with corticosteroids while only eight patients (22.2%) were treated between 2003 and 2007. The mortality rate declined from 25% from the first group to 13.7% in the second group. Complications between first and second groups had no significant differences. Conclusions. Short-term corticosteroids may contribute to a reduced mortality rate in SJS and/or TEN without increasing secondary infection. Further well-designed studies are required to compare the effect of corticosteroids treatment for SJS and/or TEN.

  9. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  10. Preventive Health Perspective in Sports Medicine: The Trend at the Use of Medications and Nutritional Supplements during 5 Years Period between 2003 and 2008 in Football

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcu, Ethem; Burgazlı, Kamil Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medication and nutritional supplement use in male Football Super League players and to observe the long term changes of players’ attitudes during 5 years period (4 seasons). Study Design: Retrospective study. Material and Methods: Review and analysis of 4176 doping control forms -declaration reports- about players’ medication intake including; Super League, UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League matches. Team physician was asked to document all medications and nutritional supplements taken by the Football Super League players in the last 72 hours before each match. Results: A total intake of 5939 substances were documented, of which almost half 49.2% (n=2921) were classified as medications and 50.8% (n=3018) were nutritional supplements. The average consumption per player was 1.42 substance/match; 0.70 were medications and 0.72 of nutritional supplements. The supplements used most frequently were NSAIDs 24.6% (n=1460) accounting for almost one in four of all reported supplements. Diclofenac Sodium was the most frequently reported active pharmaceutical ingredient. Second most frequently used supplements were vitamins (22.2%). The average drug consumption reported per player has been increasing every passing year. It was 0.7 substance/match/player (0.4 medication; 0.3 nutritional supplement) in 2003–2004 season; was increased to 1.8 substance/match (0.8 medication; 1.0 nutritional supplement) in 2006–2007 season. Conclusion: The trends seen in this survey point to an overuse of NSAIDs and vitamins in comparison with other medications, amoung Turkish Super League football players (p<0.001). The use of NSAIDs has increased but the medication groups did not differ significantly between seasons, in terms of distribution. This increasing use of medications especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements is alarming and needs to be argued. PMID:25207073

  11. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  12. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana, base period water years 1937-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.; Hull, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of streamflow characteristics (monthly mean flow that is exceeded 90, 80, 50, and 20 percent of the time for all years of record and mean monthly flow) were made and are presented in tabular form for 312 sites in the Missouri River basin in Montana. Short-term gaged records were extended to the base period of water years 1937-86, and were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at 100 sites. Data from 47 gaged sites were used in regression analysis relating the streamflow characteristics to basin characteristics and to active-channel width. The basin-characteristics equations, with standard errors of 35% to 97%, were used to estimate streamflow characteristics at 179 ungaged sites. The channel-width equations, with standard errors of 36% to 103%, were used to estimate characteristics at 138 ungaged sites. Streamflow measurements were correlated with concurrent streamflows at nearby gaged sites to estimate streamflow characteristics at 139 ungaged sites. In a test using 20 pairs of gages, the standard errors ranged from 31% to 111%. At 139 ungaged sites, the estimates from two or more of the methods were weighted and combined in accordance with the variance of individual methods. When estimates from three methods were combined the standard errors ranged from 24% to 63 %. A drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at seven ungaged sites. The reliability of the drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was estimated to be about equal to that of the basin-characteristics method. The estimate were checked for reliability. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics from gaged records were considered to be most reliable, and estimates at sites with actual flow record from 1937-86 were considered to be completely reliable (zero error). Weighted-average estimates were considered to be the most reliable estimates made at ungaged sites. (USGS)

  13. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department.

  14. Characteristics of children and adolescents in the Dutch national in- and outpatient mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing youth over a period of 15 years.

    PubMed

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W; Treffers, Philip D A

    2012-01-01

    In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems. The difference in characteristics between them and hearing referred peers with identified mental health problems was analyzed. A total of 389 deaf and hard of hearing and 3361 hearing children and adolescents was extracted from a database, all first referrals of patients of a center for child and adolescent psychiatry over a 15-year period. With deaf and hard of hearing patients we found higher rates of environmental stress, as indicated by conditions such as more one parent families (38.6% versus 25.8%), and more parents with a low educational level (44.2% versus 31.1%). Moreover, deaf and hard of hearing patients were older at their first referral (10.8 versus 9.4 years) and had higher rates of pervasive developmental disorders (23.7% versus 12.3%) and mental retardation (20.3% versus 3.9%). Within the target group of deaf and hard of hearing patients, most patients were deaf (68.9%; 22.3% was severely hard of hearing), relatively few (13.7%) had a non-syndromal hereditary hearing impairment, and more (21.3%) had a disabling physical health condition, especially those with a pervasive developmental disorder (42.6%). These findings illustrate both the complexity of the problems of deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services, and the need for preventive interventions aimed at early recognition.

  15. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  16. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  17. Intra-host evolution of multiple genotypes of hepatitis C virus in a chronically infected patient with HIV along a 13-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Culasso, A C A; Baré, P; Aloisi, N; Monzani, M C; Corti, M; Campos, R H

    2014-01-20

    The intra-host evolutionary process of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was analyzed by phylogenetic and coalescent methodologies in a patient co-infected with HCV-1a, HCV-2a, HCV-3a and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) along a 13-year period. Direct sequence analysis of the E2 and NS5A regions showed diverse evolutionary dynamics, in agreement with different relationships between these regions and the host factors. The Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses of the E2 sequences (cloned) yielded different intra-host evolutionary patterns for each genotype: a steady state of a "consensus" sequence for HCV-1a; a pattern of lineage splitting and extinction for HCV-2a; and a two-phase (drift/diversification) process for HCV-3a. Each genotype evolving in the same patient and at the same time presents a different pattern apparently modulated by the immune pressure of the host. This study provides useful information for the management of co-infected patients and provides insights into the mechanisms behind the intra-host evolution of HCV.

  18. Air quality and organic compounds in aerosols from a coastal rural area in the Western Iberian Peninsula over a year long period: Characterisation, loads and seasonal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Pio, Casimiro; Alves, Célia; Silvestre, Armando; Evtyugina, Margarita; Afonso, Joana; Caseiro, Alexandre; Legrand, Michel

    Ambient samples of fine organic aerosol collected from a rural area (Moitinhos) in the vicinity of the small coastal Portuguese city of Aveiro over a period of more than one year have been solvent-extracted and quantitatively characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Particles were also analysed with a thermal-optical technique in order to determine their elemental and organic carbon content. In addition, meteorological sensors and real-time black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide monitors were used. Particulate matter values were higher than background levels in continental Europe. A patent seasonal variation for organic and elemental carbon concentrations was observed, presumably related to stronger local primary emissions and to limited vertical dispersion. The higher levels were most likely a result of residential wood burning, since black carbon and carbon monoxide maximised during late evening hours in wintertime. Of the bulk of elutable organics, more than a half, on average, was present as acidic fraction. Alcohols, aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons represented together, more than 30% of the elutable mass, also showing a marked seasonal pattern with a minimum in summer and a maximum in winter. The winter increase was more evident for resinic acids, phytosterols, n-alkanoic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  19. Incidence of urinary tract tumours in a two-year period (2010-2011) at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Kostadinova-Kunovska, Slavica; Janevska, Vesna; Komina, Selim; Dukova, Blagica; Bogdanovska-Todorovska, Magdalena; Domazetovski, Ivan; Labachevski, Bojan; Saidi, Skender; Stavridis, Sotir; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of tumours of the kidneys and the lower urinary tract diagnosed at the Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia, in a two-year period (2010-2011), with the aim of highlighting the main morphological characteristics and to present the statistical features of these tumours. All the cases were diagnosed on paraffin sections from surgical specimens routinely stained with H&E, and immunohistochemically with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The analysis revealed a total of 755 cases, of which 166 (14%) were located in the kidney including the renal pelvis, and 649 (86%) were tumours of the urinary bladder. Twelve of the renal tumours (11.3%) were benign, and the rest were malignant tumours. Most of them were adenocarcinomas (n=77; 72.6%) and 17 cases (16%) were transitional cell carcinomas originating from the renal pelvis. The analysis of the lower urinary tract tumours showed a strong prevalence of malignant urothelial tumours (96%), with a male to female ratio of almost 4:1. Low grade morphology was a predominant feature (71.7%) and 51 cases (22.9%) were of high grade. The percentage of urothelial tumours of the kidney in our series is higher than in most of the reported series, which should lead to an expanded analysis.

  20. The use of MRI to detect occult fractures of the proximal femur: a study of 102 consecutive cases over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Sankey, R A; Turner, J; Lee, J; Healy, J; Gibbons, C E R

    2009-08-01

    An MR scan was performed on all patients who presented to our hospital with a clinical diagnosis of a fracture of the proximal femur, but who had no abnormality on plain radiographs. This was a prospective study of 102 consecutive patients over a ten-year period. There were 98 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of whom 75 were scanned within 48 hours of admission, with an overall mean time between admission and scanning of 2.4 days (0 to 10). A total of 81 patients (83%) had abnormalities detected on MRI; 23 (23%) required operative management. The use of MRI led to the early diagnosis and treatment of occult hip pathology. We recommend that incomplete intertrochanteric fractures are managed non-operatively with protected weight-bearing. The study illustrates the high incidence of fractures which are not apparent on plain radiographs, and shows that MRI is useful when diagnosing other pathology such as malignancy, which may not be apparent on plain films.

  1. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  2. Particulate matter over a seven year period in urban and rural areas within, proximal and far from mining and power station operations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, A G; Zoras, S; Evagelopoulos, V

    2006-11-01

    Lignite mining operations and lignite-fired power stations result in major particulate pollution (fly ash and fugitive dust) problems in the areas surrounding these activities. The problem is more complicated, especially, for urban areas located not far from these activities, due to additional contribution from the urban pollution sources. Knowledge of the distribution of airborne particulate matter into size fraction has become an increasing area of focus when examining the effects of particulate pollution. On the other hand, airborne particle concentration measurements are useful in order to assess the air pollution levels based on national and international air quality standards. These measurements are also necessary for developing air pollutants control strategies or for evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies, especially, for long periods. In this study an attempt is made in order to investigate the particle size distribution of fly ash and fugitive dust in a heavy industrialized (mining and power stations operations) area with complex terrain in the northwestern part of Greece. Parallel total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) concentrations are analyzed. These measurements gathered from thirteen monitoring stations located in the greater area of interest. Spatial, temporal variation and trend are analyzed over the last seven years. Furthermore, the geographical variation of PM10 - TSP correlation and PM10/TSP ratio are investigated and compared to those in the literature. The analysis has indicated that a complex system of sources and meteorological conditions modulate the particulate pollution of the examined area.

  3. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  4. Impact of changes in antibiotic policy on Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) over a five-year period in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Khan, R; Cheesbrough, J

    2003-06-01

    The impact of changes in antibiotic policy on Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), over a five-year period between 1995 and 2000, were studied in the Preston Acute Hospitals Trust. In 1996 the policy was changed in the Preston Acute Hospitals Trust from cefotaxime to ceftriaxone for initial treatment of severe sepsis or pneumonia in medical patients. Over the next nine months the average number of patients with C. difficile toxin-positive stools per quarter increased from 16 to 39. The predicted use of ceftriaxone exceeded by 65% an estimate based on prior use of cefotaxime. A policy of restricted duration of ceftriaxone was introduced, and although this reduced usage by over 50%, CDAD continued at an average of 9.2 cases per month, despite withdrawal of oral cephalosporins in December 1998. In August 1999 levofloxacin was substituted for ceftriaxone in the policy. The incidence of CDAD fell progressively to five cases per month by 2000. It would appear that a short (typically three dose) course of third-generation cephalosporin poses a similar risk for CDAD as a more prolonged course. The six-month delay in the decline of CDAD after virtual withdrawal of cephalosporins may reflect a slowly diminishing environmental reservoir.

  5. Epidemiology and Molecular Typing of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis Cases in Lombardy, Italy, over a 10-Year Period (2005–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Filipello, Virginia; Amato, Ettore; Gori, Maria; Huedo, Pol; Ciceri, Giulia; Lomonaco, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In developed countries, pregnancy-related listeriosis accounts for 20–43% of total invasive listeriosis. This work describes the first pregnancy-related listeriosis survey in Italy based on two data sources, that is, mandatory notification system and regional laboratory-based network. Out of 610 listeriosis cases reported over a 10-year period, 40 were pregnancy-related (6.6%). Among these, 29 pregnancy-related isolates were available and have been analysed with serotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing. No maternal fatality was recorded, but 11 (29.7%) pregnancies resulted in a foetal death, a miscarriage, or a birth of a foetus dying immediately after birth. The average incidence of pregnancy-related listeriosis was 4.3 cases per 100000 births, and the proportion of pregnancy-associated listeriosis among ethnic minorities was significantly higher compared to the general population (30.0% versus 3.5%, P < 0.01). L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b, with the latter significantly more prevalent among pregnancy-related isolates. Twenty different pulsotypes were distinguished and 16 out of the 29 isolates were classified into seven clusters. A total of 16 virulence types (VTs) were identified. Five VTs accounted for 45% of the total cases and coincided with those of previously described Epidemic Clones (ECs) of L. monocytogenes.

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Invasive Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a Spanish Hospital over a Nine-Year Study Period, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Soriano, Francisco; Hernández, Marta; Stessl, Beatrix; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenicity, invasiveness, and genetic relatedness of 17 clinical Listeria monocytogenes stains isolated over a period of nine years (2006–2014). All isolates were phenotypically characterised and growth patterns were determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined in E-tests. Invasion assays were performed with epithelial HeLa cells. Finally, L. monocytogenes isolates were subtyped by PFGE and MLST. All isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics (β-haemolysis and lecithinase activity), and three types of growth curve were observed. Bacterial recovery rates after invasion assays ranged from 0.09% to 7.26% (1.62 ± 0.46). MLST identified 11 sequence types (STs), and 14 PFGE profiles were obtained, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity. Genetic studies unequivocally revealed the occurrence of one outbreak of listeriosis in humans that had not previously been reported. This outbreak occurred in October 2009 and affected three patients from neighbouring towns. In conclusion, the molecular epidemiological analysis clearly revealed a cluster (three human cases, all ST1) of not previously reported listeriosis cases in northwestern Spain. Our findings indicate that molecular subtyping, in combination with epidemiological case analysis, is essential and should be implemented in routine diagnosis, to improve the tracing of the sources of outbreaks. PMID:26539467

  7. Zoonotic transmission of reassortant porcine G4P[6] rotaviruses in Hungarian pediatric patients identified sporadically over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Papp, Hajnalka; Borzák, Réka; Farkas, Szilvia; Kisfali, Péter; Lengyel, György; Molnár, Péter; Melegh, Béla; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Jakab, Ferenc; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2013-10-01

    Genotype G4P[6] Rotavirus A (RVA) strains collected from children admitted to hospital with gastroenteritis over a 15 year period in the pre rotavirus vaccine era in Hungary were characterized in this study. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed on eight G4P[6] RVA strains. All these RVA strains shared a fairly conservative genomic configuration (G4-P[6]-I1/I5-R1-C1-M1-A1/A8-N1-T1/T7-E1-H1) and showed striking similarities to porcine and porcine-derived human RVA strains collected worldwide, although genetic relatedness to some common human RVA strains was also seen. The resolution of phylogenetic relationship between porcine and human RVA genes was occasionally low, making the evaluation of host species origin of individual genes sometimes difficult. Yet the whole genome constellations and overall phylogenetic analyses indicated that these eight Hungarian G4P[6] RVA strains may have originated by independent zoonotic transmission, probably from pigs. Future surveillance studies of human and animal RVA should go parallel to enable the distinction between direct interspecies transmission events and those that are coupled with reassortment of cognate genes.

  8. Changes in the primate trade in indonesian wildlife markets over a 25-year period: Fewer apes and langurs, more macaques, and slow lorises.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna; Wirdateti; Nekaris, K A I

    2015-12-29

    Indonesia has amongst the highest primate species richness, and many species are included on the country's protected species list, partially to prevent over-exploitation. Nevertheless traders continue to sell primates in open wildlife markets especially on the islands of Java and Bali. We surveyed 13 wildlife markets in 2012-2014 and combined our results with previous surveys from 1990-2009 into a 122-survey dataset with 2,424 records of 17 species. These data showed that the diversity of species in trade decreased over time, shifting from rare rainforest-dwelling primates traded alongside more widespread species that are not confined to forest to the latter type only. In the 1990s and early 2000s orangutans, gibbons and langurs were commonly traded alongside macaques and slow lorises but in the last decade macaques and slow lorises comprised the bulk of the trade. In 2012-2014 we monitored six wildlife markets in Jakarta, Bandung and Garut (all on Java), and Denpasar (Bali). During 51 surveys we recorded 1,272 primates of eight species. Traders offered long-tailed macaque (total 1,007 individuals) and three species of slow loris (228 individuals) in five of the six markets, whereas they traded ebony langurs (18 individuals), and pig-tailed macaques (14 individuals) mostly in Jakarta. Pramuka and Jatinegara markets, both in Jakarta, stood out as important hubs for the primate trade, with a clear shift in importance over time from the former to the latter. Slow lorises, orangutans, gibbons and some langurs are protected under Indonesian law, which prohibits all trade in them; of these protected species, only the slow lorises remained common in trade throughout the 25-year period. Trade in non-protected macaques and langurs is subject to strict regulations-which market traders did not follow-making all the market trade in primates that we observed illegal. Trade poses a substantial threat to Indonesian primates, and without enforcement, the sheer volume of trade may

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular subtypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Kolkata, India over a 15 years period 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Das, Surojit; Samajpati, Sriparna; Ray, Ujjwayini; Roy, Indranil; Dutta, Shanta

    2017-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains. More than 60% of the S. Typhi isolates were obtained from community based studies. During the study period, steady decline (46.4%-15.6%) in isolation of multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole) S. Typhi was noticed with parallel increase of nalidixic acid-resistant (NAL(R)) strains (60.7%-93.8%) and ciprofloxacin resistant (CIP(R)) strains (0%-25%). Of 53 MDR strains, 46 (86.8%) were NAL(R) showing decreased ciprofloxacin susceptible (DCS) (MIC for ciprofloxacin 0.12-0.5μg/ml) phenotype. Conjugative IncHI1 (230kb) and non-conjugative non-IncHI1 (180kb) plasmids were found in 23 (43.4%) and 14 (26.4%) MDR strains respectively, plasmid was absent in 16 (30.2%) MDR strains. MDR strains with or without plasmid shared the same set of resistance genes (blaTEM-1, catA1, sul1, sul2, strA and strB) and class 1 integron possessing dfrA7 gene cassette. Two S. Typhi strains harbored 50kb transferrable plasmids carrying dfrA15 and aadA1 gene cassettes in class 1 integron. The majority of the strains (135/164, 82.3%) belonged to H58 haplotype. Among the MDR isolates, fluoroquinolone resistant or combined resistant isolates (n=147), 127 (86.4%) were H58 and 20 (13.6%) belonged to non-H58. NAL(R)S. Typhi strains with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin had point mutation(s) in quinolone resistance-determining region of

  10. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  11. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A systematic follow-up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug-resistance and associated genotypic lineages in the French Departments of the Americas over a seventeen-year period.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Streit, Elisabeth; Berchel, Mylène; Bomer, Anne-Gaël; Schuster, Franziska; Paasch, Delaina; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Cadelis, Gilbert; Rastogi, Nalin

    2014-01-01

    THE population of the French Departments of the Americas (FDA) is highly influenced by the intense migratory flows with mainland france and surrounding countries of the Caribbean and Latin America, some of which have high incidence rates of tuberculosis (Haiti: 230/100,000; Guyana: 111/100,000; and Suriname: 145/100,000) and drug resistance. Since the development of drug resistance to conventional antituberculous drugs has a major impact on the treatment success of tuberculosis, we therefore decided to review carefully Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and associated genotypic lineages in the FDA over a seventeen-year period (January 1995-December 2011). A total of 1239 cases were studied, including 153 drug-resistant and 26 multidrug-resistant- (MDR-) TB cases, representing 12.3% and 2.1% of the TB cases in our study setting. A significantly higher proportion of M. tuberculosis isolates among relapse cases showed drug resistance to isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), or both (MDR-TB, 17.5%; P < 0.001). Determination of spoligotyping based phylogenetic clades showed that among the five major lineages observed--T family (30.1%); Latin-American and Mediterranean (LAM, 23.7%); Haarlem (H, 22.2%); East-African Indian (EAI, 7.2%); and X family (6.5%)--two lineages, X and LAM, were overrepresented in drug-resistant and MDR-TB cases, respectively. Finally, 19 predominant spoligotypes were identified for the 1239 isolates of M. tuberculosis in our study among which 4 were significantly associated with drug resistance corresponding to SIT20/LAM1, SIT64/LAM6, SIT45/H1, and SIT46/undefined lineage.

  13. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  14. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  15. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  16. Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995-2009).

    PubMed

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17-20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.

  17. Spatiotemporal changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities under different nitrogen inputs over a 5-year period in intensive agricultural ecosystems on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yunlong; Yue, Shanchao; Christie, Peter; Murray, Philip J; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Junling

    2014-11-01

    Appropriate nitrogen (N) management is important to minimize N losses from intensively managed agricultural ecosystems. Understanding the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in response to N management can be of great ecological significance, particularly with the recent emphasis on the role of AMF in N cycling. A comprehensive study of both the vertical distribution of AMF in the soil profile and the temporal changes in community structure in maize roots was conducted over a 5-year period at a field site on the North China Plain. The N treatments consisted of zero N, conventional farming practice, and optimum N based on an in-season soil Nmin test. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone sequencing were used to analyse the AMF community. Optimum N mitigated the decline in richness of AMF in the conventional N treatment in the surface soil. Diverse and species-rich AMF communities occurred deep in the soil profile. A significant difference in AMF community structure was observed between the control and fertilizer N treatments but not between the two N application strategies. AMF communities deeper in the soil profile were subsets of those richer communities in the surface soil and the loss of AMF taxa was mostly due to the absence of rare taxa. Soil pH and Nmin contents were major soil properties affecting the soil AMF communities among the N treatments while vertical distribution was influenced mainly by soil electrical conductivity. Crop phenology had a stronger influence than N treatment on the temporal shifts in AMF communities in maize roots. Our results provide evidence for the importance of N management in maintaining AMF diversity. Changes in soil chemical properties due to N fertilization, in particular declining soil pH, should be integrated in N management strategies to reduce the negative impacts on AMF communities induced by N fertilization. Excessive N inputs induced significant changes in soil physicochemical

  18. The use of laboratory-determined ion exchange parameters in the predictive modelling of field-scale major cation migration in groundwater over a 40-year period.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Harriet F; Tellam, John H; Parker, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate quantitatively cation concentration changes as estuary water invades a Triassic Sandstone aquifer in northwest England. Cation exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients for Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were measured in the laboratory using standard techniques. Selectivity coefficients were also determined using a method involving optimized back-calculation from flushing experiments, thus permitting better representation of field conditions; in all cases, the Gaines-Thomas/constant cation exchange capacity (CEC) model was found to be a reasonable, though not perfect, first description. The exchange parameters interpreted from the laboratory experiments were used in a one-dimensional reactive transport mixing cell model, and predictions compared with field pumping well data (Cl and hardness spanning a period of around 40 years, and full major ion analyses in approximately 1980). The concentration patterns predicted using Gaines-Thomas exchange with calcite equilibrium were similar to the observed patterns, but the concentrations of the divalent ions were significantly overestimated, as were 1980 sulphate concentrations, and 1980 alkalinity concentrations were underestimated. Including representation of sulphate reduction in the estuarine alluvium failed to replicate 1980 HCO(3) and pH values. However, by including partial CO(2) degassing following sulphate reduction, a process for which there is 34S and 18O evidence from a previous study, a good match for SO(4), HCO(3), and pH was attained. Using this modified estuary water and averaged values from the laboratory ion exchange parameter determinations, good predictions for the field cation data were obtained. It is concluded that the Gaines-Thomas/constant exchange capacity model with averaged parameter values can be used successfully in ion exchange predictions in this aquifer at a regional scale and over extended time scales, despite the numerous assumptions inherent in

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must...

  20. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a Periodic... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must...

  1. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Garrison Project in North Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2003 through 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    period 2003 through 2005. Collected algae included taxa from the following seven taxonomic Divisions: Bacillariophyta (Diatioms), Chlorophyta (Green... Chlorophyta /Cryptophyta > Cyanobacteria > Pyrrophyta > Chrysophyta >> Euglenophyta. The diatoms were generally the most prevalent algae throughout the...collected at sites L1, L3, L5, and L7 during the period 2003 through 2005. Site Date Biovolume (um3) Bacillariophyta Chlorophyta Chrysophyta

  2. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... average case-mix index for the appropriate classifications of all hospitals subject to cost limits... reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1983 and before October 1, 1984, CMS adjusts the target... periods beginning on or after October 1, 1984 and before October 1, 1985, CMS adjusts the target...

  3. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies and five-year review of and adjustments to the relative value units under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2002. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    This final rule with comment period makes several changes affecting Medicare Part B payment. The changes affect: refinement of resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs); services and supplies incident to a physician's professional service;anesthesia base unit variations;recognition of CPT tracking codes; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and clinical nurse specialists performing screening sigmoidoscopies. It also addresses comments received on the June 8, 2001 proposed notice for the 5-year review of work RVUs and finalizes these work RVUs. In addition,we acknowledge comments received on our request for information on our policy for CPT modifier 62 that is used to report the work of co-surgeons. The rule also updates the list of certain services subject to the physician self-referral prohibitions to reflect changes to CPT codes and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes effective January 1, 2002. These refinements and changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 modernizes the mammography screening benefit and authorizes payment under the physician fee schedule effective January 1, 2002; provides for biennial screening pelvic examinations for certain beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; provides for annual glaucoma screenings for high-risk beneficiaries effective January 1,2002; expands coverage for screening colonoscopies to all beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; establishes coverage for medical nutrition therapy services for certain beneficiaries effective January 1, 2002; expands payment for telehealth services effective October 1, 2001; requires certain Indian Health Service providers to be paid for some services under the physician fee schedule effective July 1, 2001; and revises the payment for certain physician pathology services effective January 1

  4. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  5. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  6. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  7. The Effect of Active versus Passive Recovery Periods during High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Local Tissue Oxygenation in 18 – 30 Year Old Sedentary Men

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Askew, Christopher D.; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient format of exercise to reduce the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Changes in oxygen utilisation at the local tissue level during an acute session of HIIT could be the primary stimulus for the health benefits associated with this format of exercise. The recovery periods of HIIT effect the physiological responses that occur during the session. It was hypothesised that in sedentary individuals, local and systemic oxygen utilisation would be higher during HIIT interspersed with active recovery periods, when compared to passive recovery periods. Methods Twelve sedentary males (mean ± SD; age 23 ± 3 yr) completed three conditions on a cycle ergometer: 1) HIIT with passive recovery periods between four bouts (HIITPASS) 2) HIIT with active recovery periods between four bouts (HIITACT) 3) HIITACT with four HIIT bouts replaced with passive periods (REC). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GN) muscles and the pre-frontal cortex (FH), oxygen consumption (VO2), power output and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during the three conditions. Results There was a significant increase in HHb at VL during bouts 2 (p = 0.017), 3 (p = 0.035) and 4 (p = 0.035) in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS. Mean power output was significantly lower in HIITACT, compared to HIITPASS (p < 0.001). There was a significant main effect for site in both HIITPASS (p = 0.029) and HIITACT (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in VO2 and HR between HIITPASS and HIITACT. Conclusions The increase in HHb at VL and the lower mean power output during HIITACT could indicate that a higher level of deoxygenation contributes to decreased mechanical power in sedentary participants. The significant differences in HHb between sites indicates the specificity of oxygen utilisation. PMID:27677081

  8. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was