Science.gov

Sample records for 20-30 year period

  1. Phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Dianbao; Wang, Xiliang; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Rui; Lin, Xuewen; Shi, Ping; Pang, Xining

    2015-08-01

    Fetal wound healing occurs rapidly and without scar formation early in gestation, but the mechanisms underlying this scarless healing are poorly understood. This study explores the phenotypic and functional modulation of 20-30 year old dermal fibroblasts by mid- and late-gestational keratinocytes (KCs) in vitro. Human KCs of different gestational ages were isolated, characterized, and co-cultured with human 20-30 year old fibroblasts. Gene expression and protein levels of TGF-β family members, precollagen, collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in the fibroblasts. Mid-gestational KCs promoted faster proliferation and migration of fibroblasts than late-gestational KCs. Additionally, significant differences in gene expression and protein levels of some markers were observed in fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- or late-gestational KCs. Fibroblasts co-cultured with mid-gestational KCs for 48 h exhibited downregulated gene expression of precollagen 1, collagen 1, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, while precollagen 3, collagen 3, TGF-β3, and MMP-1, -2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. In contrast, late-gestational KCs exhibited downregulated TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 levels, while collagen 1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and MMP-2, -3, -9 and -14 were upregulated. Moreover, statistically significant differences in expression levels of precollagen 1, precollagen 3, collagen 1, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, MMP-1, -3 and MMP-14, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were found between fibroblasts co-cultured with mid- and late-gestational KCs. Furthermore, cytokine levels of IL-1a and HB-EGF were found to be statistically different between conditioned medium from mid- and late-gestational KCs. Therefore, the gestational age of KCs appears to have an important effect on scarless wound healing in the human fetus. PMID:25599870

  2. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  3. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  4. 46 CFR 72.20-30 - Messrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Messrooms. 72.20-30 Section 72.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-30 Messrooms. (a) Messrooms must be located as near to the galley...

  5. Biology 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Biology 20-30 is an academic program that helps students in Alberta, Canada, better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science…

  6. Physics 20-30: Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Presented in English and French, Physics 20-30 is an academic program that helps students better understand and apply fundamental concepts and skills. The major goals of the program are: (1) to develop in students an understanding of the interconnecting ideas and principles that transcend and unify the natural science disciplines; (2) to provide…

  7. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  8. 7 CFR 1217.10 - Fiscal period or year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period or year. 1217.10 Section 1217.10... Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1217.10 Fiscal period or year. Fiscal period or year means a calendar year from January 1 through December 31, or such other period as recommended by...

  9. Antennas for 20/30 GHz and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. Harry; Wong, William C.; Hamada, S. Jim

    1989-01-01

    Antennas of 20/30 GHz and higher frequency, due to the small wavelength, offer capabilities for many space applications. With the government-sponsored space programs (such as ACTS) in recent years, the industry has gone through the learning curve of designing and developing high-performance, multi-function antennas in this frequency range. Design and analysis tools (such as the computer modelling used in feedhorn design and reflector surface and thermal distortion analysis) are available. The components/devices (such as BFN's, weight modules, feedhorns and etc.) are space-qualified. The manufacturing procedures (such as reflector surface control) are refined to meet the stringent tolerance accompanying high frequencies. The integration and testing facilities (such as Near-Field range) also advance to facilitate precision assembling and performance verification. These capabilities, essential to the successful design and development of high-frequency spaceborne antennas, shall find more space applications (such as ESGP) than just communications.

  10. Marketing 20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Marketing 20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in six sections. The first section contains introductory information on the Marketing 20-30 curriculum, including course objectives and a flowchart of the modules in the marketing course. Planning the course…

  11. The 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    Rain attenuation in the 20/30 GHz bands, and the resultant impact on system user costs were estimated for a variety of satellite communication system concepts. Results of previous and current NASA Lewis contractual and in-house studies on system design are reported as well as market studies conducted to evaluate the concepts and test their relevancy against forecasted market needs. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity.

  12. Chemistry 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Chemistry 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Chemistry 20, explaining the program philosophy and the relationships among science, technology, and society. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is…

  13. Biology 20-30: Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormie, George; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Biology 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Biology 20, explaining the program philosophy and depth of coverage of some of the objectives. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around major science themes is described, as well…

  14. Physics 20-30 Background, Exemplars and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Desiree; And Others

    This document is designed to provide practical information for teaching the Physics 20-30 Program of Studies. The first section provides an overview of Physics 20, explaining the program philosophy and the selection and sequencing of topics. The use of concept connections and teaching a course around the science themes are described, as well as…

  15. Dyslexia: Stability of Definition over a Five Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, S. F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Compares the development of reading and spelling in a group of dyslexics and nondyslexics over a 5-year period (from ages 8 to 13 years). Notes that three distinct groups emerged: stable (identified at both ages), transient (identified at the younger age), and late emerging dyslexics (classified at age 13). Finds that dyslexic students do not…

  16. Future mobile satellite communication concepts at 20/30 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, S. K.; Norbury, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The outline of a design of a system using ultra small earth stations (picoterminals) for data traffic at 20/30 GHz is discussed. The picoterminals would be battery powered, have an RF transmitter power of 0.5 W, use a 10 cm square patch antenna, and have a receiver G/T of about -8 dB/K. Spread spectrum modulation would be required (due to interference consideration) to allow a telex type data link (less than 200 bit/s data rate) from the picoterminal to the hub station of the network and about 40 kbit/s on the outbound patch. An Olympus type transponder at 20/30 GHz could maintain several thousand simultaneous picoterminal circuits. The possibility of demonstrating a picoterminal network with voice traffic using Olympus is discussed together with fully mobile systems based on this concept.

  17. Quasi-periodicities at Year-like Timescales in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.; Treves, A.

    2016-03-01

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  18. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  9. One hundred years of return period: Strengths and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpi, E.; Fiori, A.; Grimaldi, S.; Lombardo, F.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2015-10-01

    One hundred years from its original definition by Fuller, the probabilistic concept of return period is widely used in hydrology as well as in other disciplines of geosciences to give an indication on critical event rareness. This concept gains its popularity, especially in engineering practice for design and risk assessment, due to its ease of use and understanding; however, return period relies on some basic assumptions that should be satisfied for a correct application of this statistical tool. Indeed, conventional frequency analysis in hydrology is performed by assuming as necessary conditions that extreme events arise from a stationary distribution and are independent of one another. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of return period when the independence condition is omitted; hence, we explore how the different definitions of return period available in literature affect results of frequency analysis for processes correlated in time. We demonstrate that, for stationary processes, the independence condition is not necessary in order to apply the classical equation of return period (i.e., the inverse of exceedance probability). On the other hand, we show that the time-correlation structure of hydrological processes modifies the shape of the distribution function of which the return period represents the first moment. This implies that, in the context of time-dependent processes, the return period might not represent an exhaustive measure of the probability of failure, and that its blind application could lead to misleading results. To overcome this problem, we introduce the concept of Equivalent Return Period, which controls the probability of failure still preserving the virtue of effectively communicating the event rareness.

  10. Adaptive TDMA for 20/30 GHz fade countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, S. K.

    1989-05-01

    The traffic capacity of the Olympus 20/30 GHz transponder is calculated under various conditions and the results are compared. The capacity is first calculated under conventional fixed data rate design rules as given in the Olympus Users Guide and the data rate for each station is then varied according to its position in the satellite footprint and its antenna mis-pointing, allowing a uniform margin for widespread light rain. The heavy rain condition is analyzed with allowances for the dynamic effects of signaling overhead, idling stations, and adaptive lag. The traffic mode can be increased by a factor of 480/64 or 7.5 times by adopting an adaptive TDMA (time division multiple access) approach to fade countermeasures.

  11. Period Recoverability of Exoplanets Using LSST: A Yearly Yield Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacklin, Savannah; Lund, Michael; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate light curves for approximately 1 billion stars over the course of its ten year initial mission. The majority of LSST light curves will contain about 1000 data points (so-called regular cadence) while select fields will have 10000 data points (deep-drilling cadence). Lund et al. (2015) demonstrated that several configurations of exoplanetary systems could be recovered using LSST in areas currently underrepresented in planet searches; i.e. the galactic bulge, the Magellanic clouds, and nearby red dwarfs. A fundamental question in working with LSST data is how time-sensitive detection of transient phenomena will affect the rate and type of expected scientific discoveries. Specifically, we aim to examine how quickly significant science results be achievable over the course of LSST's ten-year mission. We apply a methodology established in Jacklin et al. (2015) designed to examine hot Jupiter detectability over a range of planetary periods and radii in LSST's ten-year light curves. Here, we conduct a similar analysis on a yearly basis in order to examine the rate of detection over the course of the LSST mission. We specifically report on how the LSST yield of exoplanet detections evolves on a year-by-year basis for a variety of systems.

  12. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  13. 21 CFR 20.30 - Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information Staff. 20.30 Section 20.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION General Policy § 20.30 Food and Drug Administration Freedom...

  14. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  15. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  16. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  17. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20-30 Section 50.20-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or...

  18. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  19. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  20. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.310 Fiscal period...

  4. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.310 Fiscal period...

  9. Period, Place and Mental Space: Using Historical Scholarship to Develop Year 7 Pupils' Sense of Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dan

    2014-01-01

    What is a sense of period? And how can pupils' sense of period be developed? Questions such as these have troubled history teachers for many years, often revolving around debates over the role played by empathy and imagination in coming to know a period on its own terms. Rather than adopt a comparative approach, Dan Smiths decided in his…

  10. A 250-year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Jones, R. T.; Fogwill, C.; Hatton, J.; Williams, A. N.; Hogg, A.; Thomas, Z. A.; Palmer, J.; Mooney, S.; Reimer, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean-atmosphere system of the mid- to high latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately, historic observations only extend back to the late 19th century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30-year) record of past westerly wind strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated within the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow (the so-called furious fifties), we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen and charcoal derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength. We find a period of high charcoal content between 2000 and 1000 cal. years BP, associated with increased burning in Patagonia, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and stronger westerly airflow. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a pervasive ca. 250-year periodicity that is coherent with radiocarbon production rates, suggesting that solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow. Our results have important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  11. The Solar Wind at 20-30 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.; Gazis, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Pioneer 10 sampled the interplanetary plasma over the range 20 to 30 astronomical units, during the period 1979-1983. The median flow speed is about 400 km/s, and at 20 AU the median density, proton temperature and dynamic pressure are, respectively, 0.025 cm-3, 10(4) K, and 6x10-11 dyne cm-2. It is shown that the average solar wind flow speed does not vary significantly with increasing heliocentric distance, and the density falls off as R-2, as predicted by simple solar wind models. The day-to-day variations in solar wind parameters are smaller at larger distance. Very large shocks however, were detected beyond 25 AU. Comparison of Pioneer 10 and 11 observations at similar distances but different phases of the solar activity cycle shows that solar wind dynamic pressure varies over a wider range during epochs of high solar activity. The variation near 20 AU is likely to be smaller at Voyager 2 Uranus encounter than observed by Pioneer 10 in the 1979-80 period.

  12. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occured on Saturn at the end of year 2010. The storm produced lightning at a rate greater than 10 SEDs per second. It wrapped around the planet, with a wake depleted in ammonia, and after 6 months it died. These kinds of storms are rare and episodic. They happen every 20-30 years. In this study, we discuss the role of moist convection on the development of the storm and explain the observed post-storm ammonia depletion. The study is composed of two parts. First, thermodynamcis on Saturn indicates that strong convection is prohibited by the waterloading-effect when the troposphere is warm. After 20-30 years, the troposphere has cooled below a critical value so that deep convection develops at the base of the water cloud. The deep water mixing ratio is best estimated as 1.2% relative to H2 so as to match the cooling time. Second, strong convection can produce a warm convective column that overshoots into the stratosphere. We solve the cylindrically symmetric hydrostatic primitive equations to investigate the large scale response of the ambient flow to the geostrophically unbalanced column. We find that during the subsequent large scale adjustment, ammonia vapor condenses and precipitates out of the troposphere, causing high residual brightness temperatures as observed by Cassini/RADAR (Janssen et al., 2013; Laraia et al., 2013). Further, for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.2%, we find that the ammonia vapor is depeleted down to 5 bar, that the speed of remaining anticyclonic vortex is about 30 m/s, and the residual large scale warming is about 10 K. These values are consistent with observation within the measurement uncertainties.

  13. A 250 year periodicity in Southern Hemisphere westerly winds over the last 2600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, C.; Jones, R.; Fogwill, C.; Hatton, J.; Williams, A. N.; Hogg, A.; Thomas, Z.; Palmer, J.; Mooney, S.

    2015-06-01

    Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow has a significant influence on the ocean-atmosphere system of the mid- to high-latitudes with potentially global climate implications. Unfortunately historic observations only extend back to the late nineteenth century, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal to centennial change. Here we present a highly resolved (30 yr) record of past westerly air strength from a Falkland Islands peat sequence spanning the last 2600 years. Situated under the core latitude of Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow, we identify highly variable changes in exotic pollen derived from South America which can be used to inform on past westerly air strength and location. The results indicate enhanced airflow over the Falklands between 2000 and 1000 cal. yr BP, and associated with increased burning, most probably as a result of higher temperatures and/or reduced precipitation, comparable to records in South America. Spectral analysis of the charcoal record identifies a 250 year periodicity within the data, suggesting solar variability has a modulating influence on Southern Hemisphere westerly airflow with potentially important implications for understanding global climate change through the late Holocene.

  14. 6-Year Periodicity and Variable Synchronicity in a Mass-Flowering Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11–47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants. PMID:22163279

  15. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  16. The possibilities for mobile and fixed services up to the 20/30 GHz frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Clifford D.; Feliciani, F.; Spiller, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite Communications and broadcasting is presently in a period of considerable change. In the fixed service there is strong competition from terrestrial fiber optic systems which have virtually arrested the growth of the traditional satellite market for long distance high capacity communications. The satellite has however made considerable progress in areas where it has unique advantages; for example, in point to multipoint (broadcasting), multipoint to point (data collection) and generally in small terminal system applications where flexibility of deployment coupled with ease of installation are of importance. In the mobile service, in addition to the already established geostationary systems, there are numerous proposals for HEO, MEO and LEO systems. There are also several new frequency allocations as a result of the WARC 92 to be taken into account. At one extreme there are researchers working on Ka band 20/30 GHz mobile systems and there are other groups who foresee no future above the L-band frequency allocations. Amongst all these inputs it is difficult to see the direction in which development activities both for satellites and for earth segment should be focused. However, as an aid to understanding, this paper seeks to find some underlying relationships and to clarify some of the variables.

  17. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Five year build-out period. 22.947 Section 22.947 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for...

  18. Processes of physical change to the seabed and bivalve recruitment over a 10-year period following experimental hydraulic clam dredging on Banquereau, Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilkinson, K.; King, E. L.; Li, M. Z.; Roddick, D.; Kenchington, E.; Han, G.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on the effects of experimental hydraulic clam dredging on seabed habitat and commercial bivalve populations revealed a lack of recovery after a 3-year post-dredging period (1998-2001) on a deep (65-75 m) offshore sandy bank on the Scotian Shelf, Canada. Follow-up sidescan sonar surveys were carried out 5 and 10 years after dredging (2003, 2008) in order to identify long-term processes of seabed recovery. Grab sampling was carried out 10 years after dredging to identify post-dredging commercial bivalve recruitment. Changes in the seafloor, including dredge tracks, were documented with a series of 7 sidescan sonar surveys between 1998 and 2008. A sediment mobility model was constructed based on modeled tidal current and hindcast wave data over this time period to quantify natural seabed disturbance and interpret changes to the dredge tracks mapped by sidescan sonar surveys. The model indicated that tidal currents had minimal effect on sediment mobilization. The main driving force associated with re-working of surficial sediments as evidenced by deterioration of dredge tracks in sonograms was annual fall/winter storms. While the annual frequency of storms and associated wave heights was variable, the observations and sediment mobility calculations suggest that the most influential variable is the magnitude of individual large storms, specifically storms with a significant wave height of ∼11 m. These storms are capable of generating mobile sediment layers of 20-30 cm thickness, equivalent to the dredge blade cutting depth. It appears that, with minor exceptions, sediment properties have returned to pre-dredging conditions 10 years after dredging in this habitat. Based on known age-length relationships, the four commercial bivalve species showed very low recruitment at the experimental site over the 10-year post-dredging period. However, this is unlikely due to a dredging effect since a similar pattern was observed in non-dredged areas.

  19. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  20. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems... must be clear and legible. The map must accurately show the cell sites (transmitting antenna...

  1. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems... must be clear and legible. The map must accurately show the cell sites (transmitting antenna...

  2. 47 CFR 22.947 - Five year build-out period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.947 Five year build-out period. Except for systems... must be clear and legible. The map must accurately show the cell sites (transmitting antenna...

  3. Accounting 10-20-30. Senior High School Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This manual is intended to help teachers meet the objectives of the 1985 Alberta, Canada, Accounting 10-20-30 curriculum. The manual is organized in nine sections. The first section introduces the curriculum and lists the course objectives, and the following section provides a flowchart of the accounting modules. Information on planning the…

  4. NATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM DURING THE ARRA PERIOD: PROGRAM YEARS 2009-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M; Schmoyer, Richard L; Eisenberg, Joel Fred; Ternes, Mark P; Schweitzer, Martin; Hendrick, Timothy P

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the third major evaluation of the Program, encompassing program years 2009 to 2011. In this report, this period of time is referred to as the ARRA Period. This is a special period of time for the Program because the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 has allocated $5 billion of funding for the Program. In normal program years, WAP s annual appropriation is in the range of $200-250 million, supporting the weatherization of approximately 100,000 homes. With the addition of ARRA funding during these program years, the expectation is that weatherization activity will exceed 300,000 homes per year. In addition to saving energy and reducing low-income energy bills, expanded WAP funding is expected to stimulate the economy by providing new jobs in the weatherization field and allowing low-income households to spend more money on goods and services by spending less on energy.

  5. 20/30 GHz satellite systems technology needs assessment. [for domestic communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.; Wright, D.

    1978-01-01

    The paper surveys the system and market work done at NASA-Lewis with regard to exploring the potential of the 20/30 GHz bands for domestic satellite communications. The 20/30 GHz bands appear attractive economically and, with certain technology advances, appear to offer a virtually unlimited spectrum resource. This attractiveness is especially relevant to high density trunking where there is sufficient traffic to justify dual-station site diversity. Ongoing system and market studies actively involve satellite system suppliers and carriers as well as the government in a cooperative, mutually beneficial effort. It is considered that this is the approach most likely to result in a spectrum-efficient acceptable-risk high-capacity 30/30 GHz satellite system which is relevant to anticipated markets.

  6. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  7. Incidence of, and reasons for, tooth mortality among mentally retarded adults during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gabre, P; Martinsson, T; Gahnberg, L

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the reasons for, and incidence of, tooth mortality over a 10-year period in mentally retarded adults receiving regular dental care. The number of teeth present in 115 individuals (mean age in 1984 was 41.0, range 19-83 years) was registered in 1984 and 1994. The reasons for tooth mortality, medication utilization, frequency of dental care visits and cooperation during dental treatment were registered and related to tooth loss. The average incidence of tooth mortality was 3.72 teeth during the 10-year period. The mean number of dental care visits per year was 6.6. Most of the 428 teeth (58%) were lost due to periodontal disease. The preventive dental care given was not sufficient to arrest oral diseases. The data indicate, however, that achievement of cooperation in dental care situations not only makes dental treatment possible, but also leads to a decreased incidence of tooth mortality. PMID:10207537

  8. Length of the current interglacial period and interglacial intervals of the last million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergachev, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    It was ascertained that the long-term cyclical oscillations of the global climate of the Earth between glacial and interglacial states for the last million years respond to cyclical oscillations of the orbital parameters of the Earth. Cold glacial states with a period of approximately 100 ka give way to shorter intervals of warming of around 10-12 ka long. The current interglacial period—the so-called Holocene—started on Earth roughly 10 ka ago. The length of the current interglacial period and the causes of the climate change over the last approximately 50 years arouse sharp debates connected with the growing anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. To estimate the length of the current interglacial period, interglacial intervals near ~400 (MIS-11) and ~800 (MIS-19) ka are analyzed as its probable analogs.

  9. 26 CFR 53.4943-6 - Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Five-year period to dispose of gifts, bequests, etc. 53.4943-6 Section 53.4943-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) FOUNDATION AND SIMILAR EXCISE TAXES Taxes on Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-6...

  10. 42 CFR 457.610 - Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Period of availability for State allotments for a fiscal year. 457.610 Section 457.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Payments to States...

  11. First-Year Chemistry in the Context of the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodgate, Sheila D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the methods that have been developed to blend descriptive chemistry and principles in a first-year chemistry course. The key is active teaching of the subject using the periodic table as a template. Inorganic chemistry is taught using a group approach: developing trends that help teaching and learning become obvious if all elements of…

  12. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  13. Prediction of Youth Contacts with Law Agencies over An Eight Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability with which youngsters' contacts with law enforcement agencies could be predicted over an eight year period, to determine the significant predictors, and to develop a practical system for early prediction of delinquency and early identification of its causes. A special nomination instrument…

  14. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  15. Giant left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient: natural history over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Gani; Emini, Merita; Berisha, Venera; Gashi, Fitnete; Beqiri, Arton; Zahiti, Bedri; Selmani, Hamza; Shatri, Faik; Manaj, Rexhep

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with a 7-year history of a giant left atrial myxoma. The myxoma was attached to the atrial septum and occupied almost the entire left atrial cavity. The patient was hospitalized 4 times because of dyspnea on exertion, palpitations, fatigue, general asthenia, and weight loss. During prior hospitalizations, the patient had refused cardiac surgery. She developed several complications, including atrial fibrillation, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, mesenteric embolism, pulmonary edema, and thrombotic stroke. We herein describe the natural history of left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient over a 7-year period. PMID:17024671

  16. Orbital influence on Earth's magnetic field: 100,000-year periodicity in inclination.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Oda, Hirokuni

    2002-03-29

    A continuous record of the inclination and intensity of Earth's magnetic field, during the past 2.25 million years, was obtained from a marine sediment core of 42 meters in length. This record reveals the presence of 100,000-year periodicity in inclination and intensity, which suggests that the magnetic field is modulated by orbital eccentricity. The correlation between inclination and intensity shifted from antiphase to in-phase, corresponding to a magnetic polarity change from reversed to normal. To explain the observation, we propose a model in which the strength of the geocentric axial dipole field varies with 100,000-year periodicity, whereas persistent nondipole components do not. PMID:11923535

  17. Frequency of serial sexual homicide victimization in Virginia for a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    McNamara, James J; Morton, Robert J

    2004-05-01

    The frequency of serial sexual murder has been widely discussed, and estimates of the number of victims in the United States range from 500 to 6000 per year. This study attempted to quantify the number of serial sexual murder victims in Virginia for a ten-year period. Multiple sources of data were utilized, including Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) case files, FBI's Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (ViCAP) reports, Virginia State Police ViCAP reports, Virginia Homicide Investigators Association, and the Virginia Division of Forensic Science DNA database, to effectively cull out all the known serial sexual murder victims for the given time period. Review of these records revealed a total of 28 victims of serial sexual murder, compared with a total of 5183 murder victims for the same ten-year period. The frequency of serial sexual victimization was 0.5% of all homicides for the given period. These results highlight the unusual frequency of serial sexual murder. PMID:15171171

  18. Spurious One-Month and One-Year Periods in Visual Observations of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Visual observations of variable stars, when time-series analyzed with some algorithms such as DC-DFT in vstar, show spurious periods at or close to one synodic month (29.5306 days), and also at about a year, with an amplitude of typically a few hundredths of a magnitude. The one-year periods have been attributed to the Ceraski effect, which was believed to be a physiological effect of the visual observing process. This paper reports on time-series analysis, using DC-DFT in vstar, of visual observations (and in some cases, V observations) of a large number of stars in the AAVSO International Database, initially to investigate the one-month periods. The results suggest that both the one-month and one-year periods are actually due to aliasing of the stars' very low-frequency variations, though they do not rule out very low-amplitude signals (typically 0.01 to 0.02 magnitude) which may be due to a different process, such as a physiological one. Most or all of these aliasing effects may be avoided by using a different algorithm, which takes explicit account of the window function of the data, and/or by being fully aware of the possible presence of and aliasing by very low-frequency variations.

  19. Paleocene sea level movements with a 430,000 year quasi-periodic cyclicity

    SciTech Connect

    Briskin, M. ); Fluegeman, R. )

    1990-04-01

    Sea level movements with quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years are identified in the marine sedimentary units of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia which represent a 5.8 million year record of strandline displacement during Paleocene time. Principal component analysis of the benthic foraminiferal fauna yielded six assemblages which when combined with two other qualitatively derived assemblages provided paleoecologic information which clearly reflects the influence of paleocirculation and paleoclimatic regime of the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The presence of the planktonic foraminiferal taxa Subbotina trinidadensis and Planorotalites pseudomenardii as well as paleolatitudes ranging from 15{degree} N (for the Campeche Shelf) to 25{degree} N (for the Coastal Plain) emphasizes a paleoclimatic regime which is dominantly tropical. A paleoceanographic model was derived which suggests that normal marine waters were brought into the Gulf of Mexico by two major currents. Strandline displacements are related to transgressive and regressive sea level movements in an ice free Paleocene world. The well delineated 430,000 year quasi-periodic cycle observed in the sea level curve is identified as being astronomical in character. These results support the view that changes in the Earth's orbit may trigger changes in the geometry of the Earth's surface in a way which causes sea level to oscillate with a quasi-periodicity of 430,000 years.

  20. Arm Anthropometry Indices in Turkish Children and Adolescents: Changes Over a Three-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. Methods: The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. Results: In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. Conclusions: The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years. PMID:25541892

  1. Motivation towards career choice of Brazilian freshman students in a fifteen-year period.

    PubMed

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordao, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; de Paula Ferreira, Naiara; de Fatima Nunes, Maria; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Examining dental students' profiles and perspectives contributes to discussions concerning dental education and practice. This study aimed, first, to investigate Brazilian dental students' reasons for pursuing dentistry as an occupation and, secondly, to consider the professional expectations of freshman students at a Brazilian public university over a fifteen-year period. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from a self-administered questionnaire to all first-year students enrolled in the 1993-95 and 2006-08 periods at the Federal University of Goias, Brazil (n=376). A total of 296 students responded (response rate=78.7 percent). Frequency analysis and chi-square tests were used to compare frequencies between the two time periods. Job conception was cited as the primary reason for pursuing dentistry, and the students considered oral health promotion and oral disease prevention as the primary purposes of dentistry. Most students intended to serve both high and low socioeconomic populations and both private and public practices after graduation. The majority cited an interest in specializing in clinical fields, orthodontics being the most frequent option. Significant trends included a greater interest in health promotion and public services and specializing in aesthetic dentistry and implantology in the 2006-08 period. This study revealed significant differences in the freshman students' motivations and professional perspectives over time. Personal views and concepts about profession are major influencing factors for choosing dentistry as a career. PMID:21205736

  2. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  3. Solar wind variations in the 60-100 year period range: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for and against the reality of a solar wind variation in the period range of 60-100 years is reexamined. Six data sets are reviewed; sunspot numbers, geomagnetic variations, two auroral data sets and two (14)C data sets. These data are proxies for several different aspects of the solar wind and the presence or absence of 60-100 year cyclic behavior in a particular data set does not necessarily imply the presence or absence of this variation in other sets. It was concluded that two different analyses of proxy data for a particular characteristic of the heliospheric solar wind yielded conflicting results. This conflict can be resolved only by future research. It is also definitely confirmed that proxy data for the solar wind in the ecliptic at 1 A.U. undergo a periodic variation with a period of approximately 87 years. The average amplitude and phase of this variation as seen in eleven cycles of proxy data are presented.

  4. Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin. Changes during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Kaa, E

    1994-02-01

    Changes in the content of impurities, adulterants and diluents are described for 383 samples of illicit heroin seized in the western part of Denmark during the 12-year period 1981 through 1992. A wide range in purity was found within each year, whereas the average purity did not vary much from one year to another. The average purity of wholesale samples (45%) was only slightly higher than the purity of retail samples (36%). The SW Asian type of heroin, containing high concentrations of noscapine, predominated from the mid-eighties. Heroin base and heroin hydrochloride each accounted for approximately half of the samples during the eighties. However, in recent years the base form has become predominant. During the early eighties caffeine and procaine were the most frequent additives next to sugars. During the middle and late eighties an increasing number of heroin samples were cut with phenobarbital and methaqualone. During the early nineties the occurrence of phenobarbital and methaqualone has decreased, whereas paracetamol in combination with caffeine has become predominant. Re-analyses of samples which had been kept in storage for several years showed that most samples had not changed after being stored in the dark for a couple of years at room temperature. However, storage for more than 5 years often resulted in decomposition, particularly in samples consisting of the SW Asian type of heroin. PMID:8175088

  5. Linkages of periodic climatic and social-economic changes in China during the past 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiuqi; Su, Yu; Yin, Jun; Wei, Zhudeng

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of climate change on rise and fall of human civilization in the history could provide lessons for understanding how impacts of climatic change and human response interacted. However, such a study is highly restricted by lacking in high-resolution series concerning long-term social-economic processes. China is a country that has great potential for providing long-term socio-economic series in high-resolution because it has abundant related historical records as long as thousands of years in the Chinese historical literatures. In this paper, A methodology named Semantic Differential for quantifying historical literal descriptions to grade numbers is developed. Using the methodology, 10-year resolution graded series of social-economic system change of China, including harvest of agriculture, economy, social rise and fall, are reconstructed during the past 2000 years. To compare the periodic changes of climate, harvest, economy, social rise and fall in China during the past 2000 years, it is found that : (1) There are similar periods on multiple time scales among all the series. (2) On the centurial scale, the better economic and social phases generally occurred in the better harvest phases when generally had a warm climate. (3) In the warm phases, both economic and social status were recovered faster and flourished longer than that in the cold phases. (4) The direct impact of climatic change on food security could be enlarged or diminished when it transmitted from harvest I to other social-economic subsystems because of feedbacks of the system.

  6. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). Aim: To evaluate journal “Acta Informatica Medica” in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). Results: A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by “Publish or Perish” software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Conclusion: Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine. PMID:27147796

  7. Successful stenting of four spontaneous oesophageal perforations in a single patient during a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus; Hedberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal perforation, a rare condition associated with high mortality due to mediastinitis and multi-organ failure, can be treated surgically or with endoscopic stents. We present a case of four right-sided oesophageal perforations during a 3-year period in a single patient, all successfully stented. The 51-year-old Caucasian male had his first oesophageal perforation in 2012, which was successfully treated with a fully covered endoscopic stent. No residual pathology was seen at stent removal. Two years later, the patient was successfully treated with stents twice for recurrent perforations. The fourth spontaneous perforation at the same site occurred this fall, and again endoscopic treatment was successful. The patient does not report any squeals. In spite of the successful outcome, we would like to emphasize the need for close surveillance and readiness for definitive surgical treatment. PMID:27154748

  8. Patterns of game animal attacks on hunters in Croatia over a 13-year period.

    PubMed

    Sprem, Nikica; Skavić, Petar; Krupec, Ivan; Budor, Ivica

    2013-09-01

    Hunter-game animal conflicts are occasionally reported from various parts of the world. This case series comprises all 7 game animal attacks on hunters reported to the Croatian Hunting Association over a period of 13 years (1999-2011), covering the entire Croatian territorial area. Seasonally, attacks occurred most frequently in the winter time, when the hunting season is at its peak. The most common attacking animal, representing 5 of 7 cases (71.4%), was the wild boar, and the majority of the attacks happened in the morning. All of our victims were male, with an average age of 51 years (range 26 to 69 years). Six victims sustained a bite wound or wounds and 1 was rammed by the animal. Almost all of our patients (5 of 7, with one unknown) recovered completely and without significant complications. PMID:23870764

  9. Frequent floods in the European Alps coincide with cooler periods of the past 2500 years

    PubMed Central

    Glur, Lukas; Wirth, Stefanie B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Gilli, Adrian; Haug, Gerald H.; Schär, Christoph; Beer, Jürg; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2013-01-01

    Severe floods triggered by intense precipitation are among the most destructive natural hazards in Alpine environments, frequently causing large financial and societal damage. Potential enhanced flood occurrence due to global climate change would thus increase threat to settlements, infrastructure, and human lives in the affected regions. Yet, projections of intense precipitation exhibit major uncertainties and robust reconstructions of Alpine floods are limited to the instrumental and historical period. Here we present a 2500-year long flood reconstruction for the European Alps, based on dated sedimentary flood deposits from ten lakes in Switzerland. We show that periods with high flood frequency coincide with cool summer temperatures. This wet-cold synchronism suggests enhanced flood occurrence to be triggered by latitudinal shifts of Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks. This paleoclimatic perspective reveals natural analogues for varying climate conditions, and thus can contribute to a better understanding and improved projections of weather extremes under climate change. PMID:24067733

  10. Validation of a high-resolution precipitation database (CHIRPS) over Cyprus for a 30-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanos, Dimitrios; Retalis, Adrianos; Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    A study for a 30-year period (1981-2010) for a new precipitation database is performed over the island of Cyprus. Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS) is a more than 30-year quasi-global rainfall dataset, spanning 50°S-50°N (and all longitudes). Starting in 1981 to near-present, CHIRPS incorporates 0.05° resolution satellite imagery with in situ station data to create gridded rainfall time series. In this study, CHIRPS database is firstly compared to other precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin. In the following, this study focuses over Cyprus, where a dense and reliable network of rain gauges is available. CHIRPS data are compared for the first time with in situ measurements in this area, for the aforementioned 30-year period. Monthly and annual comparisons are presented for each of the 0.05 × 0.05 degree cells overlaying the island of Cyprus. Results showed good correlation between CHIRPS values and recorded precipitation, although an overestimation of the in situ rainfall data has been noted during the last decade.

  11. Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Comparative Analysis of Two Five-year Periods

    PubMed Central

    Piuvezam, Grasiela; Medeiros, Wilton Rodrigues; Costa, Andressa Vellasco; Emerenciano, Felipe Fonseca; Santos, Renata Cristina; Seabra, Danilo Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Brazil. The better understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian elderly population is essential to support more appropriate health actions for each region of the country. Objective To describe and to compare geospatially the rates of mortality from cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals living in Brazil by gender in two 5-year periods: 1996 to 2000 and 2006 to 2010. Methods This is an ecological study, for which rates of mortality were obtained from DATASUS and the population rates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). An average mortality rate for cardiovascular disease in elderly by gender was calculated for each period. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by TerraView 4.2.0 through global Moran index and the formation of clusters by the index of local Moran-LISA. Results There was an increase, in the second 5-year period, in the mortality rates in the Northeast and North regions, parallel to a decrease in the South, South-East and Midwest regions. Moreover, there was the formation of clusters with high mortality rates in the second period in Roraima among females, and in Ceará, Pernambuco and Roraima among males. Conclusion The increase in mortality rates in the North and Northeast regions is probably related to the changing profile of mortality and improvement in the quality of information, a result of the increase in surveillance and health care measures in these regions. PMID:26559984

  12. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  13. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  14. Measured airtightness of 24 detached houses over periods of up to three years

    SciTech Connect

    Proskiw, G.

    1995-09-01

    Regular airtightness tests were performed on 24 new houses, over periods of up to three years, to evaluate their air barrier systems and to search for evidence, air barrier degradation. Ten of the houses were constructed with polyethylene air barriers while the remaining 14 used an early version of the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). The 24 project houses were architecturally similar and of approximately equal size and general layout; stucco was the predominate exterior wall finish. All were exposed to similar terrain shielding. The study found that the airtightness of the polyethylene air barrier houses remained stable over their respective monitoring periods. Although two of the ten houses demonstrated possible, albeit slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of these changes was small and judged not to be of practical significance. With respect to the critical issue of air barrier degradation, no evidence could be found to indicate polyethylene is unsuited for use as an air barrier material in residential construction. For example, all but one of the polyethylene houses met the airtightness requirements of the Canadian R-2000 Standard for energy efficient housing at the end of their monitoring periods. The study found that the airtightness of the 14 ADA houses also remained stable over their monitoring periods. Although six of the 14 houses displayed possible, but slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of the changes was small and not of practical significance. It was concluded that no evidence could be found to indicate that the ADA system is unsuited for use in residential construction. All 14 ADA houses met the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 Program at the end of their respective monitoring periods.

  15. Hemoptysis workup before embolization: single-center experience with a 15-year period follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Miguel A; Medrano, Joaquin; Laborda, Alicia; Higuera, Teresa

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to present our experience in arterial embolization in the endovascular treatment of massive hemoptysis and remark on the importance of the workup before embolization. We present some clinical aspects to keep in mind before carrying out a bronchial embolization in a patient with severe hemoptysis. The main causes of hemoptysis are presented, as well as diagnosis means and the most important therapeutic procedures aimed to stabilize the patient who will undergo a bronchial arterial embolization. Likewise, we present our own experience with 401 patients with over a 15-year period of follow-up. PMID:18572140

  16. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  17. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  18. Yucca mountain - From 10,000 to 1-Million year compliance period

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, R.G.

    2007-07-01

    Two plus years ago a U.S. Federal Court of Appeals (the Court) ruled that EPA had not followed the recommendation of the National Academy of Science (NAS) with regard to the 10,000 year period of regulatory compliance. In response to that ruling EPA went back to the drawing board in 2005 and issued a draft rule that it believed complied with the Court's ruling and the intent of the NAS recommendation. The result is a recommendation to cause there to be compliance out to 1- million years. It is the author's belief that thinking in terms of 1-million years is absurd, not based upon scientific information, and just results in yet another delay for an environmental program sorely needed by this country, especially in light of the nuclear power renaissance emerging at this time around the world. So, the Yucca Mountain Project is at yet another critical juncture. It is facing a decision to either clear the political and regulatory issues and move ahead; continue to be stalled costing the nation billions of wasted dollars; or be moth balled until a solution is reached. The Department of Energy has announced that waste acceptance will be delayed until at least 2017 and it is hard to comprehend why the project should continue to be funded at current levels. It is the author's opinion that only Congress can clear these obstacles so the project can move forward in a safe and efficient manner. This paper will present the history of the ever increasing compliance period for Yucca Mountain; the need to reevaluate the regulatory strategy; the events that have occurred in the history of man and geologically in a million year time span; the absence of a mechanism for enforcing such regulations; the approach other countries are taking on this issue; the absurdity of trying to protecting people thousand of generations in the future from radiation doses that our generation is already exposed to from mostly natural causes, and lastly proposes a rational compliance period and regulatory

  19. Regulatory Perspective on Implementation of a Dose Standard for a One-Million Year Compliance Period

    SciTech Connect

    McCartin, Timothy

    2007-07-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is governed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The EPA has the responsibility for setting public health and safety and environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain and it is the NRC's responsibility to implement those standards in its regulations to ensure public health and safety and the environment are protected. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as the developer of the potential repository, must submit a license application to the NRC to seek approval to construct the repository. DOE must comply with NRC's regulations for NRC to authorize construction and license operation of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 2005, EPA issued proposed revised standards and NRC issued proposed revised regulations for conducting performance assessment beyond 10,000 years up to 1 million years. The challenge for the EPA and NRC is to develop standards and regulations that provide an appropriate method for evaluating the safety of the potential repository given the unprecedented time period to be analyzed and the inherent uncertainties in estimating the future evolution of the Yucca Mountain site and the containment of the waste in the waste packages. A fundamental aspect of the proposed EPA standard is the specified approach for limiting undue speculation on future behavior of the site by constraining the features, events, and processes that need to be considered in the performance assessment. EPA proposed to limit the assessment of specific features, events, and processes in the period after 10,000 years to effects on the repository system that are most relevant (i.e., ignoring lesser or secondary effects that may add to speculation and uncertainties but would not be expected to have a significant effect on peak dose over a 1 million year period). For

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus activity and climate parameters during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Sirimi, Natalia; Miligkos, Michael; Koutouzi, Foteini; Petridou, Evi; Siahanidou, Tania; Michos, Athanasios

    2016-06-01

    The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during long periods and the factors that determine seasonality are not well studied. In order to correlate the RSV epidemic activity with climate parameters, we conducted a retrospective study of children (0-14 year) who were hospitalized because of respiratory tract infection and had an RSV test performed in the major tertiary pediatric hospital of Greece during a 12-year period (2002-2013). Daily data regarding temperature and humidity were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. A total of 2030/7516 (27%) children were tested positive for RSV infection. Among RSV positive children 1945/2030 (95.8%) were infants <1 year. A peak of RSV activity was measured in years 2002, 2003, and 2006 (>35% positive). The RSV season in our area spanned from December to April, with higher incidence during January through March. The peak monthly RSV incidence was observed during February with mean temperature 10.34 °C and mean relative humidity 69.16%. Regarding climate conditions, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between monthly RSV activity and mean monthly relative humidity (rho = 0.66, P-value = 0.02), whereas a negative correlation was found with mean monthly temperature (rho = -0.81, P-value = 0.002). However, in the multivariable analysis, only the effect of mean monthly temperature remained statistically significant (IRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.80). Further understanding of RSV seasonality in different geographic areas would be important in order to timely implement preventing strategies with immunoprophylaxis or future RSV vaccines. PMID:26575521

  1. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Trevor W.; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L.; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle. PMID:24130555

  2. Three Fundamental Periods in an 87 Year Light Curve of the Symbiotic Star MWC 560

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibowitz, Elia M.; Formiggini, Liliana

    2015-08-01

    We construct a visual light curve of the symbiotic star MWC covering the last 87 years of its history. The data were assembled from the literature and from the AAVSO data bank. Most of the periodic components of the system brightness variation can be accounted for by the operation of three basic clocks of the periods P1 = 19,000 days, P2 = 1943 days, and P3 = 722 days. These periods can plausibly, and consistently with the observations, be attributed to three physical mechanisms in the system: the working of a solar-like magnetic dynamo cycle in the outer layers of the giant star of the system, the binary orbit cycle, and the sidereal rotation cycle of the giant star. MWC 560 is the seventh symbiotic star with historical light curves that reveal similar basic characteristics of the systems. The light curves of all these stars are well interpreted on the basis of the current understanding of the physical processes that are the major sources of the optical luminosity of these symbiotic systems.

  3. Transfusion treatment at Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center during a twelve-year period.

    PubMed

    Sović, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Banović, Miroslav; Jularić, Anamarija

    2014-09-01

    Transfusion treatment is administered according to clinical and laboratory results, with ongoing patient assessments. Decisions on necessary measures to prevent any adverse and unexpected events and reactions are made on the basis ofhemovigilance and ongoing gathering and analysis of relevant data. Information about transfusion treatment at the Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Vinogradska site, was retrospectively collected for a period of twelve years (2001-2012). In that period, 14137.25 ± 1693.07 units of all blood products were used, where red blood cells (RBC) accounted for 67.34%, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for 17.55%, and platelet concentrates (PC) for 14.32%. During the study period, the consumption of RBC was even, of FFP decreased by 45% and of PC increased by 58%. RBC transfusions were received by 10.43% of hospitalized patients, 1.46% of them during surgical procedures. Transfusions of all blood products were received by 14.63% of patients. We found 247 adverse reactions to all blood products. Febrile nonhemolytic and allergic reactions were quite equally represented, 49.5% each. As for other reactions (1%), one transfusion associated circulatory overload and one transfusion related acute lung injury were recorded. There were no fatal post-transfusion reactions. PMID:25509245

  4. Influence of climatic conditions on production of Stipa-Bouteloua prairie over a 50-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Smoliak, S.

    1986-03-01

    Range forage yields obtained over a 50-year period at the Research Substation near Manyberries in southeastern Alberta were analyzed in relation to several climatic factors. The basic variables were precipitation, pan evaporation, temperature, hours of sunlight, and wind velocity. The precipitation from April through July was highly correlated with range forage production and this relationship could be utilized to predict the annual forage production by 1 August each year. A slightly better correlation was obtained when range forage production was related to the total of the previous September plus the current April through July precipitation. Pan evaporation totals, mean temperature, and hours of sunlight were negatively correlated with forage production, while wind velocity during the growing season showed a low relationship to forage production. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the inclusion of May and June mean temperatures with June and July precipitation accounted for 63% of the variation in range forage production. The predicted forage yield would be useful in making management decisions or adjustments, especially during drought periods, while the long-term forage yield data can be utilized in range forage models or in validating their effectiveness.

  5. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  6. The Changes of Pulmonary Function in COPD During Four-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Ustamujic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. OBJECTIVE: to show the changes of pulmonary function in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of pulmonary functional tests as follows: FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second) and bronchodilator reversibility testing. All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment on the apparatuses of Clinic “Podhrastovi”. We took in elaboration those data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results airflow limitation in COPD is progressive; both FVC and FEV1 shows the statistically significant decrease during follow-up period of 4 years (p values / for both parameters/ =0.05) . But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The fall of FVC and FEV1 is

  7. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  8. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  9. Diagnosis and management of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in a developing country over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Thong, Meow-Keong; Bazlin, R I Raja; Wong, Kum-Thong

    2005-07-01

    Clinical data on Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are lacking in developing countries. The objective of this study was to delineate the demographic characteristics, investigations, and outcome of 21 Malaysian males diagnosed with DMD over a period of 10 years. Mean age presentation was 3 years 8 months (SD 23mo; range 10 to 84mo), mean duration from first presentation to diagnosis was 3y 7mo (SD 26mo; range 5 to 84) and the mean age for loss of ambulation was 11 years (SD 25mo; range 102 to 168). There was family history of DMD in five of the 21 patients. Muscle biopsy showed confirmatory findings of DMD in the 16 patients tested. Molecular genetic analysis showed dystrophin gene deletions in 11 of these 16 patients. Four and seven of the students stopped schooling and had learning difficulties, respectively; only nine had satisfactory school performances. Eight out of 14 patients evaluated were classified as having severe to total dependency levels on the modified Barthel Index for activities of daily living assessment. DMD is associated with significant medical and social needs for a developing country such as Malaysia. Earlier referral, genetic counselling, and provision of support and rehabilitative services are the main priorities. PMID:15991868

  10. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: Cognitive Function Over a 4-Year Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia; Hadjulis, Michael; Vourdas, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Generalized cognitive deficits have been consistently reported in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia (EOS; defined as onset before the age of 17 years). The impact on cognition of potential interactions between disease pathology and brain maturation remains unclear. We therefore compared cognitive function between 20 EOS patients and 20 healthy controls matched on age, gender, and parental socioeconomic status at 2 time points, when aged 15.58 (2.27) and after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years when aged 19.46 (2.21) years. Repeated measures analyses revealed no differences between patients and controls in the degree of change over this time period in general intellectual function and planning ability as measured by the Tower of London. There was deterioration in the verbal memory and attentional control index scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised but relative improvement in Part A of the Trail Making Test. Patients’ level of symptomatology as well as the type and dose of medication were comparable at both time points. We conclude that most aspects of cognitive function remain relatively stable in EOS patients during adolescence; there is evidence for deterioration in immediate verbal memory and attention while speed of information processing may show improvement. PMID:18024468

  11. Outcomes of Renal Transplantation in Brunei Darussalam over a Twenty-Year Period (1993–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Tan, Si Yen; Ahmed, Dalinatul; Zinna, Shaukat; Chong, William

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Brunei Darussalam has a high prevalence and incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Up until 2012, all renal transplantations were performed in overseas centres, either as government-sponsored (living-related transplantation) or as self-sponsored (commercialized transplantation) ones. We hypothesize that graft and patient survival of Brunei renal transplant patients are on a par with international standards. Materials and Methods. Data of all renal transplant patients in Brunei were analysed over a twenty-year period from registry records and case notes. Comparative survival data from other countries were obtained from PubMed-listed literature. Results. A total of 49 transplantation procedures were performed in foreign centres between 1993 and 2012. 29 were government-sponsored and 20 were self-sponsored transplantations. The 5- and 10-year overall patient survival rates were 93.3% and 90.1%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year overall graft survival rates were 91.1% and 81.2%. There is no difference in the survival outcomes of government-sponsored and self-sponsored patients. Living-related (government-sponsored) and commercialised (self-sponsored) grafts had equivalent survival to those reported in the literature. Conclusion. Our survival data was on par with those achieved in many countries. We hope to use this information to convince local stakeholders and patients to favour transplantation as the preferred modality of RRT. PMID:25478205

  12. Antibiotic Consumption During a 4-year Period in a Community Hospital with an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Fernandez, Eliezer Alemán; Guerrero, Yaquelín Batista; Serrano, Ramon N. Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. Methods This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012–2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD). Results The consumption of antimicrobials in 2012 was 171.3 DBD, and increased to 252.7 DBD in 2013, 229.1 DBD in 2014, and 184.7 DBD in 2015. Cephalosporins use reduced from 98.2 DBD in 2013 to 51.5 DBD in 2015 while the consumption of penicillins increased during the beginning of 2014 with a slight decrease in 2015. Carbapenems consumption during 2014–2015 was lower than previous years, and vice-versa for aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones had a sustained increase with 37.1% increased consumption in 2015 compared to the two previous years. There was an increase in the use of intravenous (IV) (108.5%) and oral azithromycin (55.1%) and the use of oral (152.8%) and IV moxifloxacin (22.9%). Conclusions We observed a decrease in antibiotic use in patients admitted to a community hospital with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but the increase in fluoroquinolones consumption is a concern that requires focused strategies. PMID:27602189

  13. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.64 Calculation of a grant for a payment period... in two award years— (1) The entire payment period must be considered to occur within one award year; (2) The institution shall determine for each ACG or National SMART Grant recipient the award year...

  14. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Determination of Awards § 691.64 Calculation of a grant for a payment period... in two award years— (1) The entire payment period must be considered to occur within one award year; (2) The institution shall determine for each ACG or National SMART Grant recipient the award year...

  15. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of radon mitigation systems over a two-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Turk, B.H.

    1988-09-01

    Fourteen single-family detached houses in the Spokane, Washington, and Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, area were tracked for two years following mitigation for elevated indoor concentrations of radon. Each house was monitored quarterly using mailed alpha-track radon detectors deployed in each zone of the structure. During the second heating season following mitigation, radon concentrations were monitored continuously for several weeks in seven of the houses, each house and mitigation system was inspected and selected measurements were performed in order to access mitigation system performance. Occupants were also interviewed regarding their maintenance, operation, and subjective evaluation of the radon mitigation system(s). The quarterly alpha-track measurements showed an increase in radon levels in a majority of the homes during many of the follow-up measurement periods compared to concentrations measured immediately after mitigation. The greatest increases in radon concentrations occurred in 3 of the 4 houses equipped with basement pressurization systems where radon levels approached the pre-mitigation levels during at least one of the follow-up measurement periods. In some of the houses mitigated with subsurface ventilation, radon concentrations generally increased over the course of the follow-up periods. Factors causing decreased mitigation system performance included: (1) build up of debris on the soil at the outlet of subsurface pressurization pipes; (2) noisy and vibrating fans were turned off; (3) air-to-air heat exchanger, basement pressurization, and subsurface ventilation fans were turned off and fan speeds reduced; and (4) crawl space vents were closed or sealed. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Stability of A-150 plastic ionization chamber response over a ~30 year period

    SciTech Connect

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Lennox, Arlene J.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    At the NIU Institute for Neutron Therapy at Fermilab, the clinical tissue-equivalent ionization chamber response is measured every treatment day using a cesium source that was configured to match readings obtained at the National Bureau of Standards. Daily measurements are performed in air using the air-to-tissue dose conversion factors given in AAPM Report no. 7. The measured exposure calibration factors have been tabulated and graphed as a function of time from 1978 to present. For A-150 plastic ionization chambers, these factors exhibit a sinusoidal variation with a period of approximately one year and amplitude of {+-} 1%. This variation, attributable to the hygroscopic nature of A-150 plastic, is correlated with the relative humidity of the facility, and is greater than the humidity corrections for gas described in the literature. Our data suggest that chamber calibration should be performed at least weekly to accommodate these variations.

  18. Tylosin content in meat and honey samples over a two-year period in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Kolanović, Božica S; Bilandžić, Nina; Varenina, Ivana; Božić, Durđica

    2014-01-01

    A total of 646 meat and 96 honey samples were examined over a 2-year period for the presence of tylosin residues. ELISA method used was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. The CCβ values were 32.1 µg kg⁻¹ in muscle and 24.4 µg kg⁻¹ in honey. The recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 66.4-118.6%, with a coefficient of variation between 12.6% and 18.6%. All the investigated samples showed no presence of tylosin. Calculated estimated daily intakes show exposure levels lower than the acceptable daily intakes set by World Health Organization. PMID:24063615

  19. Evaluation of Nutritional Biochemical Parameters in Haemodialysis Patients over a Ten-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, AIQ; Castillo, RF; Jimenez, FJ Gomez; Negrillo, AM Nuñez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: Protein-energy malnutrition as well as systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are common in patients with chronic kidney failure who require renal replacement therapy (haemodialysis). Such malnutrition is a factor that significantly contributes to their morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients by assessing biochemical and anthropometric parameters in order to determine whether these patients suffered disorders reflecting nutritional deterioration directly related to time on haemodialysis. Subjects and Method: This research comprised 90 patients of both genders with chronic kidney failure, who regularly received haemodialysis at our unit over a period of ten years. The patients' blood was tested quarterly for plasma albumin, total cholesterol and total proteins, and tested monthly for transferrin. The patients' weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were monitored. Body mass index was calculated using the formula: weight (kg)/height (m2) and classified in one of the following categories defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Database on Body Mass Index: (i) underweight [BMI < 18.50], (ii) normal [BMI 18.50 – 24.99], (iii) overweight [BMI 25 – 29.99], (iv) obese [BMI ≥ 30]. Results: In the ten-year period of the study, the patients experienced a substantial decline in their biochemical parameters. Nevertheless, their BMI did not show any significant changes despite the patients' state of malnutrition. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in haemodialysis patients was evident. Nevertheless, the BMI of the subjects did not correspond to the biochemical parameters measured. Consequently, the results showed that the nutritional deterioration of these patients was mainly reflected in their biochemical parameters rather than in their anthropometric measurements. PMID:26426172

  20. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  1. Determining Erosion Rates and Processes in the Pro-Glacial Area over a 28-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, I. A.; Huss, M.; Weidmann, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Glacially fed hydropower reservoirs in the Swiss Alps have experienced substantial increases in sedimentation recently. This sedimenation causes reduced reservoir capacity, turbine abrasion and increased need for sediment flushing, all of which reduce the e ciency and economic viability of hydropower in the region. Although the issue is largely attributed to regional glacier retreat, there is a need for greater understanding of the speci c processes that contribute to the increased sedimentation. To evaluate these processes, we examine the Griesgletscher catchment, which lies in the central Swiss Alps and its runoff feeds a hydropower reservoir. The recent exposure of the glacier's fore-fi eld (roughly 1986) due to the glacier's retreat beyond the reservoir's margin, along with its simple catchment area make it an ideal location to examine pro-glacial erosion. Here we present a time-series from 1986 to 2014 of digital elevation models (DEM) created from aerial photographs of the Griesgletscher's fore- field from each year except for 2. Comparison of DEMs from subsequent years yields erosion volumes and sediment balance over the 28 year period for the pro-glacial area. Bathymetry of the pro-glacial reservoir for select years allows us to speculate if the erosion of the recently exposed glacier fore-fi eld is the sole source of sediment to the reservoir, or if alternative processes such as increased glacial erosion or mobilization of sub-glacial sediments could contribute. We correlate erosion amounts with runo ff volumes from the Griesgletscher and changes in the the glacier's morophology and coverage. Additionally, implimentation of the Glacier Evolution Runoff Model allows us to examine the variability in the glacier's runoff on the hourly to daily scale. By examining these relationships we constrain the processes contributing to the erosion of the Griesgletscher's pro-glacial area.

  2. 34 CFR 690.64 - Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Federal Pell Grant Awards § 690.64 Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years. (a) If a student... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determining the award year for a Federal Pell...

  3. 34 CFR 690.64 - Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Federal Pell Grant Awards § 690.64 Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years. (a) If a student... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determining the award year for a Federal Pell...

  4. International Collaboration and Academic Exchange of the CHAIN Project in this Three Years (Period)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Satoru; Shibata, Kazunari; Morita, Satoshi; Kimura, Goichi; Asai, Ayumi; Kitai, Reizaburo; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Ishii, Takako; Nakatani, Yoshikazu; Masashi, Yamaguchi; et al.

    2014-02-01

    We will introduce contents of international collaboration and academic exchange of the CHAIN project in recent three years (ISWI period). After April of 2010, we have not obtained any enough budget for new instruments. Therefore, we have not been able to install new Flare Monitoring Telescopes (FMT) in new countries, such as Algeria. On the other hand, however, we have continued international academic exchange through scientific and educational collaboration with mainly Peru, such as data-analysis training, holding scientific workshops etc. Additionally, in this year, King Saudi University of Saudi Arabia and CRAAG of Algeria have planned to build a new FMT in their university by their own budget. Therefore, we have started some collaboration in the field of technical advices of instruments and scientific themes etc. Moreover, Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) also offered us participation in the CHAIN-project. We would like to continue to consider the possibility of academic collaboration with such new positive developing nations, too.

  5. Stability and change in sexual orientation identity over a 10-year period in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mock, Steven E; Eibach, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    We examined reports of sexual orientation identity stability and change over a 10-year period drawing on data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS I and II) and tested for three patterns: (1) heterosexual stability, (2) female sexual fluidity, and (3) bisexual fluidity. Fifty-four percent of the 2,560 participants were female and the average age was approximately 47 years. At Wave 1, 2,494 (97.42%) reported a heterosexual identity, 32 (1.25%) a homosexual identity, and 34 (1.33%) a bisexual identity and somewhat more than 2% reported a different sexual orientation identity at Wave 2. Although some support for each hypothesis was found, initial sexual orientation identity interacted with gender to predict a more complex pattern. For the sample as a whole, heterosexuality was the most stable identity. For women, bisexuality and homosexuality were equally unstable and significantly less stable than heterosexuality, suggesting that sexual orientation identity fluidity is a pattern that applies more to sexual minority women than heterosexual women. For men, heterosexuality and homosexuality were both relatively stable compared to bisexuality, which stood out as a particularly unstable identity. This pattern of results was consistent with previous findings and helps to address methodological limitations of earlier research by showing the characteristics of a population-based sample of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual identified men and women over time. PMID:21584828

  6. Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose: Evolution in a Period of 6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, E.; Mujica, V.; Orrego, R.; Wehinger, S.; Soto, A.; Icaza, G.; Vásquez, M.; Díaz, L.; Andrews, M.; Arredondo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the evolution of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), considering glucose and HbA1c levels and risk factors associated, in a period of 6 years. Methods. We studied 94 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) that were diagnosed in 2005 and followed up to 2012. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined. A descriptive analysis of contingence charts was performed in order to study the evolution in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results. Twenty-eight of ninety-four subjects became T2DM; 51/94 remained with IFG; and 20/94 presented normal fasting glucose. From the 28 diabetic subjects, 9 had already developed diabetes and were under treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents; 5 were diagnosed with plasma glucose < 126 mg/dL, but with HbA1c over 6.5%. In those who developed diabetes, 15/28 had a family history of T2DM in first relative degree. Also, diabetic subjects had a BMI significantly higher than nodiabetics (t test: P < 0.01). The individuals that in 2005 had the highest BMI are those who currently have diabetes. Conclusion. The IFG constitutes a condition of high risk of developing T2DM in a few years, especially over 110 mg/dL and in obesity patients. PMID:25215305

  7. Pediatric encephaloceles: A series of 20 cases over a period of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Shashank Ravindra; Sukanya, M.; Maitra, Jayabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. The exact worldwide frequency is not known. Aims and Objectives: To determine the epidemiological features, patterns of encephalocele, and its postsurgical results. Materials and Methods: The study was carried from year July 2012 to June 2015. Patients with encephalocele were evaluated for epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging characteristics, and surgical results. Results: 20 encephaloceles patients were treated during the study period. Out of these 12 (60%) were male and 8 (40%) female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. The most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12 (60%), occipito-cervical 4 (20%), parietal 2 (10%), fronto-nasal 1 (5%), and fronto-naso-ethmoidal 1 (5%). One patient had a double encephalocele (one atretic and other was occipital) with dermal sinus tract and limited dermal myeloschisis. Other associations: Chiari 3 malformation (2), meningomyeloceles (4), and syrinx (4). Three patients presented with rupture two of whom succumbed to meningitis and shock. Seventeen patients treated surgically did well with no immediate surgical mortality (except a case of Chiari 3 malformation who succumbed 6 months postsurgery to unrelated causes). Shunt was performed in 4 cases. Conclusion: The most common type of encephalocele is occipital in our set up. Early surgical management of encephalocele is not only for cosmetic reasons but also to prevent tethering, rupture, and future neurological deficits. PMID:26962334

  8. Laboratory Tests Ordered By a Chiropractic Sports Physician on Elite Athletes Over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nabhan, Dustin C.; Moreau, William J.; Barylski, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to describe and discuss laboratory tests ordered on elite athletes in an interdisciplinary sports medicine clinic by a doctor of chiropractic over 1 calendar year. Methods A retrospective review of laboratory tests ordered during routine clinical practice as standard screening and diagnostic tests from November 1, 2009, to November 1, 2010 was performed. Data were collected during clinical encounters at one sports medicine clinic and entered into a database for analysis. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to describe the tests ordered and the frequency of abnormal findings. Results Five hundred and thirty-nine studies were ordered for diagnostic and routine screenings on 137 athlete patients (86 males, 51 females), representing 49 types of tests. Sample sources included blood, urine, skin lesions, and fecal matter. The most commonly ordered tests were complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, serum ferritin, creatine kinase, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, total cortisol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and lipid panels. There were 217 studies (40%) flagged as abnormal by the reporting laboratory. Conclusion This report provides greater insight into the diverse array of laboratory studies ordered over a 1-year period for diagnosis and screening of elite athletes. A high percentage of the results were flagged as abnormal by the laboratory. These findings show that the unique physiology of the elite athlete must be considered when interpreting laboratory findings in this population. PMID:26257590

  9. Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective analysis of 107 patients during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Hou, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease, and early diagnosis may be difficult. In order to provide diagnostic clues and to enhance the prompt management of such cases, we retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of PLA during a 3-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. The crude incidence rate of PLA in our study was 446.1 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Male predominance and a mean age of 57.6 +/- 14.4 years were observed. Diabetes mellitus was the most common concomitant disease, and biliary pathologies were the most common predisposing cause of this type of abscess. The most common clinical features were fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Leukocytosis was found in 67.3% of the patients, and the observed C-reactive protein (CRP) values were high. The most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate was 6.5%. A complete history, physical examination, evaluation of the white blood cell count and CRP, and the prompt arrangement of imaging studies may lead to an earlier diagnosis. The aggressive performance of image-guided catheter drainage and the appropriate administration of antibiotics may reduce the mortality rate of PLA. PMID:16377869

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Portugal over an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Ricardo; Louro, Deolinda; Caniça, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    This national surveillance study presents the in vitro activities of the main antimicrobial agents against 1,331 S. pneumoniae isolates as tested by an agar dilution method according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS). The strains were isolated in several regions of Portugal from cases of invasive disease over an 11-year period (1994 to 2004). This study shows that the percentage of penicillin-nonsusceptible strains increased from 12% in 1994 to 28.5% in 2000. Then the rate declined to 17.7% in 2003 but increased again to 23.2% in 2004. Nevertheless, the rate of highly resistant isolates declined consistently, to 0.9% in 2001 to 2004. Ceftriaxone- and cefotaxime-nonsusceptible isolates became less frequent, from 4% and 8%, respectively, in 1994 to ≤1% in 2004. The macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype was the predominant macrolide phenotype found. The increase in the percentage of isolates that were only nonsusceptible to erythromycin (3.7% in 1994 to 1998 to 9.1% in 2002 to 2004) was similar to that for isolates with coresistance to penicillin and erythromycin (3.3% in 1994 to 1998 to 9.1% in 2002 to 2004). The nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin increased during recent years, from 0.5% in 2002 to 3.5% in 2004. Multidrug resistance also increased in recent years: from 7.9% in 2002 to 15.6% in 2004. The increasing use of macrolides could be causing the increase in penicillin and multidrug resistance, due to the coresistance to macrolides. The use of penicillin to treat empirical invasive pneumococci infections may need to be reconsidered. PMID:16723571

  11. Eco-region dependent lengthening of vegetation period over the past 30 years in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garonna, I.; De Jong, R.; De Wit, A.; Mücher, C. A.; Schmid, B.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite observations. As such, LSP plays a key role in understanding the terrestrial carbon budget, as well as the response of terrestrial ecosystems to environmental change. Various studies have highlighted significant increases in vegetation activity over time (i.e. greening) over Europe in recent decades (e.g. Stöckli and Vidale, 2004), associated both with climatic changes and with large-scale human interventions including land-use change (de Jong et al., 2013). In this study, we characterize LSP changes in Europe's eco-regions for the last 30 years. We used the latest version of the 8-km Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dataset (third generation, or NDVI-3g) to retrieve LSP metrics for Europe for the last three decades (1982-2011). Each year of NDVI data was processed using the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) algorithm, producing smooth NDVI annual profiles on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In order to derive LSP metrics for each year, namely Start, End and Length of Growing Season, we selected the Midpoint-pixel local threshold method, based on the White et al. (2009) inter-comparison. A landscape-based stratification, using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) (Mücher et al., 2010) allowed us to examine LSP characteristics and trends for the different European eco-regions. We demonstrate significant shifts in LSP metrics over the study period, with a general lengthening of the growing season in Europe of approximately 0.4 days year-1. LSP trends varied significantly between eco-regions, and we discuss potential reasons for these spatially diverse trends. de Jong, R., et al. (2013), Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity, Global Change Biology, 19(6), 1953-1964. Mücher, C. A., J. A. Klijn, D. M. Wascher, and

  12. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-10-10

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In general

  13. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  14. Epidemiological aspects of melanoma at a university hospital dermatology center over a period of 20 years*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Flavia Vieira; Pereira, Ana Francisca Junqueira Ribeiro; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of melanoma has been steadily rising in past decades. Although it accounts for only 3% of all skin cancers, it is responsible for 75% of deaths. OBJECTIVE to describe the epidemiological aspects of melanoma in a university hospital setting over a period of 20 years. METHODS A total of 166 patients were analyzed between January 1990 and January 2010 for clinical and histological variables and correlations between them. A 5% level of significance was adopted. RESULTS The majority of patients were Caucasians (74%), females (61%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 55. The predominant histological type was lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma (35.7%) and the head and neck was the most affected site (30.7%). Among non-Caucasians, the acral region was the most affected. Most tumors were in situ (41.1%). Growth of the lesion was the most frequent complaint (58.1%) and bleeding was most frequently associated with melanomas with a depth > 4mm. There were seven deaths (4.2%), with a high risk among men, non-Caucasians and those under 20 years of age, with a Breslow's depth > 2mm, with lentiginous acral melanoma and with a history of growth and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Our sample differs from most of the studies in the predominant location (head and neck), histological type (lentigo maligna/ lentigo maligna melanoma) and a major risk of death under the age of 20, which could be with a reflex of regional variation. Broader studies are necessary for validation of the results. PMID:23793193

  15. Contact sensitivity to chromate: comparison at a London contact dermatitis clinic over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Olsavszky, R; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    1998-06-01

    It has been argued that for chromate sensitivity to be reduced, then ferrous sulfate should be added to cement. This has not yet been done in the UK. To explore this further, we have looked at the comparative sensitization rates of patients attending the St. John's Institute of Dermatology Contact Dermatitis Clinic between the years 1982-3 and 1992-3. Patch-test-positive rates for females were not significantly different between the 2 populations studied (1982-3, 1.59% and 1992-3, 1.99% p NS). Similarly, there was no significantly different rate between the males (1982-3, 3.99% and 1992-3, 4.25% p NS) in the same time period. There was no difference in the distribution of eczema in chromate-positive subjects, nor of cobalt co-sensitization, a crude indicator of sensitization via cement. This work demonstrates no appreciable difference in the frequency of chromate sensitivity between the early 1980s and 1990s in London. Adding ferrous sulfate to cement may help to lower the frequency in the future. PMID:9687032

  16. Evaluation of radon mitigation systems in 14 houses over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Prill, R J; Fisk, W J; Turk, B H

    1990-05-01

    Fourteen single-family detached houses in Spokane, Washington, and Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, were monitored for two years after high concentrations of indoor radon had been mitigated. Each house was monitored quarterly using mailed alpha-track radon detectors deployed in each zone of the structure. To assess performance of mitigation systems during the second heating season after mitigation, radon concentrations in seven houses were monitored continuously for several weeks, mitigation systems in all houses were inspected, and selected other measurements were taken. In addition, occupants were also interviewed regarding their maintenance, operation, and subjective evaluation of the radon mitigation systems. Quarterly alpha-track measurements showed that radon levels had increased in most of the homes during many follow-up measurement periods when compared with concentrations measured immediately after mitigation. Mitigation-system performance was adversely affected by (1) accumulated outdoor debris blocking the outlets of subsurface pressurization pipes; (2) fans being turned off (e.g., because of excessive noise or vibration); (3) air-to-air heat exchanger, basement pressurization, and subsurface ventilation fans being turned off and fan speeds reduced; and (4) crawl-space vents being closed or sealed. PMID:2354048

  17. Evaluation of radon mitigation systems in 14 houses over a two-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Turk, B.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Fourteen single-family detached houses in Spokane, Washington, and Coeur D'Alene, Idaho, were monitored for two years after high concentrations of indoor radon had been mitigated. Each house was monitored quarterly using mailed alpha-track radon detectors deployed in each zone of the structure. To assess performance of mitigation systems during the second heating season after mitigation, radon concentrations in seven houses were monitored continuously for several weeks, mitigation systems in all houses were inspected, and selected other measurements were taken. In addition, occupants were also interviewed regarding their maintenance, operation, and subjective evaluation of the radon mitigation systems. Quarterly alpha-track measurements showed that radon levels had increased in most of the homes during many follow-up measurement periods when compared with concentrations measured immediately after mitigation. Mitigation-system performance was adversely affected by (1) accumulated outdoor debris blocking the outlets of subsurface pressurization pipes; (2) fans being turned off (e.g., because of excessive noise or vibration); (3) air-to-air heat exchanger, basement pressurization, and subsurface ventilation fans being turned off and fan speeds reduced; and (4) crawl-space vents being closed or sealed.

  18. Treatment, failures and complications of ectopic pregnancy: changes over a 20 year period.

    PubMed

    Landström, G; Thorburn, J; Bryman, I

    1998-01-01

    Data from all 225 women operated on for ectopic pregnancy in 1992-1994 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital were collected and compared with three previous cross-sectional investigations from our hospital (1975-1979, 1981-1982 and 1986-1987) in order to evaluate the extent to which surgical treatment and post-operative complications have changed over a 20 year period. Laparoscopic surgery, which was not possible in the 1970s, was used in almost 85% of the ectopic pregnancies in 1992-1994. Conservative treatment was still the most frequently used technique. The complication rate was 1.2% in 1975-1979 when only laparotomies were carried out. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery (1986-1987), the complication rate rose significantly (7.3%) and continued to increase even when this procedure was established as routine (14.2% in 1992-1994). Post-operative complications were most frequent after conservative laparoscopic surgery (24.4%) while there were no complications after laparotomies. In spite of increasing complication rates the frequency of patients in pre-shock, as well as the proportion of patients with heavy intra-abdominal bleeding and tubal rupture, decreased over time. PMID:9512258

  19. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. If wages are paid to an employee for a payroll period of more than one...

  20. 1,500 Year Periodicity in Central Texas Moisture Source Variability Reconstructed from Speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. I.; James, E. W.; Silver, M. M.; Banner, J. L.; Musgrove, M.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating the climate processes governing precipitation variability in drought-prone Texas is critical for predicting and mitigating climate change effects, and requires the reconstruction of past climate beyond the instrumental record. Presently, there are few high-resolution Holocene climate records for this region, which limits the assessment of precipitation variability during a relatively stable climatic interval that comprises the closest analogue to the modern climate state. To address this, we present speleothem growth rate and δ18O records from two central Texas caves that span the mid to late Holocene, and assess hypotheses about the climate processes that can account for similarity in the timing and periodicity of variability with other regional and global records. A key finding is the independent variation of speleothem growth rate and δ18O values, suggesting the decoupling of moisture amount and source. This decoupling likely occurs because i) the often direct relation between speleothem growth rate and moisture availability is complicated by changes in the overlying ecosystem that affect subsurface CO2 production, and ii) speleothem δ18O variations reflect changes in moisture source (i.e., proportion of Pacific- vs. Gulf of Mexico-derived moisture) that appear not to be linked to moisture amount. Furthermore, we document a 1,500-year periodicity in δ18O values that is consistent with variability in the percent of hematite-stained grains in North Atlantic sediments, North Pacific SSTs, and El Nino events preserved in an Ecuadorian lake. Previous modeling experiments and analysis of observational data delineate the coupled atmospheric-ocean processes that can account for the coincidence of such variability in climate archives across the northern hemisphere. Reduction of the thermohaline circulation results in North Atlantic cooling, which translates to cooler North Pacific SSTs. The resulting reduction of the meridional SST gradient in the Pacific

  1. 34 CFR 690.64 - Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determining the award year for a Federal Pell Grant payment period that occurs in two award years. 690.64 Section 690.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL PELL GRANT...

  2. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  3. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  4. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  5. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  6. 46 CFR 35.20-30 - Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding... VESSELS OPERATIONS Navigation § 35.20-30 Flashing the rays of a searchlight or other blinding light—T/ALL. No person shall flash, or cause to be flashed, the rays of a search light or other blinding...

  7. 34 CFR 30.20 - To what do §§ 30.20-30.31 apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary of Education, and 34 CFR part 32, Salary Offset to Recover Overpayments of Pay or Allowances from... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To what do §§ 30.20-30.31 apply? 30.20 Section 30.20 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DEBT COLLECTION What Provisions Apply...

  8. An Aeronautical-Mobile 20/30 GHz Satellite-Tracking Antenna for High Data Rate Satcom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, A.; Guler, M.

    1995-01-01

    An antenna for use on an aircraft has been developed and tested for transmissions to and from a communications satellite. The antenna operates at 20/30 GHz and a data rate of 512 kbps, and it does not require modifying the shape of the aircraft fuselage.

  9. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  10. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  11. The Decline of Inpatient Penile Prosthesis over the 10‐Year Period, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine R.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Sanford, Thomas H.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    terms of inpatient complications. Alwaal A, Harris CR, Hussein AA, Sanford TH, McCulloch CE, Shindel AW, and Breyer BN. The decline of inpatient penile prosthesis over the 10‐year period, 2000–2010. Sex Med 2015;3:280–286. PMID:26797062

  12. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions. PMID:26676198

  13. Pelagic Sargassum community change over a 40-year period: temporal and spatial variability.

    PubMed

    Huffard, C L; von Thun, S; Sherman, A D; Sealey, K; Smith, K L

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic forms of the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) Sargassum spp. and their conspicuous rafts are defining characteristics of the Sargasso Sea in the western North Atlantic. Given rising temperatures and acidity in the surface ocean, we hypothesized that macrofauna associated with Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea have changed with respect to species composition, diversity, evenness, and sessile epibiota coverage since studies were conducted 40 years ago. Sargassum communities were sampled along a transect through the Sargasso Sea in 2011 and 2012 and compared to samples collected in the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone from 1966 to 1975. Mobile macrofauna communities exhibited changes in community structure and declines in diversity and evenness within a 6-month time period (August 2011-February 2012). Equivalent declines in diversity and evenness were recorded in the same region (Sargasso Sea, 25°-29°N) in 1972-1973. Recent community structures were unlike any documented historically, whether compared to sites of the same latitude range within the Sargasso Sea, or the broader historical dataset of sites ranging across the Sargasso Sea, Gulf Stream, and south of the subtropical convergence zone. Recent samples also recorded low coverage by sessile epibionts, both calcifying forms and hydroids. The diversity and species composition of macrofauna communities associated with Sargassum might be inherently unstable. While several biological and oceanographic factors might have contributed to these observations, including a decline in pH, increase in summer temperatures, and changes in the abundance and distribution of Sargassum seaweed in the area, it is not currently possible to attribute direct causal links. PMID:25414525

  14. Analysis of complaints to a tertiary care pain clinic over a nine-year period

    PubMed Central

    Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Nicholson, Keith; Chaparro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study is the result of an internal audit and examines the profiles of complainants and the sources and nature of complaints toward the staff in a tertiary care pain clinic, the Comprehensive Pain Program of the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: All sources of complaints over a nine-year period were reviewed, which included the following: Toronto Western Hospital Patient Relations (PR) records, with a subset of the files qualitatively analyzed in depth regarding the nature of complaints and complainants; complaints that bypassed PR and were addressed directly to the program director against members of the staff; complaints to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario; and complaints recorded anonymously at rateMDs.com. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of PR complaints was very low (1.73 complaints per 1000 visits), several other sources of complaints were identified. The typical complainant was a Canadian-born woman acting on her behalf or on behalf of a family member. More than one-half of the complaints were directed against the physicians regarding their opinion of psychological factors augmenting the patient’s presentation and/or inappropriate use of opioids. Defensive techniques instituted by the Comprehensive Pain Program staff in reaction to the complaints are discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to examine the nature of complaints and complainants from a Canadian pain clinic. Further studies are needed to explore the complex issues of patient and staff interactions, and complaints in the era of ‘patient-centred care’. PMID:20195554

  15. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. PMID:23938018

  16. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  17. Fifty cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis: improvement in prognosis over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Leport, C; Vilde, J L; Bricaire, F; Cohen, A; Pangon, B; Gaudebout, C; Valere, P E

    1987-07-01

    The clinical course, prognostic factors, and management of 50 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis, occurring more than two months after valve replacement, were reviewed. Twenty nine cases that presented from 1971 to 1980 were compared with 21 cases that presented from 1981 to 1985. Apart from an appreciable decrease in the frequency of neurological complications between the first period (38%) and the second period (10%) no differences in clinical or bacteriological features were seen. Seventeen (59%) of the 29 cases in the earlier period and four (19%) of the 21 cases in the later period died. The rationale for antimicrobial treatment was similar during both periods. Cardiac surgery was performed in eight of 29 cases between 1971 and 1980 and in 11 of 21 between 1981 and 1985; the mean (SD) time between diagnosis of endocarditis and operation was 28 (19) days and 43 (44) days respectively. Six of the eight cases operated on in the first period died as did two of the 11 operated on in the second period. Twenty seven of the 29 cases presenting between 1971 and 1980 were treated with anticoagulants--either warfarin (15 of 27) or heparin sodium (12 of 27). Sixteen of the 21 cases presenting later were given anticoagulants and 15 of these cases were given heparin sodium. Control of anticoagulation was inadequate in nine of the 27 cases treated with anticoagulants during the first period and in only two of 16 treated during the second period. During the first treatment period neurological complications were more frequent when control of anticoagulation was inadequate. PMID:3620245

  18. 34 CFR 75.253 - Continuation of a multi-year project after the first budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuation of a multi-year project after the first budget period. 75.253 Section 75.253 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Approval of Multi-Year Projects § 75.253 Continuation of a...

  19. Periodic impact cratering and extinction events over the last 260 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-12-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. A newly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 ± 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 ± 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  20. A 20-year-old Chinese man with recurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Naqi, Muniba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Pant, Shradha; Shrestha, Rajesh; Tadros, Michael; Murukutla, Srujitha; Rothman, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Periodic paralysis in the setting of hypokalemia can be the result of several underlying conditions, requiring systematic evaluation. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Because the signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can be subtle and clouded by the clinical distress of the patient, the diagnosis of the underlying metabolic disorder can be overlooked. The authors report a case of TPP in a young Chinese man in whom the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis was initially missed. This case illustrates the lack of awareness of TPP among many physicians, delay in the diagnosis of TPP and the importance of performing thyroid function testing in all cases of periodic paralysis. PMID:22665461

  1. Comparison of temperature, precipitation and snow characteristics in two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasko, Pavel; Švec, Marek; Šťastný, Pavel; Kajaba, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Differences in some characteristics of temperature, precipitation totals and snow cover, for two 30-year periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were examined at selected meteorological stations located in different regions of Slovakia. Stations represent lowland regions (up to 300 meters), mid-altitude regions (300 to 800 meters) and high altitude mountain regions (above 1000 m). The analysis of highest maximum air temperature for individual days showed higher values of maxima for 1981 - 2010 period primarily during the summer months. The differences between corresponding values of two periods were relatively often higher at some stations during the winter months, but unlike the periods in summer months they were more regional in nature. The comparison of long-term average of daily air temperature for two 30-years periods showed increase in 1981 - 2010 period. The most significant change occurred mainly in January, July and August. Warming was not significant in September - December period. The annual regime of mean monthly precipitation amount was different in both 30-years periods in the most of the selected stations with noticeable increase in the average monthly sum in May and decline in June in 1981 - 2010 period. The only exception is the station Košice airport, where on the contrary the increase in June was registered in the 1981-2010 period. Increase of precipitation in May in the second thirty year period was probably caused by a higher number of storms in the spring months as a result of faster warming of the earth's surface and occurrence of more frequent convective precipitation. Average number of days with a snow cover in the period 1981-2010 compared with the period 1951-1980 is significantly lower in January at meteorological stations lying at lower altitudes. This is due to the higher air temperature and a higher amount of mixed and liquid precipitation during this month. In February, small increase in the average number of days with a total snow cover

  2. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  3. Changes in physical fitness and nutritional status of schoolchildren in a period of 30 years (1980-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Fisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the changes in physical fitness according to the nutritional status and gender of schoolchildren during a period of 30 years (1980-2010). Methods: Four cross-sectional evaluations were performed every 10 years in a period of 30 years from 1978 to 1980 (baseline), 1988-1990 (10 years), 1998-2000 (20 years) and 2008-2010 (30 years). The sample consisted of 1291 schoolchildren (188 in baseline, 307 in 10 years; 375 in 20 years; 421 in 30 years) of 10 and 11 years old. The variables assessed were: body weight (kg), height (cm), upper limb strength (ULS; kg), lower limb strength (LLS; cm), agility (seconds) and velocity (seconds). Schoolchildren were classified as normal weight and overweight according to World Health Organization reference of body mass index for age and gender. Comparisons among periods applied ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test, with a significance level set at of p<0.01. Variation between baseline and 30 years was assessed by the percentage delta. Seven different percentile values were presented for each variable. Results: In eutrophic boys and girls, mean values of ULS (−16.7%; −3.2%), agility (−1.5%; −1.6%) decreased significantly after 30 years (p<0.001). In the overweight boys and girls, only the average ULS (−15.5%; −12.5%) decreased significantly over time (p<0.001). After 30 years, the ULS percentile changed in boys. Conclusions: The decline in physical fitness was greater in schoolchildren with normal weight than in those with overweight. PMID:26298653

  4. Conservation Reserve Programs: Enrollment statistics for signup periods 1-11 and fiscal years 1990-92. Statistical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, C.T.; Llacuna, F.; Linsenbigler, M.

    1992-11-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture accepted approximately 33.9 million acres of cropland into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) during 1986-89. These acres were enrolled in nine separate signups under the authority of the Food Security Act of 1985. Enrollment was extended through 1995 by the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Two signup periods were held in 1991. The 10th signup was for fiscal year 1991 retirement of land from production, and the 11th signup was for fiscal year 1992. Approximately 1.5 million additional acres were enrolled in these two signup periods under significantly revised program rules. The report presents statistics covering all CRP cropland enrolled in signup periods 1-11 and CRP cropland newly retired in fiscal years 1990-92.

  5. Critical period for first language: the crucial role of language input during the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rusou, Dana

    2015-12-01

    The critical period for language acquisition is often explored in the context of second language acquisition. We focus on a crucially different notion of critical period for language, with a crucially different time scale: that of a critical period for first language acquisition. We approach this question by examining the language outcomes of children who missed their critical period for acquiring a first language: children who did not receive the required language input because they grew in isolation or due to hearing impairment and children whose brain has not developed normally because of thiamine deficiency. We find that the acquisition of syntax in a first language has a critical period that ends during the first year of life, and children who missed this window of opportunity later show severe syntactic impairments. PMID:26111432

  6. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the changes that occurred regarding interventional radiologic research in the major American radiology journals between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. Methods. Articles published in three major American radiology journals (Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, and Radiology) during two distinct 24-month time periods (1992-1993 and 2002-2003) were evaluated. All articles judged to be pertinent to the interventional radiologic community were included. Investigations included in journal subheadings other than 'interventional' or 'vascular radiology' were included if the emphasis of the article was on a vascular imaging modality or peripheral intervention. Exclusions included: case reports, technical reports, letters to the editor, breast interventions, and primary neurointerventions. Data were collected regarding the affiliations of the primary author (nationality, hospital type, department); primary category of interest of the investigation; funding information; and study design variables. Two-by-two chi-squared statistical analyses were performed comparing the variables from the early and late data sets. Results. A total of 405 articles met the inclusion criteria for the early data set (1992-1993); 488 articles met the inclusion criteria for the late data set (2002-2003). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from the early data set to the late data set included: articles in which the primary author was from a department of radiology (91.1% vs. 86.3%; p < 0.025); articles written by a primary author who was American (69.4% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001); and articles with a primary category of investigation that had a nonvascular intervention focus (22.7% vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant increase from the early data set to the late data set included primary authors from Western Europe (18.0% vs. 30.1%; p < 0.001) and Asia (6.6% vs. 18.4%; p

  7. Spatial Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies in Eastern China During Centennial Cold and Warm Periods of the Past 2000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial patterns of precipitation anomalies in eastern China during both warm and cold periods over the past 2000 years were studied. Four warm periods (ad 650-750, ad 1000-1100, ad 1190-1290, and ad 1900-2000) and five cold periods (ad 440-540, ad 780-920, ad 1390-1460, ad 1600-1700, and ad 1800-1900) were selected on a centennial timescale, referring to the synthesized temperature changes over China and Northern Hemisphere. The regional differences in precipitation were analyzed and compared using a data set consisting of the grades in severity of floods and droughts as derived from Chinese historical documents. The results showed that there has been no fixed spatial pattern of precipitation anomalies during either cold or warm periods in eastern China over the past 2000 years. For the most of warm periods, there existed coherence of spatial pattern with dry condition only occurred over north of the Yangtze River, and the consistent spatial patterns were found between the periods 650-750 and 1190-1290, 650-750 and 1000-1100. For the cold periods, the precipitation showed various spatial patterns, and similarities were only presented in the two periods of 1600-1700 and 1800-1900 featured by meridional distribution. Comparing the spatial patterns between cold and warm periods, inverse pattern of 440-540 and 1900-2000 over the most study area can be detected, but similar pattern was also found between the periods 1800-1900 and 1900-2000, and 1600-1700 and 1900-2000. Our results implicated that the relationship between temperature and spatial pattern of precipitation anomaly has high complexity, which would be of significance to understanding the spatial pattern of precipitation in the future climate change study.

  8. Homosexual Pornography: Trends in Content and Form over a Twenty-Five Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celline, Harold B.; Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted qualitative content analysis to examine homosexual pornography on sale in adult bookstores during four time periods: 1960-1969, 1970-1974, 1975-1979, and 1980-1984. Results revealed four trends: less tendency to disguise homosexual pornography, increasingly explicit sexual content, increasing emphasis on physical attractiveness of…

  9. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  10. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural field. For the first 5 years, metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide] and atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N’-(1-methyl...

  11. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  12. Conservation reserve program: Enrollment statistics for signup periods 1-12 and fiscal years 1986-1993. Statistical bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, C.T.; Llacuna, F.; Linsenbigler, M.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) accepted about 33.9 million acres of cropland into the Conservation Reserve Program (CPR) during 1986-89. This acreage was enrolled in nine separate signups under authority of the Food Security Act of 1985. CRP enrollment was extended through 1995 with passage of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. Three signup periods (the 10th, 11th, and 12th) were held in 1991 and 1992. About 2.5 million additional acres were enrolled in these signup periods under significantly revised program rules. No funds were appropriated for additional signups in fiscal years 1993-95. This report presents tables covering all CRP cropland enrolled in signup periods 1-12 and CRP cropland newly retired for each of fiscal years 1986-93.

  13. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  14. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  15. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND...

  16. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  17. Pituitary stalk hemangioblastoma in a von hippel-lindau patient : clinical course follow-up over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Sung

    2013-05-01

    Supratentorial hemangioblastomas (HBs) are rare, and pituitary stalk HBs are extremely uncommon; therefore, pituitary stalk evaluation is often overlooked. Herein, we report the development of pituitary stalk HB over a 20-year period and the importance of regular long-term follow up for patients with HBs. PMID:23908704

  18. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  19. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  20. Consensus Sequence of 27 African Horse Sickness Virus Genomes from Viruses Collected over a 76-Year Period (1933 to 2009)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Isabella M.; van Dijk, Alberdina A.

    2015-01-01

    We announce the complete consensus genome sequence of 27 African horse sickness viruses, representing all nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes from historical and recent isolates collected over a 76-year period (1933 to 2009). The data set includes the sequence of the virulent Office International des Epizooties AHSV reference strains which are not adapted to cell culture. PMID:26358586

  1. THE FREQUENCY OF T(14;18) IN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IS STABLE OVER A 2 YEAR PERIOD IN ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Frequency of t(14;18) in Blood Lymphocytes Is Stable over a 2 Year Period in Adults

    As part of a multi-endpoint molecular epidemiology study on in utero environmental exposures, umbilical cord and adult blood lymphocytes were examined for the frequency of t(14;18) by ...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  6. Understanding the Idea of Chemical Elements and Their Periodic Classification in Spanish Students Aged 16-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…

  7. Retention and readability of radio frequency identification transponders in beef cows over a five-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this study was to evaluate failure (loss or inability to read) of radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags in beef cows over a 2 to 5 year period under ranching conditions. One of 5 types of RFID tags was applied in the ear of a total of 4316 cows on 4 separate ranches. Tags wer...

  8. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED)...

  9. Prediction of Delinquency, Adjustment, and Academic Achievement Over a Five Year Period with the Kvaraceus Delinquency Proneness Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benning, James J.; And Others

    The Kvaraceus Delinquency Proneness Scale (KD Scale) was developed as an instrument designed to aid in prediction of future juvenile delinquents. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the predictive validity of the instrument over a 5-year period. Indexes of delinquency adjustment and academic achievement served as the validational…

  10. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED)...

  11. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED)...

  12. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years. 686.23 Section 686.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED)...

  13. 34 CFR 691.64 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 691.64 Section 691.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  14. The Presence of Matthew Effects in Dutch Primary Education, Development of Language Skills over a Six-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low…

  15. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow

  16. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants. PMID:2631593

  17. Forest nutrient and carbon pools at Walker Branch Watershed: Changes during a 21-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Trettin, C.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Todd, D.E. Jr.

    1999-10-01

    A 21-yr perspective on changes in nutrient and C pools on undisturbed upland forest sites is provided. Plots originally representing four cover types have been sampled three times. On each plot, forest biomass, forest floor, and soil, to a depth of 60 cm, were measured, sampled, and analyzed for Ca, Mg, C, N, and P. Exchangeable soil Ca and Mg have declined in most soils. Despite the low exchangeable Ca, cumulative sequestration in the biomass has exceeded the soil pool, suggesting that soil supplies below 60 cm are satisfying the biomass demand. Extractable soil P also declined, with means ranging from 4.2 to 18.2 kg ha{sup {minus}1}, as a result of reductions in the mineral soil and Oi horizon. The loss of extractable soil P exceeded biomass sequestration in all but one plot, suggesting abiotic soil processes as the removal mechanism. Soil C and N were either stable, although highly variable, or declined, which was unexpected in these undisturbed sites. The net C balance of these sites was controlled by aboveground sequestration, which offset changes in the soil and forest floor. Soil parent material and geomorphic setting strongly influenced the changes in soil properties during the 21-yr period, reflecting the importance of those factors in assessing soil nutrient and C cycles over that of forest cover type. The variability encountered in the periodic soil measurements highlights the difficulty in detecting temporal changes in soil chemical properties.

  18. Marked reduction of anemia during pregnancy over a 10-year period in Montserrat.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W K; Simeon, D T; Bramble, D; Buffonge, C; Gallagher, P

    1996-03-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes including maternal and perinatal mortality. However, health education and other public health strategies seeking to reduce its prevalence have usually met with only limited success. The study reported here surveyed anemia of pregnancy on the island of Montserrat in 1980, 1985, and 1990. This involved examination of clinic and hospital records for over 90% of all women giving birth on Montserrat in 1980 and 1985, as well as 80% of those giving birth in 1990. This examination showed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of anemia at the time of the first prenatal visit (a drop from 82% of the study women in 1980 to 23% in 1985 and 19% in 1990) and also a marked drop at three days postpartum (from 91% in 1980 to 41% in 1985 and 39% in 1990). Logistic regression analyses indicated that after controlling for three possible confounding factors (maternal age, parity, and weeks of gestation at first prenatal visit) the difference between the risk of developing anemia during pregnancy in 1980 as compared to 1985 or 1990 was still highly significant. The reasons for the observed drop in anemia's prevalence during the survey period are not entirely clear, partly because of the retrospective nature of the study. However, better nutrition resulting from improvement in the standard of living on Montserrat during the survey period could have been important, as could changes in health education and food supplementation activities. PMID:8919721

  19. Cranio-thoracic bullet migration over a period of 27 years: case report.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rangel, C; Reyes-Soto, G; Mendizábal-Guerra, R

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 36 year old woman that was hurt in the head with a lost bullet while walking through the street when she was 9 years old. On admission, the patient was fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Skull radiography showed the intracranial bullet but she was dispatched after 24 hours of observation without neurological deterioration. Six months later she suddenly presented quadriplegia and after one year of rehabilitation she recovered the mobility and strength in all her limbs. 25 years latter she began with thoracic pain (dermatomal sensory changes), constipation, paresthesias and weakness in the lower extremities; the X-Ray showed a bullet caliber 9 mm in the thoracic canal at T4 level. The bullet was removed via posterior laminectomy and dorsal midline mielotomy. 12 hours after surgery, the patient presented signs of medullar shock. The post-operatory MRI showed the trajectory of the bullet through the brain to the spinal cord in FLAIR, and spinal cord edema as well. The patient received steroids as treatment for the spinal cord edema, and with the help of rehabilitation she recovered movement in the lower extremities 30 days after the surgery. PMID:20725703

  20. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  1. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  2. Growth in Coaching Skills over a Three-Year Period: Progress toward Mastery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.

    This study examined cognitive coaching conferences between 1994 and 1997 as teachers practiced their coaching skills. Participants were part of a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education. The cognitive coaching process was used to provide teachers with support in implementing content standards. Coaches participating in the study…

  3. Rehabilitation outcomes in children with cerebral palsy during a 2 year period

    PubMed Central

    İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Mesci, Erkan; Yumusakhuylu, Yasemin; Turgut, Selin Turan; Murat, Sadiye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To observe motor and functional progress of children with cerebral palsy during 2 years. [Subjects and Methods] Pediatric cerebral palsy patients aged 3–15 years (n = 35/69) with 24-month follow-up at our outpatient cerebral palsy clinic were evaluated retrospectively. The distribution of cerebral palsy types was as follows: diplegia (n = 19), hemiplegia (n = 4), and quadriplegia (n = 12). Participants were divided into 3 groups according to their Gross Motor Functional Classification System scores (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe). All participants were evaluated initially and at the final assessment 2 years later. During this time, patients were treated 3 times/week. Changes in motor and functional abilities were assessed based on Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure. [Results] Significant improvements were observed in Gross Motor Function Measure-88 and Wee Functional Independence Measure results in all 35 patients at the end of 2 years. The Gross Motor Function Measure-88 scores correlated with Wee Functional Independence Measure Scores. Marked increases in motor and functional capabilities in mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients were observed in the subgroup assessments, but not in those with severe cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] Rehabilitation may greatly help mild and moderate cerebral palsy patients achieve their full potential. PMID:26644677

  4. A STUDY OF THE CHANGE IN INTELLIGENCE DISTRIBUTION OVER A TWENTY YEAR PERIOD IN CENTRAL IOWA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREIER, WILLIAM H.; YOUNG, BEVERLY S.

    THERE WAS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RISE IN THE MEAN IQ SCORE OF CHILDREN WHOSE PARENTS OBTAINED THEIR LIVING BY FARMING IN MAHASKA COUNTY, IOWA, DURING THE TWENTY YEARS PRECEEDING 1961-63. HOWEVER, THIS INCREASE WAS NOT PARALLELED BY THE NONFARM CHILDREN LIVING WITHIN THE SAME RURAL COMMUNITY. SELECTIVE MIGRATION WAS SHOWN TO BE AN ACTIVE…

  5. Changing trends in symptomatology, diagnostics, stage and survival of prostate cancer in Northern Finland during a period of 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in many countries. The aim of the present study was to find out how the symptoms leading to a diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and stages of the disease among prostate cancer patients have changed over a period of 20 years. Methods This retrospective chart review consisted of 421 prostate cancer patients whose treatment was started in the years 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002 at the Oulu University Hospital. Earlier prostatic disorders, specific urological symptoms, diagnostic procedures, the TNM classification and histological grade were recorded. Results The number of symptom-free prostate cancer patients increased over the 20 years, as did the number of men suffering from chronic prostatitis, although the latter increase was not statistically significant. A drop in the number of clinical T4 cases and increase of clinical T1 and clinical T2 cases was recorded but no clear change in the histological distribution occurred. The 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the 20 years. The urologist was found to be the person who was contacted first most often. Conclusions Our data indicate that the number of prostate cancer patients has increased hugely over the period from 1982 to 2002 and although the clinical T stage has moved towards earlier stages, the proportion of well differentiated cancers remains low, so that most patients have clinically significant cancer with the need of some form of therapy. Further, prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the period. PMID:24094418

  6. Stain and dye stability over a 30-year period: a comparison of certified dye powders by the Biological Stain Commission.

    PubMed

    Penney, D P; Frank, M; Fagan, C; Willis, C

    2009-02-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) Assay Laboratory has received numerous inquiries during the past several years regarding the long-term stability of stain and dye powders, particularly since packaging requirements call for expiration dates on reagents. We have conducted a study to examine the long-term stability of selected dye powders. We used the standard procedures of the BSC for testing biological stains for certification to give an indication of the long-term chemical stability as well as staining performance of the dye powders. An earlier study by Emmel and Stotz examined the stability of various dye powders after a five-year storage period. The present study is a follow-up project covering the same dyes after storage for 30 years. The dye samples chosen for the study are the same samples used in the five-year storage period study and give comparative results for all three time periods. The results of this study affirm the generally held speculation that dye powders are stable for many years and thus have a substantial shelf-life. PMID:19096966

  7. Cytomegalovirus seroprevalence among women of childbearing age during a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S; Stout, Gordon G

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is dependent on the rate of virus acquisition by susceptible women in temporal proximity to pregnancy. Information about serostatus may help to identify high-risk groups and target interventions. Each year from 1991 to 2000, cord blood specimens (surrogates for maternal serum) from 100 consecutive deliveries were obtained at three hospitals. The presence of CMV immunoglobulin G antibody was correlated with demographic data. Overall, 58% of 2992 women were seropositive. After stratification by socioeconomic status (SES), nonwhite race was strongly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.8), and after stratification by race, lower SES also was associated (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 2.3). There were no trends in seroprevalence over time in any demographic group. However, among white women 21 to 29 years of age, a significant association was found with later birth cohort. Seropositivity ranged from 40% among older, white primigravidas of upper SES to 89% among older, nonwhite, multigravid women of lower SES. These data suggest high rates of CMV transmission among nonwhite women of lower SES. Because these women tended to deliver infants at younger ages, delaying pregnancy even a few years might reduce the incidence of congenital disease. In contrast, most white, upper SES women remain susceptible to primary infection during their childbearing years. Such women born after 1975 may be more likely to reach the childbearing years with CMV immunity as compared with women born before then. PMID:16215924

  8. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of candidaemia among Jordanian newborns over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Badran, Eman F; Al Baramki, Jumana H; Al Shamyleh, Abdulqader; Shehabi, Asem; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study includes all newborn patients with culture proved candidaemia who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Jordan University Hospital through the period January 1995 to June 2006. Among 24 patients included, 13 (54.2%) died. The incidence of candidaemia was 0.27%, the mean age at diagnosis 25.9 d and the mean gestational age at birth 34.6 weeks. Species most frequently isolated were Candida albicans (50%) and C. krusei (20%). Previous gastrointestinal pathology was present in 41.7% of the cases. A comparison of cases due to C. albicans with those due to other species of Candida revealed no statistical differences in terms of demographic factors, age at onset of disease, mortality, clinical manifestations or risk factors. Based on our results, empirical antifungal therapy should be considered in neonates who have gastrointestinal pathology and other risk factors. PMID:17852924

  9. A Retrospective Study of Marjolin's Ulcer Over an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Vasu Reddy; Deshmane, Vijayalakshmi; Ashwatha Reddy, Madhusudana Bommasandra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Marjolin's ulcer is a rare aggressive cutaneous malignancy occurring in previously occurred wounds. The most common aetiology is a burn wound involving extremities and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common variant. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analyses of medical records of patients treated in a single unit with a diagnosis of Marjolin's ulcer was performed. Results: During the study period, 14 patients were treated. Four patients had lymph node metastases and one had pulmonary metastases at the time of presentation. Seven patients underwent wide excision with reconstruction and seven underwent amputation or disarticulation because of advanced malignancy. During the follow up two patients developed local recurrence and one developed pulmonary metastases. Both the patients with pulmonary metastases had Marjolin's ulcer of trunk. Conclusion: Marjolin's ulcer occurs more commonly in the extremities. Distant metastases occur commonly in patients with ulcers on the of trunk. PMID:25538436

  10. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. Methods We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Results Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Conclusions Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades. PMID:24708710

  11. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a 10-year period in a primate model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M; Servetas, Stephanie L; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R; Merrell, D Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as a strain in which babA was deleted was unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  12. Reanalysis of archived IMPROVE PM2.5 samples previously analyzed over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Nicole P; Trzepla, Krystyna; White, Warren H

    2012-09-18

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network has collected airborne particulate matter (PM) samples at locations throughout the United States since 1988. These samples have been analyzed for elemental content using analytical methods that evolved over the years. Changes in analytical methods sometimes introduced shifts in reported concentrations that are evident in the historical record. We sought to illuminate the effects of methodological changes by reanalyzing archived samples with current methods. To test the feasibility of this approach, the 15-year archive of PM samples from Great Smoky Mountains National Park was selected for reanalysis as a single analytical batch using a common protocol and calibration. Comparisons of the reanalyses and original analyses indicate that concentrations of all but one measured element, Br, remained stable on the filters over years of storage. The agreement between the two analyses varied with element and original measurement method. For elements measured well above their contemporary detection limits - S, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn - the reanalysis established that method changes had limited impacts on reported concentrations, generally <10%. For elements originally measured near their detection limits, reanalysis confirmed the presence of discontinuities in the data record, many of which were previously recognized and documented as method-related. PMID:22913377

  13. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  14. Studying cumulative ozone exposures in Europe during a 7-year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie; Brandt, JøRgen; Zlatev, Zahari; Uria, Ignacio

    1997-10-01

    Ozone is one of the most harmful pollutants in the troposphere. High ozone concentrations can damage plants, animals and humans. The damaging effects depend on the magnitude of a critical level of a special parameter, the cumulative ozone exposure. This is why cumulative ozone exposures must be carefully studied. It is important to determine the relationships between relevant emissions (NOx emissions, human-made VOC emissions, and/or a combination of NOx emissions and human-made VOC emissions) and cumulative ozone exposures. All these issues are discussed in this paper. Meteorological data from seven consecutive years, from 1989 to 1995, have been used in the experiments with different scenarios for varying the emissions (the NOx emissions, the human-made VOC emissions, as well as both the NOx emissions and the human-made VOC emissions). The particular air pollution model used in this study is the Danish Eulerian Model. Several hundred runs with different input data (meteorological data and/or emission data) have been performed. Advanced visualization techniques are used to interpret the large amount of digital data collected in these runs and to show clearly different trends and relationships that are normally hidden behind millions and millions of numbers. The model results were compared with measurements taken at more than 80 stations located in different European countries. The experiments indicate that it is sufficient to carry out computations over 5 consecutive years in order to eliminate the influence of extreme meteorological conditions (very warm or very cold summer months) on the cumulative ozone exposures, while this effect is clearly seen if less than 5 years are used in the experiments. It is shown that the relationship between the emissions (NOx and/or human-made VOC emissions) and the cumulative ozone exposures is in general nonlinear. Finally, it is illustrated that the critical values for ozone exposures are exceeded in most of Europe (in many

  15. Letterer-Siwe disease: a study of thirteen cases over a 21 - year period.

    PubMed

    Bingham, E A; Bridges, J M; Kelly, A M; Burrows, D; Nevin, N C

    1982-02-01

    In Northern Ireland, with a population of 1.5 million, thirteen cases of Letterer-Siwe disease have been diagnosed over the past 21 years. The average age of onset was 10.5 months. There was a 69% mortality with an average survival time from diagnosis to death of 3.3 months. Four children survived with no morbidity. All deaths were from pulmonary complications, but two cases with pulmonary infiltration responded to treatment with quadruple chemotherapy. There were no familial cases in this study. PMID:7059511

  16. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W.; Allen, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  17. Modeling Saturn's Giant Storms: Water, Ammonia, and the 30-Year Periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    A giant planet-encircling storm occurred on Saturn on Dec. 5th, 2010 at planetographic latitude 37.7oN. It produced intense lightning, created enormous cloud disturbances and wrapped around the planet in 6 months. Six such storms, called Great White Spots, have erupted since 1876. They have alternated between mid-latitudes and the equator at intervals ranging from 20 to 30 years. The reason for the intermittent explosion is hitherto unclear and there are no similar storms on brother Jupiter. Here we describe the water-loading-mechanism, which could suppress moist convection for decades due to the larger molecular weight of water in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere. We show that this mechanism requires the deep water vapor mixing ratio to be greater than 1.0%. Observations imply that Saturn's atmosphere is more enriched in water than Jupiter, which could explain why Saturn has such storms and Jupiter does not. We further use a two-dimensional axisymmetric dynamic model and a top-cooling convective adjustment scheme to connect our theory to observation. We show that for a deep water mixing ratio of 1.1%, the ammonia vapor is depleted down to 6 bars, the tropospheric warming is about 6 K, and the interval between two consecutive storms at one place is about 70 years. These values are confirmed by both ground-based and spacecraft observations.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  19. Perinatal statistics of a 15-year period in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sobaih, Badr H; Al-Shebly, Mashael M.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal statistics are one of the most essential outcome indicators used by many developed countries in order to evaluate perinatal services provided to newborns. In this retrospective study, we collected 15 years of perinatal data at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in order to determine stillbirth and other mortality rates in our institute and compare them with international figures. A total of 58,073 babies were evaluated. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal registry books and from perinatal mortality and morbidity meeting reports between 1994 and 2008. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The stillbirth rate was 11.7/1000, early neonatal death rate was 3.4/1000, perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was 14.9/1000, and corrected PMR was 11.9/1000. Our rates were not significantly different from those of North American and European ones. We noticed a dramatic reduction in the corrected PMR in the last 3 years of the study because of greater advancement in perinatal and neonatal care. Our mortality rates were comparable to the North American and European rates which may reflect the quality of perinatal care provided in our institute. PMID:27493354

  20. Horse-related trauma in children and adults during a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Horse riding, with almost 200,000 participants, is the eighth most popular sport in Sweden. Severe injuries can occur with horse riding accidents which is well documented. This study was undertaken to investigate if injuries associated with horse riding are common, which type of injuries occur, what mechanisms are involved and to estimate the costs to the society. Material and methods All patients attending the emergency department at Linköping University Hospital, during the years 2003-2004, due to horse related trauma were prospectively recorded. The patients were divided into two groups according to age, 147 children and 141 adults. The medical records were retrospectively scrutinized. Results The most common mechanism of injury was falling from the horse. Most commonly, minor sprains and soft tissue injuries were seen, but also minor head injuries and fractures, mainly located in the upper limb. In total 26 adults and 37 children were admitted. Of these 63 patients 19 were considered having a serious injury. In total, four patients needed treatment in intensive care units. The total cost in each group was 200,000 Euro/year. Conclusion Horse riding is a sport with well known risks. Our results corresponds to the literature, however we have not observed the same incidence of serious injuries. In contrast we find these to be fairly uncommon. The injuries are mainly minor, with a small risk of long term morbidity. Over time regulations and safety equipment seem to have decreased the number of serious accidents. PMID:25030979

  1. Traumatic episodes experienced during the genocide period in Rwanda influence life circumstances in young men and women 17 years later

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During Rwanda’s genocide period in 1994, about 800,000 people were killed. People were murdered, raped and seriously injured. This retrospective study investigated prevalence and frequency of traumatic episodes and associated psychosocial effects in young adults in Rwanda over the lifetime, during the genocide period and in the past three years. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted among men and women, aged 20 to 35 years, residing in the Southern province of Rwanda. The study population, randomly selected in a multi stage procedure, included 477 females and 440 males. Data collection was performed through individual interviewing with a structured questionnaire during the period December 2011- January 2012. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess traumatic episodes. All data was sex-disaggregated. Differences between groups were measured by chi square and Fischer’s exact test. Associations with socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were estimated by use of odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in bi- and multivariate analyses. Results The participants in this study were 3 to 18 years of age in 1994, the year of the genocide. Our sample size was 917 participants, 440 men and 477 women. Women were to a higher extent exposed to traumatic episodes than men during their lifetime, 83.6% (n = 399) and 73.4% (n = 323), respectively. During the genocide period, 37.5% of the men/boys and 35.4% of the women/girls reported such episodes while in the past three years (2009-2011) 25.0% of the men and 23.1% of the women did. Women were more exposed to episodes related to physical and sexual violence, while men were exposed to imprisonment, kidnapping and mass killings. Victims of such violence during the genocide period were 17 years later less educated although married (men OR 1.47; 0.98-2.19; women OR 1.54; 1.03-2.30), without children (men OR 1.59; 1.08-2.36; women OR 1.86; 1.11-3.08) and living under extremely

  2. Sea Ice Monitoring Using Quikscat & Ascat Scatterometers during the Last 15-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard-Ardhuin, F.

    2014-12-01

    Microwave sensors onboard polar orbit satellites are commonly used for sea ice monitoring at high latitude : radiometers are routinely used for this application and scatterometers have also shown they can contribute significantly to it. Since 1991, numerous scatterometers data at C and Ku-bands are available since ERS-1 with NSCAT, QuikSCAT, OSCAT, HY, and ASCAT sensors. In this presentation, we will show how the recent QuikSCAT and ASCAT sensors could be used to build 15-year observation data time series for sea ice monitoring for both Arctic and Antarctic areas. Backscatter data enable to discriminate sea ice from open ocean areas, in particular scatterometers are useful to detect new ice, even at the early stage of growth which is not possible using radiometers. Backscatter data from scatterometer can also be used for sea ice type detection (first year from multi-year sea ice in the Arctic), results and differences between C-band and Ku-band sensors results will be presented. Moreover, sea ice displacement maps can be built in central Arctic from backscatter data, examples will be shown using the merging of scatterometer and radiometer data. We will see in this presentation that Antarctic sea ice displacement maps can also be inferred. From these displacement maps, mean sea surface currents can be estimated. In this presentation we will also focus on the benefit of the use of the two ASCAT sensors that are presently available (onboard MetOp-A -since 2007 and -B, since 2012), in particular for the Antarctic area. This presentation will enhance i) the need of scatterometer data for sea ice application with many examples of the inferred parameters in particular from the U.S. QuikSCAT/SeaWinds and the E.U. MetOp/ASCATs scatterometers ii) the need of the continuity of scatterometers missions and iii) the benefit of the combination of sensors and datasets (scatterometers, scatterometers with radiometers) for a long-term observation of the polar areas. These data are

  3. Fatal animal attacks in North Carolina over an 18-year period.

    PubMed

    Langley, R L

    1994-06-01

    Injuries from animals are very common, but fortunately deaths are rare. Few studies, however, have evaluated human deaths due to both venomous and nonvenomous animals. Utilizing the Medical Examiner's Data Base, this study examines deaths due to venomous and nonvenomous wild and domestic animals in North Carolina. During 1972-1989, there were 92 deaths reported. Seven categories of "type of animal" involved in the attack were developed. Deaths were most likely to occur from June through November. Victims ranged in age from 1 to 93 (average, 46.1) years and 75% were male. Injuries occurred at the worksite in 18 cases, and 10 victims had detectable alcohol levels. Most deaths were due to insect stings, and several victims had a previous history of insect allergy. The majority of victims were injured at their residence. Although rare, many deaths were potentially preventable. Methods to decrease the number of injuries resulting from animals are discussed. PMID:8074110

  4. Risk factors during the prenatal period and the first year of life associated with overweight in 7-year-old low-income Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Rios-Castillo, Israel; Cerezo, Sheila; Corvalán, Camila; Martínez, Mario; Kain, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify in low-income Chilean children with normal birthweight which factors occurring during the prenatal period and the first year are associated with overweight (OW)/obesity at 7 years. The sample included 652 7-year-olds from a larger cohort study. We collected anthropometric data at 0, 12 and 84 months, maternal pre-pregnancy and pregnancy characteristics, early feeding practices, number of siblings, birth order, breastfeeding, and timing of solid introduction information. We determined the residuals for z-scores for body mass index (BMI) (BAZ), weight/age and height/age0-12 months , run univariate analysis (X(2) or t-test) and multivariate logistic analyses (stepwise approach); P < 0.05 was considered significant. We evaluated the goodness of fit of the model using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and checked for overdispersion using the Pearson's X(2) . The odds of children being OW at 7 years increased if their mothers were OW before pregnancy, if born with a higher BAZ (increase of 18-74% per each additional unit of BAZ) and if their BAZ growth during the first year was higher (62-239% per each unit over the predicted BAZ increase). Higher birth order was protective (6-68% less risk for 2nd birth compared with 1st and 10-73% less for ≥3rd child). All other variables, including gender, were non-significant (P > 0.1). In low-income Chilean children with normal birth, four factors during the prenatal period and the first year were associated with OW at 7 years: pre-pregnancy BMI, BMI at birth, BMI gain between 0 and 12 months, and birth order. PMID:23241511

  5. An incidental finding of a nodal recurrence of cutaneous malignant melanoma after a 45-year disease-free period

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Jenny; Cozon, Caroline Louise; Liew, Se Hwang

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 84-year-old woman who had a nodal recurrence of melanoma 45 years after the primary diagnosis of an extremity cutaneous melanoma. It is believed to be the longest disease-free latency period reported between primary melanoma diagnosis and recurrence to date. Late recurrences of melanoma are rare and recurrence after four decades extremely rare. This article suggests melanoma is a disease with a potentially lifelong risk of recurrence and thus clinicians and patients must be vigilant and aware of this risk, particularly if late recurrences are to be recognised early and management optimised. PMID:24895394

  6. No Outbreak of Vancomycin and Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcal Pneumonia over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococci can cause wound infections and community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, among a range of illnesses. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been rapidly increasing as a cause of infections worldwide in recent decades. Numerous reports indicate that S. aureus and MRSA are becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them very dangerous. Therefore, this study retrospectively investigated the resistance to antimicrobial agents in all hospitalized patients suffering from community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia due to S. aureus and MRSA. Methods Information from the study groups suffering from either community- or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by S. aureus or MRSA was gathered by searching records from 2004 to 2014 at the HELIOS Clinic Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany. The findings of antibiotic resistance were analyzed after the evaluation of susceptibility testing for S. aureus and MRSA. Results Total of 147 patients (63.9%, 95% CI 57.5%–69.8%), mean age 67.9 ± 18.5 years, with pneumonia triggered by S. aureus, and 83 patients (36.1%, 95% CI 30.2%–42.5%), mean age 72.3 ± 13.8 years, with pneumonia due to MRSA. S. aureus and MRSA developed no resistance to vancomycin (P = 0.019 vs. < 0.0001, respectively) or linezolid (P = 0.342 vs. < 0.0001, respectively). MRSA (95.3%) and S. aureus (56.3%) showed a high resistance to penicillin. MRSA (87.7%) was also found to have a high antibiotic resistance against ß-lactam antibiotics, compared to S. aureus (9.6%). Furthermore, MRSA compared to S. aureus, respectively, had increased antibiotic resistance to ciprofloxacin (90.1% vs. 17.0%), cefazolin (89.7% vs. 10.2%), cefuroxime (89.0% vs. 9.1%), levofloxacin (88.2% vs. 18.4%), clindamycin (78.0% vs. 14.7%), and erythromycin (76.5% vs. 20.8%). Conclusion No development of resistance was found to vancomycin and linezolid in patients with pneumonia caused by S. aureus and MRSA. PMID

  7. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  8. Effect of Cystone® on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone® vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone® on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone®. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone® to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  9. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  10. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  11. Age and gender differences in Clostridium difficile-related hospitalization trends in Madrid (Spain) over a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Vasallo, M D; Naval Pellicer, S; Domínguez-Berjón, M F; Cantero Caballero, M; Asensio, Á; Saravia, G; Astray-Mochales, J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze temporal trends by gender and age in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related hospitalization rates in the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain) over a 12-year period. A population-based cross-sectional study of all hospital admissions with a CDI diagnosis from 2003 to 2014 was carried out. Annual age-specific hospitalization rates were calculated by gender. All the analyses were performed separately for total hospitalizations and hospitalizations with CDI as the primary diagnosis. Joinpoint regression models were used to analyze time trends. A total of 13,526 hospital discharges were identified (26.8 % with CDI as the primary diagnosis). In both sexes, a gradient in age-specific rates was observed, ranging in 2014 from 5.92 hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years in patients <15 years of age to 378.96 in patients ≥85 years of age. Since 2009, in the age group of 15-44 years, both men and women presented an increasing trend of around 18 %. A significantly increasing trend was detected in women of age 45-84 years, with an estimated annual percentage of change of 7.6 % in the age group of 45-64 years, and rounding with 4.5 % in the age group of 65-84 years. In men of age 45-64 years, the average annual percentage of increase was 4.7 %, and it was 21.1 % between 2010 and 2014 in the age group of 65-74 years. No trends were identified in the 85 years and over age group. Surveillance methods to assess trends by age group should be implemented. Preventive and therapeutic initiatives should remain a priority. PMID:27056555

  12. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  13. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis in the Volta River Basin Area over a period of five years of vector control.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, K Y; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

    1984-03-01

    The results of an ophthalmological evaluation conducted in seven West African savannah villages before and after 5 years of vector control, were analysed to determine the effect of an interrupted or greatly reduced transmission of Onchocerca volvulus on the evolution of ocular onchocerciasis. Cross-sectional data showed a significant reduction of the prevalence of ocular onchocerciasis in five of the villages, and the rates of irreversible ocular lesions and blindness were generally lower after 5 years of vector control. A longitudinal study of a defined population showed that the ocular status of most patients with ocular onchocerciasis remained stable or improved over the 5 year period, particularly in lightly infected cases. The evolution of ocular onchocerciasis showed a deterioration in a minor proportion, restricted to cases of already existing severe lesions, resulting in blindness. A comparison of ophthalmic data from adjacent areas without vector control, indicates that a five year period of vector control may reduce the risk of developing eye lesions or blindness due to onchocerciasis by 50%. PMID:6608814

  14. Antimicrobial use over a four-year period using days of therapy measurement at a Canadian pediatric acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Bruce R; MacTavish, Sandra J; Bresee, Lauren C; Rajapakse, Nipunie; Vanderkooi, Otto; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Conly, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a concern that is challenging the ability to treat common infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial use in pediatric acute care institutions is complicated because the common metric unit, the defined daily dose, is problematic for this population. OBJECTIVE: During a four-year period in which no specific antimicrobial stewardship initiatives were conducted, pediatric antimicrobial use was quantified using days of therapy (DOT) per 100 patient days (PD) (DOT/100 PD) at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) for benchmarking purposes. METHODS: Drug use data for systemic antimicrobials administered on wards at the Alberta Children’s Hospital were collected from electronic medication administration records. DOT were calculated and rates were determined using 100 PD as the denominator. Changes over the surveillance period and subgroup proportions were represented graphically and assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial use decreased from 93.6 DOT/100 PD to 75.7 DOT/100 PD (19.1%) over the 2010/2011 through to the 2013/2014 fiscal years. During this period, a 20.0% increase in PD and an essentially stable absolute count of DOT (2.9% decrease) were observed. Overall, antimicrobial use was highest in the pediatric intensive care and oncology units. DISCUSSION: The exact changes in prescribing patterns that led to the observed reduction in DOT/100 PD with associated increased PD are unclear, but may be a topic for future investigations. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial use data from a Canadian acute care pediatric hospital reported in DOT/100 PD were compiled for a four-year time period. These data may be useful for benchmarking purposes. PMID:26600813

  15. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  16. Functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Fraguas, David; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Inmaculada; Espliego, Ana; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Payá, Beatriz; Graell, Montserrat; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze changes in functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the first episode of psychosis (FEP) in patients with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective psychoses (AFP) and a good or intermediate level of premorbid adjustment. We followed 106 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with FEP for 2 years after recruitment. Premorbid adjustment in childhood was assessed in 98 patients with the childhood subscale of the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale (c-PAS). Global functioning was assessed 2 years after the FEP with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (c-GAS) or the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), as appropriate. Functional deterioration was defined as a downward shift in the level of functional adjustment from childhood to 2 years after the FEP. In patients with good or intermediate premorbid adjustment, functional deterioration was observed in 28.2 % (26.5 % of the AFP group, 29.4 % of the SSD group). Longer duration of untreated psychosis (Beta = 0.01; P = 0.01) and higher symptom severity at the FEP, as measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale (Beta = 1.12; P = 0.02), significantly predicted the presence of functional deterioration, accounting for 21.4 % of the variance. Irrespective of diagnosis (SSD or AFP), almost one-third of adolescents with FEP and good or intermediate premorbid adjustment showed functional deterioration from the premorbid period to 2 years after the FEP. PMID:25726022

  17. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  18. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  19. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  20. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  1. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  2. Performance demonstration of hydrogen advanced loop heat pipe for 20-30K cryocooling of far infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; O'Connell, Tamara A.; Ku, Jentung; Butler, C. D.; Swanson, Theodore D.

    2005-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program have identified the need for cryogenic cooling transport devices that (i) provide robust/reliable thermal management for Infrared (IR) sensors/detectors in the temperature range of 20-30K, (ii) minimize vibration effects of mechanical cryocoolers on the instruments, (iii) reduce spatial temperature gradients in cryogenic components, and (iv) afford long continuous service life of the telescope. Passive two-phase capillary cooling technologies such as heat pipes, Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs), and Capillary pumped Loops (CPLs) have proven themselves capable of performing necessary thermal control functions for room temperature applications. They have no mechanical moving part to wear out or to introduce unwanted vibration to the instruments and, hence, are reliable and maintenancefree. However, utilizing these capillary devices for cryogenic cooling still remains a challenge because of difficulties involving the system start-up and operation in a warm environment. An advanced concept of LHP using Hydrogen as the working fluid was recently developed to demonstrate the cryocooling transport capabilities in the temperature range of 20-30K. A full-size demonstration test loop - appropriately called H2-ALHP_2 - was constructed and performance tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber. It was designed specifically to manage "heat parasitics" from a warm surrounding, enabling it to start up from an initially supercritical state and operate without requiring a rigid heat shield. Like room temperature LHPs, the H2-ALHP transport lines were made of small-diameter stainless steel tubing that are flexible enough to isolate the cryocooler-induced vibration from the IR instruments. In addition, focus of the H2-ALHP research and development effort was also placed on the system weight saving for space-based applications.

  3. The Change of Grip Strength in a Patient with Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Over a 4-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Kozuka, Naoki; Uchida, Eiji; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Takeda, Hidekatsu; Tachi, Nobutada

    2008-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MyD) is a neuromuscular disease that is autosomal dominant and the most common form of muscular dystrophy affecting adults. The clinical features of MyD include a multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, progressive muscle weakness and wasting, cataracts, premature balding and mental retardation. The most severe type of MyD is classified as congenital MyD (CMyD). The muscle weakness in CMyD is very severe, but muscle development can be observed in the period of growth. However, no clinical case of this type has been reported yet. Therefore, we report on a girl with CMyD who had an increase in muscle strength over a four-year period. The girl with CMyD participated in this study from the age of 9 to the age of 12. The measurement of muscle strength was recorded as the maximum score of grip strength with the use of dynamometers. Grip strength was assessed once a year by the same two physical therapists. Grip strength of CMyD for each year was markedly weak when compared with the normal controls, but muscle strength changed within some specific growth areas. The muscle weakness in CMyD was remarkable, but the result showed that specific muscle strength of CMyD in childhood was actually increased. PMID:25792886

  4. Polyphenol Intake from Beverages in Japan over an 18-Year Period (1996-2013): Trends by Year, Age, Gender and Season.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chie; Fukushima, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Yoshida, Daishi; Kondo, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    An association between the dietary intake of polyphenols and human health has been shown in many epidemiological studies. Since beverages are rich sources of polyphenols, we aimed to evaluate the polyphenol intake from beverages in Japanese individuals with a focus on differences according to year, age, gender and season. More than 10,000 Japanese male and female subjects aged 1-99 y old participated in this survey every year from 1996 to 2013, and their beverage consumption and amount of polyphenol intake were calculated. Polyphenol intake from beverages in Japan showed no tendency to increase or decrease over the 18-y period, and the major sources of polyphenols in Japanese daily life were coffee and green tea. Polyphenol intake was larger in participants with higher age up to 59 y old in both male and female subjects. There was a slight difference in polyphenol intake by gender, with adult males consuming more polyphenols than adult females. Polyphenols were consumed slightly more in the winter than the summer, although the seasonal difference in polyphenol intake was not large. Our results suggest that polyphenol intake from beverages is influenced by age rather than gender or season in Japan, and may not have changed over time, at least over the 18-y period beginning in 1996 in Japan. PMID:26440642

  5. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  6. Conservative treatment of intraosseous hemangiomas in the mandible: case report with a 17-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Frizzera, Fausto; Beccalli, Ivette; Maia, Rosa Maria Lourenço Carlos; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Zanetti, Liliane Scheidegger da Silva; de Barros, Liliana Pimenta Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas in the jaws are rare lesions and may lead to several complications. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a radiolucent periapical lesion between tooth 35 and 36 where nocturnal exsanguinating bleeding started to occur from periodontal sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis of an intraosseous hemangioma in the mandible was based on positive needle aspiration for blood, computed tomography and arteriography. At first the family chose to only follow-up the lesion but episodes of nocturnal hemorrhage were becoming more frequent and a treatment was requested. Embolization and dental extraction were performed in order to treat the lesion. After a follow-up period of 17 years no more cases of hemorrhage occurred and lesion regressed. PMID:25307825

  7. A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis as initial manifestation of Graves' disease in a 16-year-old Korean adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Se Yong; Song, Kyung Chul; Shin, Jae Il; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism, with recurrent muscle paralysis and hypokalemia that are caused by an intracellular shift of potassium. TPP is relatively common in Asian males, but is extremely rare in children and adolescents, even for those of Asian descent. We describe a 16-year-old Korean adolescent presenting with a two-week history of episodic leg weakness in the morning. He showed sinus tachycardia, lower leg weakness, and hypokalemia. Thyroid function test showed hyperthyroidism, and thyroid ultrasonography revealed a diffuse enlarged thyroid with increased vascularity, consistent with Graves' disease. He was treated with β-adrenergic blocker and antithyroid drugs. He has been symptom free for one year, as his hyperthyroidism has been controlled well with antithyroid drugs. TPP should be considered in children and adolescents with acute paralysis of the lower extremities and hypokalemia. PMID:25346923

  8. Comparison of CTG repeat length expansion and clinical progression of myotonic dystrophy over a five year period.

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, L; Martinez, J M; Carey, N; Johnson, K; Baiget, M

    1995-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is associated with an underlying CTG trinucleotide repeat expansion at a locus on chromosome 19q13.3. We have determined the repeat length in 23 DM patients with varying clinical severity of symptoms and various sizes of repeat amplification. We confirm that as in previous studies there is no strong correlation between repeat length and clinical symptoms but find that the repeat length in peripheral blood cells of patients increases over a time span of five years indicating continuing mitotic instability of the repeat throughout life. Repeat length progression does not appear to be indicative of clinical progression but age probably is. The degree of expansion correlates with the initial repeat size and 50% of the patients with continuing expansions showed clinical progression of their disease symptoms over the five year study period. Images PMID:7473648

  9. Trends and fluctuations in the impact of oral conditions among older adults during a one year period.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Hoskin, G W; Spencer, A J

    1996-10-01

    While longitudinal epidemiological studies document the rate of disease progression in populations, it is not known how people's lives are affected by oral conditions over a period of time. This study aimed to describe patterns of change in the reported impact of oral conditions among community-dwelling persons aged 61+ years in South Australia. A self-complete questionnaire, the Oral Health Impact Profile, obtained data about 49 impacts of oral conditions on everyday activities. Questionnaires were issued to 90 people once a month for 12 months and 67 people provided usable responses for at least nine months. The number of reported impacts per month formed the dependent variable for analyzing patterns of change. An increase or decrease of at least two impacts from one month to the next was categorized as a fluctuation. Year-long trends of increase or decrease in at least two impacts were identified using linear regression. Most people (86.5 per cent) experienced no trend, although nearly one half of them reported fluctuations in at least one month. Trends were more likely among denture wearers and people with 16+ missing teeth (P < 0.05), although the associations were confounded by initial impact scores which were higher for both groups. Impacts concerning eating and oral pain were subject to the greatest amount of change. The findings demonstrate that many older adults experience short-term impacts of oral conditions during longer periods of temporal stability in perceived impact of oral health. PMID:8954217

  10. HST AND OPTICAL DATA REVEAL WHITE DWARF COOLING, SPIN, AND PERIODICITIES IN GW LIBRAE 3-4 YEARS AFTER OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gaensicke, Boris T. E-mail: mukadam@astro.washington.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    Since the large amplitude 2007 outburst which heated its accreting, pulsating white dwarf, the dwarf nova system GW Librae has been cooling to its quiescent temperature. Our Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra combined with ground-based optical coverage during the third and fourth year after outburst show that the fluxes and temperatures are still higher than quiescence (T = 19,700 K and 17,300 K versus 16,000 K pre-outburst for a log g = 8.7 and d = 100 pc). The K{sub wd} of 7.6 {+-} 0.8 km s{sup -1} determined from the C I {lambda}1463 absorption line, as well as the gravitational redshift implies a white dwarf mass of 0.79 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun }. The widths of the UV lines imply a white dwarf rotation velocity v sin i of 40 km s{sup -1} and a spin period of 209 s (for an inclination of 11 deg and a white dwarf radius of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm). Light curves produced from the UV spectra in both years show a prominent multiplet near 290 s, with higher amplitude in the UV compared to the optical, and increased amplitude in 2011 versus 2010. As the presence of this set of periods is intermittent in the optical on weekly timescales, it is unclear how this relates to the non-radial pulsations evident during quiescence.

  11. Changes in contraceptive practice in a multiracial urban-based community over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Raman, S; Kishen, D; Hamidah, K; Ang, E S

    1992-06-01

    There have been changes in the national policy regarding population growth in Malaysia from 1982. This report studies the changes in contraceptive practice among the three racial groups in this country, i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians, over a 5-year period with an interval of 10 years. This is a retrospective study based on the attendance at the same family planning clinic in an urban setting. The striking change noted is the change in the racial composition of contraceptive usage in the two study periods with a shift from the Chinese being predominant in 1975-1979 to Malays in 1985-1989. There was no change among the numbers of Indians using contraception. The results also reveal a significant trend of change for users of the pill and those undergoing sterilization. There were no significant changes in IUD, condom and injectable usage. The study demonstrates how national policies, level of education and rural urban migration can significantly alter contraceptive practice. PMID:1519495

  12. In vitro activity of tigecycline and colistin against A. baumannii clinical bloodstream isolates during an 8-year period.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Vamvakopoulou, Sofia; Bartzavali, Christina; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Christofidou, Myrto

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important and problematic pathogen causing bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized patients. Results of an 8-year period from a university hospital are presented. Identification of A. baumannii was performed by Gram-negative BD BBL Crystal ID and VITEK(®)2 system, whereas, susceptibility testing by VITEK2, Kirby-Bauer disc system, and Etest strips. Interpretation of results was based on CLSI criteria and, regarding tigecycline, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria. Between 2006 and 2013, 441 among 7088 BSI cases were attributed to A. baumannii. Of all isolates, 92·1% were resistant to more than three classes of antibiotics and 79·4% were resistant to all but one or two categories of antimicrobials. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam, meropenem, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, and tigecycline increased during the study period (P<0·05). Although tigecycline resistance was low during the first 4 years of the study (25·5%), it increased up to 66·5% during 2010-2013. No isolate was colistin resistant. PMID:24827985

  13. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  14. INTAKES OF SELECTED NUTRIENTS, BONE MINERALISATION AND DENSITY OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE SWIMMERS OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Długołęcka, B.; Czeczelewska, E.; Raczyńska, B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11–13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20) and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20). Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine (L2 – L4). Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus) were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD) steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood. PMID:24744460

  15. Intakes of selected nutrients, bone mineralisation and density of adolescent female swimmers over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Czeczelewski, J; Długołęcka, B; Czeczelewska, E; Raczyńska, B

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11-13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20) and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20). Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine (L2 - L4). Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus) were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD) steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood. PMID:24744460

  16. Semen Analysis in Cancer Patients Referred for Sperm Cryopreservation before Chemotherapy over a 15-Year Period in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ja Yoon; Park, Nam Cheol; Jeon, Tae Gyeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the demographics and semen parameters of males with cancer who banked their sperm prior to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study of 66 cases referred for sperm banking prior to initiation of chemotherapy over a 15-year period (1999~2014). Patients who had previously received cancer treatment including chemotherapy or radiotherapy were not included in this study. Results We studied a total of 66 cancer patients referred for cryopreservation of sperm prior to chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients at the time of banking was 32.0±7.9 years (range, 19~58 years). The types of cancer were testicular cancer (31 cases, 47.0%), non-Hodgkin's disease (10 cases, 15.1%), Hodgkin's disease (5 cases, 7.6%), leukemia (8 cases, 12.1%), gastrointestinal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%), and musculoskeletal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%). There were significant differences in sperm concentration and viability among the various types of cancer, but no significant difference in semen volume or sperm motility and morphology. Conclusions In this study we found that sperm quality could decrease even before chemotherapy. Because chemotherapy can also negatively affect spermatogenesis, sperm cryopreservation prior to treatment should be strongly recommended for cancer patients of reproductive age. PMID:25927057

  17. Factors attributed to fatal occupational accidents in a period of 5 years preceding the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Katsakiori, Panagiota; Manatakis, Emmanuel; Goutsos, Stavros; Athanassiou, George

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors attributed to occupational fatalities occurring in the region of East Attica, Greece, in all industry types over a 5-year period preceding the 2004 Olympic Games. Questionnaires, based on the attribution theory, were completed by labor inspectors and were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results showed that most accidents occurred in the construction industry due to large-scale civil works, which took place in East Attica prior to the 2004 Olympic Games. Poor work practices arising from lack of orientation and job training, performance pressure and workers' inexperience associated with knowledge- and skill-based errors were revealed by the questionnaire as the most common factors attributed to occupational fatalities. Our findings help to identify areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage safety in Greece. PMID:18954538

  18. Detecting trends in landscape pattern metrics over a 20-year period using a sampling-based monitoring programme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Stehman, S.V.; Sohl, T.L.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Temporal trends in landscape pattern metrics describing texture, patch shape and patch size were evaluated in the US Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Ecoregion. The landscape pattern metrics were calculated for a sample of land use/cover data obtained for four points in time from 1973-1992. The multiple sampling dates permit evaluation of trend, whereas availability of only two sampling dates allows only evaluation of change. Observed statistically significant trends in the landscape pattern metrics demonstrated that the sampling-based monitoring protocol was able to detect a trend toward a more fine-grained landscape in this ecoregion. This sampling and analysis protocol is being extended spatially to the remaining 83 ecoregions in the US and temporally to the year 2000 to provide a national and regional synthesis of the temporal and spatial dynamics of landscape pattern covering the period 1973-2000.

  19. Ecological surveillance for West Nile in Catalonia (Spain), learning from a five-year period of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alba, A; Allepuz, A; Napp, S; Soler, M; Selga, I; Aranda, C; Casal, J; Pages, N; Hayes, E B; Busquets, N

    2014-05-01

    To enhance early detection of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission, an integrated ecological surveillance system was implemented in Catalonia (north-eastern Spain) from 2007 to 2011. This system incorporated passive and active equine surveillance, periodical testing of chicken sentinels in wetland areas, serosurveillance wild birds and testing of adult mosquitoes. Samples from 298 equines, 100 sentinel chickens, 1086 wild birds and 39 599 mosquitoes were analysed. During these 5 years, no acute WNV infection was detected in humans or domestic animal populations in Catalonia. WNV was not detected in mosquitoes either. Nevertheless, several seroconversions in resident and migrant wild birds indicate that local WNV or other closely related flaviviruses transmission was occurring among bird populations. These data indicate that bird and mosquito surveillance can detect otherwise silent transmission of flaviviruses and give some insights regarding possible avian hosts and vectors in a European setting. PMID:23590452

  20. The presence of Matthew effects in Dutch primary education, development of language skills over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Hans; ten Bruggencate, Gerdy

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 5,150 Dutch students who have been followed over a 6-year period, the presence of the Matthew effect was investigated for general language skills. The analyses do not reveal unmistakable evidence for the supposition that the rich get richer and the poor poorer. On the contrary, in schools with low starting levels students make more progress than in schools with higher starting levels. On the other hand, the analyses do show a widening gap between students with well educated and poorly educated parents. The gap between delayed and accelerated students was found to increase as well, but the initial disadvantage of boys was found to disappear. PMID:21772060

  1. Typing of Clinical Mycobacterium avium Complex Strains Cultured during a 2-Year Period in Denmark by Using IS1245

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe; Giese, Sten B.; Larsen, Birger

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potential routes of transmission of these microorganisms. As a first step, the genetic diversity among isolates from AIDS patients and non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was described. In addition, a number of isolates from nonhuman sources cultured during the same period were analyzed and compared to the human isolates. A total of 203 isolates from AIDS patients (n = 90), non-HIV-infected patients (n = 91), and nonhuman sources (n = 22) were analyzed. The presence of IS1245 was restricted to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates. The majority of human isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while nonhuman isolates could be divided into a high-copy-number group and a low-copy-number group. Groups of identical strains were found to be geographically widespread, comprising strains from AIDS patients as well as strains from non-HIV-infected patients. Samples of peat (to be used as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M. avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans. PMID:9986819

  2. The Frequency of Truly Unknown/Undetermined Deaths: A Review of 452 Cases Over a 5-Year Period.

    PubMed

    George, Alan A; Kimberley Molina, D

    2015-12-01

    The forensic autopsy is often regarded as the final medical diagnosis and expert scientific opinion in matters of death investigation, usually in the legal setting, and sometimes in the clinical setting as well. There are however limitations to what the autopsy can answer, and sometimes the circumstances surrounding a death, despite our best efforts, are simply unable to be determined. Approximately 5% of cases reportedly remain unknown after a complete autopsy. With this in mind, we sought to examine the frequency of deaths in which both the cause and manner are unknown after complete forensic examination and autopsy. Data from 452 undetermined deaths over a 5-year period were analyzed; sudden unexpected infant deaths and decomposed or skeletonized remains were excluded, as well as those with a known cause but undetermined manner of death. After exclusion of these deaths, our analysis revealed that only 0.015% of cases during this period were truly undetermined in both cause and manner of death. PMID:26561747

  3. Animal Welfare in Studies on Murine Tuberculosis: Assessing Progress over a 12-Year Period and the Need for Further Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Nuno Henrique; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Olsson, I. Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. This choice is based on the historical relevance of mouse studies in understanding the disease and the present and long-standing impact of TB on a global scale. Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. In this 12-year period, we observed a rise in reports of ethical approval of experiments. The proportion of studies classified into the most severe category did however not change significantly over the studied period. Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. Overall, this study shows that progress has been made in the application of humane endpoints in TB research, but that a considerable potential for improvement remains. PMID:23110093

  4. Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Invasive Infections: Variation of Sero- and Genotypes during an 11-Year Period in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lukinmaa, Susanna; Miettinen, Maria; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Korkeala, Hannu; Siitonen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes strains that were isolated from 314 human listeriosis cases in Finland during an 11-year period were analyzed by O:H serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotyping divided the isolates into five serotypes, the most common being 1/2a (53%) and 4b (27%). During the study period, the number of cases caused by serotype 1/2a increased from 22% in 1990 to 67% in 2001, and those caused by serotype 4b decreased from 61 to 27%, respectively. PFGE with restriction enzyme AscI divided the strains into 81 PFGE genotypes; among strains of serotypes 1/2a and 4b, 49 and 18 PFGE types were seen, respectively. PFGE type 1 (serotype 1/2a) was the most prevalent single type (37 strains). Together with six other, closely related PFGE types, PFGE type 1 formed a group of 71 strains, representing 23% of all 314 strains. Strains of PFGE type 1 have also been isolated from cold smoked fish, suggesting a source of human infections caused by this type. Moreover, PFGE type 24 (serotype 1/2c) was significantly associated with gender: 5% of 180 male subjects but none of 132 female subjects (P = 0.012). An electronic database library was created from the PFGE profiles to make possible the prompt detection of new emerging profiles and the tracing of potential infection clusters in the future. PMID:12682162

  5. Replacement of endoprosthetic implants within a two years follow-up period: a statutory health insurance routine data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The statutory health insurance system embodies a large amount of data on the treatments of their members. Depending on joint, prosthesis type, patient activity and comorbidity, knee and hip replacements can last up to 20 years. Based on statutory health insurance data the main object of this analysis was to investigate how high the early revision rate of replacements actually is. Methods The number of replacements in the years 2005 and 2006 has been extracted from the TK database for hip (OPS-Code 5-820, n = 20,875), knee (OPS 5-822, n = 13,466), upper limbs (OPS 5-824, n = 901), and lower limbs (OPS 5-826) replacements. This data has then been related to each consecutive operation (i. e. change or excision of joint endoprosthesis) over a joint-specific observation period of two years. Results In 3.7% of the cases joint replacements stood for less than 2 years (hip 3.5%, knee 3.8%, upper limbs 6.5%, and lower limbs 5.5%). There is a significantly positive correlation between the treatment data of the hospitals and the outcome as to low rates of reoperations at early stages. The main reason for short lifetime (76 - 81%) is mechanical failure. Conclusion The percentage of joint endoprostheses with significantly short lifetimes has been unexpectedly high. The de facto lifetimes of joint endoprostheses thus often do not match the manufacturers’ information. The authors strongly support the idea of a national endoprosthesis register as such a register could give detailed information on firstly whether these deficits are due to material defects, osteolysis or dislocation and secondly which products are mainly affected. PMID:23157842

  6. Arsenic accumulation in a paddy field in Bangladesh: seasonal dynamics and trends over a three-year monitoring period.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2010-04-15

    Shallow groundwater, often rich in arsenic (As), is widely used for irrigation of dry season boro rice in Bangladesh. In the long term, this may lead to increasing As contents in rice paddy soils, which threatens rice yields, food quality, and human health. The objective of this study was to quantify gains and losses of soil As in a rice paddy field during irrigation and monsoon flooding over a three-year period. Samples were collected twice a year on a 3D-sampling grid to account for the spatially heterogeneous As distribution within the soil. Gains and losses of soil As in different depth segments were calculated using a mass-balance approach. Annual As input with irrigation water was estimated as 4.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1). Within the top 40 cm of soil, the mean As accumulation over three years amounted to 2.4 +/- 0.4 kg ha(-1) a(-1), implying that on average 2.0 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost from the soil. Seasonal changes of soil As showed that 1.05 to 2.1 kg ha(-1) a(-1) were lost during monsoon flooding. The remaining As-loss (up to 0.95 kg ha(-1) a(-1)) was attributed to downward flow with percolating irrigation water. Despite these losses, we estimate that total As within the top 40 cm of soil at our field site would further increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 by the year 2050 under current cultivation practices. PMID:20235529

  7. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    PubMed

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells. PMID:20962411

  8. Hospitalization Incidence, Mortality, and Seasonality of Common Respiratory Viruses Over a Period of 15 Years in a Developed Subtropical City

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K.S.; Tam, Wilson W.S.; Lee, Tsz Cheung; Hon, Kam Lun; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Mok, Hing Yim; Wong, Martin C.S.; Leung, Ting Fan; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Yeung, Apple C.M.; Ho, Wendy C.S.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Hui, David S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Information on respiratory viruses in subtropical region is limited. Incidence, mortality, and seasonality of influenza (Flu) A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1/2/3 in hospitalized patients were assessed over a 15-year period (1998–2012) in Hong Kong. Male predominance and laterally transversed J-shaped distribution in age-specific incidence was observed. Incidence of Flu A, RSV, and PIV decreased sharply from infants to toddlers; whereas Flu B and ADV increased slowly. RSV conferred higher fatality than Flu, and was the second killer among hospitalized elderly. ADV and PIV were uncommon, but had the highest fatality. RSV, PIV 2/3 admissions increased over the 15 years, whereas ADV had decreased significantly. A “high season,” mainly contributed by Flu, was observed in late-winter/early-spring (February–March). The “medium season” in spring/summer (April–August) was due to Flu and RSV. The “low season” in late autumn/winter (October–December) was due to PIV and ADV. Seasonality varied between viruses, but predictable distinctive pattern for each virus existed, and temperature was the most important associating meteorological variable. Respiratory viruses exhibit strong sex- and age-predilection, and with predictable seasonality allowing strategic preparedness planning. Hospital-based surveillance is crucial for real-time assessment on severity of new variants. PMID:26579810

  9. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  10. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  11. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology service-based sleep

  12. Clinical and etiological characteristics of enterovirus 71-related diseases during a recent 2-year period in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Byounghak; Hong, Jiyoung; Hwang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jonghyun; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2010-07-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV 71) has caused large-scale outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), particularly in the Asian-Pacific region. In this study, we report a major outbreak of EV 71 infection in Korea and describe the clinical differences between EV 71 and non-EV 71 enterovirus infections. We prospectively enrolled patients with suspected viral infections during a recent 2-year period through a nationwide surveillance system. We identified 719 patients with suspected HFMD or herpangina using real-time PCR and genotyping based on VP1 sequence analysis. The major pathogen causing HFMD changed substantially from 2008 to 2009, with EV 71 becoming the most common cause of HFMD in Korea in 2009. We successfully identified the enteroviral genotypes for 218 of the 719 patients. Patients with EV 71 infections tended to be younger than those with non-EV 71 enteroviral infections and presented with HFMD and meningoencephalitis. In addition, the occurrence of fever, headache, and neck stiffness was significantly higher in patients with EV 71 infections. Multivariable analysis showed that for patients presenting with HFMD, fever, or a sore throat, each covariate was independently associated with EV 71 infection; the adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) for these variables were 31.86 (10.04 to 101.09), 4.76 (1.71 to 13.25), and 0.18 (0.04 to 0.77), respectively. Our results indicate that EV 71 was a major cause of HFMD in Korea during the study period. In addition, we found that clinical symptoms may be helpful in the early identification of patients with EV 71 infections. PMID:20463159

  13. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal. PMID:24057140

  14. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  15. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  16. Characteristics of the spatio-temporal network of cattle movements in France over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhagat Lal; Ezanno, Pauline; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2014-11-01

    A good knowledge of the specificities of the animal trade network is highly valuable to better control pathogen spread on a large regional to transnational scale. Because of their temporal dynamical nature, studying multi-annual datasets is particularly needed to investigate whether structural patterns are stable over the years. In this study, we analysed the French cattle movement network from 2005 to 2009 for different spatial granularities and temporal windows, with the three-fold objective of exploring temporal variations of the main network characteristics, computing proxies for pathogen spread on this network, which accounts for its time-varying properties and identifying specificities related to the main types of animals and farms (dairy versus beef). Network properties did not qualitatively vary among different temporal and spatial granularities. About 40% of the holdings and 80% of the communes were directly interconnected. The width of the aggregation time window barely impacted normalised distributions of indicators. A period of 8-16 weeks would suffice for robust estimation of their main trends, whereas longer periods would provide more details on tails. The dynamic nature of the network could be seen through the small overlap between consecutive networks with 65% of common active nodes for only 3% of common links over 2005-2009. To control pathogen spread on such a network, by reducing the largest strongly connected component by more than 80%, movements should be prevented from 1 to 5% of the holdings with the highest centrality in the previous year network. The analysis of breed-wise and herd-wise subnetworks, dairy, beef and mixed, reveals similar trends in temporal variation of average indicators and their distributions. The link-based backbones of beef subnetworks seem to be more stable over time than those of other subnetworks. At a regional scale, node reachability accounting for time-respecting paths, as proxy of epidemic burden, is greater for

  17. CD4 Dynamics over a 15 Year-Period among HIV Controllers Enrolled in the ANRS French Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Boufassa, Faroudy; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Lechenadec, Jérome; Zucman, David; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Venet, Alain; Rouzioux, Christine; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few large published studies of HIV controllers with long-term undetectable viral load (VL). We describe the characteristics and outcomes of 81 French HIV controllers. Methods and Results HIV controllers were defined as asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naïve persons infected ≥10 years previously, with HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL in >90% of plasma samples. All available CD4 and VL values were collected at enrolment. Mixed-effect linear models were used to analyze CD4 cell count slopes since diagnosis. HIV controllers represented 0.31% of all patients managed in French hospitals. Patients infected through intravenous drug use were overrepresented (31%) and homosexual men were underrepresented (26% of men) relative to the ANRS SEROCO cohort of subjects diagnosed during the same period. HIV controllers whose VL values were always below the detection limit of the assays were compared with those who had rare “blips” (<50% of VL values above the detection limit) or frequent blips (>50% of VL values above the detection limit). Estimated CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis were similar in the three groups. CD4 cell counts remained stable after HIV diagnosis in the “no blip” group, while they fell significantly in the two other groups (−0.26√CD4 and −0.28√CD4/mm3/year in the rare and frequent blip groups, respectively). No clinical, immunological or virological progression was observed in the no blip group, while 3 immunological and/or virological events and 4 cancers were observed in the blip subgroups. Conclusions Viral blips in HIV controllers are associated with a significant decline in CD4 T cells and may be associated with an increased risk of pathological events, possibly owing to chronic inflammation/immune activation. PMID:21533035

  18. Orbit optimization and time delay interferometry for inclined ASTROD-GW formation with half-year precession-period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-05-01

    ASTROD-GW (ASTROD [astrodynamical space test of relativity using optical devices] optimized for gravitational wave detection) is a gravitational-wave mission with the aim of detecting gravitational waves from massive black holes, extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and galactic compact binaries together with testing relativistic gravity and probing dark energy and cosmology. Mission orbits of the 3 spacecrafts forming a nearly equilateral triangular array are chosen to be near the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L3, L4, and L5. The 3 spacecrafts range interferometrically with one another with arm length about 260 million kilometers. For 260 times longer arm length, the detection sensitivity of ASTROD-GW is 260 fold better than that of eLISA/NGO in the lower frequency region by assuming the same acceleration noise. Therefore, ASTROD-GW will be a better cosmological probe. In previous papers, we have worked out the time delay interferometry (TDI) for the ecliptic formation. To resolve the reflection ambiguity about the ecliptic plane in source position determination, we have changed the basic formation into slightly inclined formation with half-year precession-period. In this paper, we optimize a set of 10-year inclined ASTROD-GW mission orbits numerically using ephemeris framework starting at June 21, 2035, including cases of inclination angle with 0° (no inclination), 0.5°, 1.0°, 1.5°, 2.0°, 2.5°, and 3.0°. We simulate the time delays of the first and second generation TDI configurations for the different inclinations, and compare/analyse the numerical results to attain the requisite sensitivity of ASTROD-GW by suppressing laser frequency noise below the secondary noises. To explicate our calculation process for different inclination cases, we take the 1.0° as an example to show the orbit optimization and TDI simulation.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Safi, H; Aznar, J; Palomares, J C

    1997-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Seville, Spain, was studied by using computer-assisted analysis of the IS6110 fingerprint in order to determine the current situation and to evaluate the human-to-human transmission of this pathogen. One hundred seventy-six isolates from 175 patients among the 205 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) were cultured and analyzed. One hundred nine patients (62%) were infected with genetically different isolates, and 67 isolates (38%) were grouped into 19 clusters. These results demonstrate that the level of clustering of strains in Seville is intermediate between those in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological relatedness was shown for isolates from only 10 of these clusters. Active and high transmission rates exist in children and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, while in non-HIV-infected adults this transmission rate is moderate. Although transmission from children to adults is uncommon, the probability of transmission from HIV-infected patients to young adults not infected with HIV may be higher. On the basis of these observations, we predict a constant rise in the rate of TB transmission among HIV-infected patients and probably in young adult patients not infected with HIV if measures for the effective prevention of TB among the HIV-infected population are not implemented. PMID:9316891

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes on discharge of women admitted to a Medium Secure Unit over a 4-year period.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Tully, John; Fotiadou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data on women in Medium Secure settings. This study aimed to address this by assessing the characteristics of 45 consecutive admissions to the female ward of a Medium Secure Unit in the United Kingdom over a four-year period. Data on demographics, clinical outcomes and from HONOS-Secure/HONOS and HCR-20 assessments were prospectively collected. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded using ICD-10 criteria. Data on quality of life from WHO-QoL-BREF surveys were analysed. There was a high proportion of ethnic minorities (57.8%), high rates of childhood and adult abuse and low socioeconomic status. 62.2% of the patients had schizophrenia, 57.8% had multiple diagnoses. The median length of stay at discharge was 465.5 days. There were statistically significant reductions in rates of self-harm and HoNOS-Secure/HoNOS and HCR-20 scores following intervention. Scores on WHO-QoL-BREF compared favourably to a large-scale sample with mental health difficulties. Many characteristics of this sample were comparable to samples from similar populations. However the particularly high proportion of ethnic minorities suggested that the profile of our patients differs from nationwide samples. Intervention by our service was associated with reduced self-harm and improvements in well-defined clinical outcomes and quality of life measures using validated scales. PMID:25748885

  1. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  2. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P.; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. Aim To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994–2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. Results In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. Conclusions In the last decade (2004–2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced. PMID:25960811

  3. Spatial trends on an ungrazed West Cumbrian saltmarsh of surface contamination by selected radionuclides over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Caborn, Jane A; Howard, Brenda J; Blowers, Paul; Wright, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Long term spatial and temporal variations in radionuclide activity have been measured in a contaminated ungrazed saltmarsh near Ravenglass, Cumbria. Over a twenty-five year period there has been a decrease in activity concentration with (106)Ru and (137)Cs showing the highest rate of change followed by Pu alpha and (241)Am. A number of factors contribute to the reduction with time; including radiological half lives, discharge and remobilisation. For (241)Am the lower reduction rate is partially due to ingrowth from (241)Pu and partially as a result of transport of sediment from the offshore Irish Sea mud patch. Considerable spatial variation for the different radionuclides was observed, which with time became less defined. The highest activity concentrations of long-lived radionuclides were in low energy areas, typically where higher rates of sedimentation and vegetation occurred. The trend was reversed for the shorter lived radionuclide, (106)Ru, with higher activity concentrations observed in high energy areas where there was frequent tidal inundation. Surface scrape samples provide a pragmatic, practical method of measuring sediment contamination over large areas and is a sampling approach adopted by most routine environmental monitoring programs, but it does not allow for interpretation of the effect of variation in sedimentation rates. This paper proposes a method for calculating indicative sedimentation rates across the saltmarsh using surface scrape data, which produces results consistent with values experimentally obtained. PMID:26440699

  4. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents’ everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  5. Changes in Active Commuting to School in Czech Adolescents in Different Types of Built Environment across a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Dygrýn, Jan; Mitáš, Josef; Gába, Aleš; Rubín, Lukáš; Frömel, Karel

    2015-10-01

    Active commuting (AC) to school represents a great opportunity to incorporate walking or cycling into adolescents' everyday routine. The objective of the study was to describe changes in AC in Czech adolescents across a 10-year period in different built environments. Data from the 2001 and 2011 Czech Census of Population and Housing were used to examine the mode of transportation taken to school in 6236 adolescents. Changes in AC over time were analyzed for low and high walkable areas separately in two Czech regional cities, Olomouc and Hradec Králové. Between 2001 and 2011, the proportion of adolescents actively commuting to school decreased by 47%, from an absolute rate of 49.1% to 26%. The proportion of active commuters fell in low walkable areas by 61% and in high walkable areas by 39%. The results indicated that adolescents in 2011 were 2.7 times less (OR = 0.365, p < 0.001) likely to actively commute than in 2001. The AC behavior in Czech adolescents has a negative tendency to replicate travel-to-school patterns in adolescents previously described in more developed countries. The findings might serve as a recommendation for municipal policy. PMID:26501304

  6. Changes in Contributions of Swimming, Cycling, and Running Performances on Overall Triathlon Performance Over a 26-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Marques, Elisa A; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Figueiredo, P, Marques, EA, and Lepers, R. Changes in contributions of swimming, cycling, and running performances on overall triathlon performance over a 26-year period. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2406-2415, 2016-This study examined the changes in the individual contribution of each discipline to the overall performance of Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons among men and women. Between 1989 and 2014, overall performances and their component disciplines (swimming, cycling and running) were analyzed from the top 50 overall male and female finishers. Regression analyses determined that for the Olympic distance, the split times in swimming and running decreased over the years (r = 0.25-0.43, p ≤ 0.05), whereas the cycling split and total time remained unchanged (p > 0.05), for both sexes. For the Ironman distance, the cycling and running splits and the total time decreased (r = 0.19-0.88, p ≤ 0.05), whereas swimming time remained stable, for both men and women. The average contribution of the swimming stage (∼18%) was smaller than the cycling and running stages (p ≤ 0.05), for both distances and both sexes. Running (∼47%) and then cycling (∼36%) had the greatest contribution to overall performance for the Olympic distance (∼47%), whereas for the Ironman distance, cycling and running presented similar contributions (∼40%, p > 0.05). Across the years, in the Olympic distance, swimming contribution significantly decreased for women and men (r = 0.51 and 0.68, p < 0.001, respectively), whereas running increased for men (r = 0.33, p = 0.014). In the Ironman distance, swimming and cycling contributions changed in an undulating fashion, being inverse between the two segments, for both sexes (p < 0.01), whereas running contribution decreased for men only (r = 0.61, p = 0.001). These findings highlight that strategies to improve running performance should be the main focus on the preparation to compete in the Olympic distance; whereas, in the Ironman, both

  7. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  8. Within- and Between-Child Variation in Repeated Urinary Pesticide Metabolite Measurements over a 1-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael D.; Spengler, John D.; Lu, Chensheng

    2013-01-01

    estimates of exposure and relative risks. Citation: Attfield KR, Hughes MD, Spengler JD, Lu C. 2014. Within- and between-child variation in repeated urinary pesticide metabolite measurements over a 1-year period. Environ Health Perspect 122:201–206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306737 PMID:24325925

  9. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacter Isolates in a Spanish Hospital during a 12-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cantón, Rafael; Oliver, Antonio; Coque, Teresa M.; Varela, María del Carmen; Pérez-Díaz, José Claudio; Baquero, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen Enterobacter clinical isolates (11 Enterobacter cloacae isolates, 3 Enterobacter aerogenes isolates, and 1 Enterobacter gergoviae isolate), representing 0.4% of all Enterobacter isolates recovered in our hospital from 1989 to 2000, were suspected of harboring an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). These isolates were recovered from 14 different patients. ESBLs were transferred by conjugation into an Escherichia coli recipient strain. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a single clone of E. aerogenes and six different clones of E. cloacae. Four of these E. cloacae clonal types were represented by only one isolate each, but the other two were represented by three and four isolates, respectively. Isoelectric focusing, susceptibility phenotyping, PCR analysis, and sequencing demonstrated the presence of three different ESBLs. The most frequent was the recently characterized CTX-M-10 ESBL, which was found in the E. gergoviae isolate and in all but one of the E. cloacae isolates. The remaining E. cloacae isolate harbored a TEM-27 ESBL, and the three E. aerogenes isolates harbored a TEM-24 ESBL. PFGE revealed that our E. aerogenes strain was indistinguishable from the French TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes endemic clone. Although a low prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacter isolates was found in our institution over a 12-year period, a diversity of nonepidemic E. cloacae clones was detected, as was the persistence of the CTX-M-10 β-lactamase. The presence of the TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes French clone in our institution also demonstrates the intercountry dissemination of ESBL-producing isolates. PMID:11923338

  10. Enzootic bovine leukosis: report of eradication and surveillance measures in Italy over an 8-year period (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Maresca, C; Costarelli, S; Dettori, A; Felici, A; Iscaro, C; Feliziani, F

    2015-05-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). BLV causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcoma; however, most BLV infections remain clinically silent in an aleukaemic state. EBL is a notifiable disease, and official control measures include screening or monitoring, precautions at borders, control of movement inside the country, and stamping out. The objective of this study was to evaluate EBL eradication and surveillance measures in Italy from 2005 to 2012. One-hundred twenty-three outbreaks were recorded (1 January 2006 to 31 December 2012) in the National Veterinary Information System (SIMAN) on 7 November 2013. Of these, 101 had occurred in southern Italy. An outbreak usually lasted for a few days, but sometimes lasted for weeks. Some areas were subjected to normal eradication measures, whereas others were subjected to additional eradication measures as a consequence of persisting EBL outbreaks. During the study period, we noted an overall annual decrease from 0.21% in 2005 to 0.08% in 2012 in the herd prevalence rate, from 0.06% in 2005 to 0.04% in 2012 in the herd incidence rate, and from 0.027% in 2005 to 0.015% in 2012 in the animal prevalence rate. Regions officially recognised as EBL-free areas were found to have their own surveillance plans. Differences in their surveillance plans include the type of sample (serum, milk, or both), age at which the animals must be tested (12 or 24 months), and test frequency of herds (annually or every 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 years). The eradication programme for EBL is difficult to implement in some Italian areas because of several factors such as incomplete herd registry, geographical location and socio-economic conditions of the region. PMID:25772530

  11. Large submarine earthquakes occurred worldwide, 1 year period (June 2013 to June 2014), - contribution to the understanding of tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Vales, D.; Marreiros, C.; Carrilho, F.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to a better understanding of tsunamigenic potential from large submarine earthquakes. Here, we analyse the tsunamigenic potential of large earthquakes occurred worldwide with magnitudes around Mw 7.0 and greater, during a period of 1 year, from June 2013 to June 2014. The analysis involves earthquake model evaluation, tsunami numerical modelling, and sensors' records analysis in order to confirm the generation or not of a tsunami following the occurrence of an earthquake. We also investigate and discuss the sensitivity of tsunami generation to the earthquake parameters recognized to control the tsunami occurrence, including the earthquake magnitude, focal mechanism and fault rupture depth. A total of 23 events, with magnitudes ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 8.1 and hypocenter depths varying from 10 up to 585 km, have been analyzed in this study. Among them, 52% are thrust faults, 35% are strike-slip faults, and 13% are normal faults. Most analyzed events have been occurred in the Pacific Ocean. This study shows that about 39% of the analyzed earthquakes caused tsunamis that were recorded by different sensors with wave amplitudes varying from few centimetres to about 2 m. Some of them caused inundations of low-lying coastal areas and significant damages in harbours. On the other hand, tsunami numerical modeling shows that some of the events, considered as non-tsunamigenic, might trigger small tsunamis that were not recorded due to the absence of sensors in the near-field areas. We also find that the tsunami generation is mainly dependent of the earthquake focal mechanism and other parameters such as the earthquake hypocenter depth and the magnitude. The results of this study can help on the compilation of tsunami catalogs.

  12. Quasiperiodic climate variability with a period of 50-80 years: Fourier analysis of measurements and Earth System Model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, S. V.; Räisänen, P.; Silén, J.; Laaksonen, A.

    2012-10-01

    We examine an oscillation of global mean temperature with a period of about two thirds of a century. We find evidence for the oscillation both in the instrumental temperature record and in an Earth System Model millennium simulation without external forcing. There is also evidence for the oscillation in the Central England Temperature record, the longest instrumental record available. Our method is based on a discrete Fourier transform with varying starting point and length of time window. This method allows us to make a quantitative estimate of the contribution of an oscillation to global mean temperature, to track the phase evolution of the oscillation and to compare measurement and model results. The multidecadal oscillation could provide part of the explanation both for near-constant global mean temperatures in recent years despite warming by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases and for declining global mean temperature in the 1950s and 1960s alongside with the explanation of aerosol cooling. Quantitative estimates of the contribution of the oscillation to global mean temperature vary between ±(0.03-0.17) K. For the instrumental temperature record, our results indicate an amplitude of 0.03 K presently if the IPCC model average represents the effect of external forcings well, and (0.08-0.17) K when using simple linear and quadratic fits for detrending. For the millennium simulation, the amplitude of the oscillation is (0.05-0.06) K, but could be underestimated as compared to reality if external forcing acts to globally synchronize multidecadal variability. The role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in the model is discussed. The AMO has a spatial temperature distribution similar to earlier literature results and is more correlated with the global oscillation when external forcing is included.

  13. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  14. Identification of drought phases in a 110-year record from Western Mediterranean basin: Trends, anomalies and periodicity analysis for Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Andrés; López, Laura; Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Gascón, Estíbaliz; Fernández-González, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    The Iberian Peninsula (IP), located in a transition area between temperate and subtropical latitudes, has marked temporal and spatial variability of precipitation between its various climatic zones. Therefore, the peninsula is particularly sensitive to climate change owing to frequent periods of precipitation deficit together with societal dependence on water. In this study, we address meteorological droughts of the peninsula between 1901 and 2010, using the Global Precipitation Climatology Center database. First, we carried out a statistical classification of the peninsula according to annual precipitation cycle. The spatiotemporal variability of droughts was evaluated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) by determining the evolution of areas affected by severe and extreme drought. Subsequently, we calculated the overall trend of precipitation and anomalies to investigate whether an observed drought increase is attributable to a decrease of precipitation or an increase of precipitation extremes. Finally, we examined periodicities of precipitation anomalies via wavelet analysis, relating these to large-scale modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The results show an increase in the area affected by severe and extreme drought, particularly on Atlantic-facing slopes. The mainland areas have longer and more intense periods of drought, with an average SPI of - 0.52 and 4-month duration. Over the 110 years analyzed, we observed weak trends of annual precipitation in the extreme northwest and southern IP. However, in the last decades of the series, long periods of strong negative anomalies are seen, interspersed with years of strong positive anomalies, suggesting an increase in precipitation pattern extremes. Finally, the relationship between the NAO index and precipitation anomalies on the Atlantic seaboard is highlighted. Thus, in both series we found a 5-6-year periodicity in their first years, with a diminishing cycle period reaching a

  15. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VIII. The eighth year (2015-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamás; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D.; Miguel, Enrique de; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Babina, Julia V.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B.; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V.; Antipin, Sergey V.; Zubareva, Alexandra M.; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M.; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N.; Bolt, Greg; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (˜0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN-15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts.

  16. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. VIII. The eighth year (2015-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Vanmunster, Tonny; Maeda, Yutaka; Miller, Ian; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Isogai, Keisuke; Kimura, Mariko; Imada, Akira; Tordai, Tamás; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Tanabe, Kenji; Otani, Noritoshi; Ogi, Minako; Ando, Kazuko; Takigawa, Naoki; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Katysheva, Natalia; Golysheva, Polina; Gladilina, Natalia; Chochol, Drahomir; Starr, Peter; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pickard, Roger D.; Miguel, Enrique de; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Fukushima, Daiki; Yamada, Eiji; Uto, Yusuke; Kamibetsunawa, Taku; Tatsumi, Taiki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Cook, Lewis M.; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Babina, Julia V.; Pit, Nikolaj V.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Antonyuk, Kirill A.; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Kafka, Stella; Stein, William; Voloshina, Irina B.; Ruiz, Javier; Sabo, Richard; Dvorak, Shawn; Stone, Geoff; Andreev, Maksim V.; Antipin, Sergey V.; Zubareva, Alexandra M.; Zaostrojnykh, Anna M.; Richmond, Michael; Shears, Jeremy; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Siegfried; Simon, Andrei; Oksanen, Arto; Goff, William N.; Bolt, Greg; Dębski, Bartłomiej; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Hiraga, Mitsutaka; Horie, Tsuneo; Schmeer, Patrick; Hirosawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 128 SU UMa-type dwarf novae observed mainly during the 2015-2016 season and characterized these objects. The data have improved the distribution of orbital periods, the relation between the orbital period and the variation of superhumps, and the relation between period variations and the rebrightening type in WZ Sge-type objects. Coupled with new measurements of mass ratios using growing stages of superhumps, we now have a clearer and statistically greatly improved evolutionary path near the terminal stage of evolution of cataclysmic variables. Three objects (V452 Cas, KK Tel, and ASASSN-15cl) appear to have slowly growing superhumps, which is proposed to reflect the slow growth of the 3 : 1 resonance near the stability border. ASASSN-15sl, ASASSN-15ux, SDSS J074859.55+312512.6, and CRTS J200331.3-284941 are newly identified eclipsing SU UMa-type (or WZ Sge-type) dwarf novae. ASASSN-15cy has a short (˜0.050 d) superhump period and appears to belong to EI Psc-type objects with compact secondaries having an evolved core. ASASSN-15gn, ASASSN-15hn, ASASSN-15kh, and ASASSN-16bu are candidate period bouncers with superhump periods longer than 0.06 d. We have newly obtained superhump periods for 79 objects and 13 orbital periods, including periods from early superhumps. In order that future observations will be more astrophysically beneficial and rewarding to observers, we propose guidelines on how to organize observations of various superoutbursts.

  17. Dynamics of CO2-exchange and C-budgets due to soil erosion: Insights from a 4 years observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Garcia Alba, Juana; Augustin, Jürgen; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE-Germany is characterized by an increase in energy crop cultivation, like maize or sorghum. Both enhance lateral C fluxes by erosion and induce feedbacks on C dynamics of agroecosystems as a result of reduced wintertime plant cover and vigorous crop growth during summer. However, the actual impact of these phenomena on the CO2-sink/-source function of agricultural landscapes, is still not clear. Therefore, the interdisciplinary project "CarboZALF" was established in Dedelow/Prenzlau (NE-Germany) in 2009. Within the field experiment CarboZALF-D, CO2 fluxes for the soil-plant systems were monitored, covering typical landscape relevant soil states in respect to erosion and deposition, like Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol. Automated chamber systems, each consisting of four transparent chambers (2.5 m height, basal area 2.25 m2), were placed along gradients at both measurement sites. Monitored CO2 fluxes were gap-filled on a high-temporal resolution by modelling ecosystem respiration (Reco), gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on parallel and continuous measurements of the CO2 exchange, soil and air temperatures as well as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Gap-filling was e.g. needed in case of chamber malfunctions and abrupt disturbances by farming practice. The monitored crop rotation was corn-winter wheat (2 a), sorghum-winter triticale and alfalfa (1.5 a). In our presentation we would like to show insights from a 4 years observation period, with prounounced differences between the eroded and the colluvial soil: The Endogleyic Colluvic Regosol showed higher flux rates for Reco, GPP and NEE compared to the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol. Site-specific NEE and C-balances were positively related to soil C-stocks as well as biomass production, and generated a minor C-sink in case of the Calcic Cutanic Luvisol and a highly variable C-source in case of the

  18. Survey of Period Variations of Superhumps in SU UMa-Type Dwarf Novae. IV. The Fourth Year (2011-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Miller, Ian; Noguchi, Ryo; Akasaka, Chihiro; Aoki, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Katsura; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nakazato, Takuma; Nomoto, Takashi; Ogura, Kazuyuki; Ono, Rikako; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Stein, William; Henden, Arne; de Miguel, Enrique Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Takagi, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Yuya; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Pickard, Roger D.; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Littlefield, Colin; Sabo, Richard; Ruiz, Javier; Krajci, Thomas; Dvorak, Shawn; Oksanen, Arto; Hirosawa, Kenji; Goff, William N.; Monard, Berto; Shears, Jeremy; Boyd, David; Voloshina, Irina B.; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Miyashita, Atsushi; Pietz, Jochen; Katysheva, Natalia; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bolt, Greg; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Malanushenko, Viktor; Martinelli, Fabio; Denisenko, Denis; Stockdale, Chris; Starr, Peter; Simonsen, Mike; Tristram, Paul J.; Fukui, Akihiko; Tordai, Tamas; Fidrich, Robert; Paxson, Kevin B.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Nakashima, Youichirou; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishimura, Hideo; Kryachko, Timur V.; Samokhvalov, Andrey V.; Korotkiy, Stanislav A.; Satovski, Boris L.; Stubbings, Rod; Poyner, Gary; Muyllaert, Eddy; Gerke, Vladimir; MacDonald, Walter, II; Linnolt, Michael; Maeda, Yutaka; Hautecler, Hubert

    2013-02-01

    Continuing the project described by Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for 86 SU UMa-type dwarf novae, mainly observed during the 2011-2012 season. We confirmed general trends recorded in our previous studies, such as the relation between period derivatives and orbital periods. There are some systems showing positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period. We observed the 2011 outburst of the WZ Sge-type dwarf nova BW Scl, and recorded an O - C diagram similar to those of previously known WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. The WZ Sge-type dwarf nova OT J184228.1+483742 showed an unusual pattern of double outbursts composed of an outburst with early superhumps and one with ordinary superhumps. We propose an interpretation that a very small growth rate of the 3:1 resonance due to an extremely low mass-ratio led to quenching the superoutburst before the ordinary superhump appeared. We systematically studied ER UMa-type dwarf novae, and found that V1159 Ori showed positive superhumps similar to ER UMa in the 1990s. The recently recognized ER UMa-type object BK Lyn dominantly showed negative superhumps, and its behavior was very similar to the present-day state of ER UMa. The pattern of period variations in AM CVn-type objects was very similar to that of short-period hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae, making them a helium analogue of hydrogen-rich SU UMa-type dwarf novae. SBS 1108+574, a peculiar hydrogen-rich dwarf nova below the period minimum, showed a very similar pattern of period variations to those of short-period SU UMa-type dwarf novae. The mass-ratio derived from the detected orbital period suggests that this secondary is a somewhat evolved star whose hydrogen envelope was mostly stripped during the mass-exchange. CC Scl, MASTER OT J072948.66+593824.4, and OT J173516.9+154708 showed only low-amplitude superhumps with complex profiles. These superhumps are likely to be a combination of two closely separated periods.

  19. Unexpected sudden death due to recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip; Gojanović, Marija Definis

    2012-06-01

    The article deals with 17 sudden deaths which occurred during recreational swimming and diving in men in Croatia in a 14-year period: from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011. The sample is taken out from the total number of 61 sudden deaths in men during or immediately after sport or recreational exercise. Included are also sudden deaths of 8 foreigners spending holidays at the Croatian Adriatic Coast. In all of them forensic medicine autopsy was done. Thirteen males from Croatia died during recreational swimming. Three of them were aged 15-29 yrs: one had signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the second suffered from chronic myopericarditis with left ventricular aneurysm, and the third had cardiomegaly and blood alcohol level of 1.7 per thousand. Five were aged 30-64 yrs: four of them have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 15-18-18-22 mm, and one with left ventricular hypertrophy drowned suddenly, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia. The fifth suffered stroke and drowned. Five elderly men, aged 65-85 yrs, have suffered from coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis or myocardial scars, and three of them had left ventricular hypertrophy of 19 mm. Four males died during recreational diving. One aged 26yrs drowned, at autopsy he had left ventricular hypertrophy of 17 mm. Three males were middle-aged: two had coronary atherosclerosis, two of them had a severe degree of coronary atherosclerosis and one had coronary atherosclerosis of medium degree but with myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy of 18 mm. Seven male foreigners died, five of them during swimming: two aged 30-64 and two aged 65-85. They all have had coronary atherosclerosis: one of them had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall, and one hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as well. One middle-aged and one elderly man died during diving, and both had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall. One elderly foreign

  20. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  1. Recharge and Groundwater Use in the North China Plain for Six Irrigated Crops for an Eleven Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Zhang, Min; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Water tables are dropping by approximately one meter annually throughout the North China Plain mainly due to water withdrawals for irrigating winter wheat year after year. In order to examine whether the drawdown can be reduced we calculate the net water use for an 11 year field experiment from 2003 to 2013 where six irrigated crops (winter wheat, summer maize, cotton, peanuts, sweet potato, ryegrass) were grown in different crop rotations in the North China Plain. As part of this experiment moisture contents were measured each at 20 cm intervals in the top 1.8 m. Recharge and net water use were calculated based on these moisture measurement. Results showed that winter wheat and ryegrass had the least recharge with an average of 27 mm/year and 39 mm/year, respectively; cotton had the most recharge with an average of 211 mm/year) followed by peanuts with 118 mm/year, sweet potato with 76 mm/year, and summer maize with 44 mm/year. Recharge depended on the amount of irrigation water pumped from the aquifer and was therefore a poor indicator of future groundwater decline. Instead net water use (recharge minus irrigation) was found to be a good indicator for the decline of the water table. The smallest amount of net (ground water) used was cotton with an average of 14 mm/year, followed by peanut with 32 mm/year, summer maize with 71 mm/year, sweet potato with 74 mm/year. Winter wheat and ryegrass had the greatest net water use with the average of 198 mm/year and 111 mm/year, respectively. Our calculations showed that any single crop would use less water than the prevalent winter wheat summer maize rotation. This growing one crop instead of two will reduce the decline of groundwater and in some rain rich years increase the ground water level, but will result in less income for the farmers. PMID:25625765

  2. The Kepler Cluster Study: rotation period measurements for cool stars in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Kepler Science Team, Kepler Science Operations Center

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Cluster Study (KeCS) is a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around members of open star clusters within the field of view of NASA's Kepler mission. We present here the latest results from KeCS - measurements of stellar rotation periods in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819 - and discuss their implications for a technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation.

  3. Hospital Expenditure as a Major Driver of Nurse Labour Force Participation: Evidence from a 10-Year Period in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991–1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991–2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors. PMID:22548099

  4. Detecting land cover change over a 20 year time period in the Niagara Escarpment Plan using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Holly

    The Niagara Escarpment is one of Southern Ontario's most important landscapes. Due to the nature of the landform and its location, the Escarpment is subject to various development pressures including urban expansion, mineral resource extraction, agricultural practices and recreation. In 1985, Canada's first large scale environmentally based land use plan was put in place to ensure that only development that is compatible with the Escarpment occurred within the Niagara Escarpment Plan (NEP). The southern extent of the NEP is of particular interest in this study, since a portion of the Plan is located within the rapidly expanding Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The Plan area located in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton represent both urban and rural geographical areas respectively, and are both experiencing development pressures and subsequent changes in land cover. Monitoring initiatives on the NEP have been established, but have done little to identify consistent techniques for monitoring land cover on the Niagara Escarpment. Land cover information is an important part of planning and environmental monitoring initiatives. Remote sensing has the potential to provide frequent and accurate land cover information over various spatial scales. The goal of this research was to examine land cover change in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton portions of the NEP. This was achieved through the creation of land cover maps for each region using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data. These maps aided in determining the qualitative and quantitative changes that had occurred in the Plan area over a 20 year time period from 1986 to 2006. Change was also examined based on the NEP's land use designations, to determine if the Plan policy has been effective in protecting the Escarpment. To obtain land cover maps, five different supervised classification methods were explored: Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Object

  5. Streamflow characteristics of small tributaries of Rock Creek, Milk River basin, Montana, base period water years 1983-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Five streamflow-gaging stations were installed in the Rock Creek basin north of the Milk River near Hinsdale, Montana. Streamflow was monitored at these stations and at an existing gaging station upstream on Rock Creek from May 1983 through September 1987. The data collected were used to describe the flow characteristics of four small tributary streams. Annual mean streamflow ranges from 2.8 to 57 cu ft/sec in the mainstem and from 0 to 0.60 cu ft/sec in the tributaries. Monthly mean streamflow ranged from 0 to 528 cu ft/sec in Rock Creek and from zero to 5.3 cu ft/sec in the four tributaries. The six gaged sites show similar patterns of daily mean streamflow during periods of large runoff, but substantial individual variations during periods of lesser runoff. During periods of lesser runoff , the small tributaries may have small daily mean streamflows. At other times, daily mean streamflow at the two mainstem sites decreased downstream. Daily mean streamflow in the tributaries appears to be closely related to daily mean streamflow in the mainstem only during periods of substantial area-wide runoff. Thus, streamflow in the tributaries resulting from local storms or local snowmelt may not contribute to streamflow in the mainstem. (USGS)

  6. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  7. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  8. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.852-11 Treatment of certain losses attributable to... year, any item that must be marked to market for purposes of section 4982 on October 31 as if it were the last day of the regulated investment company's taxable year must also be marked to market...

  9. Influence of Curricular Changes in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention on Residents' Behaviors over a Five-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondell, Richard D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study investigated whether medical residents' compliance with guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention improved after exposure to a revised curriculum over three years. Chart audits indicate that, although compliance increased during the first year, activities returned to baseline levels thereafter, despite continued exposure to…

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics over a Six-Year Period in Youths with Persistent and Nonpersistent Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Judith G.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Manor, Orly; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined behavior problems in a matched sample of 58 youths with persistent dyscalculia (PD) and nonpersistent dyscalculia (NPD). Participants were classified as having dyscalculia at age 10-11 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for their children at ages 10-11, 13-14, and 16-17 years, while the youths did so at the…

  11. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  12. Survey of period variations of superhumps in SU UMa-type dwarf novae. V. The fifth year (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Taichi; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Dubovsky, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor; Imamura, Kazuyoshi; Ogi, Minako; Tanabe, Kenji; Akazawa, Hidehiko; Krajci, Thomas; Miller, Ian; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Noguchi, Ryo; Ishibashi, Takehiro; Ono, Rikako; Kawabata, Miho; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishino, Hirochika; Furukawa, Hisami; Masumoto, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Ohshima, Tomohito; Nakata, Chikako; Honda, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Stein, William; Pickard, Roger D.; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Pavlenko, Elena P.; Antonyuk, Oksana I.; Baklanov, Aleksei V.; Antonyuk, Kirill; Samsonov, Denis; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Oksanen, Arto; Harlingten, Caisey; Tyyskä, Jenni; Monard, Berto; Shugarov, Sergey Yu.; Chochol, Drahomir; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Yutaka; Hirosawa, Kenji; Itoh, Hiroshi; Sabo, Richard; Ulowetz, Joseph; Morelle, Etienne; Michel, Raúl; Suárez, Genaro; James, Nick; Dvorak, Shawn; Voloshina, Irina B.; Richmond, Michael; Staels, Bart; Boyd, David; Andreev, Maksim V.; Parakhin, Nikolai; Katysheva, Natalia; Miyashita, Atsushi; Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Bolt, Greg; Padovan, Stefano; Nelson, Peter; Starkey, Donn R.; Buczynski, Denis; Starr, Peter; Goff, William N.; Denisenko, Denis; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Shappee, Benjamin; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Prieto, José L.; Itagaki, Koh-ichi; Kaneko, Shizuo; Stubbings, Rod; Muyllaert, Eddy; Shears, Jeremy; Schmeer, Patrick; Poyner, Gary; Rodríguez-Marco, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Continuing the project described in Kato et al. (2009, PASJ, 61, S395), we collected times of superhump maxima for SU UMa-type dwarf novae mainly observed during the 2012-2013 season. We found three objects (V444 Peg, CSS J203937, and MASTER J212624) having strongly positive period derivatives despite the long orbital period (Porb). By using the period of growing stage (stage A) superhumps, we obtained mass ratios for six objects. We characterized nine new WZ Sge-type dwarf novae. We made a pilot survey of the decline rate in the slowly fading parts of SU UMa-type and WZ Sge-type outbursts. The decline time scale was found to generally follow an expected P_orb^{1/4} dependence, and WZ Sge-type outbursts also generally follow this trend. There are some objects which show slower decline rates, and we consider these objects good candidates for period bouncers. We also studied unusual behavior in some objects, including BK Lyn which made a transition from an ER UMa-type state to a novalike (standstill) state in 2013, and unusually frequent occurrences of superoutbursts in NY Ser and CR Boo. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) power spectral analysis, which has been proven to be very effective in analyzing the Kepler data, to the ground-based photometry of BK Lyn, and detected a dramatic disappearance of the signal of negative superhumps in 2013. We suggested that the mass-transfer rates did not strongly vary between the ER UMa-type state and novalike state in BK Lyn, and this transition was less likely caused by a systematic variation of the mass-transfer rate.

  13. Elevated Mississippi River discharge during glacial times: A 6,000 year wet period on the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, H. W.; Hollander, D. J.; Flower, B. P.; Quinn, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Sedimentary basins proximal to major rivers can provide a coherent, high-resolution assessment of the oceanic and continental responses to changing hydrologic regimes attributed to abrupt climate variability. Documenting these regime changes under climatic extremes, including glacial time periods that are often considered cold and dry in temperate North America, is important to understand the potential impacts associated with changing hydrologic conditions. The Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is ideally situated to record inputs from the Mississippi River and to relate these inputs to changing moisture balance over North America. We use organic and inorganic geochemical analyses to document a 6 ka wet period on the North American continent from 32-38 ka, during glacial Marine Isotope Stage 3, that is decoupled from Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater dynamics over this interval. This wet period is inferred from a 5-fold increase in the input of long-chain n-alkanes derived from terrestrial plants and concurrent increases in the percent coarse fraction and insoluble residue in the bulk sediment. Associated with the wet period, a 5-fold increase in the algal derived n-alkanes implies that continentally sourced nutrients supported marine production. A 0.6 ‰ increase in the inorganic δ13CG. ruber and a shift in the δ13C of bulk organic matter from -26 to -23 ‰ also points to an increase in marine production. Further, a 1°C cooling in SST, as determined from G.ruber Mg-derived temperatures, is synchronous with the fluvial inputs. Our evidence suggests that the GOM served as an enhanced moisture source to the Mississippi River basin during this interval, perhaps via the southern displacement of frontal weather systems, resulting in oceanic physical and biological changes. Results of this study will be discussed in the context of regionally defined climate patterns, continental paleorecords and global circulation models.

  14. 34 CFR 686.23 - Calculation of a grant for a payment period that occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Awards § 686.23... occur within one award year; (b) The institution must determine for each TEACH Grant recipient the...

  15. Physician performance standard rates of increase for federal fiscal year 1993 and physician fee schedule update for calendar year 1993--HCFA. Final notice with comment period.

    PubMed

    1992-11-25

    This notice announces the calendar year (CY) 1993 updates to the Medicare physician fee schedule and the Federal fiscal year (FY) 1993 performance standard rates of increase for expenditures and volume of physician services under the Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance (Part B) program as required by sections 1848(d) and (f), respectively, of the Social Security Act. It also sets forth an "initial" procedure-specific list of surgical and nonsurgical services to be used in applying the CY 1993 updates. These surgical and nonsurgical designations are subject to public comment. The physician performance standard rates of increase for Federal FY 1993 are 10.0 percent for all physician services, 8.4 percent for surgical services, and 10.8 percent for nonsurgical services. The fee schedule update for CY 1993 is 3.1 percent for surgical services and 0.8 percent for nonsurgical services. PMID:10171308

  16. THE PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL STATUS OF OKLAHOMA HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE GRADUATES OVER THE PAST FIVE YEAR PERIOD FROM 1959 TO 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDINGTON, EVERETT D.; HILL, RONALD E.

    OVER A 5-YEAR PERIOD, 4,631 VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE GRADUATES FROM 127 OF OKLAHOMA'S 383 HIGH SCHOOLS WITH A PROGRAM IN THIS AREA WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH THEY WERE TAKING UP FARMING AS AN OCCUPATION OR WERE ENTERING THE RAPIDLY EXPANDING FIELD OF "AGRIBUSINESS," AND TO WHAT EXTENT THESE GRADUATES WERE USING THIS VOCATIONAL…

  17. 34 CFR 690.64 - Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. 690.64 Section 690.64 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Determination of...

  18. 20 CFR 1002.102 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed before...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed before USERRA was enacted? 1002.102 Section 1002.102 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  19. 20 CFR 1002.101 - Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does the five-year service limit include periods of service that the employee performed when he or she worked for a previous employer? 1002.101 Section 1002.101 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  20. Activity of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin against staphylococci and enterococci isolated in 5 Greek hospitals during a 5-year period (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Zerva, Loukia; Lebessi, Evangelia; Koutsia, Chryssa; Drougka, Eleanna; Sarrou, Styliani; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Vourli, Sofia; Doudoulakakis, Anastassios; Konsolakis, Christos; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The tendency of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin MICs was investigated among 6920 staphylococci and enterococci during a 5-year period. Antimicrobial consumption was determined. Decrease of vancomycin MIC was detected associated with reduction in consumption. Linezolid and daptomycin remained active. An upward trend of linezolid MIC for methicillin-resistant staphylococci was observed. PMID:26341703

  1. 34 CFR 690.64 - Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Determination of Federal Pell Grant Awards § 690.64 Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a payment period which occurs in two award years. If a student enrolls in a payment... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculation of a Federal Pell Grant for a...

  2. An investigation to model radar backscatter from ridged first year sea ice for the period ending December 31, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. L. W.; Stoughton, J. W.

    1983-08-01

    The response of the microwave scatterometer to meter scale roughness of first year sea ice was investigated. An empirical, one dimensional model was developed to predict the back scattered power from ridged first year sea ice of known surface topography, by interpreting the surface as a series of angular facets and summing the proportional power from each facet. The model is evaluated by comparing the predicted values to scatterometer measurements obtained during NASA's Sea Ice Radar Experiment (SIRE). The input to the model is surface slope, which for SIRE was calculated from the ice topography, as measured by an airborne laser profiler. The correlation between the predicted and the measured power is .62 to .68. It is concluded that the model adequately describes the backscatter from regions of first year sea ice whose dimensions are of a few tens of meters.

  3. An investigation to model radar backscatter from ridged first year sea ice for the period ending December 31, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. L. W.; Stoughton, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The response of the microwave scatterometer to meter scale roughness of first year sea ice was investigated. An empirical, one dimensional model was developed to predict the back scattered power from ridged first year sea ice of known surface topography, by interpreting the surface as a series of angular facets and summing the proportional power from each facet. The model is evaluated by comparing the predicted values to scatterometer measurements obtained during NASA's Sea Ice Radar Experiment (SIRE). The input to the model is surface slope, which for SIRE was calculated from the ice topography, as measured by an airborne laser profiler. The correlation between the predicted and the measured power is .62 to .68. It is concluded that the model adequately describes the backscatter from regions of first year sea ice whose dimensions are of a few tens of meters.

  4. 76 FR 53667 - Establishing a One-Year Retention Period for Patent-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Records, 68 FR 38611 (June 30, 2003), 1272 Off. Gaz. Pat. Office 197 (July 29, 2003). The USPTO stores in... Been Scanned Into the Image File Wrapper System or the Supplemental Complex Repository for Examiners... year for patent- related papers that have been scanned into the Image File Wrapper system (IFW) or...

  5. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  6. Interpersonal Victimization, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Change in Adolescent Substance Use Prevalence over a Ten-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified recent declines in specific types of adolescent substance use. The current study examined whether these declines varied among youth with and without a history of interpersonal victimization or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data for this study come from two distinct samples of youth (12-17 years of…

  7. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment company may elect to defer certain losses for purposes of determining taxable income. (1) In.... This section prescribes the manner in which a regulated investment company must treat a post-October... regulated investment company attributable to a taxable year for which an election is in effect under...

  8. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  9. 76 FR 59114 - Request for Comments on Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... scanned into TICRS are boxed and sent to a warehouse for storage. The USPTO incurs warehouse storage costs... continue to be stored. Additionally, the USPTO's warehouse storage space is projected to reach its capacity by mid-year 2012, and additional warehouse storage space would be necessary, further increasing...

  10. Tuberculosis trends over a five-year period at a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Jappar, Suzanna Binte; Low, Su Ying

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tuberculosis (TB), a potentially fatal infectious disease, poses significant health problems. The objective of this study was to analyse trends among newly diagnosed TB patients seen at the Singapore General Hospital (SGH). METHODS This study was a retrospective case record review of notified TB patients at SGH between 2006 and 2010 (inclusive). RESULTS A total of 1,979 cases of TB were notified over the five years. The number increased from 368 in 2006 to 407 in 2010 (p = 0.51), in tandem with the increasing number of patients seen at the hospital and the rising population in Singapore. Singaporean residents accounted for 82.8% of the cases, while non-Singaporean residents and non-residents made up the remainder. The year-to-year percentage of non-Singaporean residents and non-residents notified remained stable throughout the five years (p = 0.783). The number of male Singaporean residents (70.7%) notified was more than twice that of female Singaporean residents (29.3%). The majority of patients infected with TB (31.9%) were elderly patients aged > 65 years. Although testing for the human immunodeficiency virus increased from 43.8% (2006) to 64.2% (2010), the number detected with coinfection remained stable (14 and 12 patients in 2006 and 2010, respectively). Mortality rates also remained stable at 12.0%. CONCLUSION We cannot afford complacency, as there was no downward trend in the number of notified TB cases at SGH from 2006 to 2010. As the elderly contribute significantly to the TB burden, increased efforts are required to manage this vulnerable population. PMID:26451052

  11. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1. PMID:24827142

  12. Mortality by treatment in patients ≥80 years of age with gastroesophageal cancer seen in a 20-year period at a single medical center

    PubMed Central

    Mason, James; Maldonado, Yolanda Munoz; Wong, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The treatment approach to patients 80 years of age and older with gastroesophageal cancer at Baylor Scott and White in Temple, Texas, has historically favored conservative measures in the form of palliation and observation. To evaluate this trend in practice, the administered treatments and subsequent patient outcomes of this group were retrospectively reviewed. The study group included all patients 80 years of age and older with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal cancer seen at our facility between 1991 and 2010. Of the 117 cases, 49% received none of the available treatment modalities. The median overall survival (OS) of patients who received treatment, however, was significantly longer than the OS of those who did not, regardless of modality. Specifically, surgical intervention offered an almost double median OS compared with no therapy (6.8 vs. 3.9 months, respectively; P = 0.02); chemotherapy, an almost 4-fold OS benefit (14.8 vs. 3.9 months; P = 0.03); and radiation therapy, a >3-fold OS benefit (11.1 vs. 3.5 months; P = 0.04). These results further substantiate chronological age as an inaccurate predictor of treatment benefit, and age alone should not dictate the administration or withholding of available treatment options. PMID:26130872

  13. Improved safety of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis over the 8-year period since implementation in Japan: long-term results from a multicenter observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Nobunori; Funahashi, Koji; Asai, Shuji; Terabe, Kenya; Kaneko, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Takagi, Hideki; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Yabe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi; Shioura, Tomone; Ito, Takayasu; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hisato; Asai, Nobuyuki; Takemoto, Toki; Kojima, Masayo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the long-term safety of biologics by initiation year of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. RA patients who started their first biologics including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab between 2003 and 2008 were identified in the Tsurumai Biologics Communication Registry (TBCR), multicenter observational cohort, and followed for 2 years or until discontinuation of the drugs. We identified baseline predictors for adverse events (AEs) resulting in discontinuation of the first TNFI using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 874 cases (1,340 person-years) were observed. During the observation period, 96 AEs (4.7 events/100 person-years) occurred. From 2003 to 2008, there were significant changes in disease duration, Steinbrocker stage, and disease activity in those aged ≤64 years with no increase of incidence of AEs, whereas those aged >64 years had no significant changes in these variables. In the later initiation year of treatment with biologics, the fewer AEs were observed (log-rank, p = 0.017, 2008 vs. 2003-2005). Multivariate analysis showed that the initiation year significantly impacted the incidence of AEs 6 months into the observation period [initiation at 2008 (vs. 2003-2005): OR: 0.30, 95 % CI: (0.14-0.68)] after adjusting for variables at baseline. The decrease of AEs in the later initiation year was evident in those aged >64 years. The safety of biologic therapy improved over the course of the 8 years from its implementation in Japan. PMID:26846135

  14. Reported prevalence of unconsciousness from mechanical impact to the head in university populations during a fifteen-year period.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1997-10-01

    The prevalence of at least one episode of unconsciousness during childhood due to a mechanical impact to the skull was inferred by the response to one item embedded within a questionnaire of 140 items. 50% of the 633 university men and 33% of the 863 university women reported such unconsciousness; the prevalence did not change significantly between samples over a 15-yr. period. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the 10 items most strongly associated with the report of childhood unconsciousness did not explain more than about 10% of the variance. The majority of the items were those associated with complex partial epileptic-like signs and included (adult) episodes of memory blanks, mystical experiences, dissociation, and sudden meaningfulness. PMID:9347526

  15. Trends in workers compensation costs in a hotel-operating company over a six-year period.

    PubMed

    Kelley, C R; Mark, C R

    1995-03-01

    A large Honolulu-based hotel-operating company reviewed its workers compensation costs over the last 6 years. Data retrieved from the company's computerized data base is used to describe trends in injury incidence rate, average cost per claim, average medical cost per claim, and medical expenses as a percentage of total costs. Factors that might have influenced these parameters include company reorganization, employee training and safety programs, changes in the economy, company morale, aggressive case management, and the quality of the adjusting services hired. Cause-and-effect relationships, although suggested, cannot be proven. The data is presented, in this year of imminent workers compensation legislative reform, to increase the available factual data base on which rational and efficacious reform proposals can be developed. PMID:7737859

  16. Sexual and contraceptive behavior among female university students in Sweden – repeated surveys over a 25-year period

    PubMed Central

    Stenhammar, Christina; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Åkerud, Helena; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study female students’ sexual and contraceptive behavior and compare these results with earlier surveys. Design Comparative, repeated cross-sectional surveys, started in 1989 and repeated every fifth year. Setting Contraceptive counseling delivered at a Student Health Center in Sweden. Population Female university students (n = 359). Methods Multiple-choice waiting-room questionnaire. Main outcome measures Sexual and contraceptive behavior. Results In 1989, age at first intercourse was 17.6 years vs. 16.7 years in 2014, number of lifetime sexual partners was 4.0 vs. 12.1 in 2014, and number of sexual partners during the previous 12 months was 1.0 vs. 2.8 in 2014. Condom use during first intercourse with the latest partner decreased from 49% to 41% (n = 172 in 2009 vs. n = 148 in 2014: p < 0.001), and experience of anal sex increased from 39% to 46% (n = 136 in 2009 vs. n = 165 in 2014: p = 0.038), and 25% (n = 41 in 2014) always used a condom during anal sex. A total of 70% (n = 251) made use of pornography, and 48% (n = 121) considered their sexual behavior affected by pornography. Eighty-nine percent (n = 291) wanted two to three children and 9% (n = 33) had thought about freezing eggs for the future. The female students’ knowledge about increasing age being correlated with decreased fertility varied. Conclusions Sexual behavior among female university students has gradually changed during the last 25 years and behavior appears more risky today. As this may have consequences on future reproductive health, it is vital to inform women about consistent and correct condom use and about the limitations of the fertile window. PMID:25619646

  17. Analysis of a single Helicobacter pylori strain over a ten-year period in a primate model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Fero, Jutta B.; Mendez, Melissa; Carpenter, Beth M.; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Rahman, Arifur; Goldman, Matthew D.; Boren, Thomas; Salama, Nina R.; Merrell, D. Scott; Dubois, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori from different individuals exhibits substantial genetic diversity. However, the kinetics of bacterial diversification after infection with a single strain is poorly understood. We investigated evolution of H. pylori following long-term infection in the primate stomach; Rhesus macaques were infected with H. pylori strain USU101 and then followed for 10 years. H. pylori was regularly cultured from biopsies, and single colony isolates were analyzed. At 1-year, DNA fingerprinting showed that all output isolates were identical to the input strain; however, at 5-years, different H. pylori fingerprints were observed. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization revealed that long term persistence of USU101 in the macaque stomach was associated with specific whole gene changes. Further detailed investigation showed that levels of the BabA protein were dramatically reduced within weeks of infection. The molecular mechanisms behind this reduction were shown to include phase variation and gene loss via intragenomic rearrangement, suggesting strong selective pressure against BabA expression in the macaque model. Notably, although there is apparently strong selective pressure against babA, babA is required for establishment of infection in this model as stains in which babA was deleted were unable to colonize experimentally infected macaques. PMID:25804332

  18. Impact of land use change on dissolved organic carbon in the River Thames (UK) over a 130 year time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noacco, Valentina; Howden, Nicholas; Wagener, Thorsten; Worrall, Fred; Burt, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an analysis of land use in the UK's River Thames basin between 1867 and 2010, to estimate the potential transfer of soil organic carbon to the atmosphere (as CO2), deeper soils and groundwater, or to the river (as dissolved organic carbon - DOC). We use a modelling approach to combine two elements: an estimate of carbon available for export due to land use and land use change; and, an algorithm to route this carbon through to surface runoff, subsoil or loss as CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Estimates of annual carbon loading use parish land use data, held in the UK's National Archives; National Inventories of Woodland and Trees; and Land Cover Maps for the last 25 years. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks for each year are calculated from a large database of typical SOC concentrations for land uses present in the Thames basin, and are combined with literature values of transition times for SOC to adjust to a new concentration after land use change occurs. Soil carbon fluxes are calculated as the inter-annual change in SOC, and then apportioned between losses to the atmosphere as CO2, DOC losses to surface waters or carbon leached into deeper soil layers. We use a 130 year record of DOC in the Thames, and parameters from previous long-term nitrate modelling, to constrain estimates of fluvial DOC rises caused by SOC losses. Our results show there are many small inter-annual variations, but the major change in both estimated SOC storage and fluvial DOC, occurred during the 1940s due to massive large-scale changes in land use, the effect of which continues to date.

  19. Pediatric follicular mucinosis: presentation, histopathology, molecular genetics, treatment, and outcomes over an 11-year period at the Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Griffin, John; Nguyen, Nicholas; Davis, Dawn Marie R; Gibson, Lawrence E

    2013-01-01

    Follicular mucinosis (FM) and folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (MF) are rare in children, and data regarding long-term outcomes are limited. We sought to describe clinical and histopathologic findings of children with FM with and without MF, as well as treatments administered and clinical outcomes. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients younger than 22 years (at time of diagnosis) with a biopsy demonstrating FM who were seen in the Dermatology Department at the Mayo Clinic from September 1, 1999, to September 1, 2010. Eleven patients (six male, five female) ages 11 to 19 years at the time of diagnosis met the inclusion criteria. Follow-up data were available for 10 patients, with a mean duration of 4.9 years. The head, neck, and extremities were the most common sites of involvement, and lesions were follicular-based papules (18%), scaly alopecic patches and plaques (45%), or a combination of the two (36%). Overall, three patients were confirmed to have MF. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement demonstrated clonality in two cases and was equivocal in one case. Treatments included topical corticosteroids, topical retinoids, oral minocycline, and, in patients with MF, ultraviolet light and topical bexarotene. Lesions resolved completely in seven patients, partially in one, and not at all in two (no follow-up data on one patient). Of the three patients with MF, two had complete resolution, and one has intermittent flares. To our knowledge, no patients developed other lymphoproliferative disorders. FM in children is rare. A histopathologic diagnosis of FM does not equate to folliculotropic MF in all cases. Most patients responded to treatment with topical steroids, topical retinoids, or phototherapy. In our series of patients, the disease ran a benign course. PMID:23278316

  20. Switching TNF antagonists in patients with chronic arthritis: an observational study of 488 patients over a four-year period

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the survival of infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab in patients who have switched among tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists for the treatment of chronic arthritis. BIOBADASER is a national registry of patients with different forms of chronic arthritis who are treated with biologics. Using this registry, we have analyzed patient switching of TNF antagonists. The cumulative discontinuation rate was calculated using the actuarial method. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves, and Cox regression models were used to assess independent factors associated with discontinuing medication. Between February 2000 and September 2004, 4,706 patients were registered in BIOBADASER, of whom 68% had rheumatoid arthritis, 11% ankylosing spondylitis, 10% psoriatic arthritis, and 11% other forms of chronic arthritis. One- and two-year drug survival rates of the TNF antagonist were 0.83 and 0.75, respectively. There were 488 patients treated with more than one TNF antagonist. In this situation, survival of the second TNF antagonist decreased to 0.68 and 0.60 at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Survival was better in patients replacing the first TNF antagonist because of adverse events (hazard ratio (HR) for discontinuation 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34–0.84)), and worse in patients older than 60 years (HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.97–2.49)) or who were treated with infliximab (HR 3.22 (95% CI 2.13–4.87)). In summary, in patients who require continuous therapy and have failed to respond to a TNF antagonist, replacement with a different TNF antagonist may be of use under certain situations. This issue will deserve continuous reassessment with the arrival of new medications. PMID:16507128

  1. Product yields of sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu by photofission reactions with 20-, 30-, and 60-MeV Bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Kase, T.; Yamadera, A.; Nakamura, T. ); Shibata, S. ); Fujiwara, I. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that as a basic study of photonuclear transmutation of actinides in high-level radioactive wastes using electron-produced bremsstrahlung, the absolute yields of cumulative mass distributions and the transmutation rate of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu by photofission reactions induced by 20-, 30-, and 60-MeV bremsstrahlung were measured. The results of mass yield distributions and transmutation yields agree well with other experimental results and those calculated using photofission cross sections, respectively. The transmutation efficiency per electron increases about one order of magnitude with electron energy from 20 to 60 MeV.

  2. Thermodynamic and transport properties of air and its products of combustion with ASTMA-A-1 fuel and natural gas at 20, 30, and 40 atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The isentropic exponent, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy were calculated for air, the combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air, and the combustion products of natural gas and air. The properties were calculated over a temperature range from 300 to 2800 K in 100 K increments and for pressures of 20, 30 and 40 atmospheres. The data for natural gas and ASTM-A-1 were calculated for fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric in 0.01 increments.

  3. A Perspective on the Intended Science Curriculum in Iceland and its `Transformation' over a Period of 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorolfsson, Meyvant; Finnbogason, Gunnar E.; Macdonald, Allyson

    2012-11-01

    In recent decades, a consensus has emerged among educators and scientists that all compulsory school students need good science education. The debate about its purpose and nature as a school subject in an emerging information society has not been as conclusive. To further understand this, it helps to examine how the science curriculum has transformed and what forces have shaped it as a core curricular area over time. This article sheds light on the transformation of the science curriculum for compulsory schools in Iceland in force from 1960 to 2010. Using criteria based on curriculum ideologies regarding the function of learners, instructors and subject matter in the learning process and the orientation of content and product versus process and development, it offers findings from content analysis of the intended science curriculum. The official curriculum was studied and conceptualised as it has evolved over time. The curriculum developers appear to have been striving for a compromise between conflicting views, resulting in what the authors of this article conceive as a 'kaleidoscopic quilt' of ideas over the period studied.

  4. [1984-1994: Ten years of skin flaps. Development of transfer techniques. New methods of autoplasty described during this period].

    PubMed

    Martin, D

    1995-10-01

    Ten years of flaps represent a little and a lot. It is little compared to the 2600 years since the first flap in plastic surgery: the Susruta Indian flap, but it is a lot in view of the phenomenal acceleration of this speciality since the Second World War. In 1994 alone, more than two hundred references are listed under the heading "new flaps". As it is impossible to be exhaustive, the author has chosen to focus on two main aspects: a theoretical review of new transfer techniques, dealing successively with: the principles of reverse flow flaps, venous flaps, neurocutaneous flaps, so-called "extracorporeal" transfers, reverse flow YV technique; and practical aspects based on a review of eighteen autoplasties or donor sites selected for their surgical value, their reproductibility and their innovative nature. The author's objective is not to present a technical treatise, but rather to make the reader aware of several key points or even, in some cases, the very existence of these autoplasties. This paper is designed to be didactic, with extensive references, in order to act as a practical guide. It also demonstrates, as if there were any need, to what extent plastic surgery is able to create new solutions and the essential value of continuing research. PMID:8579301

  5. Lumbar disc replacement: preliminary results with ProDisc II after a minimum follow-up period of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, Patrick; Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Marnay, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Total disc replacement has the potential to replace fusion as the gold standard surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. Potential advantages of disc replacement over fusion include avoidance of pseudarthrosis, postoperative orthoses, and junctional degeneration. After observing satisfactory clinical results at 7-11 years' follow-up with the ProDisc first-generation implant, a second-generation prosthesis was designed. This study is a prospective analysis of the early results of total disc replacement with the ProDisc II total disc prosthesis. Fifty-three patients had single-level or multilevel disc replacement and were evaluated clinically and radiographically preoperatively and at mean 1.4-year follow-up. There were clinically and statistically significant improvements in back and leg pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry disability scores that were maintained at final follow-up. The clinical results of patients with single- and multilevel surgery were equivalent. Satisfactory results were achieved in 90% of patients who had previous lumbar surgery. Complications occurred in 9% of patients and included vertebral body fracture, transient radicular pain, implant malposition, and transient retrograde ejaculation. Three patients (6%) required reoperation to address complications. No mechanical failure of the implants or loosening was observed, and the prostheses retained motion. Randomized, prospective, long-term studies will be necessary to compare the effectiveness of arthrodesis with total disc replacement. PMID:12902952

  6. The Natural Course of Intermittent Exotropia over a 3-year Period and the Factors Predicting the Control Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeremy J. S. W.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Yam, Jason C.S.

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of intermittent exotropia and the factors affecting its control has been unclear. We aim to report the natural course of our cohort of 117 Chinese children with intermittent exotropia and to identify baseline parameters that may have predictive value in the control deterioration of the disease. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, compliance to orthoptic exercise, angle of deviation fusional convergence parameters and Newcastle Control Score were recorded for all children at baseline and at 3 years apart. Patients were divided into two groups according to the change in control over the 3 years: group 1 included patients who had no deterioration or had improvement in disease control; and group 2 were those who had deteriorated control or had undergone surgery. There were 77 patients (66%) in group 1 and 40 (34%) patients in group 2. Comparing the baseline parameters of the two groups, group 1 had statistically significantly smaller angle of deviation, larger fusional reserve, larger fusional recovery, and higher fusional reserve ratio (p < 0.05). Other baseline parameters were similar between the two groups. The baseline fusional parameters may have predictive value in determining the control of intermittent exotropia. PMID:27257120

  7. Clonal Analysis of Meningococci during a 26 Year Period Prior to the Introduction of Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Christopher B.; Diggle, Mathew A.; Davies, Robert L.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2015-01-01

    Meningococcal disease remains a public health burden in the UK and elsewhere. Invasive Neisseria meningitidis, isolated in Scotland between 1972 and 1998, were characterised retrospectively to examine the serogroup and clonal structure of the circulating population. 2607 isolates causing invasive disease were available for serogroup and MLST analysis whilst 2517 were available for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis only. Serogroup distribution changed from year to year but serogroups B and C were dominant throughout. Serogroup B was dominant throughout the 1970s and early 1980s until serogroup C became dominant during the mid-1980s. The increase in serogroup C was not associated with one particular sequence type (ST) but was associated with a number of STs, including ST-8, ST-11, ST-206 and ST-334. This is in contrast to the increase in serogroup C disease seen in the 1990s that was due to expansion of the ST-11 clonal complex. While there was considerable diversity among the isolates (309 different STs among the 2607 isolates), a large proportion of isolates (59.9%) were associated with only 10 STs. These data highlight meningococcal diversity over time and the need for ongoing surveillance during the introduction of new meningococcal vaccines. PMID:25615448

  8. Turn on, fade out - methane exchange in a coastal fen over a period of six years after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurasinski, Gerald; Glatzel, Stephan; Hahn, Juliane; Koch, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Koebsch, Franziska

    2016-04-01

    The rewetting of drained peatlands is widely regarded as an adequate measure for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, especially in NE Germany, many peatlands are being rewetted. Our knowledge about greenhouse gas exchange associated with rewetting is mainly based on short-term experiments or space-for-time substitutions. These approaches do not consider the transient character of ecosystem acclimatization to flooding by rewetting. Moreover data in this regard on coastal peatland ecosystems are sparse. Here, we present 7 years of data on CH4-exchange in a coastal fen after rewetting by flooding. On the site „Rodewiese", which is located within the NSG "Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" in the Northeast of Rostock, NE Germany, we have established a long term research observatory addressing atmospheric C-exchange. The site is part of the TERENO network. Since summer 2009 we determine CH4 fluxes with closed chambers distributed widely across the study site and CO2-exchange with eddy covariance as well as ancillary data on vegetation, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. This talk addresses the CH4-exchange over time whereas CO2-exchange data are presented by Koebsch et al. in the same session. Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen with mean annual water levels of around -0.08m into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60m. In the first year after flooding, we observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of Carex acutiformis. Flooding increased methane release rates to extremely high levels of up to 4.3 t ha‑1 a‑1 for sedge stands and 2.7 t ha‑1 a‑1 on average, which amounts to 75.6 t ha‑1 a‑1 in CO2-equivalents. Thereafter, the averaged annual CH4 emissions decreased asymptotically and where at an average of 0.5 t ha‑1 a‑1 (14 t ha‑1 a‑1 in CO2-equivalents) in 2015. Factoring in the NEE of the growing season (from Eddy measurements) suggests that the system may be slightly above neutral with respect to

  9. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  10. A Journey to Zero: Reduction of Post-Operative Cesarean Surgical Site Infections over a Five-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, Evelyn; Harris, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) are a substantial concern for cesarean deliveries in which a surgical site complication is most unwelcome for a mother with a new infant. Steps taken pre- and post-operatively to reduce the number of complications may be of substantial benefit clinically, economically, and psychologically. Methods: A risk-based approach to incision management was developed and implemented for all cesarean deliveries at our institution. A number of incremental interventions for low-risk and high-risk patients including pre-operative skin preparations, standardized pre- and post-operative protocols, post-operative nanocrystalline silver anti-microbial barrier dressings, and incisional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) were implemented sequentially over a 5-y period. A systematic clinical chart review of 4,942 patients spanning all cesarean deliveries between 2007–2012 was performed to determine what effects the interventions had on the rate of SSI for cesarean deliveries. Results: The percentage of SSI was reduced from 2.13% (2007) to 0.10% (2012) (p<0.0001). There were no substantial changes in the patient population risk factors over this time. As a result of the changes in incision management practice, a total of 92 cesarean post-operative SSIs were avoided: A total cost saving of nearly $5,000,000. Conclusion: Applying a clinical algorithm for assessing the risk of surgical site complication and making recommendations on pre-operative and post-operative incision management can result in a substantial and sustainable reduction in cesarean SSI. PMID:25826622

  11. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  12. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  13. Ciguatera Incidence in the US Virgin Islands Has Not Increased over a 30-Year Time Period Despite Rising Seawater Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Cook, Robert L.; Smith, Tyler B.; Anderson, Donald M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most common marine food poisoning worldwide. It has been hypothesized that increasing seawater temperature will result in increasing ciguatera incidence. In St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, we performed an island-wide telephone survey (N = 807) and a medical record review of diagnosed ciguatera cases at the emergency department of the sole hospital and compared these data with comparable data sources collected in 1980. Annual incidence from both recent data sources remained high (12 per 1,000 among adults in the telephone survey). However, the combined data sources suggest that incidence has declined by 20% or more or remained stable over 30 years, whereas seawater temperatures were increasing. Illness was associated with lower education levels, higher levels of fish consumption, and having previous episodes of ciguatera; population shifts from 1980 to 2010 in these factors could explain an incidence decline of approximately 3 per 1,000, obscuring effects from rising seawater temperature. PMID:23400575

  14. Legionella pneumonia cases over a five-year period: a descriptive, retrospective study of outcomes in a UK district hospital.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Rowell, Sam; Peel, Alex; Puli, Deeksha; Guleri, Achyut; Sharma, Rashmi

    2013-04-01

    As the recent outbreaks in Edinburgh and Camarthen, UK, have shown, Legionella pneumonia (LP) remains a significant public health problem, which is not only confined to those who have travelled abroad. In both outbreaks and sporadic cases, diagnosis can go unrecognised. We reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcome of LP cases over five years in a district general hospital in northwest England. Over half of LP cases were UK acquired and 'classic' clinical features were common. Clinical criteria for diagnosing LP were confirmed, but few sputum samples were sent to reference laboratories, limiting further essential epidemiological mapping of UK cases. Following current UK community-acquired pneumonia guidance would have missed nearly one quarter of LP cases in our series, potentially leading to further morbidity and mortality. PMID:23681863

  15. Trajectories and Determinants of Elder Care in Rural China During an 8-Year Period: Why Having Sons Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Chi, Iris; Silverstein, Merril

    2016-07-01

    Using 8-year panel data for 1,355 older adults in rural Anhui province, China, this study examined the trajectories and determinants of elder care provided by adult children to their older parents. The results of two-level latent variable growth models showed that trajectories of elder care differed by the gender of children, with an increase in care from sons but a decrease in care from daughters over time. Children's life stages influenced their care provision but differed by gender. Functional impairment of parents and care provided by siblings in the family also affected the care provided by each child. The findings reflect the patrilineal nature of Chinese family systems and demonstrate the linkages between critical life events and caregiving behaviors of adult children. Findings of this study can inform the formulation of elder care policies that meet the needs of families with different structures and at different life stages. PMID:26133805

  16. High-dose glycine treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, W Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L; Fawwaz, Rashid A; Challop, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  17. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  18. Mortality over a 20-year period in patients with primary polydipsia associated with schizophrenia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Emily R; Crookall, Jake M; Reddick, Deirdre; Millson, Richard C; Milev, Roumen; Delva, Nicholas

    2009-02-01

    Primary polydipsia, excessive fluid intake without medical cause, is present in over 20% of seriously and persistently ill psychiatric inpatients. The long-term effects of primary polydipsia on longevity have not previously been examined. Inpatients in a psychiatric hospital were screened for polydipsia in 1985. Those identified to be polydipsic, the majority of whom suffered from schizophrenia, were re-evaluated in 2005 and compared with a control group of non-polydipsic patients. Chart reviews were conducted and follow-up data were obtained. Of 172 patients at the time of screening, 48 suffering from schizophrenia either had or went on to develop polydipsia; 42 non-polydipsic patients with schizophrenia from the original survey were randomly selected as controls. Primary polydipsia had a significant negative effect on longevity. The median age at death (age at which 50% of cases have died) was 59 years for polydipsic patients and 68 for non-polydipsic control patients. Adjusting for duration of schizophrenia, smoking, and diagnosis, a patient with polydipsia had a 74% greater chance of dying before a non-polydipsic patient (a hazard ratio of 2.84 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.22-6.64]). Outcome was worst in patients with severe polydipsia: the median age at death was 57 years and a patient with severe polydipsia had a 75% greater chance of dying before a non-polydipsic patient (hazard ratio of 3.36 [95% CI: 1.31-8.60]). When polydipsia is associated with schizophrenia, mortality is increased in comparison to that in patients with schizophrenia who do not drink water to excess. PMID:18984069

  19. Involvement of family nurses in home visits during an 8-year period encompassing primary healthcare reforms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Gugnowski, Zbigniew

    2009-07-01

    Home visits by doctors and nurses are considered an important indicator of the quality of healthcare. Published data are scarce regarding the role of family nurses in providing professional home care in Central and Eastern European countries that have recently introduced reforms to their primary care systems. The objective of the present study was to describe the involvement of family nurses in home visits in the context of organizational and legal changes in service provision, that is, to analyse the role of the family nurses employed by family doctors (1998) versus family nurses working in autonomous positions (2002 and 2006). The proportion of patients in the community receiving a home visit from a family nurse, the purpose of the family nurse's home visit and patient expectations towards the family nurse were studied. A series of cross-sectional studies were conducted in a small town in northeastern Poland, based on three consecutive surveys taken at 4-year intervals (1998, 2002, 2006, surveys I, II and III, respectively). During each survey, 1000 patients were interviewed (face to face) with structured questionnaires. In 1998, family nurses were employed by family doctors, but by 2002, nurses had established their own practices and held direct contracts with the National Health Fund. A significant increase in the percentage of patients receiving home visits from a family nurse was observed between surveys I and II (12.8% and 30.0%); however, the number of respondents reporting a home visit in survey III decreased to 23.9%. Patients over 75 years of age were the major demographic group receiving family nursing at home. This study suggests that reform of the primary healthcare system in Poland has produced changes in the family nursing system. Independence, contractual obligations and self-employment of Polish family nurses have resulted in their greater participation in home visits. PMID:19054138

  20. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem. PMID:24189631

  1. The Comparative Study of Body Mass Index Distribution Among Preschool Children in a 7 Years Period in North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamreza, Veghari; Mohsen, Saeedi

    The main objective of this study is the comparison of Body Mass Index distribution among preschool children between 1997 and 2004. Using cluster and simple sampling chose 20 villages and 20 persons completed the questionnaires and measured their weight and height. The sample size was 3154 (stage 1 = 1585 cases and stage 2 = 1569 cases). Data of two stages was added to the file and was analyzed by spss.win soft-war. NCHS standard was used for comparison. The BMI percentiles by NCHS standard were used to classify subjects as follows: under weight, < 5th BMI percentiles; healthy weight, 5th-84th BMI percentiles; overweight, 85th-94th BMI percentiles; or obese, 95th = BMI percentiles. Gorgan a capital city and located in north of Iran and south east of Caspian Sea. In spite of boy=s weight increased about 0.1 kg, but height increased about 3.4 cm in second stage and t-test is significant between two stage by height (p< 0.001). Girl=s weight didn=t have any change, but height increased about 2.7 cm. t-test is significant between two stages by height (p< 0.001). The prevalence of obesity and overweight declined 17.36 and 4.7% respectively after 7 years. There is a statistical significant between two stages by obesity index (p< 0.05). The most outstanding results of this study is unvarying of weight and dramatically improving of height. The prevalence of obesity and overweight significantly declined after 7 years. Some health strategy that carried out by health managers in this area can caused this situation. Other studies are necessary for following the physical growth pattern in future.

  2. Case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma with marked endoscopic morphological changes in Barrett's esophagus over a long follow-up period of 15 years.

    PubMed

    Iwaya, Yugo; Yamazaki, Tomoo; Watanabe, Takayuki; Seki, Ayako; Ochi, Yasuhide; Hara, Etsuo; Arakura, Norikazu; Tanaka, Eiji; Hasebe, Osamu

    2016-07-01

    The natural history of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is unclear. We herein describe a case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC) in which we could closely observe marked morphological changes in BE over a long follow-up period of 15 years. A man in his seventies received routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and was diagnosed as having reflux esophagitis and short-segment BE. The BE gradually became elongated, and BAC was detected 9 years following the initial EGD examination with continued administration of a proton pump inhibitor. We witnessed that BE elongated sporadically over time and mucosal breaks of reflux esophagitis were detectable several years before elongation. The patient underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for BAC and has been monitored by EGD every year thereafter. These remarkable morphological changes may be representative of the natural history of BE and aid in deciding long-term disease management. PMID:26946036

  3. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains. PMID:22749243

  4. Innovative activities at the State Institution "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the NAMS of Ukraine" during the 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Gurianov, B M; Saienko, A M; Yanovych, L A

    2013-01-01

    The innovative (inventive) activities of the SI "The National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of NAMS of Ukraine" for the period of 2003-2012 years is analyzed. It is established that the institution staff had filed 70 patent applications and has received 70 patents of Ukraine. The characteristic of patents by type is provided and ways to further developing of the innovative capacity of Center are identified. PMID:25191707

  5. Influence of different periods of the year and age on the parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in the blood serum of breeding bulls.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-06-01

    The sources of variations that may cause physiological differences between blood serum biochemistry parameters of bulls have not been investigated in detail. Aim of the present study was to establish influence of different periods of the year and the age of breeding bulls on parameters of antioxidative status and oxidative stress in their serum and to correlate these monitored variables. Research was performed on two groups, each comprising 9 Simmental bulls: a younger group (YB) (aged 2-4 years) and older one (OB) (aged 5-10 years). Blood samples for biochemical analyses were collected from jugular vein in cold (CP) and warm periods (WP) of the year. Reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid (UA), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and protein carbonyl content (PCC) serum concentration were determined, as well as activities of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase (CAT). Serum values of SeGSH-Px, MnSOD, UA and TP in OB were significantly higher compared to those in YB during CP of the year. Significantly higher PCC concentration in serum of YB and OB were established in CP of the year than in WP. TBARS serum concentration in YB was significantly higher in comparison to that in OB during CP of the year. It can be concluded that both OB and YB show a great sensitivity to climate condition alterations during CP in comparison to WP of the year and that YB show even greater sensitivity. PMID:27288340

  6. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was <10 x 10(9)/l in 7 cases, and only 1 patient had a history of head trauma. Seven children were on treatment prior to or at the time of occurrence of ICH and all were treated by pharmacotherapy. Two children died shortly afterwards due to late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  7. Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-01

    We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming. PMID:22311146

  8. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach in a child with a 3-year follow-up period-Case report.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo Eller; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Tatsuo, Edson Samesima; Piçarro, Clécio; Rausch, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a nine-year-old boy with a 4-week history of general fatigue, loss of appetite, vomits and hematemesis. Laboratory evaluation revealed a hemoglobin level of 4.4 g/dl. After a transfusion of packed red blood cells the patient underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which showed a smooth, rounded 6-8 cm submucosal lesion with a central depression with ulceration and active bleeding in the cardia extending to the fundus.Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed a large mass originating from the gastric wall but not infiltrating surrounding organs, approximately 8.0 cm × 7.0 cm × 5 cm. Despite the tumor size, no metastases were diagnosed. The patient underwent a total gastrectomy in an en-bloc resection including the distal part of the esophagus (3 cm) and omentum with oncologic margins. Reconstruction was performed with a mediastinal end-to-side esophago-jejunal anastomosis. Immunehistochemic confirmed GIST. He remains well without evidence of disease after 36 months of follow-up with a multiprofessional team. PMID:22096700

  9. Ocular Manifestations of Venomous Snake Bite over a One-year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Praveen Kumar, K V; Kasturi, Nirupama; Ahuja, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ocular manifestations in snake-bite injuries are quite rare. However, the unusual presentations, diagnosis and their management can pose challenges when they present to the ophthalmologist. Early detection of these treatable conditions can prevent visual loss in these patients who are systemically unstable and are unaware of their ocular condition. To address this, a study was conducted with the aim of identifying the various ocular manifestations of snake bite in a tertiary care center. Methods This is a one-year institute-based prospective study report of 12 snake bite victims admitted to a tertiary hospital with ocular manifestations between June 2013 to June 2014, which provides data about the demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, ocular manifestations, and their outcomes. Results Twelve cases of snake bite with ocular manifestations were included of which six were viper bites, three were cobra bites and three were unknown bites. Six patients presented with bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (50%), two patients had anterior uveitis (16.6%) of which one patient had concomitant optic neuritis. One patient had exudative retinal detachment (8.3%), one patient had thrombocytopenia with subconjunctival hemorrhage (8.3%) and two patients had external ophthalmoplegia (16.6%). Conclusions Bilateral angle closure glaucoma was the most common ocular manifestation followed by anterior uveitis and external ophthalmoplegia. Snake bite can result in significant ocular morbidity in a majority of patients but spontaneous recovery with anti-snake venom, steroids and conservative management results in good visual prognosis. PMID:26240510

  10. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams. PMID:26339996

  11. Structural Mechanics Predictions Relating to Clinical Coronary Stent Fracture in a 5 Year Period in FDA MAUDE Database.

    PubMed

    Everett, Kay D; Conway, Claire; Desany, Gerard J; Baker, Brian L; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular stents are the mainstay of interventional cardiovascular medicine. Technological advances have reduced biological and clinical complications but not mechanical failure. Stent strut fracture is increasingly recognized as of paramount clinical importance. Though consensus reigns that fractures can result from material fatigue, how fracture is induced and the mechanisms underlying its clinical sequelae remain ill-defined. In this study, strut fractures were identified in the prospectively maintained Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE), covering years 2006-2011, and differentiated based on specific coronary artery implantation site and device configuration. These data, and knowledge of the extent of dynamic arterial deformations obtained from patient CT images and published data, were used to define boundary conditions for 3D finite element models incorporating multimodal, multi-cycle deformation. The structural response for a range of stent designs and configurations was predicted by computational models and included estimation of maximum principal, minimum principal and equivalent plastic strains. Fatigue assessment was performed with Goodman diagrams and safe/unsafe regions defined for different stent designs. Von Mises stress and maximum principal strain increased with multimodal, fully reversed deformation. Spatial maps of unsafe locations corresponded to the identified locations of fracture in different coronary arteries in the clinical database. These findings, for the first time, provide insight into a potential link between patient adverse events and computational modeling of stent deformation. Understanding of the mechanical forces imposed under different implantation conditions may assist in rational design and optimal placement of these devices. PMID:26467552

  12. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  13. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  14. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  15. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Strabismus Treatment in Third Cranial Nerve Palsy during a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abbas; Borhani, Morteza; Tavakoli, Mehdi; Salehirad, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the demographics and management outcomes of strabismus surgery in patients with third cranial nerve palsy. Methods: This retrospective study includes subjects with third cranial nerve palsy. We evaluated age, sex, laterality, severity of involvement, etiology, frequency of clinical findings, and types and results of treatments. Results: 52 patients including 29 male and 23 female subjects with mean age of 21.1±15.5 years were studied between January 1999 and January 2009. Etiologies of third nerve palsy included congenital in 16 (30.8%), trauma in 26 (50%) and other causes in 10 (19.2%) patients. In 24 patients (46.2%), the palsy was complete. The most common type of strabismus was exotropia associated with hypotropia (40%). Medical treatment was used in 25 (48%) and surgical treatment in 46 (88.4%) subjects. One time strabismus surgery was performed in 30 (65.2%), 2 times in 11 (24%) and 3 times in 5 (10.8%) subjects. The most common operation was large horizontal recession and resection in 78.2% of cases. Mean horizontal deviation in primary position was 66±29 prism diopters (PD) before surgery decreasing to 21±19, 13±12 and 6±8 PD after first, second and third surgery, respectively. Corresponding figures for mean vertical deviation were 13±15, 7±12, 4±6 and 1±2 PD, respectively. Abnormal head posture was 10-30° in 11 (21.1%) cases before treatment which completely resolved after surgery. Conclusion: Surgical management of strabismus in patients with third nerve palsy is difficult and challenging, however the majority of patients achieve ideal results with appropriate and stepwise surgical plans. PMID:25667737

  16. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  17. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 from a single almond orchard over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Danyluk, Michelle D; Mandrell, Robert E; Harris, Linda J

    2007-08-01

    In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in one of the almond orchards associated with the outbreak. Swabs (gauze saturated with full-strength sterile evaporated skim milk and attached to string) were pulled along the orchard floor in a standardized manner for 55 m. At each sample time, two pooled samples (four swabs each) were collected from each orchard quadrant. Swabs were enriched for Salmonella using a delayed secondary enrichment procedure developed for isolation of Salmonella from poultry houses. Suspect Salmonella isolates were selected, confirmed, serotyped, and phage typed, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were determined after cleavage with XbaI and BlnI. Salmonella was recovered infrequently from pooled samples collected from January through July (3 of 56 samples, 5.3%). In general, Salmonella isolation frequency per sample time increased during and immediately after the harvest, when large amounts of dust were generated in or near the orchard: August, 4 (20%) of 20 samples; September, 13 (20%) of 64 samples; October, 27 (42%) of 64 samples; November, 4 (25%) of 16 samples; and December, 2 (25%) of 8 samples. All 53 Salmonella isolates during the 5 years were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30, and two PFGE patterns that differed by the presence of an approximately 40-kb fragment were identified. These data demonstrate the potential for long-term environmental persistence of Salmonella in almond orchards. PMID:17803132

  18. Differential Movement Patterns of Juvenile Tengmalms Owls (Aegolius funereus) during the Post-Fledging Dependence Period in Two Years with Contrasting Prey Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Štastný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Fledgling behaviour and movement patterns throughout the post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), especially in relation to changing environmental conditions, have been rarely studied, despite the fact that this period is recognized as of crucial significance in terms of high mortality of juveniles. The PFDP can extend over quite a protracted period, particularly in birds of prey, and a knowledge of the movement patterns of individuals is fundamental for understanding mechanisms underlying survival, habitat use and dispersion. We radiotracked 39 fledglings of the Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) in two years with different availability of prey: 2010 (n = 29) and 2011 (n = 10) and obtained 1455 daily locations. Fledglings reached independence on average in 45 days after fledging in 2010 (n = 22) and 57 days in 2011 (n = 6). Within years, the most important measures influencing the distance moved from the nest box were age of fledglings and number of surviving siblings present. Individual home range size and duration of PFDP in particular were dependent on maximal number of siblings seen outside the nest box. In the season with low prey availability fledglings were observed at greater distances from the nest box than in the year with higher prey availability (mean distance: 350 m in 2010 and 650 m in 2011) and occupied larger home ranges (mean: 30.3 ha in 2010 and 57.7 ha in 2011). The main factor causing these differences between years was probably the different availability of prey in these two years, affecting breeding success and post-fledging survivorship of the Tengmalm’s owls. PMID:23843981

  19. Ground-level ozone in urban Beijing over a 1-year period: Temporal variations and relationship to atmospheric oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Li, Yunting; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Dong, Xin; Sun, Ruiwen; Huan, Ning; Pan, Libo

    2015-10-01

    Regional ozone pollution has become a major environmental concern in China, especially in densely populated and economically vibrant regions such as North China, including Beijing. To address this issue, surface ozone and its precursors (CO, NO, and NO2) from December 2012 to November 2013 at 12 sites in urban Beijing and 2 sites in suburban Beijing were analyzed. The annual average concentrations of O3, CO, NO, and NO2 in urban Beijing were 45.5 ± 50.2 μg m- 3, 1.5 ± 1.3 mg m- 3, 27.3 ± 42.7 μg m- 3, and 58.3 + 32.0 μg m- 3, respectively. The concentration of ozone was highest during summer, whereas concentrations of its precursors were highest during winter. Diurnal variations in ozone presented as a single-peak curve, with the peak appearing at about 15:00-16:00. Diurnal variations in most ozone precursors showed bimodal curves; the first peak appeared at about 08:00-09:00, and the second peak appeared at night. Hourly concentrations of ozone on the weekend were higher than those on weekdays between 11:00 and 24:00 in urban Beijing, which was suggestive of a significant weekend effect. This may be because NO inhibition on the weekend is weaker than that on weekdays during the ozone formation phase. Diurnal variations in OX (NO2 + O3) showed a single peak, which appeared at 15:00 or 16:00. The results of correlation analysis among OX, O3, and NO2 suggested that OX was mainly controlled by O3 during the day and by NO2 during the night throughout the year. OX was controlled by NO2 during both the day and night during winter due to the low concentration of O3. The regional transport of ozone along the upwind direction was found in a typical ozone pollution event in summer in Beijing.

  20. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males [Formula: see text]; females [Formula: see text]). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  1. Comparison of Working Conditions and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dairy Farmers in Southern Sweden over a 25-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pinzke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs) among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002. All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419) were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%), of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men and 25% women) in 199 enterprises are included in this study. The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males x¯= 43.9, 40.7; females x¯= 37.9, 33.9). Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013, 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system. In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men, and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002. In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years) to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002. The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013. Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  2. Antibiotic Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Pneumonia at a Single University Hospital Center in Germany over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. The development of resistance of P. aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing globally due to the overuse of antibiotics. This article examines, retrospectively, the antibiotic resistance in patients with community-acquired versus nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa or multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. Methods Data from patients with community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and MDR P. aeruginosa were collected from the hospital charts at the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, between January 2004 and August 2014. An antibiogram was created from all study patients with community-acquired and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa or MDR P. aeruginosa. Results A total of 168 patients with mean age 68.1 ± 12.8 (113 [67.3% males and 55 [32.7%] females) were identified; 91 (54.2%) had community-acquired and 77 (45.8%) had nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa. Patients with community-acquired versus nosocomial-acquired pneumonia had a mean age of 66.4 ± 13.8 vs. 70.1 ± 11.4 years [59 vs. 54 (64.8% vs. 70.1%) males and 32 vs. 23 (35.2% vs. 29.9%) females]. They included 41 (24.4%) patients with pneumonia due to MDR P. aeruginosa: 27 (65.9%) community-acquired and 14 (34.1%) nosocomial-acquired cases. P. aeruginosa and MDR P. aeruginosa showed a very high resistance to fosfomycin (community-acquired vs. nosocomial-acquired) (81.0% vs. 84.2%; 0 vs. 85.7%). A similar resistance pattern was seen with ciprofloxacin (35.2% vs. 24.0%; 70.4% vs. 61.5%), levofloxacin (34.6% vs. 24.5%; 66.7% vs. 64.3%), ceftazidime (15.9% vs. 30.9; 33.3% vs. 61.5%), piperacillin (24.2% vs. 29.9%; 44.4% vs. 57.1%), imipenem (28.6% vs. 27.3%; 55.6% vs. 50.0%), piperacillin and tazobactam (23.1% vs. 28.6%; 44.4% vs. 50.0%), tobramycin (28.0% vs. 17.2%; 52.0% vs. 27

  3. High Angular Resolution Observations of Episodic Dust Emission from Long Period Variable Stars Twenty Years of Observations with the Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.

  4. Trends in the prevalence of heart diseases over a ten-year period from single-center observations based on a large echocardiographic database*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao; Pan, Wen-zhi; Wan, Quan; Cheng, Lei-lei; Shu, Xian-hong; Pan, Cui-zhen; Qian, Ju-ying; Ge, Jun-bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding trends in the incidence of heart disease in China during recent years. Using a large echocardiography database in our center, we analyzed trends in the prevalence of several common heart diseases from Dec. 2003. This study retrospectively analyzed the echocardiographic database in our Department from 2003 to 2012. A total of 385 682 cases were included in the study. The prevalence of rheumatic heart disease decreased over the 10-year period, from 4.04% in 2003 to 3.06% in 2012 (P<0.01). Infective endocarditis also decreased, from a mean prevalence of 0.37% in July 2003 to 0.27% in Dec. 2008 (P<0.001). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which includes 20% apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20% hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, was about 1.8%. The prevalence of the three most common adult congenital heart diseases (CHDs) decreased by about 10% from July 2003 to Dec. 2008 (all P<0.001). The prevalence of moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) decreased during the 10-year period (P<0.001), but there was no change in the prevalence of severe PAH or LVSD (P>0.05). The present study indirectly demonstrates that the prevalence of several common heart diseases in China has declined in recent years. PMID:26739526

  5. Surveillance of primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori at centres in England and Wales over a six-year period (2000-2005).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, S A; Teare, E L; Davies, K; Owen, R J

    2007-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a key factor in the failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, yet few sentinel schemes exist to monitor trends in resistance at local, national or international levels. This study aimed, over a six-year period, to monitor resistance levels of H. pylori in England and Wales to the four antibiotics used in its treatment. A total of 1,310 isolates from Gwynedd in north Wales and from mid-Essex in south-east England were collected from 2000 to 2005 and tested for susceptibilities to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Overall, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 28.6% and 8.3% in Gwynedd and significantly higher (36.3%, p=0.0031, and 12.7%, p=0.0112) in mid-Essex. Rates of resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin increased in both areas over this six-year period. Resistance rates were higher in female compared with male patients (38.1% vs 26.6% for metronidazole, p<0.0001, and 12.9% vs 7.5% for clarithromycin, p=0.0024), and were higher in patients <45 years compared with those ?45 years (44.0% vs 29.0% for metronidazole, p=0.0002, and 15.0% vs 9.4% for clarithromycin, p=0.0233). This study highlights the importance of antibiotic resistance surveillance in H. pylori for providing information on local resistance rates for test and treat strategies. PMID:17991408

  6. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683

  7. A case-control study of post-operative endophthalmitis diagnosed at a Spanish hospital over a 13-year-period.

    PubMed

    Asencio, M A; Huertas, M; Carranza, R; Tenias, J M; Celis, J; Gonzalez-Del Valle, F

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study of patients who had undergone cataract extraction at a Spanish hospital over a 13-year period was conducted to identify the risk factors for developing post-operative endophthalmitis (POE). During the study period, the type of antibiotic prophylaxis was changed from subconjunctival gentamicin to the addition of both vancomycin and gentamicin to the irrigating solution. The overall incidence of POE was 0·19% (35 cases/18 287 operations). For the period prior to the change in antibiotic prophylaxis, the incidence rate of POE was 3·4 cases/1000 operations while in the latter period the incidence rate decreased to 0·34 cases/1000 operations. All patients who presented a virulent microorganism had a final visual acuity worse than 20/200. The only significant risk factor identified was the type of prophylaxis used (odds ratio 1·97, 95% confidence interval 0·94-4·14, P = 0·07). There were no significant differences between cases and controls although choice of surgeon approached significance. PMID:24612657

  8. An analysis of the sequence variability of meningococcal fHbp, NadA and NHBA over a 50-year period in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Stefania; Piet, Jurgen; Muzzi, Alessandro; Keijzers, Wendy; Comandi, Sara; De Tora, Lisa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie; Comanducci, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of meningococcal evolution and genetic population structure, including the long-term stability of non-random associations between variants of surface proteins, are essential for vaccine development. We analyzed the sequence variability of factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), three major antigens in the multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine 4CMenB. A panel of invasive isolates collected in the Netherlands over a period of 50 years was used. To our knowledge, this strain collection covers the longest time period of any collection available worldwide. Long-term persistence of several antigen sub/variants and of non-overlapping antigen sub/variant combinations was observed. Our data suggest that certain antigen sub/variants including those used in 4CMenB are conserved over time and promoted by selection. PMID:23717687

  9. Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p < 0.05). Most injuries were electrical burns. Conclusion High rate of accidents in summer may be due to the warm weather or insufficient professional skills in seasonal workers. Shift workers are at risk of sleep complaints leading to a high rate of work injuries. Acquiring knowledge about safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary. PMID:24106647

  10. Disease severity of 100 patients with systemic sclerosis over a period of 14 years: using a modified Medsger scale

    PubMed Central

    Geirsson, A; Wollheim, F; Akesson, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess organ involvement according to a modified Medsger severity scale and its relation to outcome and prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis.
METHODS—One hundred consecutive patients observed in Lund with systemic sclerosis were followed up for a period of 14 years. The mean follow up time was 7.7 years. Initial assessment and an annual evaluation was performed for each patient, with a mean visit frequency of 5.6 per patient.
RESULTS—Age at referral, high total skin score, truncal skin involvement, low vital capacity, low static lung compliance, low Cr-EDTA clearance, and ECG abnormalities at the initial assessment predict poor outcome. A severity scoring system for five organ systems indicates a slow progression of organ dysfunction after recruitment into the study. The female: male ratio was 2:1, the mean age at onset of symptoms was 42.3 (range 3-82), and the mean age at recruitment was 47.2 years (range 17-82). Thirty patients died during the follow up period at the mean age of 61.3 years (range 33-85). The causes of death were directly related to systemic sclerosis in at least 10 patients, infections in six, cancers in nine, and other causes in four patients. The standardised mortality ratio was 3.5 and 3.7 for men and women, respectively.
CONCLUSION—A high severity score for function of vital organs was shown to predict shortened survival. In this study a severity score based on simple clinical assessment variables was able to predict poor outcome from extensive skin changes, ECG changes, and compromised lung and renal function. Organ dysfunction mainly became manifest during the first five years of the disease, whereafter organ function remained largely stable.

 PMID:11709453

  11. Cloud fraction statistics in the baltic sea area over a period of ten years determined from Meteosat IR data for validating the climate model BALTIMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Fischer, J.

    2003-04-01

    In the framework of the DEKLIM (German Climate Research Programme) project BALTIMOS (BALTEX-Integral Model System) an algorithm for cloud detection using Meteosat thermal infrared data has been developed. The derived cloud mask was converted in fractional cloud cover of a climate model grid. From these data several statistical quantities have been derived, desigened to validate according climate model parameters of the regional model BALTIMOS (1/6°) driven by reanalyses. The analyzed region covers the whole baltic area, investigating a period of 10 years. The underlying data basis consists of hourly Meteosat thermal infrared, water vapour and visible data in the period from January 1992 to December 2001. Referring to the determination of the cloud mask, a mono spectral method for the Meteosat thermal infrared channel was developed. This method allows a uniform detection quality without discontinuities between day and night. It is based on a recursive algorithm, determining an assumed clear sky brightness temperature for each pixel, that is compared to the actual measurement. Comparisons with one year synoptical observations from 819 stations all over the baltic region has approved the efficiency and quality of the developed method. The detection certainty was 87% for cloud covered and 83% for cloud free cases, while 11% of all data have been classified as undecided. Several statistical quantities of the fractional cloud cover, like the mean diurnal cycles depending on the selected region, the anual cycles depending on the selected daytime or the moving average of the cloud coverage for the whole region over the period of 10 years have already been calculated.

  12. Reproductive performance of dairy cows with ovarian cysts after synchronizing ovulation using GnRH or hCG during the warm or cool period of the year.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Bottarelli, E; Battioni, F; Capelli, T; Techakumphu, M; García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the reproductive response to timed AI of lactating dairy cows with cystic ovarian follicles treated with GnRH or hCG to synchronize ovulation. The effectiveness of treatment during the warm or cool period of the year was also compared. Cows were given 12 microg GnRH-agonist i.m. on day 0 of the protocol, 15 mg PGF(2alpha) i.m. on day 7, and either GnRH-agonist (GPG treatment) or 3000 IU hCG i.m. (GPH treatment) on day 9, followed by timed AI. The cows were randomly chronologically assigned to GPG (n=130) or GPH (n=136) group. All cows were inseminated at fixed time 16-22 h after the end of treatment. During the warm period the pregnancy rate to first AI was 12% (7/60) and 21% (14/68) for the GPG and GPH groups, respectively, there being no significant differences between groups; the cumulative pregnancy rate was 22% (13/60) and 21% (14/68) for the GPG and GPH groups, respectively, again with no significant intergroup differences. During the cool period pregnancy rate to first AI was not different between groups: 29% (20/70) for GPG and 32% (22/68) for GPH, respectively; whereas the cumulative pregnancy rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) for the GPH groups than for the GPG group: 56% (39/70) and 78% (53/68), respectively. These findings indicate that during the warm period, the pregnancy rates of the cystic cows were similar whether they received GPG or GPH treatment, during the cool period, there is a beneficial effect to use hCG at day 9 of the ovsynch protocol compared GnRH on cumulative pregnancy rate. PMID:18054378

  13. Comparison of Serogroup W-135 Meningococci Isolated in Sweden during a 23-Year Period and Those Associated with a Recent Hajj Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Mölling, Paula; Bäckman, Anders; Olcén, Per; Fredlund, Hans

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of serogroup W-135 meningococcal disease was reported among pilgrims returning from the annual hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) in mid-March 2000. Molecular characterization was used to investigate the similarity of the hajj-associated W-135 strains with those isolated in Sweden during a 23-year period (1978 to 2000). The same hajj-associated genosubtype, genosubtype P1.5,2,36b, has been documented in Sweden since 1979, while pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the sulfadiazine resistance of the W-135 isolates indicated that the outbreak was probably due to a new clone of W-135 meningococci. PMID:11427599

  14. Decline in lymphatic filariasis transmission with annual mass drug administration using DEC with and without albendazole over a 10year period in India.

    PubMed

    Sunish, I P; Kalimuthu, M; Rajendran, R; Munirathinam, A; Ashok Kumar, V; Nagaraj, J; Tyagi, B K

    2015-02-01

    The National Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis is underway in the endemic districts of Tamil Nadu State, South India, since 2001. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was carried out by the state health department to all eligible individuals. The impact of MDAs on transmission parameters was evaluated in 2 revenue blocks, viz, one with DEC alone and the other with a combination of albendazole. After 10 years with 6 annual MDAs, the transmission indices reached low levels in both treatment arms, but still persisted. However, the DEC alone arm showed higher transmission rates, compared to the DEC+ALB arm. Few villages which demonstrated persistent transmission need to be targeted with an additional control measure viz, vector control, to achieve LF elimination. It is evident from the 10 year period of the study that inclusion of albendazole along with DEC has significantly reduced the transmission indices to almost nil level, as compared to DEC alone. PMID:25205435

  15. [Corpse disposal by embedding it in concrete--a rare form of preserving a body over a period of 5 years and 10 months].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Final disposal of a homicide victim in concrete is rare. Often missing persons are reported to the police, but the right of adults to determine their whereabouts can make it very difficult to locate them. A 40-year-old woman had been missing for 5 years and 10 months. She was found by the police in the cellar of the family's house, packed in airtight plastic film and embedded in concrete. The husband admitted to have killed her by manual strangulation after an argument during which she fell on the head. His statements were confirmed by the findings obtained from the very well preserved body. The autopsy results were generally consistent with manual strangulation. The literature does not contain many case reports on this rare method of disposing of a body. In the reported case, the postmortem period was remarkably long and the corpse was in a good state of preservation. PMID:26548026

  16. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number) across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013) period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001) of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4%) tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%). Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  17. Evolutionary trajectory of channel planforms in the middle Garonne River (Toulouse, SW France) over a 130-year period: Contribution of mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Mélodie; Labenne, Amaury; Carozza, Jean-Michel; Valette, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological essay for defining evolutionary trajectories of channel planforms and to examine the channel change in the middle Garonne River (southwest France) over a 130-year period. The study focuses on a reach of ~ 90 km situated downstream from the city of Toulouse. A set of four historical maps (1868, 1940s, 1970s, and 2000s) is used to build a geomorphometric diachronic database. Data processing through mixed multiple factor analysis (MFAmix) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) allows distinction between four homogeneous zones within the study reach, depending on their evolutionary trajectories. Channel behavior in the upstream and median zones evolved as of the beginning of the study period (narrowing of the fluvial area, colonization by vegetation, and removal of alluvial bars), likely owing to punctual anthropogenic actions. The downstream zone is characterized by stabilization of the channel and alluvial bar removal over the second half of the twentieth century, coinciding with the campaign undertaken by French local authorities between 1960 and 1984 to protect river banks. The role of climate transition between the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the onset of the Global Warming period (GW) is also discussed. Results generally are consistent with the chronology established for most European rivers.

  18. [Bilateral urolithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time in a 10-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Nishinaka, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirobe, Megumi; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2013-09-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. One of the urological adverse effects caused by zonisamide is urinary lithiasis. We reported bilateral urinary lithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time. A 10 year-old girl had been treated with zonisamide for intractable epilepsy for nine years. She progressively developed microscopic hematuria as well as crystalluria while being hospitalized for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. A computed tomography (CT) showed bilaterally hydronephrotic kidneys obstructed by multiple ureteral calculi. What was impressive was the fact that any single urinary calculus was not identified in a CT image taken just three weeks prior to this event. Then the diagnosis was made of zonisamide-induced bilateral urinary calculi and zonisamide treatment was discontinued. However, since the deterioration of renal function and left-sided hydronephrosis progressed, we performed the construction of right-sided percutaneous nephrostomy (PNS) and the transurethral placement of a left ureteral stent. Subsequently her condition was stabilized and all of these stones were discharged. The analysis of these stones showed mainly calcium phosphatic calculus. We eventually removed both the right PNS and the left ureteral stent. Since then, there has not been any recurrence thus far. We need to recognize the risk of progressively developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment for a relatively short period of time in the face of dehydration. PMID:24187857

  19. Sensing propagation events and fade statistics at C-band for two over-water, line-of-sight propagation paths over a one year period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Dockery, G. Daniel; Musiani, Bert H.

    1992-01-01

    We examine signal fading statistics over a year period corresponding to two over-water, line-of-site, propagation links in the mid-Atlantic coast of the US. These links are comprised of a transmitter on a tower at Parramore Island, VA operating at 4.7 GHz sending simultaneous cw signals to two receiver systems located on a lighthouse and a lookout tower on Assateague Beach, VA at distances of 44 and 39 km, respectively. The receiving sites are separated by approximately 5 km. Cumulative fade distributions corresponding to yearly, monthly, and diurnal time scales were derived. Fade duration statistics correspond to sustained attenuation events were also derived. These events, which were arbitrarily defined as having fades relative to free space powers in excess of 20 dB for durations of two hours or more, are believed to be generally due to subrefraction. Analysis of synoptic weather conditions and nearby rawindsonde data during two sustained deep fading periods showed atmospheric conditions consistent with extreme subrefraction, where the refractivity-height profile had a positive lapse rate. The efficacy of employing the links as indicators of real time conditions of atmospheric propagation was also demonstrated by a telephone call-up procedure which enabled displays of time series of the fading at remote locations to be generated.

  20. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010) isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30%) followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. PMID:23351308

  1. A collection of sub-daily pressure and temperature observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.

    2015-08-01

    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.

  2. Biodiversity of antifungal lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat over one-year period.

    PubMed

    Delavenne, E; Mounier, J; Déniel, F; Barbier, G; Le Blay, G

    2012-04-16

    Antifungal lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) biodiversity was evaluated in raw milk from ewe, cow and goat over one year period. Lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using 8 semi-selective media, and systematically screened for their antifungal activity against 4 spoilage fungi commonly encountered in dairy products. Depending on the selective medium, between 0.05% (Elliker agar) and 5.5% (LAMVAB agar) screened colonies showed an antifungal activity. The great majority of these active colonies originated from cow (49%) and goat (43%) milks, whereas only 8% were isolated from ewe milk. Penicillium expansum was the most frequently inhibited fungus with 48.5% of colonies active against P. expansum among the 1235 isolated, followed by Mucor plumbeus with 30.6% of active colonies, Kluyveromyces lactis with only 12.1% of active colonies and Pichia anomala with 8.7% of active colonies. In the tested conditions, 94% of the sequenced active colonies belonged to Lactobacillus. Among them, targeted fungal species differed according to the Lactobacillus group, whose presence largely depended on year period and milk origin. The Lb. casei and Lb. reuteri groups, predominantly recovered in summer/fall, were overrepresented in the population targeting M. plumbeus, whereas isolates from the Lb. plantarum group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting K. lactis, the ones belonging to the Lb. buchneri group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting P. anomala. Raw milk, especially cow and goat milks from the summer/fall period appeared to be a productive reservoir for antifungal lactobacilli. PMID:22364725

  3. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-Acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark: A Descriptive Analysis of Nationwide Prescriptions during a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long-acting BZD (half-life >10 hr), compared to short-acting BZD in Denmark during a 10-year period. Descriptive analysis of total sales data from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, to individuals in the primary healthcare sector, of all BZD and Z drugs in the period of 2003-2013. Prescription data derive from all community and hospital pharmacies in Denmark. The prescribing of long-acting BZD was reduced from 25.8 defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 8.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 66%. The prescribing of short-acting BZD was reduced from 26.1 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2003 to 16.4 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day in 2013, a relative reduction of 37%. Prescription data in this study did not include information about indications for initiating treatments. In addition, due to compliance problems, some of the prescribed drugs may not have been consumed according to the prescription. The observed reduction in BZD use was correlated to the introduction of new national guidelines on prescription of addictive drugs, but this study was not designed to detect a causal relationship. The prescribing of long-acting BZD decreased considerably more than the prescribing of short-acting BZD in the 10-year period. PMID:25382355

  4. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. PMID:26858474

  5. Investigations on hydrogen storage properties of Mg{sub 2}Ni+x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=0, 10, 20, 30) composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Xin; Han Shumin; Zhu Xilin; Liu Baozhong; Liu Yanqing

    2012-06-15

    Mg{sub 2}Ni+x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=0, 10, 20, 30) composites have been prepared by ball milling Mg{sub 2}Ni and LaMg{sub 2}Ni hydrides. X-ray Diffraction indicates that the composites consist of LaH{sub 3} and Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phases. Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phase transforms between with Mg{sub 2}Ni phase during hydriding/dehydriding cycling, while the LaH{sub 3} phase exists still after dehydriding process. Backscatter Electron results reveal that the LaH{sub 3} phase, which is decomposed from hydrided LaMg{sub 2}Ni, distributes in Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy homogeneously after ball milling procedure. Hydriding/Dehydriding measurements indicate significant improvement in reversible hydrogen storage properties of the composites over Mg{sub 2}Ni at low temperature. At 473 K, the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg{sub 2}Ni+20 wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni composite reaches 3.22 wt% and can reversely desorb hydrogen completely, while the pure Mg{sub 2}Ni hydride is hardly desorbs hydrogen at this temperature. The improvement in the hydrogen storage properties is attributed to the existence of LaH{sub 3} phase in the composites. - Graphical abstract: The Mg{sub 2}Ni + x wt% LaMg{sub 2}Ni (x=10, 20, 30) composites display enhancement on reversible hydrogen storage properties compared with that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tittle La is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy without multiphase created. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni by hydrogen decomposed ball-milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible hydrogen storage properties at low temperature are improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen storage capacity of composites is beyond 3 wt% at 473 K.

  6. Formulation of an organic carbon trajectory over a 10-year period on a restored spoil island in south-central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, T.; Ellis, R.; Osborne, T.; Hicks Pries, C.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of restoration projects aims to determine long-term sustainability and stability of restored systems. In coastal wetlands, one indicator of restoration of ecosystem function can be seen with organic matter (specifically carbon) accretion. SL-15, a spoil island in Fort Pierce, Fl was restored in 2005, and has been monitored for return to natural condition over the last 10 years.. To assess sediment carbon accretion, sediment cores were collected in a set of eight plots, located on the SL-15 mangrove island and the surrounding seagrass recruitment area. These were analyzed for organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, extractable carbon, and total nitrogen. The biogeochemical data collected in the previous year was compared to data collected in 2005-2007. Vegetation surveys were also completed to show the build-up of organic material in accordance with vegetation shift over the 9-year period. From this information, a trajectory has been formulated on organic carbon accretion and vegetation shift from the time of orginal restoration activities. By comparison to control sites nearby, realistic estimates of time required to reach natural levels of carbon and vegetation community structure can be calculated..

  7. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  8. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  9. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  10. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, survey periods, and birth cohorts. The analytical sample was 37,609 dentate (ie, with at least 1 permanent tooth) adults aged 25 years or older. We applied hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified random-effects models for the trend analysis. Results The estimated number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes increased more with age than that among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (z = 4.05, P < .001) or Mexican Americans with diabetes (z = 4.38, P < .001). During 1971–2012, there was a significant decreasing trend in the number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (slope = −0.20, P < .001) and non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes (slope = −0.37, P < .001). However, adults with diabetes had about twice the tooth loss as did those without diabetes. Conclusion Substantial differences in tooth loss between adults with and without diabetes and across racial/ethnic groups persisted over time. Appropriate dental care and tooth retention need to be further promoted among adults with diabetes. PMID:26632952

  11. Influenza transmission during a one‐year period (2009–2010) in a Sahelian city: low temperature plays a major role

    PubMed Central

    Jusot, Jean‐François; Adamou, Lagaré; Collard, Jean‐Marc

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jusot J‐François et al. (2011) Influenza transmission during a one‐year period (2009–2010) in a Sahelian city: low temperature plays a major role. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2011.00286.x. This work aimed at studying the link between some climatic factors and the occurrence of influenza in Niamey, Niger. Patients with influenza like illness or severe acute respiratory illness were recruited through a sentinel network. A nasopharyngeal swab was sampled and tested for influenza viruses A and B by RT‐PCR. Time series of daily counts of influenza cases and climatic factors were linked using a generalized additive model. Among the 320 patients recruited, 76 were confirmed positive for influenza. Influenza cases increased significantly with minimal temperatures and high visibility. This work brings some valuable explanation to the impact of low temperatures on influenza transmission. PMID:21933356

  12. Persistence of a multiresistant clone of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a neonatal intensive-care unit for a four-year period.

    PubMed

    Lyytikäinen, O; Saxén, H; Ryhänen, R; Vaara, M; Vuopio-Varkila, J

    1995-01-01

    A cluster of cases of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteremia in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during 1991 raised the question of whether these infections were caused by a single strain. Sixty-seven isolates of S. epidermidis from blood cultures of 56 neonates treated in the NICU between 1986 and 1992 and 54 control strains from other patients with bacteremia were characterized by three typing methods: antibiogram, plasmid profile, and ribotype. Plasmid profiles and ribotype patterns indicated that 11 (16%) of the 67 episodes of S. epidermidis bacteremia in the NICU were caused by a single strain. Although this epidemic strain did not account entirely for the increase in the incidence of bacteremia in the NICU, it did persist for 4 years during the study period. Other clones responsible for smaller outbreaks were also found. These results suggest that S. epidermidis cross-infections are very common in the NICU setting. PMID:7727665

  13. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Clark, J. D.; Hamme, W. Van; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  14. Use of Medicines from the Group of Benzodiazepines in the Period of 2003-2013 Year in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Petrushevska, Tatjana; Velik Stefanovska, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of benzodiazepines in the period of 2003-2013 year in the Republic of Macedonia (MKD). METHOD: The study was cross sectional and analyzes the available data on the use of benzodiazepines in the country. This study used several sources of data: Statistical Reports of the United Nations regarding the consumption of psychotropic substances; data from the Ministry of Health associated with the use of benzodiazepines (BZD), derived from reports of Ministry of Health stakeholders; Data extracted from the database of the Ministry of Health in the electronic database “My term” and Analysis of reports of Health Insurance Fund. RESULTS: The analysis for the period 2003-2013 showed that the most consumed drug in MKD from the group of BZD is Diazepam, with 54.8 and predominantly is use of diazepam of 5 mg with 59 %. According to the Health Insurance Fund, Diazepam is second most prescribed medicaments of all medicaments with marketing authorization in MKD. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis shows that the use of BZD in MKD is particularly high. Limited number of studies was performed for this kind of drugs relating to their effects; differences in use between genders; adult population. There is need for additional focused research that will contribute to developing a full picture of the situation.

  15. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P

    2015-10-01

    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  16. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (p<0.05). In conclusion, baseline physical independence, baseline co-morbidities, and changes in co-morbidities, walking, agility, and aerobic endurance predicted physical independence over five years regardless of age and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. PMID:26966842

  17. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 2: Continuous ground-water level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Cressler, Alan M.; Leeth, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins. To obtain a copy of the CD version of this report, you may call the U.S. Geological Survey office in Atlanta at (770) 903-9100, or send e-mail to request the publication. Please include your name and mailing address in your e-mail.

  18. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  19. Child mortality in a West African population protected with insecticide-treated curtains for a period of up to 6 years.

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, D. A.; Cousens, S. N.; Cuzin-Ouattara, N.; Nebié, I.; Ilboudo-Sanogo, E.; Esposito, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of insecticide-treated curtains (ITC) on all-cause child mortality (6-59 months) over a period of six years. To determine whether initial reductions in child mortality following the implementation of ITC are sustained over the longer term or whether "delayed" mortality occurs. METHODS: A rural population of ca 100 000 living in an area with high, seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission was studied in Burkina Faso. Annual censuses were conducted from 1993 to 2000 to measure child mortality. ITC to cover doors, windows, and eaves were provided to half the population in 1994 with the remainder receiving ITC in 1996. Curtains were re-treated or, if necessary, replaced annually. FINDINGS: Over six years of implementation of ITC, no evidence of the shift in child mortality from younger to older children was observed. Estimates of the reduction in child mortality associated with ITC ranged from 19% to 24%. CONCLUSIONS: In our population there was no evidence to suggest that initial reduction in child mortality associated with the introduction of insecticide-treated materials was subsequently compromised by a shift in child mortality to older-aged children. Estimates of the impact of ITC on child mortality in this population range from 19% to 24%. PMID:15042229

  20. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  1. [Centipede stings notified by the "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém", over a 2-year period].

    PubMed

    Barroso, E; Hidaka, A S; dos Santos, A X; Matos França, J D; de Sousa, A M; Rodrigues Valente, J; Amoras Magalhães, A F; Oliveira Pardal, P P

    2001-01-01

    Centipedes are arthropods of the class Chilopoda. The objective of this work was to study the incidence of accidents involving centipedes at "Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém" (CIT-Belém) over a two-year period. Seventy-six patients were studied from March 30, 1998 until March 30, 2000. Centipede accidents occurred in 16.8% of all accidents by venomous animals at Centro de Informações Toxicológicas de Belém; compared to snake accidents, 44.4 % and scorpion accidents, 20.5%. The majority of cases occurred in the residence (86.8%). The most important age group was 20-49 years old (64.4%). The part of human body mostly affected was the superior members (47.4 %). Local pain and edema were found in 95.8% and 52.1% of the patients, respectively. Treatment was symptomatic. Healing occurred in 94.7%, although the outcome of 5.3% of cases was unknown. Centipede accidents are a benign accident, occurring within the residence and treatment consists of measures to decrease the pain. PMID:11813058

  2. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    PubMed Central

    Postec, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal members. The Methanosarcinales, also observed by epifluorescent microscopy and FISH, consisted of two phylotypes that were previously solely detected in two other serpentinitzing ecosystems (The Cedars and Lost City Hydrothermal Field). Surprisingly, members of the hyperthermophilic order Thermococcales were also found which may indicate the presence of a hot subsurface biosphere. The bacterial community mainly consisted of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Alpha-, Gamma-, Beta-, and Delta-proteobacteria and of the candidate division NPL-UPA2. Members of these taxa were consistently found each year and may therefore represent a stable core of the indigenous bacterial community of the PHF chimneys. Firmicutes isolates representing new bacterial taxa were obtained by cultivation under anaerobic conditions. Our study revealed diverse microbial communities in PHF ST09 related to methane and sulfur compounds that share common populations with other terrestrial or submarine serpentinizing ecosystems. PMID:26379636

  3. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  4. Child and elderly victims in forensic autopsy during a recent 5 year period in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B L; Oritani, S; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Sakoda, S; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

    2000-09-11

    To outline the recent features of child and elderly victims from the medico-legal perspective with special reference to abuse and neglect, a retrospective investigation of forensic autopsy cases over a 5 year period (1994-1998) in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas (a population of 1.57 million) was undertaken. Among 646 autopsy cases, there were 53 child cases (under the age of 15 years, about 80% below 6) and 121 elderly cases (65 years old and above). Nearly half of the child deaths and more than half of the elderly deaths were described as accidental. Fire and traffic victims were much more frequent in the elderly. Child victims included those of neonaticide/infanticide (n=6), physical abuse (n=10), unintentional fatal infliction (n=2), neglect (n=2), mutual suicide (n=2), suicide (n=1) and murder (n=3). Child abuse and neglect were domestic maltreatment by the parents. In this series, there was a comparable number of fatalities due to maltreatment in the elderly (n=13) and in children, and non-domestic violence was more frequent in the elderly than domestic violence. Elderly females tended to be battered by their sons or grandsons in domestic violence cases, whereas males were predominantly attacked by younger males in non-domestic violence. The other elderly victims included those of self-neglect (n=2), murder (n=7) and suicide (n=9). Non-domestic homicide of the elderly occurred mainly in the center of the city, whereas domestic maltreatment of children and the elderly was sporadic, although somewhat more frequent in the peripheral zone of the city and the surrounding areas. The above profile of child and elderly abuse suggests a substantial influence of social and familial backgrounds. PMID:10978628

  5. Prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H

    1987-02-01

    The prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). Data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. Parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); G. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); 3rd instar, 81%(51); stomach worms (n = 200) - Habronema muscae, 65%(179); Draschia megastoma, 29%(95); Trichostrongylus axei, 46%(3000); ascarids (n = 513) - Parascaris equorum, mature, 50%(25); immature, 23%(33); tapeworms (n = 513), Anoplocephala perfoliata, 17%(15); A. magna, 14%(10); large strongyles (n = 487), Strongylus vulgaris, 84%(80); S. edentatus, 79%(101); S. equinus, 6%(14); small strongyles (n = 210), 100%(142,000); pinworms (Oxyuris equi), immature (n = 210), 78%(9000); mature (n = 506), 40%(62); Probstmayria vivipara (n = 210), 12%(10(7]; S. vulgaris in cranial mesenteric artery (n = 472), 89%(57). The majority of the horses examined were mixed lighthorse type but several Thoroughbreds were included. Ages varied from about 4 months to 20 years old, with most being approximately 1-3 years old. They probably had either no or infrequent previous treatment with parasiticides. Most of the horses were selected for presence of certain internal parasites, usually large strongyles, prior to usage in the critical tests. PMID:3564356

  6. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS) a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A) is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI) and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC) and augmented RIC (aRIC) models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B) and post- bronchodilation (post-B) conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H) and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI). The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp) and peripheral resistance (Rp) tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle") showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In this work we

  7. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T.; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000–2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000–05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010–14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44–91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  8. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements. PMID:26623676

  9. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Walford, Roy L; Mock, Dennis; Verdery, Roy; MacCallum, Taber

    2002-06-01

    Four female and four male crew members, including two of the present authors (R. Walford and T. MacCallum)--seven of the crew being ages 27 to 42 years, and one aged 67 years--were sealed inside Biosphere 2 for two years. During seven eighths of that period they consumed a low-calorie (1750-2100 kcal/d) nutrient-dense diet of vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, and legumes, with small amounts of dairy, eggs, and meat (approximately 12% calories from protein, approximately 11% from fat, and approximately 77% from complex carbohydrates). They experienced a marked and sustained weight loss of 17 +/- 5%, mostly in the first 8 months. Blood was drawn before entry into Biosphere 2, at many time-points inside it, and four times during the 30 months following exit from it and return to an ad libitum diet. Longitudinal studies of 50 variables on each crew member compared outside and inside values by means of a Bayesian statistical analysis. The data show that physiologic (e.g., body mass index, with a decrease of 19% for men and 13% for women; blood pressure, with a systolic decrease of 25% and a diastolic decrease of 22%), hematologic (e.g., white blood cell count, decreased 31%), hormonal (e.g., insulin, decreased 42%; T3, decreased 19%), biochemical (e.g., blood sugar, decreased 21%; cholesterol, decreased 30%), and a number of additional changes, including values for rT3, cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, plus others, resembled those of rodents or monkeys maintained on a calorie-restricted regime. Significant variations in several substances not hitherto studied in calorie-restricted animals are also reported (e.g., androstenedione, thyroid binding globulin, renin, and transferrin). We conclude that healthy nonobese humans on a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet show physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical changes resembling those of rodents and monkeys on such diets. With regard to the health of humans on such a diet, we observed that despite the selective

  10. Population fluctuations of Pyrodinium bahamense and Ceratium furca (Dinophyceae) in Laguna Grande, Puerto Rico, and environmental variables associated during a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Miguel P; Sánchez, Efrain; Flores, Marineé; Astacio, Samuel; Rodríguez, Julianna; Santiago, Melissa; Olivieri, Karina; Francis, Veronica; Núñez, Juan

    2013-12-01

    Bioluminescent bays and lagoons are unique natural environments and popular tourist attractions. However, the bioluminescence in many of these water bodies has declined, principally due to anthropogenic activities. In the Caribbean, the bioluminescence in these bays and lagoons is mostly produced by the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense. Laguna Grande is one of the three year-round bioluminescent water bodies in Puerto Rico that are known to remain but P. bahamense var. bahamense density fluctuations have not been studied. In this study we describe water quality parameters and density fluctuations of the most common dinoflagellates in Laguna Grande, P. bahamense var. bahamense and Ceratium furca, over a three-year period. For this, three sampling stations were established in Laguna Grande from which water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for temperature, phosphates, nitrates, salinity, water transparency, fluorescence, and dinoflagellate densities, at the water surface and at 2m depth, from May 2003 to May 2006. The results showed a density fluctuation pattern for P. bahamense var. bahamense, where higher densities were observed mainly from April to September, and lower densities from October to February. Density fluctuations of C. furca were more erratic and a repetitive pattern was not observed. Densities of P. bahamense var. bahamense ranged from 0.48 to 90978 cells/L and densities of C. furca ranged from 0 to 11,200 cells/L. The mean population density throughout the sampling period was significantly higher in P. bahamense var. bahamense (mean = 18,958.5 cells/L) than in C. furca (mean = 2601.9 cells/L). Population densities of P. bahamense var. bahamense were negatively correlated with C. furca densities during the first year of sampling; however, they were positively correlated during the third year. Non-significant differences between surface and 2m depth samples were observed for temperature, phosphates, nitrates, salinity

  11. Changes in the types of liver diseases requiring hepatic resection: a single-institution experience of 9016 cases over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwui-Dong; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Kwang-Min; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Jin Cheon; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To understand the changing demands for hepatic resection (HR), we collected data regarding HR performed in a tertiary centre over a period of 10 years. Methods We carried out extensive search of institutional databases to identify HR cases performed between January 2005 and December 2014. A study cohort of 9,016 patients were divided into 5 disease categories, namely hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), intrahepatic duct stone disease (IHDS), colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM), and uncommon/rare diseases (URD). Results There were 5,661 (62.8%) HCC cases, followed by 1441 (16.0%) CRLM, 942 (10.5%) ICC, 638 (7.1%) IHDS and 334 (3.7%) URD. The number of annual HR cases gradually increased from 443 in 2005 to 1,260 in 2015. Annual HCC cases also gradually increased, but the annual proportion of HCC cases fluctuated narrowly between 58.3% and 70.2%. Annual CRLM cases increased rapidly, and their proportion increased progressively from 4.7% to 20.5%. Annual ICC cases increased slowly, and their annual proportion fluctuated between 7.2% and 15.6%. Annual IHDS cases decreased slowly, and their annual proportion decreased progressively from 17.2% to 3.4%, while annual URD cases fluctuated, with annual proportions varying between 2.3% and 5.6%. Conclusions Annual cases of HR increased over the last 10 years in a tertiary center probably due to a center-specific centralization effect. The number of CRLM cases increased rapidly; those of HCC and ICC increased gradually, and those of IHDS declined gradually. We believe that these results reflect real changes in the types of liver disease requiring HR. PMID:27212990

  12. Sexual behaviors over a 3-year period among individuals with advanced HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Bonnie; Kamya, Moses R.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Kiragga, Agnes; Kambugu, Andrew; Wanyama, Jane N; Easterbrook, Philippa; Sethi, Ajay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have prospectively examined sexual behaviors of HIV-infected person on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods From 2004 to 2005, 559 HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals initiating ART at an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda were enrolled into a prospective study and followed to 2008. Clinical and sexual behavior information was assessed at enrollment and semi-annually for three years after ART initiation. Using log-binomial regression models, we estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) to determine factors associated with being sexually active and having unprotected sex over three-years after initiating ART. Results 559 adults contributed 2,594 person-visits of follow-up. At the time of ART initiation, 323 (57.9%) were sexually active of which 176 (54.5%) had unprotected sex at last sexual intercourse. Majority (63.4%) of married individuals were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Female gender (PR=2.97; 95% CI: 1.85, 4.79), being married (PR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.06), and reporting unprotected sex prior to ART (PR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.42) were among factors independently associated with unprotected sex while on ART. Overall, 7.3% of visit intervals of unprotected sex, 1.0% of intervals of sexual activity, occurred when plasma viral load >1,500 copies/ml, representing periods of greater HIV transmission risk. Conclusions Although unprotected sex reduced over time, women reported unprotected sex more often than men. Disclosure of HIV status was low. Integration of comprehensive prevention programs into HIV care is needed, particularly ones specific for women. PMID:21297481

  13. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana, base period water years 1937-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.; Hull, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of streamflow characteristics (monthly mean flow that is exceeded 90, 80, 50, and 20 percent of the time for all years of record and mean monthly flow) were made and are presented in tabular form for 312 sites in the Missouri River basin in Montana. Short-term gaged records were extended to the base period of water years 1937-86, and were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at 100 sites. Data from 47 gaged sites were used in regression analysis relating the streamflow characteristics to basin characteristics and to active-channel width. The basin-characteristics equations, with standard errors of 35% to 97%, were used to estimate streamflow characteristics at 179 ungaged sites. The channel-width equations, with standard errors of 36% to 103%, were used to estimate characteristics at 138 ungaged sites. Streamflow measurements were correlated with concurrent streamflows at nearby gaged sites to estimate streamflow characteristics at 139 ungaged sites. In a test using 20 pairs of gages, the standard errors ranged from 31% to 111%. At 139 ungaged sites, the estimates from two or more of the methods were weighted and combined in accordance with the variance of individual methods. When estimates from three methods were combined the standard errors ranged from 24% to 63 %. A drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at seven ungaged sites. The reliability of the drainage-area-ratio adjustment method was estimated to be about equal to that of the basin-characteristics method. The estimate were checked for reliability. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics from gaged records were considered to be most reliable, and estimates at sites with actual flow record from 1937-86 were considered to be completely reliable (zero error). Weighted-average estimates were considered to be the most reliable estimates made at ungaged sites. (USGS)

  14. Application of Moran’s Test with an Empirical Bayesian Rate to Leading Health Care Problems in Taiwan in a 7-Year Period (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pui-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study focused on using Moran’s tests and logistic regression to detect changes in spatial clustering for females and males. Methods: For spatial distribution analysis, an average morbidity rate for a 7-year period was calculated. Medical cases from Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) were used as the numerator, and the denominator was the average mid-year population. Spatial analysis techniques, with a morbidity-smoothing coefficient estimate based on the empirical Bayesian method, were incorporated and applied to global and local Moran tests. In addition, we used a logistic regression model to test the characteristics of similarity and dissimilarity between males and females and to formulate the common spatial risk. Results: The mean found by local spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify spatial cluster patterns. There is great interest in discovering the relationship between leading health care problems and spatial risk factors. For example, in Taiwan, the geographic distribution of clusters where neoplasms were prevalent was found to closely correspond to the locations in the arseniasis-endemic areas of Southwestern and Northeastern Taiwan, as well as to locations in the Tainan urban area (for females) and clusters in Changhua County and Yunlin County (for males). The high-density populations in urban areas showed carcinogen clusters in Taiwan’s 3 main urban centers (i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung) for female neoplasms. Conclusion: Cluster mapping helped clarify issues such as the spatial aspects of both the internal and external correlations for leading health care events. This information greatly assists in assessing spatial risk factors, which facilitates the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, as well as the implementation of effective health care services. PMID:22980379

  15. Under-nutrition at baseline and health services utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbin; Brown, Cynthia J.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services. Design This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups. Setting Participants were evaluated in their homes. Participants 198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services. Results Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants. Conclusions Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes. PMID:21527170

  16. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department. PMID:25298542

  17. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  18. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years – The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, H. Susan J.; Pas, L. Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Proper, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. Methods From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load. PMID:26752695

  19. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of <4kg/d at least 30d before expected calving date and were dried off. Milk yield was recorded and EB was calculated from wk -8 to 9 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken weekly from wk -3 to 8 relative to calving. Liver samples were taken in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. At the onset of lactation, cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or

  20. Utilization and costs of home-based and community-based care within a social HMO: trends over an 18-year period

    PubMed Central

    Leutz, Walter; Nonnenkamp, Lucy; Dickinson, Lynn; Brody, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Our objective was to describe the utilization and costs of services from 1985 to 2002 of a Social Health Maintenance Organization (SHMO) demonstration project providing a benefit for home-based and community-based as well as short-term institutional (HCB) care at Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), serving the Portland, Oregon area. The HCB care benefit was offered by KPNW as a supplement to Medicare's acute care medical benefits, which KPNW provides in an HMO model. KPNW receives a monthly per capita payment from Medicare to provide medical benefits, and Medicare beneficiaries who choose to join pay a supplemental premium that covers prescription drugs, HCB care benefits, and other services. A HCB care benefit of up to $12,000 per year in services was available to SHMO members meeting requirement for nursing home certification (NHC). Methods We used aggregate data to track temporal changes in the period 1985 to 2002 on member eligibility, enrollment in HCB care plans, age, service utilization and co-payments. Trends in the overall costs and financing of the HCB care benefit were extracted from quarterly reports, management data, and finance data. Results During the time period, 14,815 members enrolled in the SHMO and membership averaged 4,531. The proportion of SHMO members aged 85 or older grew from 12 to 25%; proportion meeting requirements for NHC rose from 4 to 27%; and proportion with HCB care plans rose from 4 to 18%. Costs for the HCB care benefit rose from $21 per SHMO member per month in 1985 to $95 in 2002. The HCB care costs were equivalent to 12% to 16% of Medicare reimbursement. The HCB program costs were covered by member premiums (which rose from $49 to $180) and co-payments from members with care plans. Over the 18-year period, spending shifted from nursing homes to a range of community services, e.g. personal care, homemaking, member reimbursement, lifeline, equipment, transportation, shift care, home nursing, adult day care

  1. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  2. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Invasive Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a Spanish Hospital over a Nine-Year Study Period, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Soriano, Francisco; Hernández, Marta; Stessl, Beatrix; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenicity, invasiveness, and genetic relatedness of 17 clinical Listeria monocytogenes stains isolated over a period of nine years (2006–2014). All isolates were phenotypically characterised and growth patterns were determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined in E-tests. Invasion assays were performed with epithelial HeLa cells. Finally, L. monocytogenes isolates were subtyped by PFGE and MLST. All isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics (β-haemolysis and lecithinase activity), and three types of growth curve were observed. Bacterial recovery rates after invasion assays ranged from 0.09% to 7.26% (1.62 ± 0.46). MLST identified 11 sequence types (STs), and 14 PFGE profiles were obtained, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity. Genetic studies unequivocally revealed the occurrence of one outbreak of listeriosis in humans that had not previously been reported. This outbreak occurred in October 2009 and affected three patients from neighbouring towns. In conclusion, the molecular epidemiological analysis clearly revealed a cluster (three human cases, all ST1) of not previously reported listeriosis cases in northwestern Spain. Our findings indicate that molecular subtyping, in combination with epidemiological case analysis, is essential and should be implemented in routine diagnosis, to improve the tracing of the sources of outbreaks. PMID:26539467

  4. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  5. [POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS ANALYSIS OF SCREENING IN PREGNANT WOMEN FOR DOWN SYNDROME AND OTHER COMMON CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS OVER A PERIOD OF TWO YEARS].

    PubMed

    Hachmerian M; Angelova L; Ivanov St; Kovachev E

    2016-01-01

    Maternal biochemical screening and the new non-invasive prenatal screening tests as well as prenatal diagnostic tests as tools to fight serious chromosomal diseases have their possibilities and limitations. The article presents analysis of the results in 7 201 pregnant women: 4426 first trimester and 2775 second trimester biochemical screening, together with 994 calculated integrated risks performed in the Laboratory of medical genetics in 2013 and 2014 year. A matter of mass screening in both periods is the criterion of efficiency--financially justified reasons on the basis of comparison "sensitivity" of different approaches. First trimester screening revealed 5 (71.42%) cases of chromosomal disease and 1 (14.28%) case with large congenital anomaly. From second trimester biochemical screening 3 (60%) cases were revealed. Chromosomal pathology in pregnant women with calculated integrated risk was found in 7 (70%) cases. From a total of 22 screened pregnant women with prenatal or postnatal verified diagnosis of Down syndrome, Edvards, Patau or Turner, highest detection rate is found in first trimester screening--6 of 7 (85.7%). Contingent approach is most widely used in Europe and we confidently recommend it. PMID:27514138

  6. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977

  7. Air quality and organic compounds in aerosols from a coastal rural area in the Western Iberian Peninsula over a year long period: Characterisation, loads and seasonal trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Tiago; Pio, Casimiro; Alves, Célia; Silvestre, Armando; Evtyugina, Margarita; Afonso, Joana; Caseiro, Alexandre; Legrand, Michel

    Ambient samples of fine organic aerosol collected from a rural area (Moitinhos) in the vicinity of the small coastal Portuguese city of Aveiro over a period of more than one year have been solvent-extracted and quantitatively characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Particles were also analysed with a thermal-optical technique in order to determine their elemental and organic carbon content. In addition, meteorological sensors and real-time black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide monitors were used. Particulate matter values were higher than background levels in continental Europe. A patent seasonal variation for organic and elemental carbon concentrations was observed, presumably related to stronger local primary emissions and to limited vertical dispersion. The higher levels were most likely a result of residential wood burning, since black carbon and carbon monoxide maximised during late evening hours in wintertime. Of the bulk of elutable organics, more than a half, on average, was present as acidic fraction. Alcohols, aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons represented together, more than 30% of the elutable mass, also showing a marked seasonal pattern with a minimum in summer and a maximum in winter. The winter increase was more evident for resinic acids, phytosterols, n-alkanoic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  8. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p < 0.01), which lead to the conclusion that (NH4)2SO4 was a major compound present in this area. The 3-day backward trajectories of air mass arriving at Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the

  9. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia over a one-year follow-up period

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong; LI, Chenhu; ZHAO, Liyu; ZHAN, Guilai

    2015-01-01

    treatment, improve insight about the illness, enhance social functioning, and reduce relapse over a one-year follow-up period. Further research of this treatment with larger and more diverse samples of patients with schizophrenia is merited. PMID:26549958

  10. Variations in water level for Lake Turkana in the past 8500 years near Mt. Porr, Kenya and the transition from the African Humid Period to Holocene aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Steven L.; Wright, David K.; Bloszies, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    A stratigraphic and geomorphic study of relict beaches up to 80 m above current water level of Lake Turkana reveal four major lake level fluctuations of >50 m between ca 8.5 and 4.5 ka during the transition from the African Humid Period to Holocene aridity. We hypothesize that high stands of Lake Turkana reflect complex hydrological processes with variability in Atlantic and Indian Ocean-derived moisture into East Africa, ultimately linked to changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Lake level rise was also amplified regionally by increased precipitation causing overflow from the adjacent Suguta and Chew Bahir basins, particularly during high stands at ca >8.5 ka and at 6.4 ka. The timing of transgressive and regressive events is constrained by 14C dating of carefully selected lacustrine mollusks, incorporation of previous shell ages with sufficient elevational control, and OSL dating of quartz grains from littoral and sublittoral deposits by a multiple aliquot regeneration (MAR) approach. There was a high water level up to at least 70 m at >8.5 ka that probably reached the spillover limit ˜100 m. A brief (<500 yr) high stand up to at least 50 m at ca 7 ka appears to be coincident with warm postglacial SSTs in the western Indian Ocean and thus may reflect a strengthened East African Monsoon, though some precipitation was probably derived from Atlantic sources as well. A pronounced high stand inferred at ca 6.4 ka, possibly up to 100 m, is associated with warming across the Indian Ocean and equatorward compression of the ITCZ, thus reflecting a strengthened East African Monsoon. A high stand occurred at ca 5.5-5.0 ka up to at least 80 m, with a precipitous drop in lake level by 4.6 ka. Evidence from relict Porr strand plain indicate that lake level was probably below 20 m since ca 4.5 ka, though there were two noticeable high stands up to 12-20 m at ca 830 years ago and <100 years, the latter age is consistent with the historic record.

  11. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  12. Assessment of the prevalence of occupational accidents and their influential actors in an electricity distribution company during a five-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghain, Marzieh; Farid, Ramin Ataei; Dormohammadi, Ali; Aghaei, Habib Allah; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Farhadi, Rozita; Eskandari, Rasoul; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents have been considered as one of the most important crippling factors contributing to disabilities and life-threatening situations in many countries. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of occupational accidents and the factors of that lead to injuries in an Electricity Distribution Company during a five-year period. Methods: In this descriptive study, the accident report form included items asking about the season of the year when the accident occurred, the ages and the average age of those injured, the type of employment, work experience, nature of the injuries that occurred, parts of the body affected, treatments that were applied, average number of days lost per accident, the levels of education of those involved, and their marital status. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: A total of 66 Electricity Distribution Company workers were determined to be suffering from injuries due to accidents. The accidents mostly occurred in the summer (33%). Most of the injured workers (16.7%) belonged to the age groups of 25 to 29 and 40 to 44; there were no accidents reported for workers who were less than 20. About 48% of the accident victims had to be hospitalized. Furthermore, 35% of the accident victims were treated in outpatient clinics, and 7.4% of the accident victims died. We demonstrated that there were significant relationships between: 1) marital status and accidental injuries (P<0.001); 2) the average age of those injured among both permanent and temporary workers (P<0.001), 3) the level of education and the consequences of the accidents (P<0.001), and 4) the average of days lost per accident in both the permanent and temporary workers (P<0.001). In this study, no significant relationships were found between the accident occurrence and age (P>0.05) or work experience and the distribution of the accidents (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that most of the injuries in these accidents were related to the

  13. The use of laboratory-determined ion exchange parameters in the predictive modelling of field-scale major cation migration in groundwater over a 40-year period.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Harriet F; Tellam, John H; Parker, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate quantitatively cation concentration changes as estuary water invades a Triassic Sandstone aquifer in northwest England. Cation exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients for Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were measured in the laboratory using standard techniques. Selectivity coefficients were also determined using a method involving optimized back-calculation from flushing experiments, thus permitting better representation of field conditions; in all cases, the Gaines-Thomas/constant cation exchange capacity (CEC) model was found to be a reasonable, though not perfect, first description. The exchange parameters interpreted from the laboratory experiments were used in a one-dimensional reactive transport mixing cell model, and predictions compared with field pumping well data (Cl and hardness spanning a period of around 40 years, and full major ion analyses in approximately 1980). The concentration patterns predicted using Gaines-Thomas exchange with calcite equilibrium were similar to the observed patterns, but the concentrations of the divalent ions were significantly overestimated, as were 1980 sulphate concentrations, and 1980 alkalinity concentrations were underestimated. Including representation of sulphate reduction in the estuarine alluvium failed to replicate 1980 HCO(3) and pH values. However, by including partial CO(2) degassing following sulphate reduction, a process for which there is 34S and 18O evidence from a previous study, a good match for SO(4), HCO(3), and pH was attained. Using this modified estuary water and averaged values from the laboratory ion exchange parameter determinations, good predictions for the field cation data were obtained. It is concluded that the Gaines-Thomas/constant exchange capacity model with averaged parameter values can be used successfully in ion exchange predictions in this aquifer at a regional scale and over extended time scales, despite the numerous assumptions inherent in

  14. Multi-wavelength Light Curve Model of the One-year Recurrence Period Nova M31N 2008-12A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi

    2015-07-01

    We present a theoretical light curve model of the recurrent nova M31N 2008-12a, the current record holder for the shortest recurrence period (1 year). We combined interior structures calculated using a Henyey-type evolution code with optically thick wind solutions of hydrogen-rich envelopes, which give the proper mass-loss rates, photospheric temperatures, and luminosities. The light curve model is calculated for a 1.38 {M}⊙ white dwarf (WD) with an accretion rate of 1.6× {10}-7 {M}⊙ yr-1. This model shows a very high effective temperature ({log} {T}{ph} ({{K}})≥slant 4.97) and a very small wind mass-loss rate ({\\dot{M}}{wind}≤slant 9.3× {10}-6 {M}⊙ yr-1) even at the maximum expansion of the photosphere. These properties are consistent with the faint optical peak of M31N 2008-12a because the brightness of the free-free emission is proportional to the square of the mass-loss rate. The model well reproduces the short supersoft X-ray turn-on time of 6 days and turn-off time of 18 days after the outburst. The ejecta mass of our model is calculated to be 6.3× {10}-8 {M}⊙ , corresponding to 37% of the accreted mass. The growth rate of the WD is 0.63 times the mass accretion rate, making it a progenitor for a SN Ia. Our light curve model predicts a bright supersoft X-ray phase one or two days before the optical peak. We encourage detection of this X-ray flash in future outbursts.

  15. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  16. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A−B+ strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels. PMID:27165560

  17. 50-year return-period wet-snow load estimation based on weather station data for overhead line design in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloux, H.; Nygaard, B. E.

    2014-11-01

    Historically, as far as wet-snow loads were concerned, overhead line design was often based on experience or long-term applications with positive results. New standard like CENELEC EN 580341-1 (2012) take into account characteristic loads, i.e. 50-year return-period loads, for the overhead line design. This article proposes a method to estimate characteristic wet-snow loads based on meteorological data recorded at weather stations. The model used to calculate those loads is mainly inspired by a recent article written by Nygaard et al. (2013a) in which a new parameterization is proposed for the classical cylindrical wet-snow accretion model, as described in ISO 12494 standard (2001), annex C. After a complete description of the model and its parameterization adapted to French wet-snow events, the statistical issues are examined. Then, the model is used with the meteorological data of 87 weather stations in order to calculate wet-snow loads whose relevance has been positively tested according to real damages recorded in a complete wet-snow event database. At last, the characteristic loads of those 87 stations have been determined according to all the loads generated by the model and processed by a peak-over-threshold (POT) method. A practical method to determine the 90% confidence intervals of those characteristic values is given. As it is demonstrated that there is only one value of the ice class (IC) masses proposed by ISO 12494 in each confidence interval, characteristic loads can be easily expressed in terms of ICs. That method shows that ICs ranging from R1 (0.5 kg m-1) to R5 (5 kg m-1) could be used for overhead line design in France.

  18. Polyclonal non multiresistant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical cases of infection occurring in Palermo, Italy, during a one-year surveillance period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolving epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by the emergence of infections caused by non multiresistant MRSA carrying staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC)mec IV or V in the healthcare settings. A molecular epidemiological analysis of non multiresistant MRSA isolates from four acute general hospitals was performed in Palermo, Italy, during a one year period. Methods For the purpose of the study, MRSA isolates were defined as non multiresistant when they were susceptible to at least three classes of non β-lactam antibiotics. Seventy-five isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SCCmec, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes. For epidemiological typing, Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Fingerprinting (MLVF) was performed on all isolates and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on ST8 isolates. Results Non multiresistant MRSA isolates were isolated from all hospitals. Resistances to ciprofloxacin, macrolides and tetracycline were the most prevalent. MLST attributed 46 isolates with ST22, 13 with ST8, eight with ST1, three with ST50 and three with ST398. SCCmec type IV was found in all isolates. PVL was detected in one ST22 isolate. All isolates tested negative for the ACME element. MLVF identified 31 different patterns, some subtype clusters ranging in size between two and 22 isolates. The closely related PFGE patterns of the ST8 isolates differed from USA300. Conclusions A polyclonal circulation of non multiresistant MRSA along with blurring of boundaries between healthcare associated (HA)-MRSA and community associated (CA)-MRSA appear to be occurring in our epidemiological setting. A better understanding of spread of MRSA with the support of molecular typing can provide invaluable information in

  19. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  20. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Disappearing Arctic tundra ponds: Fine-scale analysis of surface hydrology in drained thaw lake basins over a 65 year period (1948-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, Christian G.; Lougheed, Vanessa L.

    2015-03-01

    Long-term fine-scale dynamics of surface hydrology in Arctic tundra ponds (less than 1 ha) are largely unknown; however, these small water bodies may contribute substantially to carbon fluxes, energy balance, and biodiversity in the Arctic system. Change in pond area and abundance across the upper Barrow Peninsula, Alaska, was assessed by comparing historic aerial imagery (1948) and modern submeter resolution satellite imagery (2002, 2008, and 2010). This was complemented by photogrammetric analysis of low-altitude kite-borne imagery in combination with field observations (2010-2013) of pond water and thaw depth transects in seven ponds of the International Biological Program historic research site. Over 2800 ponds in 22 drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) with different geological ages were analyzed. We observed a net decrease of 30.3% in area and 17.1% in number of ponds over the 62 year period. The inclusion of field observations of pond areas in 1972 from a historic research site confirms the linear downward trend in area. Pond area and number were dependent on the age of DTLB; however, changes through time were independent of DTLB age, with potential long-term implications for the hypothesized geomorphologic landscape succession of the thaw lake cycle. These losses were coincident with increases in air temperature, active layer, and density and cover of aquatic emergent plants in ponds. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, and transpiration from encroaching aquatic emergent macrophytes are likely the factors contributing to the decline in surface area and number of ponds.

  2. Large submarine earthquakes that occurred worldwide in a 1-year period (June 2013 to June 2014) - a contribution to the understanding of tsunamigenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Vales, D.; Marreiros, C.; Carrilho, F.

    2015-10-01

    This paper is a contribution to a better understanding of the tsunamigenic potential of large submarine earthquakes. Here, we analyze the tsunamigenic potential of large earthquakes which have occurred worldwide with magnitudes around Mw = 7.0 and greater during a period of 1 year, from June 2013 to June 2014. The analysis involves earthquake model evaluation, tsunami numerical modeling, and sensors' records analysis in order to confirm the generation of a tsunami (or lack thereof) following the occurrence of an earthquake. We also investigate and discuss the sensitivity of tsunami generation to the earthquake parameters recognized to control tsunami occurrence, including the earthquake location, magnitude, focal mechanism and fault rupture depth. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand why some earthquakes trigger tsunamis and others do not, and how the earthquake source parameters are related to the potential of tsunami generation. We further discuss the performance of tsunami warning systems in detecting tsunamis and disseminating the alerts. A total of 23 events, with magnitudes ranging from Mw = 6.7 to Mw = 8.1, have been analyzed. This study shows that about 39 % of the analyzed earthquakes caused tsunamis that were recorded by different sensors with wave amplitudes varying from a few centimeters to about 2 m. Tsunami numerical modeling shows good agreement between simulated waveforms and recorded waveforms, for some events. On the other hand, simulations of tsunami generation predict that some of the events, considered as non-tsunamigenic, caused small tsunamis. We find that most generated tsunamis were caused by shallow earthquakes (depth < 30 km) and thrust faults that took place on/near the subduction zones. The results of this study can help the development of modified and improved versions of tsunami decision matrixes for various oceanic domains.

  3. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  4. A Systematic Follow-Up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug-Resistance and Associated Genotypic Lineages in the French Departments of the Americas over a Seventeen-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Julie; Berchel, Mylène; Bomer, Anne-Gaël; Schuster, Franziska; Paasch, Delaina; Cadelis, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The population of the French Departments of the Americas (FDA) is highly influenced by the intense migratory flows with mainland France and surrounding countries of the Caribbean and Latin America, some of which have high incidence rates of tuberculosis (Haiti: 230/100,000; Guyana: 111/100,000; and Suriname: 145/100,000) and drug resistance. Since the development of drug resistance to conventional antituberculous drugs has a major impact on the treatment success of tuberculosis, we therefore decided to review carefully Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance and associated genotypic lineages in the FDA over a seventeen-year period (January 1995–December 2011). A total of 1239 cases were studied, including 153 drug-resistant and 26 multidrug-resistant- (MDR-) TB cases, representing 12.3% and 2.1% of the TB cases in our study setting. A significantly higher proportion of M. tuberculosis isolates among relapse cases showed drug resistance to isoniazid (22.5%, P = 0.002), rifampicin (20.0%, P < 0.001), or both (MDR-TB, 17.5%; P < 0.001). Determination of spoligotyping based phylogenetic clades showed that among the five major lineages observed—T family (30.1%); Latin-American and Mediterranean (LAM, 23.7%); Haarlem (H, 22.2%); East-African Indian (EAI, 7.2%); and X family (6.5%)—two lineages, X and LAM, were overrepresented in drug-resistant and MDR-TB cases, respectively. Finally, 19 predominant spoligotypes were identified for the 1239 isolates of M. tuberculosis in our study among which 4 were significantly associated with drug resistance corresponding to SIT20/LAM1, SIT64/LAM6, SIT45/H1, and SIT46/undefined lineage. PMID:24738068

  5. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  6. Current Trends of Periodical Circulation Policies Relative to Attitudes by Librarians Toward Causes of Mutilation and Theft in 92 Four-Year Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ron G.

    This study was designed to accomplish three objectives relating to periodical circulation in college and university libraries: 1) to establish present circulation policy trends, 2) to obtain attitudinal information on mutilation and theft of periodicals from serial librarians, and 3) to ascertain if there were, at present, any workable methods of…

  7. Use of genotyping based clustering to quantify recent tuberculosis transmission in Guadeloupe during a seven years period: analysis of risk factors and access to health care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and to identify transmission chains and risk factors by prospective molecular typing in conjunction with conventional epidemiological investigations in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe. Methods The study included all the culture-positive TB cases (1 clinical isolate per patient; n = 129) diagnosed between a seven year period (April 4th, 1999 to December 31st, 2005). Prospective molecular typing was performed using spoligotyping and VNTRs, and a subset of 44 M. tuberculosis isolates found to be clustered was retrospectively typed using 12-loci MIRUs. Data were compared using the SITVIT2 database, followed by analysis of risk factors in function of clustering of the isolates and available demographic and socioeconomic data. Results The study sample was characterized by a majority of new cases (87.4%); a moderate proportion of drug-resistance (7.8%); a high level of immigration (51.2% foreign-born) originating from high TB/HIV incidence neighboring islands such as Haiti or Dominican Republic; lower socioeconomic conditions (70.7% of jobless, average income 824 EUR/month); and a significantly higher proportion of TB/HIV co-infected cases (38.2% vs. 8.5%; p < 0.001), and extrapulmonary disease (18.2% vs. 4.8%; p < 0.02) among migrants as compared to French patients. The study revealed an important delay in access to healthcare with a median delay of 74.5 days between the 1st symptoms and clinical suspicion of TB. Prospective molecular typing based on spoligotyping and 5-loci VNTRs showed that evolutionary recent Euro-American lineages predominated in Guadeloupe (91.5% of isolates). In conjunction with epidemiological data, it allowed to estimate a recent transmission rate of 18.6%, which was close to the rate of 16.7% estimated using retrospective 12-loci MIRU typing. Although a higher proportion of cases in older age-group were apparently linked

  8. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  9. Remission in schizophrenia: results of cross-sectional with 6-month follow-up period and 1-year observational therapeutic studies in an outpatient population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A standardized definition of remission criteria in schizophrenia was proposed by the International group of NC Andreasen in 2005 (low symptom threshold for the eight core Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms for at least 6 consecutive months). Methods A cross-sectional study of remission rate, using a 6-month follow-up to assess symptomatic stability, was conducted in two healthcare districts (first and second) of an outpatient psychiatric service in Moscow. The key inclusion criteria were outpatients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Remission was assessed using modern criteria (severity and time criteria), PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients who were stable but did not satisfied the symptomatic criteria were included in a further 1-year observational study, with the first group (first district) receiving risperidone (long-acting, injectable) (RLAI) and the second group (second district) continuing to receiving routine treatment. Symptoms were assessed with PANSS, social functioning with the personal and social performance scale, compliance with rating of medication influences scale, and extrapyramidal side effects with the Simpson-Angus scale. Results Only 64 (31.5%) of 203 outpatients met the criteria for symptomatic remission in the cross-sectional study, but at the end of the 6-month follow-up period, 158 (77.8%) were stable (irrespective of remission status). Among these only 53 (26.1%) patients fulfilled the remission criteria. The observational study had 42 stable patients in the RLAI group and 35 in the routine treatment group: 19.0% in the RLAI group and 5.7% in the control group met remission criteria after 12 months of therapy. Furthermore, reduction of PANSS total and subscale scores, as well as improvement in social functioning, was more significant in the first group. Conclusions Only around one-quarter of

  10. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  11. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term. PMID:24600653

  12. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  13. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  14. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  15. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  16. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  17. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  19. 46 CFR 31.10-21a - Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30 years old that carry certain oil cargoes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels certificated to carry a pollution category I oil cargo listed in 46 CFR Table 30.25-1 must undergo... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic gauging of tank vessel midbodies more than 30..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-21a...

  20. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  1. Business Education Index, 1999. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published During the Year 1999. Volume 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This publication comprises an index of business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of business education periodicals and those related to business education published during 1999. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching over the broad business education spectrum. Subject entries (pages…

  2. Science Education Policy: A Survey of the Participation of Sixth-Form Pupils in Science and Other Subjects over a 10-year Period, 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Tony; McEwen, Alex; Knipe, Damien

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of and interviews with year-12 students in Northern Ireland over 10 years examined the impact of government science education policy by noting student participation in advanced science courses. Overall, the number of boys taking advanced courses decreased and the number of girls increased. Students retained certain stereotyped views of…

  3. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  4. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  5. Age dependent efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment: observations in 450 patients over an 11 year period

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, H.; Pfitzner, P.; Achtelik, M.; Fieguth, H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment is beneficial in elderly patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
Design—Since January 1984, ICDs were implanted in 450 patients to evaluate surgical risk, complications and mean survival in relation to patient age; 81 patients (18%) were ⩽ 50 years at the time of ICD implant, 254 patients (56%) were between 51 and 64 years, and the remaining 115 (26%) were ⩾ 65 years. Epicardial lead systems were implanted in 209 patients (46%), while transvenous lead systems were implanted in 241 (54%).
Results—13 patients (3%) died perioperatively, more often after epicardial (11 of 209 patients, 5%) than after transvenous ICD implantation (one of 241 patients, < 1%) (p < 0.05). During a mean (SD) follow up of 28 (24) months (range < 1 to 114 months), 90 patients (20%) died. Of these, nine (2%) died from sudden arrhythmic death; five (1%) died suddenly, probably as a result of non-arrhythmic causes; 55 (12%) died from other cardiac causes (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction); and 21 (5%) died from non-cardiac causes. The three, five, and seven year survival for arrhythmic mortality was 95% in patients ⩽ 50 years compared with a three year survival of 93% and a five and seven year survival of 91% in patients of 51 to 64 years, and a three, five, and seven year survival of 99% in patients ⩾ 65 years. 362 patients (80%) received ICD discharges (21 (43) shocks per patient), with a similar incidence among all three patient groups (⩽ 50 years, 80%; 51 to 64 years, 81%; ⩾ 65 years, 79%). The time interval between ICD implant and the first ICD treatment was shorter in patients ⩾ 65 years (8 (8) months) than in patients between 51 and 64 years (11 (14) months) or ⩽ 50 years (11 (11) months) (p < 0.05). Survival time following first appropriate shock was 30 (24) months in patients ⩽ 50 years, 30 (26

  6. Changes in body mass index in Canadians over a five-year period: Results of a prospective, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hopman, Wilma M; Leroux, Cristine; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Barr, Susan I; Prior, Jerilynn C; Harrison, Mark; Poliquin, Suzette; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Goltzman, David

    2007-01-01

    Background The initiation of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study in 1996, and subsequent follow-up of the cohort 5 years later, provided longitudinal body mass index (BMI) data for a random sample of Canadians. Methods Height and weight were measured at baseline and 5 years and used to calculate BMI and assign one of six weight categories. Multiple imputation was used to adjust for missing weight at year 5. Data were stratified by age and gender. The proportion of participants moving between categories was generated, and multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors associated with weight change. Results Baseline data were available for 8548 participants, year 5 data for 6721, and year 5 weight was imputed for 1827 (17.6%). Mean BMI for every age and gender group exceeded healthy weight guidelines. Most remained within their BMI classification over 5 years, but when change occurred, BMI category was more likely to increase than decrease. Several sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics were associated with change. Conclusion Mean baseline BMI tended to be higher than recommended. Moreover, on average, men under age 45 and women under age 55 were gaining approximately 0.45 kilograms (one pound) per year, which leveled off with increased age and reversed in the oldest age groups. These findings underscore the need for public health efforts aimed at combating obesity. PMID:17620129

  7. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  8. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  9. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Does the 2-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  10. 41 CFR 302-2.10 - Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Does the 1-year time period in § 302-2.8 include time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to... time that I cannot travel and/or transport my household effects due to shipping restrictions to or...

  11. Ocean Drilling Program Records of the Last Five Million Years: A View of the Ocean and Climate System During a Warm Period and a Major Climate Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    The warm Pliocene (4.7 to 3.0 Ma), the most recent period in Earth's history when global equilibrium climate was warmer than today, provides the opportunity to understand what role the components of the climate system that have a long timescale of response (cryosphere and ocean) play in determining globally warm conditions, and in forcing the major global climate cooling after 3.0 Ma. Because sediments of this age are well preserved in many locations in the world's oceans, we can potentially study this warm period in detail. One major accomplishment of the Ocean Drilling Program is the recovery of long continuous sediment sequences from all ocean basins that span the last 5.0 Ma. Dozens of paleoceanographers have generated climate records from these sediments. I will present a synthesis of these data to provide a global picture of the Pliocene warm period, the transition to the cold Pleistocene period, and changes in climate sensitivity related to this transition. In the Pliocene warm period, tropical sea surface temperature (SST) and global climate patterns suggest average conditions that resemble modern El Ni¤os, and deep ocean reconstructions indicate enhanced thermohaline overturning and reduced density and nutrient stratification. The data indicate that the warm conditions were not related to tectonic changes in ocean basin shape compared to today, rather they reflect the long term adjustment of the climate system to stronger than modern radiative forcing. The warm Pliocene to cold Pleistocene transition provides an opportunity to study the feedbacks of various components of the climate system. The marked onset of significant Northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) at 2.75 Ma occurred in concert with a reduction in deep ocean ventilation, but cooling in subtropical and tropical regions was more gradual until Walker circulation was established in a major step at 2.0 Ma. Thus, regional high latitude ice albedo feedbacks, rather than low latitude processes, must

  12. Soil respiration following partial stand disturbance by tree girdling reveals a rapid rebound within a three-year period in a temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J.; Schuster, W.; Griffin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Disturbance events can greatly impact carbon cycling and subsequently alter the carbon storage service of a forest. The resulting atmosphere-biosphere feedback through CO2 makes understanding the carbon cycle response imperative for climate change research. The aim of this study was to examine the temporal response of soil respiration after a partial stand disturbance and to reassess the autotrophic contribution to soil respiration after three years at the Black Rock Forest (southeastern NY, USA). Tree girdling was used to initiate disturbance and create the following treatments: control (C), girdling all non-oaks (NO), girdling half of the oak trees (O50), girdling all the oaks (OG), and girdling all trees (ALL). Soil respiration was measured for three consecutive years. Respiratory rates on O50, OG, and ALL plots declined for two years following girdling before attaining a full rebound of belowground activity in the third year. Soil respiration on NO was similar to C for the duration of the study. The short lived respiratory response on O50, OG, and ALL aligns with patterns of reported NEP recovery after a pest or pathogen attack in other forested systems and suggests that belowground activity is resilient to disturbance. Respiratory responses among the various treatments were not proportional to the degree of disturbance experienced and varied through time. Based on the results from the first year of girdling, we previously estimated the autotrophic component to be 50 % of the total respiratory flux but continued declines in soil respiration rates into the second year provided an opportunity to make a more accurate estimate of 58 %.

  13. Body mass index in early and middle adult life: prospective associations with myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes over a 30-year period: the British Regional Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Wathern, Andrea K; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Cook, Derek G; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adiposity in middle age is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; less is known about the impact of adiposity from early adult life. We examined the effects of high body mass index (BMI) in early and middle adulthood on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and diabetes risks. Design A prospective cohort study. Participants 7735 men with BMI measured in middle age (40–59 years) and BMI ascertained at 21 years from military records or participant recall. Primary and secondary outcome measures 30-year follow-up data for type 2 diabetes, MI and stroke incidence; Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of BMI at both ages on these outcomes, adjusted for age and smoking status. Results Among 4846 (63%) men (with complete data), a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 21 years was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher type 2 diabetes risk, compared with a 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%) higher diabetes risk for a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI in middle age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24). Higher BMI in middle age was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 8%) increase in MI and a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) increase in stroke; BMI at 21 years showed no associations with MI or stroke risk. Conclusions Higher BMI at 21 years of age is associated with later diabetes incidence but not MI or stroke, while higher BMI in middle age is strongly associated with all outcomes. Early obesity prevention may reduce later type 2 diabetes risk, more than MI and stroke. PMID:26373398

  14. Disappearance of some human African trypanosomiasis transmission foci in Zambia in the absence of a tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program over a period of forty years.

    PubMed

    Mwanakasale, Victor; Songolo, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a situation analysis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Zambia from January 2000 to April 2007. The aim of this survey was to identify districts in Zambia that were still recording cases of HAT. Three districts namely, Mpika, Chama, and Chipata were found to be still reporting cases of HAT and thus lay in HAT transmission foci in North Eastern Zambia. During the period under review, 24 cases of HAT were reported from these three districts. We thereafter reviewed literature on the occurrence of HAT in Zambia from the early 1960s to mid 1990s. This revealed that HAT transmission foci were widespread in Western, North Western, Lusaka, Eastern, Luapula, and Northern Provinces of Zambia during this period. In this article we have tried to give possible reasons as to why the distribution of HAT transmission foci is so different between before and after 2000 when there has been no active national tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program in Zambia. PMID:21276598

  15. 42 CFR 412.73 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate based on a Federal fiscal year 1982 base period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... factor is the percentage increase in the market basket index for prospective payment hospitals (as..., the update factor is the percentage increase in the market basket index for prospective payment... Federal fiscal year 1995, the update factor is the percentage increase in the market basket index...

  16. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  17. Clinico-epidemiological Profile of Snake Bites over 6-year Period from a Rural Secondary Care Centre of Northern India: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Agarwal, Abhinav; Shubhankar, B U; Masih, Sahil; Krothapalli, Viswajit; Lee, Brian Mark; Kuruvilla, Jeevan; Alex, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Estimated deaths due to snake bites are more than 46,000 annually in India. Ninety-seven percent bites occur in rural areas. Data on snake bites from Jharkhand rural area are sparse. This study describes 6 years profile of snake bite patients from January, 2007 to December, 2012 at Nav Jivan Hospital in Palamu district, Jharkhand. PMID:26862265

  18. Clinico-epidemiological Profile of Snake Bites over 6-year Period from a Rural Secondary Care Centre of Northern India: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Agarwal, Abhinav; Shubhankar, B. U.; Masih, Sahil; Krothapalli, Viswajit; Lee, Brian Mark; Kuruvilla, Jeevan; Alex, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    Estimated deaths due to snake bites are more than 46,000 annually in India. Ninety-seven percent bites occur in rural areas. Data on snake bites from Jharkhand rural area are sparse. This study describes 6 years profile of snake bite patients from January, 2007 to December, 2012 at Nav Jivan Hospital in Palamu district, Jharkhand. PMID:26862265

  19. 45 CFR 1307.5 - Requirements to be considered for designation for a five-year period when the existing grantee in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... years. A Head Start or Early Head Start agency that has had a denial of refunding, as defined in 45 CFR....5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...

  20. 45 CFR 1307.5 - Requirements to be considered for designation for a five-year period when the existing grantee in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... years. A Head Start or Early Head Start agency that has had a denial of refunding, as defined in 45 CFR....5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES,...