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Sample records for 20-year design life

  1. Rwanda 20 years on: investing in life

    PubMed Central

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Farmer, Paul E; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Karema, Corine; Gasana, Michel; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Nutt, Cameron T; Nyatanyi, Thierry; Gatera, Maurice; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Mugeni, Cathy; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Shema, Joseph; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Gaju, Erick; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Dushime, Theophile; Senyana, Florent; Mazarati, Jean Baptiste; Gaju, Celsa Muzayire; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Mutabazi, Vincent; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Rusanganwa, Vincent; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Umutoni, Agathe; Kankindi, Ida; Ntizimira, Christian; Ruton, Hinda; Mugume, Nathan; Nkunda, Denis; Ndenga, Espérance; Mubiligi, Joel M; Kakoma, Jean Baptiste; Karita, Etienne; Sekabaraga, Claude; Rusingiza, Emmanuel; Rich, Michael L; Mukherjee, Joia S; Rhatigan, Joseph; Cancedda, Corrado; Bertrand-Farmer, Didi; Bukhman, Gene; Stulac, Sara N; Tapela, Neo M; van der Hoof Holstein, Cassia; Shulman, Lawrence N; Habinshuti, Antoinette; Bonds, Matthew H; Wilkes, Michael S; Lu, Chunling; Smith-Fawzi, Mary C; Swain, JaBaris D; Murphy, Michael P; Ricks, Alan; Kerry, Vanessa B; Bush, Barbara P; Siegler, Richard W; Stern, Cori S; Sliney, Anne; Nuthulaganti, Tej; Karangwa, Injonge; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Dahl, Ophelia; Drobac, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Two decades ago, the genocide against the Tutsis in Rwanda led to the deaths of 1 million people, and the displacement of millions more. Injury and trauma were followed by the effects of a devastated health system and economy. In the years that followed, a new course set by a new government set into motion equity-oriented national policies focusing on social cohesion and people-centred development. Premature mortality rates have fallen precipitously in recent years, and life expectancy has doubled since the mid-1990s. Here we reflect on the lessons learned in rebuilding Rwanda’s health sector during the past two decades, as the country now prepares itself to take on new challenges in health-care delivery. PMID:24703831

  2. Clinical outcome and quality of life of patients surviving 20 years or longer after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Antonella; Kirsch, Matthias; Barreda, Eleodoro; Fernandez, Flor; Vaissier, Elisabeth; Pavie, Alain; Leprince, Pascal; Varnous, Shaida

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate outcome and quality of life (QoL) in ≥ 20 years survivors after heart transplantation. Patients surviving ≥ 20 years with a single graft were retrospectively reviewed. Heterotopic, multiorgan and retransplantations were excluded. QoL was evaluated using the SF-36 survey. Eight hundred and twenty-seven heart transplants were performed from 1981 to 1993, and among these, 131 (16%) patients survived ≥ 20 years; 98 (75%) were male and mean age at transplant was 43 ± 13 years. Conditional survival in these 20 years survivors was 74.1 ± 4.3% at 23 years and 60.9 ± 5.3% at 25 years (45 deaths, 34%). Forty-four (34%) patients suffered rejection ≥ 2R. Conditional survival free from rejection ≥ 2R was 68 ± 4.1% at 5 years and 66.4 ± 4.2% at 10 years. Thirty-five (27%) patients had cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) grade 2-3. Conditional CAV-free survival was 76 ± 3.8% at 20 years and 72.1 ± 4% at 25. Sixty-nine (53%) patients developed malignancy, mostly skin cancers. Conditional malignancy-free survival was 53.5 ± 4.4% at 20 years and 45.2 ± 4.6% at 25 years. At latest follow-up, 24.0 ± 3.0 years after transplantation, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 62 ± 11% and mean physical and mental scores were 57 ± 23 and 58 ± 21, respectively. Sixteen per cent of heart recipients survived ≥ 20 years with good ventricular performance and QoL. CAV and malignancies account for late morbidity and mortality. PMID:24606025

  3. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  4. Subjective Well-Being In Later Life: 20 years after the Butterworths monograph series on individual and population aging.

    PubMed

    Stones, Michael; Kozma, Albert; McNeil, Kevin; Worobetz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses developments in theory and research on happiness two decades after publication of Psychological Well-Being in Later Life (Butterworths, 1991) by Albert Kozma, Michael Stones, and Kevin McNeil. Major empirical advances include new knowledge about contributions to happiness resulting from genetically related effects and personality. Personality traits have stronger relationships with happiness than was apparent 20 years ago and contribute to covariance between happiness and some of its predictors. Evolving emphases in research include the ways in which genetically related effects influence how people shape, and react to, their environment.

  5. 20 years of toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B E

    1998-01-01

    With over 80,000 chemicals being used in commerce worldwide, it is important to identify the human health effects of these chemicals and the levels of exposure at which they are harmful to humans. In order to address this need, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978; since then, the NTP has become the world's leader in designing, conducting, and interpreting various types of toxicity assays. PMID:9755149

  6. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  7. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  8. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  9. [Neurogenic bladder, 20 years later].

    PubMed

    Perrigot, M

    1995-10-28

    The therapeutic armamentarium--physical therapy, drugs, surgery--developed over the last 20 years now gives us the means of providing curative care to nearly all patients with manifestations of neuropathic bladder, meaning that the clinical examination and complementary tests must be conducted under strictly controlled conditions to identify the underlying mechanism. The examination of the perineum almost always reveals a defect when the origin is neurological but is often normal when gynaecologic or urologic factors are involved. Motor command, tonus, reflexes and sensitivity should all be carefully explored to distinguish between central and peripheral causes. Much progress has been made in complementary examinations. For example, nearly 100% of the neurological aetiologies can be identified with precision. Tests include electromyography of the perineum, measurement of the latency of the bulbocavernous reflex and that of the distal part of the internal pudental nerve. Complementary tests evaluating bladder and sphincter function include urine sediment with cytology, intravenous pyelography and echography of the urinary tract. Pressure measurements with cystomanometry, sphincterometry and flowmetry add further precisions. Whether the underlying mechanism of bladder dysfunction is purely neurological as is the case in many young patients with multiple sclerosis, spina bifida or caudia equina syndrome, results from several causes as in patients with Parkinson's disease and enlargement of the prostate, or is among the increasing number of post-radiation sequellae, the essential step is careful clinical examination and detailed interpretation of complementary examinations. Thus the wide range of techniques now available for the management of the neuropathic bladder can be adapted to each individual case according to the pathological processes causing the clinical manifestations. PMID:8545359

  10. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    An important component of psychoneuroimmunology research is to reveal the myriad ways that behaviors and health are inter-related, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that underlie these interactions. Research in human psychoneuroimmunology has shown that immunoregulatory processes are an integral part of a complex network of adaptive responses. As such, this review provides a perspective from our laboratory over the last 20 years to define the inter-relationships between behavior and immunity; to identify the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and autonomic mechanisms that link the central nervous system and immune responses; to examine the clinical implications of immune alterations during depression or life stress on inflammatory and infectious disease risk; and to explore the reciprocal role of immune mediators on behavior in humans.

  11. Use of the lung cancer-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire EORTC QLQ-LC13 in clinical trials: A systematic review of the literature 20 years after its development.

    PubMed

    Koller, Michael; Warncke, Sophie; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Arraras, Juan; Pompili, Cecilia; Harle, Amelie; Johnson, Colin D; Chie, Wei-Chu; Schulz, Christian; Zeman, Florian; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Kuliś, Dagmara; Bottomley, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Lung Cancer 13 (QLQ-LC13) covers 13 typical symptoms of lung cancer patients and was the first module developed in conjunction with the EORTC core quality-of-life (QL) questionnaire. This review investigates how the module has been used and reported in cancer clinical trials in the 20 years since its publication. Thirty-six databases were searched with a prespecified algorithm. This search plus an additional hand search generated 770 hits, 240 of which were clinical studies. Two raters extracted data using a coding scheme. Analyses focused on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 240 clinical studies that were identified using the LC13, 109 (45%) were RCTs. More than half of the RCTs were phase 3 trials (n = 58). Twenty RCTs considered QL as the primary endpoint, and 68 considered it as a secondary endpoint. QL results were addressed in the results section of the article (n = 89) or in the abstract (n = 92); and, in half of the articles, QL results were presented in the form of tables (n = 53) or figures (n = 43). Furthermore, QL results had an impact on the evaluation of the therapy that could be clearly demonstrated in the 47 RCTs that yielded QL differences between treatment and control groups. The EORTC QLQ-LC13 fulfilled its mission to be used as a standard instrument in lung cancer clinical trials. An update of the LC13 is underway to keep up with new therapeutic trends and to ensure optimized and relevant QL assessment in future trials.

  12. Use of the lung cancer-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire EORTC QLQ-LC13 in clinical trials: A systematic review of the literature 20 years after its development.

    PubMed

    Koller, Michael; Warncke, Sophie; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Arraras, Juan; Pompili, Cecilia; Harle, Amelie; Johnson, Colin D; Chie, Wei-Chu; Schulz, Christian; Zeman, Florian; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Kuliś, Dagmara; Bottomley, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Lung Cancer 13 (QLQ-LC13) covers 13 typical symptoms of lung cancer patients and was the first module developed in conjunction with the EORTC core quality-of-life (QL) questionnaire. This review investigates how the module has been used and reported in cancer clinical trials in the 20 years since its publication. Thirty-six databases were searched with a prespecified algorithm. This search plus an additional hand search generated 770 hits, 240 of which were clinical studies. Two raters extracted data using a coding scheme. Analyses focused on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 240 clinical studies that were identified using the LC13, 109 (45%) were RCTs. More than half of the RCTs were phase 3 trials (n = 58). Twenty RCTs considered QL as the primary endpoint, and 68 considered it as a secondary endpoint. QL results were addressed in the results section of the article (n = 89) or in the abstract (n = 92); and, in half of the articles, QL results were presented in the form of tables (n = 53) or figures (n = 43). Furthermore, QL results had an impact on the evaluation of the therapy that could be clearly demonstrated in the 47 RCTs that yielded QL differences between treatment and control groups. The EORTC QLQ-LC13 fulfilled its mission to be used as a standard instrument in lung cancer clinical trials. An update of the LC13 is underway to keep up with new therapeutic trends and to ensure optimized and relevant QL assessment in future trials. PMID:26451520

  13. Design Thinking for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    According to Vande Zande (2007), understanding the Design Process can help students become stronger critical thinkers. With this in mind, Andrew Watson decided to undertake an observational case study in which he focused directly on Design Thinking and addressed it more intentionally in his teaching. The hope was to understand how students saw…

  14. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  15. Conversations: 20 Years in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn

    Eleven influential individuals who have brought breadth of vision to their work in education answer questions and give comments on the next 20 years of education by looking back on the past 20 years. The panelists are: Alonzo Crim, superintendent of schools in Atlanta, Georgia; Russell Edgerton, president of the American Association for Higher…

  16. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, B. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  17. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  18. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  19. Building-Based Budgeting and Decentralization: A 20 Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Timothy J.; Raisch, C. Daniel

    This paper examines the effects of site-based budgeting in education. It describes and presents a school-based budgetary decision-making model that was designed originally to shift the balance of power from the central office to the building level. The model has been refined and successfully utilized in one school district for 20 years, and its…

  20. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  1. CANADARM: 20 Years of Mission Success Through Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltz, Michael; Rice, Craig; Boyle, Keith; Allison, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Transportation System, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System has played a vital role in the success of 60 space missions. This paper concludes that the robustness and success of the Canadarm over its 20 year life can be attributed to the adaptations that have been made to it to meet the increased demands that have been placed on the system. Enhancements that have been made to the arm to improve its operational capabilities, reduce risk and extend its life are examined in this paper. Potential future enhancements based on operational trends are also discussed.

  2. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  3. Psychology and Aging: the first 20 years.

    PubMed

    Zacks, Rose T; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association's first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging.

  4. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  5. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  6. The Forties field: 20 years young

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, P.J.; Clyne, P.A.; Kirkwood, F.G.; Williams, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    In Oct. 1970, BP`s semisubmersible drilling rig SeaQuest struck oil in Upper Paleocene (Tertiary) sandstones of U.K. Continental Shelf Block 21/10. Four appraisal wells drilled in 1970 and 1971 delineated a large oil reservoir at a depth of 7,000 ft., covering an area of 36 sq miles. The maximum thickness of the oil-bearing sandstone was estimated at 614 ft. Reserves were calculated to be 1,800 MMSTB from an oil in place (OIP) of 4,600 MMSTB, and production was projected to continue until Year 2000. In 1971, Shell/Esso drilled a successful well, Well 22/6-1, that demonstrated the southeastern extension of the field into Block 22/6. The field is a four-way-dip-closed anticline that overlies the Forties-Montrose Ridge and is close to the junction of the Central, South Viking, and Witch Ground grabens. The reservoir occurs in thick Upper Paleocene sandstones deposited as a sand-rich submarine fan sequence. This paper describes how the development of the Forties field has evolved over the past 20 years, the current issues and activities, and the direction for the future.

  7. Calcium-sensing receptor 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Tariq I.; Saleh, Ahmad M. A.; Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has played an important role as a target in the treatment of a variety of disease states over the past 20 plus years. In this review, we give an overview of the receptor at the cellular level and then provide details as to how this receptor has been targeted to modulate cellular ion transport mechanisms. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, it has a high degree of homology with a variety of other members in this class, which could explain why this receptor has been identified in so many different tissues throughout the body. This diversity of locations sets it apart from other members of the family and may explain how the receptor interacts with so many different organ systems in the body to modulate the physiology and pathophysiology. The receptor is unique in that it has two large exofacial lobes that sit in the extracellular environment and sense changes in a wide variety of environmental cues including salinity, pH, amino acid concentration, and polyamines to name just a few. It is for this reason that there has been a great deal of research associated with normal receptor physiology over the past 20 years. With the ongoing research, in more recent years a focus on the pathophysiology has emerged and the effects of receptor mutations on cellular and organ physiology have been identified. We hope that this review will enhance and update the knowledge about the importance of this receptor and stimulate future potential investigations focused around this receptor in cellular, organ, and systemic physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24871857

  8. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  9. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that 231Pa better than 237Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8% 233U enrichment and 7.6˜ 8% 231Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1% Δk/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53% Δk/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  10. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  11. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  12. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed backcone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed reduction, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  13. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  14. Maximum life spiral bevel reduction design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Prasanna, M. G.; Coe, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ratio under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque, and power. Significant parameters in the design are: the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear, and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

  15. Choroidal osteoma: evidence of progression and decalcification over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer; Lee, Lawrence; Gass, J Donald M

    2006-03-01

    Choroidal osteoma is a rare, benign, ossifying tumour of the choroid of unknown aetiology. In contrast to other types of intraocular ossification, choroidal osteoma is found typically in young healthy females in the second or third decades of life with no history of systemic or ocular disease. Choroidal osteoma is a deep, pale yellow lesion with distinct geographic borders at the juxtapapillary or macular region, with branching 'spider' vessels on the surface of the tumour. These features should help differentiate choroidal osteoma from other types of intraocular tumour and the diagnosis can be confirmed with ultrasonography and computerised tomography. Here we report an initially unilateral case of choroidal osteoma, which decalcified over 20 years but during the same period the fellow eye also developed a choroidal osteoma to become a bilateral case. Despite the benign nature of the tumour, vision may be compromised by gradual atrophy of the overlying retina, serous retinal detachment, accumulation of sub-retinal fluid and sub-retinal haemorrhage associated with choroidal neovascularisation. Frequent examinations are recommended for patients with choroidal osteoma, for early detection of a subretinal neovascular membrane and potential treatment with laser photocoagulation.

  16. 20 Years after "The Ontogeny of Human Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective," Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabès, Adeline; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, Nelson published a paper describing a model of memory development during the first years of life. The current article seeks to provide an update on the original work published 20 years ago. Specifically, we review our current knowledge on the relation between the emergence of explicit memory functions throughout development and the…

  17. Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160233.html Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago ... since the late 1980s and early 1990s, the average American has put on 15 or more additional ...

  18. Design of rotors for improved structural life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    Major rotor design criteria are discussed with particular emphasis on those aspects of rotor design that ensure long life component integrity. Dynamic considerations, that necessitate tuning of bladed disk and seal assemblies to avoid excessive vibratory stress at both design and off-design conditions are reviewed as well as low cycle fatigue considerations, which have resulted in detailed analysis procedures to establish part temperature and stress variation throughout an operating cycle and extensive specimen and component fatigue testing to establish safe cyclic operating limits. The frequency, size, and behavior of intrinsic material defects were investigated. Manufacturing process improvements, including the application of increasingly sophisticated inspection techniques and quality control procedures are reviewed in light of their impact on component durability.

  19. New Horizons 20 Years On. Occasional Papers Series: No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Margaret

    New Horizons is a course offered by the University of Edinburgh's Centre for Continuing Education that is aimed at first-time returners to education. In the 20 years since New Horizons was developed for women returners to education and/or employment, it has retained its original developmental outcomes but broadened its target group in response to…

  20. Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Lavoisier showed that water was formed by chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. In Lavoisier's "Traite Elementaire" of 1789, he states that the reaction to form water requires exactly two volumes of hydrogen gas to react completely with one volume of oxygen gas. This was 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied the reactions between different…

  1. Support-Staff Jobs Double in 20 Years, Outpacing Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Fain, Paul; Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Colleges have added managers and support personnel at a steady, vigorous clip over the past 20 years, new research shows, far outpacing the growth in student enrollment and instructors. Support staff--like budget analysts, computer specialists, and loan counselors--nearly doubled from 1987 to 2007. Meanwhile, jobs for instructors increased by only…

  2. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour in a 20-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Virupakshappa, Deepti; Rajashekhara, Bhari Sharanesha; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Das, Nagarajappa

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour is a relatively rare and distinct odontogenic tumour that is exclusively odontogenic epithelium in origin. It comprises 3% of all odontogenic tumours. This report describes the surgical therapy, clinical course and morphological characteristics of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumour that developed in the left maxilla of a 20-year-old patient. PMID:24810436

  3. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  4. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question…

  5. Reading Recovery 20 Years down the Track: Looking Forward, Looking Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Meree; Wheldall, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Reading Recovery is an intensive literacy programme designed for young students who have been identified as being at-risk of reading failure after 1 year of schooling. The intervention was developed and trialled in New Zealand over 20 years ago and is now implemented in a number of education systems. The focus of this article is on recent research…

  6. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  7. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  8. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  9. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  10. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  11. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  12. Review: R28 retinal precursor cells: The first 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The R28 retinal precursor cell line was established 20 years ago, originating from a postnatal day 6 rat retinal culture immortalized with the 12S E1A (NP-040507) gene of the adenovirus in a replication-incompetent viral vector. Since that time, R28 cells have been characterized and used for a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies of retinal cell behavior, including differentiation, neuroprotection, cytotoxicity, and light stimulation, as well as retinal gene expression and neuronal function. While no cell culture is equivalent to the intact eye, R28 cells continue to provide an important experimental system for the study of many retinal processes. PMID:24644404

  13. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  14. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  15. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  16. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  17. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  18. Endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis: technique and 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Justin B; Wang, Tianyi; Desmond, Elizabeth; Imrie, Meghan; Gamble, James G; Rinsky, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis technique and review our 20-year experience with it. A retrospective review of 44 patients who underwent proximal tibia and/or distal femur endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis was carried out. Only patients who had preoperative and postoperative scanograms with clinical follow-up of at least 6 months were included. The mean length of follow-up was 36.8 months. All patients had radiographic evidence of physeal fusion within 6-12 months from the index procedure. No patient required revision surgery. Endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis is safe, effective, and achieves predictable physeal fusion. Advantages over current techniques include reduced radiation exposure and lack of requirement for hardware placement.

  19. Leptin, 20 years of searching for glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Formoso, Gabriela; Pérez-Sieira, Sonia; González-Touceda, David; Dieguez, Carlos; Tovar, Sulay

    2015-11-01

    Leptin was discovered in 1994 (20 years ago). In addition to having well-characterized effects on the regulation of energy homeostasis, leptin clearly also plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis. In fact, leptin plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis independent of food intake and body weight. The mechanism underlying the modulation of glucose metabolism by leptin is not completely understood, although evidence indicates that the effect occurs at both the central and peripheral levels. In this review, we will focus on the role of leptin in glucose homeostasis at the central level and its role in insulin secretion and in counteracting hormones, such as glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol and catecholamines.

  20. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  1. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  2. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  3. The Challenges in Metadata Management: 20+ Years of ESO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Da Rocha, C.; Dobrzycki, A.; Micol, A.; Vuong, M.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility has been in operations for more than 20 years. It contains data produced by ESO telescopes as well as the metadata needed for characterizing and distributing those data. This metadata is used to build the different archive services provided by the Archive. Over these years, services have been added, modified or even decommissioned creating a cocktail of new, evolved and legacy data systems. The challenge for the Archive is to harmonize the differences of those data systems to provide the community with a homogeneous experience when using ESO data. In this paper, we present ESO experience in three particular challenging areas. First discussion is dedicated to the problem of metadata quality over the time, second discusses how to integrate obsolete data models on the current services and finally we will present the challenges of ever growing databases. We describe our experience dealing with those issues and the solutions adopted to mitigate them.

  4. EDITORIAL: Nonlinearity is 20 years old in 2008!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, J. P.; Neishtadt, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    During the past 20 years the journal has published many of the subject-defining papers in the field of nonlinear mathematics and its applications. These have ranged from fundamental developments in the theory of dynamical systems and differential equations to applications in atmospheric dynamics, astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fluid dynamics, networks, quantum chaos and statistical physics, to give just a few examples. The field has changed considerably since the journal was founded. In particular, some applications, once considered little more than wishful thinking, have now matured and spun off to form their own journals, or to find homes in journals that might once have thought them too esoteric or too mathematical. In their place have come exciting new applications for which the fundamental mathematical ideas are still to be developed. Nonlinearity has played a leading role in these developments and we look back with pride. But birthdays are also occasions when one should look forward, and with this in mind, as part of our birthday celebrations, we have commissioned for publication in 2008 a series of short articles, entitled Open Problems, from leading researchers in the field. Each article represents the author's personal selection of some interesting and/or important open problems or conjectures. They are not intended to be systematic lists, or encyclopaedic in coverage, but are, rather, individual perspectives on some of the problems and challenges, large and small, that would be worth solving. Our hope is that these articles will contribute to setting the agenda for the next 20 years, and beyond. We took great pleasure in inviting these articles and hope that readers of Nonlinearity will find them interesting, stimulating, and perhaps, in some cases, even provocative. We certainly look forward to seeing, and maybe even publishing, solutions to the problems they describe!

  5. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  6. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  7. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  8. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  9. Research on conceptual/innovative design for the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagan, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is developing and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for life cycle design. The definition of the problem includes formal computer-based methods limited to final detailing stages of design; CAD data bases do not capture design intent or design history; and life cycle issues were ignored during early stages of design. Viewgraphs outline research in conceptual design; the SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) algorithm; multistart vector quantization optimization algorithm; intelligent manufacturing: IDES - Influence Diagram Architecture; and 1st PRINCE (FIRST PRINciple Computational Evaluator).

  10. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  11. Joy, 20 Years Later: A Conversation with Will Schutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Will C. Schutz, an encounter groups pioneer, is interviewed about his personal life; the turning points of his life that led to his involvement in group work; his experiences before, at, and after Esalen; and his views on the field of counseling. A list of suggested readings is included. (Author/NB)

  12. Average and Bright Adults with Parents with Mild Cognitive Difficulties: The Huck Finn Syndrome 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Audrey Myerson

    2011-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study of 20 average and bright adults with parents with cognitive difficulties follows a study 20 years earlier of their childhood adaptation to their parents. Method: Semistructured interviews about life situation and changes and perception of family-of-origin. Results: The participants' socioeconomic status changed…

  13. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  14. The odontogenic keratocyst: a 20-year clinicopathologic review.

    PubMed

    Meara, J G; Shah, S; Li, K K; Cunningham, M J

    1998-02-01

    The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a jaw cyst with a proclivity for local invasion and recurrence. This 20-year retrospective study was conducted to evaluate methods of treatment and recurrence rates. Forty-nine patients were identified with an average age at presentation of 39.5 years. The molar region of either the mandible or maxilla was the principal primary location; the maxillary antrum was also a common site. The majority of cysts were unilocular and associated with adjacent dentition. Initial therapy was typically enucleation with or without extraction of associated teeth; seven cases of recurrent or second primary odontogenic keratocysts required more extensive surgery. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 15 years with an average duration of 4.3 years. The overall recurrence rate was 35%, and the average time to recurrence 4 years. A recurrence rate of 60% was documented for patients with basal cell nevus syndrome or a family history thereof. Long-term follow-up is necessary following initial OKC treatment. The high rate of recurrence in patients with documented or suspected basal cell nevus syndrome suggests the need for more aggressive initial surgical management in this selected patient population.

  15. Water survival: 20 years Canadian Forces aircrew experience.

    PubMed

    Brooks, C J; Rowe, K W

    1984-01-01

    A 20 year review of Canadian Forces (CF) aircrew ejection/ditching, survival/rescue times and injury patterns in salt and fresh water is presented. Of the 595 A, B, and C category accidents which have been reviewed (1962-1982), 37 were water-entry. Of the 116 crew which were involved, 38 died (4 in fresh water). The Sea King helicopter is most at risk from sea water immersion, and the single-engine Otter has been the most vulnerable to fresh water immersion. A water immersion can be expected approximately once every 170,000 h of total flying time. In 92% of cases, the crew had less than 1 min warning that immersion was imminent and in 78% had less than 15 s to make a practical response. There were two clinical cases of hypothermia. In the absence of injuries, aircrew trained in water survival, qualified on the Dilbert Dunker, and who are strong swimmers or sports divers, have a better chance to survival. Time to rescue in all cases was under 3 h, and in 16 out of 24 cases crew members were rescued in under 15 min.

  16. Juvenile angiofibroma: the lessons of 20 years of modern imaging.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, G; Howard, D; Phelps, P; Cheesman, A

    1999-02-01

    Seventy-two patients with juvenile angiofibroma have been investigated by computerized tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over a period of 20 years. The evidence from these studies indicates that angiofibroma takes origin in the pterygo-palatine fossa at the aperture of the pterygoid (vidian) canal. An important extension of the tumour is posteriorly along the pterygoid canal with invasion of the cancellous bone of the pterygoid base, and greater wing of the sphenoid (60 per cent of patients). Distinctive features of angiofibroma are the high recurrence rate, and the rapidity with which many tumours recur. It is postulated that the principal determinant of recurrence is a high tumour growth rate at the time of surgery coupled with incomplete surgical excision. The inability to remove the tumour in toto is principally due to deep invasion of the sphenoid, as described above. In this series 93 per cent of recurrences occurred with this type of tumour extension. A contributory cause in these patients is the use of pre-operative embolization. The treatment implications of these findings are examined.

  17. 20 years of microplasma research: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Becker, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The field of microplasmas gained recognition as a well-defined area of research and application within the larger field of plasma science and technology about 20 years ago. Since then, the activity in microplasma research and applications has continuously increased. A survey of peer reviewed papers on microplasmas published annually shows a steady increase from fewer than 20 papers in 1995 to about 75 in 2005 and more than 150 in 2014. This count excludes papers that deal exclusively with technological applications where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. This topical review aims to provide a snap shot of the current state of microplasma research and applications. Given the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications, the topical review will focus primarily on the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation. Where appropriate, we will also address microplasma applications, however, we will limit the discussion of microplasma applications to examples where the application is closely tied to the plasma science. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive and in-depth review of the diverse range of all microplasma applications, except for the inclusion of a few key references to recent reviews of microplasma applications.

  18. Design of a long service life integration CES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Zhijun; Deng, Loulou; Mei, Zhiwu; Hu, Xinchao

    2015-10-01

    In order to satisfy the reliability demand of the long-life satellite, and solve the weak link, we design an kind of the long service life integration CES (LFICES). In order to solve the problem from the late resistance increased product life, we perform the high torque motor technology research. Then we performed the accelerated life test of the rotating device. In the accelerated life test, we simulated operation of eight years, and the test results showed that the rotating device meet the design requirements of eight years. In this paper, we gives the design scheme of the LFICES. The telemetering data of the 26th remote sensing satellite in-orbit flight shows that the LFICES can stably work.

  19. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  20. The Shenandoah Watershed Study: 20 years of Catchment Hydrogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J.

    2002-05-01

    changes and understanding of landscape controls (especially geologic setting) on watershed processes. This poster will present an overview of the critical findings of this 20-year research program.

  1. The Blueprint for Life/Work Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Phil; Richardt, Joan

    The "Blueprint" is a common framework of career development competencies that students and adults anywhere in Canada or the United States need to master in order to be successful and self-reliant in planning and managing their careers in a rapidly changing, knowledge-age labor market. A practical resource designed for career professionals, the…

  2. Bringing Together Simulated ~20 Year Variability in Coupled Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menary, M.; Hodson, D.; Robson, J.; Sutton, R.; Wood, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many climate models simulate significant spectral power in large scale, North Atlantic subpolar gyre indices at timescales of around 20 years. Despite similar periodicities, the underlying mechanisms reported in individual models can vary greatly. For example, the timescale can be set by any combination of geostrophic self advection, Rossby wave propagation, or advection by the mean circulation. The role of the overturning circulation can either be active or passive, and the ultimate driver of density changes in the deep water formation regions is split roughly evenly in the literature between salinity and temperature - with implications for any feedback mechanisms. These simulations typically span many centuries with constant external forcings to capture internal climate variability. The extent to which either this periodicity carries over to the real world under increasingly strong external forcing, or which, if any, of the modelled feedbacks are applicable, is unclear. We present new results from a state-of-the-art high resolution coupled climate model (HadGEM3) in which the mechanism of internal decadal variability in the North Atlantic is diagnosed and discuss the causes of differences from previous work. Due to the non-linear equation of state, biases in the simulated mean state can explain some of the inter-model differences via the relative importance of temperature or salinity in density changes. These biases can then propagate throughout the mechanistic chain resulting in fundamentally different simulated mechanisms. For example, whether temperature or salinity control densities in the Labrador Sea influences whether a strengthening overturning circulation acts as a negative or positive feedback. Although analysis of the model proceeds via lagged regressions, this is generally not possible with observational data. We use a combination of palaeo reconstructions and targeted process-based analysis to investigate whether there is any signal of bidecadal

  3. Group-Based Life Design Counseling in an Italian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of group-based Life Design Counseling using the Career-Story Interview. Written exercises were used to implement the seven topics in the Career-Story Interview. The present study employed an experimental design that involved two groups of Italian entrepreneurs from the agricultural and trade sectors, namely an…

  4. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  5. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  6. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  7. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Yagoda, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  8. Design of Life Extending Controls Using Nonlinear Parameter Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual development of a life extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel and oxidizer turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. This design approach makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of a rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using nonlinear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure.

  9. Take a Bite Out of Crime: Get Ready To Celebrate 20 Years. Crime Prevention Month Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This Crime Prevention Month kit is designed to help plan crime prevention month activities for 1999 and into 2000, the year the Take a Bite Out of Crime character, McGruff the Crime Dog, celebrates 20 years of existence. This 15-month planning calendar provides long-term strategies for preventing crime in the community, which can be carried out…

  10. Conceptual design of a piloted Mars sprint life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, H. S.; Novara, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of a life support system sustaining a crew of six in a piloted Mars sprint. The requirements and constraints of the system are discussed along with its baseline performance parameters. An integrated operation is achieved with air, water, and waste processing and supplemental food production. The design philosophy includes maximized reliability considerations, regenerative operations, reduced expendables, and fresh harvest capability. The life support system performance will be described with characteristics of the associated physical-chemical subsystems and a greenhouse.

  11. Damage control surgery: it's evolution over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Brett H; Rotondo, Michael M F

    2012-01-01

    In less than twenty years, what began as a concept for the treatment of exsanguinating truncal trauma patients has become the primary treatment model for numerous emergent, life threatening surgical conditions incapable of tolerating traditional methods. Its core concepts are relative straightforward and simple in nature: first, proper identification of the patient who is in need of following this paradigm; second, truncation of the initial surgical procedure to the minimal necessary operation; third, aggressive, focused resuscitation in the intensive care unit; fourth, definitive care only once the patient is optimized to tolerate the procedure. These simple underlying principles can be molded to a variety of emergencies, from its original application in combined major vascular and visceral trauma to the septic abdomen and orthopedics. A host of new resuscitation strategies and technologies have been developed over the past two decades, from permissive hypotension and damage control resuscitation to advanced ventilators and hemostatic agents, which have allowed for a more focused resuscitation, allowing some of the morbidity of this model to be reduced. The combination of the simple, malleable paradigm along with better understanding of resuscitation has proven to be a potent blend. As such, what was once an almost lethal injury (combined vascular and visceral injury) has become a survivable one.

  12. MEST-Tyche will take its dark comets to impact our solar system in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-03-01

    Tyche has many dark comets like Oort cloud. It went near our solar system every 25-27 million years. It could take its dark comets to impact our earth. Tyche and its dark comet absorb light like a dark light which is a negative black-body radiation. (1) Eddν=-c1dνd^3dνe^c2dνd/Td-1. Among it, Ed: the dark energy, νd: the dark frequence, Td: the dark temperature, c1d,c2d: the constant. So when they go near us, their wave has a against Doppler redshift as 0.000165. And they will inbreak solar system at the rate of 99AU/y, from the distance of 1,500AU and in 20 years. It can cause the broken ozonosphere, the lithosphere to crack, many big activity volcanic and the continental drift. And it can darked the light and colded the climate to the Great Ice Age. Not only it will break our environment by a special ``nuclear explosion'' under low temperature, but also the dark life will change the Genetic code of our life. So it will kill many lives and will produce new life. So it could trigger the Mass Extinction. We can bulid up a new pair of nuclear reactor (include dark nuclear energy) to drive a universal craft and can change the orbit of our earth for evading the impaction. We need a new life-information technology to develop our life and consciousness.

  13. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  14. Fatigue life prediction for carbon-epoxy composite design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, B. D.

    A simple design method for the prediction of fatigue life for long fiber carbon-epoxy composites with multi-angular lay-ups is presented. The approach, based in part on the traditional metallic method of fatigue life prediction, can be applied to fully tensile, fully compressive or part-tensile part-compressive loading of either constant or variable amplitude. Predictions produced by the method are compared with extensive data from fatigue tests on XAS/914C material for both relatively fatigue-sensitive and -insensitive lay-ups.

  15. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  16. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  17. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  18. The 20th anniversary of EMBnet: 20 years of bioinformatics for the Life Sciences community

    PubMed Central

    D'Elia, Domenica; Gisel, Andreas; Eriksson, Nils-Einar; Kossida, Sophia; Mattila, Kimmo; Klucar, Lubos; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The EMBnet Conference 2008, focusing on 'Leading Applications and Technologies in Bioinformatics', was organized by the European Molecular Biology network (EMBnet) to celebrate its 20th anniversary. Since its foundation in 1988, EMBnet has been working to promote collaborative development of bioinformatics services and tools to serve the European community of molecular biology laboratories. This conference was the first meeting organized by the network that was open to the international scientific community outside EMBnet. The conference covered a broad range of research topics in bioinformatics with a main focus on new achievements and trends in emerging technologies supporting genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses such as high-throughput sequencing and data managing, text and data-mining, ontologies and Grid technologies. Papers selected for publication, in this supplement to BMC Bioinformatics, cover a broad range of the topics treated, providing also an overview of the main bioinformatics research fields that the EMBnet community is involved in. PMID:19534734

  19. CARES/Life Software for Designing More Reliable Ceramic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Powers, Lynn M.; Baker, Eric H.

    1997-01-01

    Products made from advanced ceramics show great promise for revolutionizing aerospace and terrestrial propulsion, and power generation. However, ceramic components are difficult to design because brittle materials in general have widely varying strength values. The CAPES/Life software eases this task by providing a tool to optimize the design and manufacture of brittle material components using probabilistic reliability analysis techniques. Probabilistic component design involves predicting the probability of failure for a thermomechanically loaded component from specimen rupture data. Typically, these experiments are performed using many simple geometry flexural or tensile test specimens. A static, dynamic, or cyclic load is applied to each specimen until fracture. Statistical strength and SCG (fatigue) parameters are then determined from these data. Using these parameters and the results obtained from a finite element analysis, the time-dependent reliability for a complex component geometry and loading is then predicted. Appropriate design changes are made until an acceptable probability of failure has been reached.

  20. Probabilistic life design of refractories for steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Smith, J.D.; Moore, R.E.

    1998-02-01

    The failure probability of magnesia-graphite components was predicted using an established probabilistic life prediction design algorithm. The described algorithm is commonly employed in the design of load-bearing structural ceramics components; however, interest existed for the present study to demonstrate its use and applicability in the design (or failure probability analysis) of arbitrary refractory components. Two components were examined: (1) a 25.4 x 25.4 x 152 mm (1 x 1 by 6 in.) magnesia-graphite prismatic bar subjected to three-point flexure using a 101.6 mm (4 in.) span, and (2) a vertically suspended magnesia-graphite nozzle whose dimensions were 203 O.D. x 101.6 I.D. x 1,524 mm length (8 O.D. x 4 I.D. x 60 in. length). Magnesia-graphite strength data were combined with finite element analysis of the components and an appropriate multiaxial ceramic failure criterion to predict the failure probabilities of each. The latter exercise illustrated how laboratory-generated strength distributions may be used to predict the failure probability of a representative refractory component used in steel casting, while the former provided useful information of strength-dependence on size between two commonly used specimen geometries used for refractory strength tests. The results indicated an approach of probabilistic life design is applicable to refractory component design for the steel casting industry.

  1. LifeSat engineering in-house vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, A.; Badhwar, G.; Bryant, L.; Caram, J.; Conley, G.; Crull, T.; Cuthbert, P.; Darcy, E.; Delaune, P.; Edeen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The LifeSat program was initiated to research the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on living organisms. The effects of long-term human exposure to free-space radiation fields over a range of gravitational environments has long been recognized as one of the primary design uncertainties for human space exploration. A critical design issue in the radiation biology requirements was the lack of definition of the minimum radiation absorbed dosage required to produce statistically meaningful data. The Phase A study produced a spacecraft conceptual design resembling a Discoverer configuration with a total weight of approximately 2800 pounds that would carry a 525-pound payload module (45 inches in diameter and 36 inches long) and support up to 12 rodents and a general biology module supporting lower life forms for an on-orbit duration of up to 60 days. The phase B conceptual designs focused on gravitational biology requirements and only briefly addressed the design impacts of the shift toward radiobiological science that occurred during the latter half of the Phase B studies.

  2. Preliminary design study of small long life boiling water reactor (BWR) with tight lattice thorium nitride fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trianti, Nuri; Su'ud, Zaki; Arif, Idam; Riyana, EkaSapta

    2014-09-01

    Neutronic performance of small long-life boiling water reactors (BWR) with thorium nitride based fuel has been performed. A recent study conducted on BWR in tight lattice environments (with a lower moderator percentage) produces small power reactor which has some specifications, i.e. 10 years operation time, power density of 19.1 watt/cc and maximum excess reactivity of about 4%. This excess reactivity value is smaller than standard reactivity of conventional BWR. The use of hexagonal geometry on the fuel cell of BWR provides a substantial effect on the criticality of the reactor to obtain a longer operating time. Supported by a tight concept lattice where the volume fraction of the fuel is greater than the moderator and fuel, Thorium Nitride give good results for fuel cell design on small long life BWR. The excess reactivity of the reactor can be reduced with the addition of gadolinium as burnable poisons. Therefore the hexagonal tight lattice fuel cell design of small long life BWR that has a criticality more than 20 years of operating time has been obtained.

  3. Preliminary design study of small long life boiling water reactor (BWR) with tight lattice thorium nitride fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trianti, Nuri E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Su'ud, Zaki E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Arif, Idam E-mail: szaki@fi.itba.c.id; Riyana, EkaSapta

    2014-09-30

    Neutronic performance of small long-life boiling water reactors (BWR) with thorium nitride based fuel has been performed. A recent study conducted on BWR in tight lattice environments (with a lower moderator percentage) produces small power reactor which has some specifications, i.e. 10 years operation time, power density of 19.1 watt/cc and maximum excess reactivity of about 4%. This excess reactivity value is smaller than standard reactivity of conventional BWR. The use of hexagonal geometry on the fuel cell of BWR provides a substantial effect on the criticality of the reactor to obtain a longer operating time. Supported by a tight concept lattice where the volume fraction of the fuel is greater than the moderator and fuel, Thorium Nitride give good results for fuel cell design on small long life BWR. The excess reactivity of the reactor can be reduced with the addition of gadolinium as burnable poisons. Therefore the hexagonal tight lattice fuel cell design of small long life BWR that has a criticality more than 20 years of operating time has been obtained.

  4. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  5. Spectral design flexibility of LED brings better life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis; Ou, Yiyu; Poulsen, Peter B.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Petersen, Paul-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are penetrating into the huge market of general lighting because they are energy saving and environmentally friendly. The big advantage of LED light sources, compared to traditional incandescent lamps and fluorescent light tubes, is the flexible spectral design to make white light using different color mixing schemes. The spectral design flexibility of white LED light sources will promote them for novel applications to improve the life quality of human beings. As an initial exploration to make use of the spectral design flexibility, we present an example: 'no blue' white LED light source for sufferers of disease Porphyria. An LED light source prototype, made of high brightness commercial LEDs applying an optical filter, was tested by a patient suffering from Porphyria. Preliminary results have shown that the sufferer could withstand the light source for much longer time than the standard light source. At last future perspectives on spectral design flexibility of LED light sources improving human being's life will be discussed, with focus on the light and health. The good health is ensured by the spectrum optimized so that vital hormones (melatonin and serotonin) are produced during times when they support human daily rhythm.

  6. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-12-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  7. Statistical characterization of life drivers for a probabilistic design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Eric P.; Safie, Fayssal

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of statistical characterization of life drivers for a probabilistic design analysis (PDA) approach to support the conventional deterministic structural design methods that are currently used. The probabilistic approach takes into consideration the modeling inadequacies and uncertainties in many design variables such as loads, environments, and material properties. The importance of the distributional assumption is motivated by illustrating an example where the results differ substantially due to the distribution selected. Different types of distributions are discussed and techniques for estimating the parameters are given. Given this information, procedures are outlined for selecting the appropriate distribution based on the particular type of variable (i.e., dimensional, performance) as well as the information that is available (i.e., test data, engineering analysis). Finally, techniques are given for generating random numbers from these selected distributions within the PDA process.

  8. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  9. Conceptual designs for lunar base life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Edeen, Marybeth; Brown, Mariann

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for lunar-base life support are described emphasizing the choices of individual processes for initial, intermediate, and advanced systems. Mass balances for the systems are employed to demonstrate the interactions of air, water, and waste loops, and several waste-treatment processes are considered for the initial life-support system. NASA space-station technologies are adopted for the start-up air, water, and waste treatment subsystems, and the intermediate subsystems provide enhanced capabilities. The intermediate waste-management subsystem permits the recovery of reusable waste, and the advanced system provides biological waste treatment. The reduction of resupply requirements and power use are identified as critical issues as is the ability to operate over extended periods.

  10. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  11. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  12. Changes in Post-Operative Complication and Mortality Rates after Lung Cancer Resection in the 20-Year Period 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeki; Suehisa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed post-operative complication and mortality rates from 1995 through 2014 and evaluated the changes in those rates across that 20-year period. Two thousand and three hundred sixteen patients with lung cancer underwent resection at our institution between 1995 and 2014. This timespan was divided into four 5-year periods. Each patient's age, Charlson comorbidity index score, and extent of surgery in each 5-year period were summarized, and the changes in these factors over the 20-year span were evaluated. The complication and mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year period, and the changes in those rates over the 20-years were evaluated. The number of patients with higher Charlson comorbidity index scores increased during the 20-year period. Of the 455 patients who developed complications, 97 developed life-threating complications. There were 16 post-operative deaths and 23 in-hospital deaths. There were no significant changes in the complication rate or mortality rate during the 20-year period. Both rates were significantly correlated with the extent of resection. Although the number of patients with comorbidities increased in the 20-year period, the post-operative complication and mortality rates, as well as in-hospital mortality, did not change significantly.

  13. Testing and design life analysis of polyurea liner materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi Motlagh, Siavash

    Certainly, water pipes, as part of an underground infrastructure system, play a key role in maintaining quality of life, health, and wellbeing of human kind. As these potable water pipes reach the end of their useful life, they create high maintenance costs, loss of flow capacity, decreased water quality, and increased dissatisfaction. There are several different pipeline renewal techniques available for different applications, among which linings are most commonly used for the renewal of water pipes. Polyurea is a lining material applied to the interior surface of the deteriorated host pipe using spray-on technique. It is applied to structurally enhance the host pipe and provide a barrier coating against further corrosion or deterioration. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between stress, strain and time. The results obtained from these tests were used in predicting the strength of the polyurea material during its planned 50-year design life. In addition to this, based on the 10,000 hours experimental data, curve fitting and Findley power law models were employed to predict long-term behavior of the material. Experimental results indicated that the tested polyurea material offers a good balance of strength and stiffness and can be utilized in structural enhancement applications of potable water pipes.

  14. Fatigue criterion to system design, life and reliability: A primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for estimating a component's design survivability by incorporating finite element analysis and probabilistic material properties was developed. The method evaluates design parameters through direct comparisons of component survivability expressed in terms of Weibull parameters. The analysis was applied to a rotating disk with mounting bolt holes. The highest probability of failure occurred at, or near, the maximum shear stress region of the bolt holes. Distribution of material failure as a function of Weibull slope affects the probability of survival. Where Weibull parameters are unknown for a rotating disk, it may be permissible to assume Weibull parameters, as well as the stress-life exponent, in order to determine the qualitative effect of disk speed on the probability of survival.

  15. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  16. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤ 7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  17. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  18. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  19. An unusual cause of fitting in a 20 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Daniel; Malins, A; Watson, M L; Kelly, C A

    2006-01-01

    Native renal artery stenosis resulting in hypertensive encephalopathy is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previous case reports in adults. We report such a case in a previously well 20 year old female.

  20. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter‐writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  1. Life cycle assessment of EPS and CPB inserts: design considerations and end of life scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2005-02-01

    Expanded polystyrene (EPS) and corrugated paperboard (CPB) are used in many industrial applications, such as containers, shock absorbers or simply as inserts. Both materials pose two different types of environmental problems. The first is the pollution and resource consumption that occur during the production of these materials; the second is the growing landfills that arise out of the excessive disposal of these packaging materials. Life cycle assessment or LCA will be introduced in this paper as a useful tool to compare the environmental performance of both EPS and CPB throughout their life cycle stages. This paper is divided into two main parts. The first part investigates the environmental impacts of the production of EPS and CPB from 'cradle-to-gate', comparing two inserts--both the original and proposed new designs. In the second part, LCA is applied to investigate various end-of-life cases for the same materials. The study will evaluate the environmental impacts of the present waste management practices in Singapore. Several 'what-if' cases are also discussed, including various percentages of landfilling and incineration. The SimaPro LCA Version 5.0 software's Eco-indicator 99 method is used to investigate the following five environmental impact categories: climate change, acidification/eutrophication, ecotoxicity, fossil fuels and respiratory inorganics. PMID:15644260

  2. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  3. Orthodontic treatment need, outcome and residual treatment need in 15- and 20-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Bjerklin, Krister; Lindsten, Rune; Tunge, Jannicke Sagevik; Sjövall, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate orthodontic treatment need and the outcome of orthodontic treatment in 15-, and 20-year-olds in Jönköping, Sweden, with special reference to residual treatment need. An offer to participate in a clinical investigation was extended to random samples of 130 15-year-olds and 130 20-year-olds. Ninety-six of the 15-year-olds (73.3%; 45 boys and 51 girls) and 82 of the 20-year-olds (62.6%; 47 males and 35 females) accepted and presented for examination The participants filled in a questionnaire and impressions were taken for study models, which were graded according to the ICON index. In all, 39 (40.6%) of the 15-year-olds and 38 (46.3%) of the 20-year-olds had undergone or were currently undergoing orthodontic treatment. Ninety-one per cent of the 15-year-olds and 84% of the 20-year-olds considered that the orthodontic treatment goals had been fully or almost fully attained. Two of the 15-year-olds and two of the 20-year-olds currently wanted orthodontic treatment. This indicates a residual treatment demand of about 2%.

  4. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  5. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J.

    2015-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. PMID:26048934

  6. Parameter Study of the LIFE Engine Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, K J; Meier, W R; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P

    2009-07-10

    LLNL is developing the nuclear fusion based Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant concept. The baseline design uses a depleted uranium (DU) fission fuel blanket with a flowing molten salt coolant (flibe) that also breeds the tritium needed to sustain the fusion energy source. Indirect drive targets, similar to those that will be demonstrated on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), are ignited at {approx}13 Hz providing a 500 MW fusion source. The DU is in the form of a uranium oxycarbide kernel in modified TRISO-like fuel particles distributed in a carbon matrix forming 2-cm-diameter pebbles. The thermal power is held at 2000 MW by continuously varying the 6Li enrichment in the coolants. There are many options to be considered in the engine design including target yield, U-to-C ratio in the fuel, fission blanket thickness, etc. Here we report results of design variations and compare them in terms of various figures of merit such as time to reach a desired burnup, full-power years of operation, time and maximum burnup at power ramp down and the overall balance of plant utilization.

  7. Designs for life: protocell models in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Alicja J; Mann, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentalization of primitive biochemical reactions within membrane-bound water micro-droplets is considered an essential step in the origin of life. In the absence of complex biochemical machinery, the hypothetical precursors to the first biological cells (protocells) would be dependent on the self-organization of their components and physicochemical conditions of the environment to attain a basic level of autonomy and evolutionary viability. Many researchers consider the self-organization of lipid and fatty acid molecules into bilayer vesicles as a simple form of membrane-based compartmentalization that can be developed for the experimental design and construction of plausible protocell models. In this tutorial review, we highlight some of the recent advances and issues concerning the construction of simple cell-like systems in the laboratory. Overcoming many of the current scientific challenges should lead to new types of chemical bio-reactors and artificial cell-like entities, and bring new insights concerning the possible pathways responsible for the origin of life. PMID:21952478

  8. Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age—a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce. Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life. Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted. Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2. Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight. Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies. PMID:20453247

  9. Design for life-cycle profit with simultaneous consideration of initial manufacturing and end-of-life remanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minjung; Kim, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Remanufacturing is emerging as a promising solution for achieving green, profitable businesses. This article considers a manufacturer that produces new products and also remanufactured versions of the new products that become available at the end of their life cycle. For such a manufacturer, design decisions at the initial design stage determine both the current profit from manufacturing and future profit from remanufacturing. To maximize the total profit, design decisions must carefully consider both ends of product life cycle, i.e. manufacturing and end-of-life stages. This article proposes a decision-support model for the life-cycle design using mixed-integer nonlinear programming. With an aim to maximize the total life-cycle profit, the proposed model searches for an (at least locally) optimal product design (i.e. design specifications and the selling price) for the new and remanufactured products. It optimizes both the initial design and design upgrades at the end-of-life stage and also provides corresponding production strategies, including production quantities and take-back rate. The model is extended to a multi-objective model that maximizes both economic profit and environmental-impact saving. To illustrate, the developed model is demonstrated with an example of a desktop computer.

  10. Clinicopathological evaluation of renal allografts of four patients by 20-year protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Masahiko; Nobori, Shuji; Higuchi, Atsushi; Kadotani, Yayoi; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Kenji; Akioka, Kiyokazu; Omori, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Norio

    2003-01-01

    Twenty-year protocol biopsies were performed in four cases of renal transplant recipients with grafts that had survived 20 years or more. All four recipients received transplants from their parents, and never had episodes of acute rejection. They were maintained with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol including azathioprine, mizoribine, and prednisolone. Three of them had past history of malignant diseases such as breast cancer and tongue cancer. In spite of fair graft function, the microscopic findings of 20-year protocol biopsy showed various degrees of histological damage; e.g. obsolescence of the glomeruli, glomerulosclerosis, arteriole wall thickening, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Although two of the four grafts were functioning with low serum creatinine levels (1.3-1.4 mg dL-1) at 24 years and 26 years following transplantation, respectively, the function of the other two grafts had decreased more than 20 years after transplantation. In the two grafts with decreased function, glomerulosclerosis and arteriole wall thickening tended to be more severe (Banff classification of chronic allograft nephropathy [CAN] grade II and III) at the 20-year protocol biopsy compared with the two well-functioning grafts (CAN grade I and II). We conclude that the protocol biopsies even at 20 years can contribute to predict the fate of renal allografts.

  11. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... Residential Buildings § 435.306 Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design. In selecting... prototype, has the highest Net Savings or lowest total life cycle costs calculated in compliance...

  12. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... Residential Buildings § 435.306 Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design. In selecting... prototype, has the highest Net Savings or lowest total life cycle costs calculated in compliance...

  13. 78 FR 47017 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF..., Designation of Beneficiary: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance, SF 2823. As required by the Paperwork... or retiree covered by the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Program, or an assignee...

  14. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement. PMID:17642125

  15. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  16. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement.

  17. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN FRAMEWORK AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS - PROFILES OF AT&T AND ALLIED SIGNAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document offers guidance and practical experience for integrating environmental considerations into product system development. Life cycle design seeks to minimize the environmental burden associated with a product's life cycle from raw materials acquisition through manufact...

  18. Union Movement at Private Colleges Awakens after a 20-Year Slumber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherman, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Reviews trends in union organization at private colleges following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision 20 years ago denying bargaining rights to faculty at Yeshiva University (New York). Focuses on a recent decision by a labor official granting bargaining rights to faculty at Manhattan College (New York) and efforts by faculty organizers at Seton…

  19. Psychology Studies' Drive to Educational Reform in the Last 20 Years in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Da-jun; Xu, Xing-chun

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform, this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China. The study shows that: (1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems; (2) Research fields have been…

  20. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  1. Intraflagellar transport—the “new motility” 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Kozminski, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport is the rapid, bidirectional movement of protein complexes along the length of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Discovery of this intracellular process in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 20 years ago led to a rapid discovery of cellular mechanisms that underlie a large number of human ciliopathies. Described herein are the events that led to this discovery. PMID:22379118

  2. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  3. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  4. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  5. Four Themes from 20 Years of Research on Infant Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews progress over the past 20 years in four areas of research on infant perception and cognition. Work on perception of dynamic events has identified perceptual constraints on perception of object unity and object trajectory continuity that have led to a perceptual account of early development that supplements Nativist accounts.…

  6. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  7. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  8. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  9. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  10. The Parent-Child Home Program in Western Manitoba: A 20-Year Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; McLaren, Lorraine; Metcalfe, Arron

    2008-01-01

    This article is a 20-year evaluation of the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) of Child and Family Services in Western Manitoba. Following Levenstein's (1979, 1988) approach, home visitors model parent-child interchanges using books and toys to enhance children's cognitive development through appropriate parenting behaviors. The evaluation provides…

  11. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  12. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  13. The Development of an African-Centered School--The First 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Michelle Suzette

    2012-01-01

    This research study is a case study of the development of an African-centered school over a 20-year period. The study describes how the kindergarten-through-eighth-grade institution was established. Interview questions focused on: 1. Establishment of an African-centered institution 2. Challenges of setting up an African-centered institution 3.…

  14. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  15. Changes and Challenges in 20 Years of Research into the Development of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This review of 20 years of developmental research on Executive Functions (EF) offers a broad-brushstroke picture that touches on multiple issues including: (i) findings from typical and atypical groups, from infancy to adolescence; (ii) advances in assessment tools and in statistical analysis; (iii) the interplay between EF and other cognitive…

  16. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  17. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  18. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  19. Participation in Intellectual Disability Research: A Review of 20 Years of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Sakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Researchers have noted difficulties in attracting adequate numbers of participants with intellectual disabilities (ID) to their studies. Methods: This study was a review of participation by adults with ID in research conducted in South Eastern Ontario over a 20-year period (1987-2006). Original research studies were identified by local…

  20. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988–2008) Multisport Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Context: Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective: To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988–2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants: Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results: Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries (16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 3.8) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions: The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may be

  1. Updates in thrombosis in pediatrics: where are we after 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chan, Anthony K C; Monagle, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the pediatric population is increasing. Technological advances in medicine and imaging techniques, improved awareness of the disease, and longer survival of life-threatening or chronic medical conditions all contribute to the increase in VTE rates. There is a paucity of data on management of VTE based on properly designed clinical trials, but there is significant advancement in the last 2 decades. This review summarizes the progress made in pediatric thrombosis, including epidemiological changes, advances in anticoagulant agents, and outcomes of VTE.

  2. Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine for Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2007-01-01

    In the post-World War II era, the major technology drivers for improving the life, reliability, and performance of rolling-element bearings and gears have been the jet engine and the helicopter. By the late 1950s, most of the materials used for bearings and gears in the aerospace industry had been introduced into use. By the early 1960s, the life of most steels was increased over that experienced in the early 1940s, primarily by the introduction of vacuum degassing and vacuum melting processes in the late 1950s. The development of elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory showed that most rolling bearings and gears have a thin film separating the contacting bodies during motion and it is that film which affects their lives. Computer programs modeling bearing and gear dynamics that incorporate probabilistic life prediction methods and EHD theory enable optimization of rotating machinery based on life and reliability. With improved manufacturing and processing, the potential improvement in bearing and gear life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the early 1950s. The work presented summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox. The resulting predictions are compared with field data.

  3. Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Hentati, Abdessalem; Neifar, Chawki; Abid, Walid; M’saad, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail. PMID:27051112

  4. Progressive paranoid psychosis in a 20-year-old with central congenital hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dranovsky, Alex; Needleman, Joshua P; Sylvester, Jessica; VanHeertum, Ronald; Muskin, Philip R

    2014-09-01

    A 20-year-old man with a history of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome presented with recent-onset psychosis, catatonia, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Psychiatric symptoms were resistant to conventional treatment. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain obtained during the hospitalization revealed a hypometabolism distribution more consistent with hypoperfusion than with primary central nervous system disease. Increased mechanical ventilation was successfully used to treat the psychiatric symptoms.

  5. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS; PHASE I: 2.0 L FORD CONTOUR AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project team applied the life cycle design methodology to the design analysis of three alternative air intake manifolds: a sand cast aluminum, brazed aluminum tubular, and nylon composite. The design analysis included a life cycle inventory analysis, environmental regulatory...

  6. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures.

  7. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures. PMID:11843548

  8. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  9. Barrier or Benefit? Emotion in Life-Career Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion permeates human life, yet receives little attention in career theory and intervention. Long seen as a barrier to avoid, recent conceptual and empirical work indicate that emotion benefits human behavior and development. Advances in the interdisciplinary science of emotion support examining the construct across differential, developmental,…

  10. A 20-Year Review of 75 Cases of Salivary Duct Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Sharma, Arun; Schmitt, Nicole C.; Johnson, Jonas T.; Ferris, Robert L.; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the salivary glands. Owing to its rare nature, clinical data are limited, and only a few clinical studies comprise more than 50 patients. OBJECTIVE To review the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s experience with salivary duct carcinoma over a 20-year period, focusing on demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This investigation was a retrospective cohort study in a multihospital institution with tertiary referral. A pathology database was reviewed for all cases of histopathologically diagnosed salivary duct carcinoma from January 1, 1995, to October 20, 2014. Patients who were referrals for pathology review only and were never seen at the institution were excluded. In total, 75 study patients were identified. The electronic medical record was reviewed for details regarding demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcome, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). This study was supplemented with a review of the institution’s Head and Neck Oncology Database for further clinical details. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome measures consisted of OS and DFS. RESULTS The study sample comprised 75 participants with a mean age at diagnosis of 66.0 years (age range, 33–93 years), and 29% (n = 22) were female. Most primary tumors were from the parotid gland (83%), with the next most frequent site being the submandibular gland (12%). Overall, 41% of the cases were carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Rates of other histologic features included the following: perineural invasion (69%), extracapsular spread (58%), ERBB2 (formerly HER2) positivity (31%) (62% of those who were tested), and vascular invasion (61%). The median OS was 3.1 years, and the median DFS was 2.7 years. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that facial nerve sacrifice and extracapsular spread were associated with lower OS (2.38 vs 5

  11. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  12. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  13. Infant feeding, growth and mortality: a 20-year study of an Australian Aboriginal community.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, A E

    1980-10-01

    The data are presented on infant mortality, growth and feeding for an Australian Aboriginal Settlement over 20 years from 1953 to 1972. During this period the infant mortality rate fell from about 280/1000 to about 40/1000 although the growth, infant feeding and health facilities remained almost the same. It is proposed, as a hypothesis worthy of further exploration, that major factors leading to improvement in infant mortality have been a changed attitude to small infants and an ability to use health services appropriately. These factors may be important in all developing communities. PMID:7453611

  14. [Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx. An analysis of 20 years of experience].

    PubMed

    López Amado, M; Lozano Ramírez, A; Labella Caballero, T

    1997-01-01

    Retrospective study about 10 verrucous carcinomas of the larynx surgically treated in a 20-year-term. This variety accounted por the 1.9 percent of the cancers seen in that period of time. Tabagism and alcoholism predominated in 8 and 6 patients respectively. Glottis was the localization and dysphony the paramount symptom. In the paper are emphasized the most important histologic features. Koilocytosis was present in 6 cases. Four patients developed a second tumor of epidermoid carcinoma type. No one exitus due to the verrucous growth. Only in 3 the death was attributed to the second malignancy. PMID:9199100

  15. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  16. Safe Life Propulsion Design Technologies (3rd Generation Propulsion Research and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod

    2000-01-01

    The tasks outlined in this viewgraph presentation on safe life propulsion design technologies (third generation propulsion research and technology) include the following: (1) Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) life prediction methods; (2) Life prediction methods for ultra high temperature polymer matrix composites for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and engine application; (3) Enabling design and life prediction technology for cost effective large-scale utilization of MMCs and innovative metallic material concepts; (4) Probabilistic analysis methods for brittle materials and structures; (5) Damage assessment in CMC propulsion components using nondestructive characterization techniques; and (6) High temperature structural seals for RLV applications.

  17. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  18. The relationship between building design and residents' quality of life in extra care housing schemes.

    PubMed

    Orrell, Alison; McKee, Kevin; Torrington, Judith; Barnes, Sarah; Darton, Robin; Netten, Ann; Lewis, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Well-designed housing is recognised as being an important factor in promoting a good quality of life. Specialised housing models incorporating care services, such as extra care housing (ECH) schemes are seen as enabling older people to maintain a good quality of life despite increasing health problems that can accompany ageing. Despite the variation in ECH building design little is known about the impact of ECH building design on the quality of life of building users. The evaluation of older people's living environments (EVOLVE) study collected cross-sectional data on building design and quality of life in 23 ECH schemes in England, UK. Residents' quality of life was assessed using the schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life-direct weighting (SEIQoL-DW) and on the four domains of control, autonomy, self-realisation and pleasure on the CASP-19. Building design was measured on 12 user-related domains by means of a new tool; the EVOLVE tool. Using multilevel linear regression, significant associations were found between several aspects of building design and quality of life. Furthermore, there was evidence that the relationship between building design and quality of life was partly mediated by the dependency of participants and scheme size (number of living units). Our findings suggest that good quality building design in ECH can support the quality of life of residents, but that designing features that support the needs of both relatively independent and frail users is problematic, with the needs of highly dependent users not currently supported as well as could be hoped by ECH schemes.

  19. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

  20. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  1. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®). PMID:25284237

  2. Advanced Information Technology in Simulation Based Life Cycle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.

    2003-01-01

    In this research a Collaborative Optimization (CO) approach for multidisciplinary systems design is used to develop a decision based design framework for non-deterministic optimization. To date CO strategies have been developed for use in application to deterministic systems design problems. In this research the decision based design (DBD) framework proposed by Hazelrigg is modified for use in a collaborative optimization framework. The Hazelrigg framework as originally proposed provides a single level optimization strategy that combines engineering decisions with business decisions in a single level optimization. By transforming this framework for use in collaborative optimization one can decompose the business and engineering decision making processes. In the new multilevel framework of Decision Based Collaborative Optimization (DBCO) the business decisions are made at the system level. These business decisions result in a set of engineering performance targets that disciplinary engineering design teams seek to satisfy as part of subspace optimizations. The Decision Based Collaborative Optimization framework more accurately models the existing relationship between business and engineering in multidisciplinary systems design.

  3. Virtual World, Real Education: A Descriptive Study of Instructional Design in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds like Second Life are emerging technologies that have gained popularity among educators. As these worlds emerged, greater focus has been placed on the design of the environments themselves rather than the design of instruction within them. Educators have begun using these environments for teaching and instructional designers are now…

  4. An Assessment Center for Mid-Career and Middle Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    This symposium describes the development and initial use of an assessment center for men in mid-career and middle life. This assessment was designed for use in the Management Progress Study, the long-term research started 20 years ago using subjects who were men entering telephone company management. (AT and T). These same subjects were assessed…

  5. A parametric physics based creep life prediction approach to gas turbine blade conceptual design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marcus Edward Brockbank

    The required useful service lives of gas turbine components and parts are naturally one of the major design constraints limiting the gas turbine design space. For example, the required service life of a turbine blade limits the firing temperature in the combustor, which in turn limits the performance of the gas turbine. For a cooled turbine blade, it also determines the necessary cooling flow, which has a strong impact on the turbine efficiency. In most gas turbine design practices, the life prediction is only emphasized during or after the detailed design has been completed. Limited life prediction efforts have been made in the early design stages, but these efforts capture only a few of the necessary key factors, such as centrifugal stress. Furthermore, the early stage prediction methods are usually hard coded in the gas turbine system design tools and hidden from the system designer's view. The common failure mechanisms affecting the service life, such as creep, fatigue and oxidation, are highly sensitive to the material temperatures and/or stresses. Calculation of these temperatures and stresses requires that the geometry, material properties, and operating conditions be known; information not typically available in early stages of design. Even without awareness of the errors, the resulting inaccuracy in the life prediction may mislead the system designers when examining a design space which is bounded indirectly by the inaccurate required life constraints. Furthermore, because intensive creep lifing analysis is possible only towards the end of the design process, any errors or changes will cost the engine manufacturer significant money; money that could be saved if more comprehensive creep lifing predictions were possible in the early stages of design. A rapid, physics-based life prediction method could address this problem by enabling the system designer to investigate the design space more thoroughly and accurately. Although not meant as a final decision

  6. A Report to the People. 20 Years of Your National Commitment to Public Broadcasting, 1967-1987. 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This annual report for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for fiscal year 1986 also summarizes the CPB's activities over the last 20 years. The front inside cover folds out to three pages and provides a chronology of the important events in CPB history from its inception in 1967 to 1987. A narrative report on the CPB's 20 years of…

  7. NASA/Navy life/cruise fan preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies were performed to define a turbotip lift/cruise fan propulsion system for a Navy multimission aircraft. The fan is driven by the exhausts of the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet or a 20 percent Growth J97 configuration as defined during the studies. The LCF459 fan configuration defined has a tip diameter of 1.50 meters (59.0 inches) and develops a design point thrust of 75,130 N (16,890 lbs) at a fan pressure ratio of 1.319. The fan has an estimated weight of 386 kg (850 lbs). Trade studies performed to define the selected configuration are described.

  8. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  9. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  10. Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangtong; Fine, Jason Peter; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. A questionnaire was used to measure diabetes risk factors, including dietary habits, lifestyle, psychological factors, cognitive function, and physical condition. Gray test and a subdistribution hazards model were used to construct a prediction algorithm for 20-year risk of diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, bootstrap cross-validated Wolber concordance index (C-index) statistics, and calibration plots were used to assess model performance. During the 20-year follow-up period, 144 cases were documented for diabetes incidence with a median follow-up of 10.9 years (interquartile range: 8.0–15.3 years). The cumulative incidence function of 20-year diabetes incidence was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risk of nondiabetes death. Gray test showed that body mass index, FPG, self-rated heath status, and physical activity were associated with the cumulative incidence function of diabetes after adjusting for age. Finally, 5 standard risk factors (poor self-rated health status [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.73, P = 0.005], less physical activity [SHR = 1.39, P = 0.047], 55–65 years old [SHR = 4.37, P < 0.001], overweight [SHR = 2.15, P < 0.001] or obesity [SHR = 1.96, P = 0.003], and impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [SHR = 1.99, P < 0.001]) were significantly associated with incident

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON METRICS FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics (potentials, potency factors, equivalency factors or characterization factors) are available to support the environmental comparison of alternatives in application domains like proces design and product life-cycle assessment (LCA). These metrics typically provide relative...

  12. Wind Turbine Design Guideline DG03: Yaw and Pitch Rolling Bearing Life

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.; Rumbarger, J. H.; Butterfield, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes the design criteria, calculation methods, and applicable standards recommended for use in performance and life analyses of ball and roller (rolling) bearings for yaw and pitch motion support in wind turbine applications. The formulae presented here for rolling bearing analytical methods and bearing-life ratings are consistent with methods in current use by wind turbine designers and rolling-bearing manufacturers.

  13. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.

  14. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  15. Role of 3-D ultrasound in clinical obstetric practice: evolution over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Martins, Wellington P; Guimarães Filho, Hélio; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-05-01

    The use of 3-D ultrasound in obstetrics has undergone dramatic development over the past 20 years. Since the first publications on this application in clinical practice, several 3-D ultrasound techniques and rendering modes have been proposed and applied to the study of fetal brain, face and cardiac anatomy. In addition, 3-D ultrasound has improved calculations of the volume of fetal organs and limbs and estimations of fetal birth weight. And furthermore, angiographic patterns of fetal organs and the placenta have been assessed using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound quantification. In this review, we aim to summarize current evidence on the clinical relevance of these methodologies and their application in obstetric practice.

  16. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice.

  17. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling.

    PubMed

    Potts, Jonathan R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of 'mechanistic territorial models'. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  18. Maintenance of recovery from schizophrenia at 20-year follow-up: what happened?

    PubMed

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports longitudinal data on individuals who 20-years ago were fully recovered from previously diagnosed schizophrenia. Four subjects from the original sample consented and were interviewed at the present follow-up; data on two more subjects were secured elsewhere. A semistructured interview, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and Connor and Davidsons Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) were used to examine the psychosocial functioning and resilience of the subjects in the follow-up period. Out of the six subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia, two subjects were still fully recovered, one was recovered, one was in remission, one had a deteriorating course of illness, and one was deceased. The results indicate that full recovery was maintained for nearly half of the reexamined subjects when a criterion-based definition of full recovery is used. Good personality and attitudinal approaches (resilience) seem to play a role in sustaining recovery. PMID:20235619

  19. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time.

  20. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  1. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  2. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space. PMID:24320653

  3. [A glaucoma follow-up of 1500 persons over 20 years].

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, Y; Corbe, C; Hamard, H; Perdriel, G

    1988-01-01

    The parameters of glaucoma risk have been compiled and computer processed on 1,571 patients during 20 years at the C.P.E.M.P.N. (Medical Evaluation Center for the Aeronautic Staff) of Paris. The goal of this study is to follow in real time the évolution of these parameters and to determine their physiological variations across time in terms of age and professional categories. An average intra-ocular pressure of 15.1 mmHg as well as hypertonia and glaucoma percentages respectively of 3.88% and 0.6% have been recorded in this study. These results were below the results of other previous surveys due to the greater age range of our study the youngest being 15 years old. There was no significant difference among pilots and non pilots. The optic disc examination was not decisive for diagnostic screening.

  4. RSIC after 20 years: a look back and a look ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Roussin, R.W.; Trubev, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of RSIC's 20th anniversary year, this review includes highlights and lessons learned. In June 1963, the first RSIC Newsletter was published, and information analyses procedures and practices were initiated. Evidence indicates that RSIC served for 20 years as the focal point for the exchange and transfer of radiation transport technology and contributed to the advancement of the state of the art. The original concept is found to be sound: operate an information analysis center by collecting, organizing, evaluating, and analyzing all relevant information and making the information available in a form readily useful to scientists and engineers. Computing technology, a computer-based literature information system, and an advisory service remain important elements of the center. Continuing interaction between the center, developers, and users of information products and services has been a key to RSIC success. A look to the future reflects optimism.

  5. Pustular psoriasis in childhood and adolescence: a 20-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Popadic, Svetlana; Nikolic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Pustular psoriasis (PP) is rare in children. The small number of reported cases makes deciding on treatment and follow-up challenging. The current study was an evaluation of treatment approaches and courses of PP in 18 children diagnosed and followed over a 20-year period. From 1992 to 2011 we treated 1,447 children with psoriasis, 18 of whom had PP. Follow-up was 2 to 19 years. At the time of initial manifestation of PP, our patients were 1.5 months to 16 years old. Seven patients had a previous history of psoriasis vulgaris. Three children entered long-term remission after one pustular attack, 10 developed psoriasis vulgaris, 2 are currently under treatment, and 3 were lost to follow-up. Treatment with acitretin, cyclosporine, or methotrexate was efficacious and well tolerated. PP is rare, but according to our experience, it has a good prognosis in children.

  6. From the First Stars and Galaxies to the Epoch of Reionization: 20 Years of Computational Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    2016-06-01

    I give a progress report on computational efforts to reconstruct the first billion years of cosmic evolution beginning with the formation of the first generation of stars and galaxies, culminating in the complete photoionization of the intergalactic medium. After 20 years of intense effort, the picture is falling into place through the development and application of complex multiphysics numerical simulations of increasing physical complexity and scale on the most powerful supercomputers. I describe the processes that govern the formation of the first generation of stars, the transition to the second generation of stars, the assembly of the first galaxies, and finally the reionization of the universe. I discuss how these simulations guide the interpretation of relevant observations of the high redshift (and local) universe, along with some observational predictions of these simulations which will be tested with the next generation observatories.

  7. [20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].

    PubMed

    Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

    1992-02-28

    The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.

  8. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Spontaneous regression of advanced intra-abdominal metastases with 20 year survival.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C E; Vansant, J H

    1979-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome who is alive and well 20 years following diagnosis at age 15, is represented. At the initial operation for a bleeding duodenal ulcer a ZE tumor of the pancreas also was excised. After two additional ineffective ulcer operations, total gastrectomy was performed. At that time, retroperitoneal and peripancreatic metastases were noted, and several were removed. Three years later at laparotomy, extensive hepatic metastases were biopsied as well. Spontaneous remission occurred and when re-explored at age 34, after 14 years, no metastases were identifiable in any area. The serum gastrin level has remained elevated, casting doubt upon its value as a criterion for evaluation of tumor recurrence or activity. Other additional interesting aspects are discussed. The importance of elimination of the acid-secreting cells by total gastrectomy is emphasized. The patient remains well. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:443914

  9. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of ‘mechanistic territorial models’. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  10. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  11. Gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma 20 years after radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Ebru; Kala, Mehtap; Karaman, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas account for 2–3% of malignant neoplasms in adults. The lung, soft tissues and bone represent the most frequent sites of distant metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Gastric metastasis is rare. Our case was a 72-year-old man with complaints of fatigue and loss of appetite. In history, he had unergone radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma in 1993. A polypoid lesion was observed in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histopathology of gastric biopsy specimen was reported as renal cell carcinoma. In English literature, there are 50 cases diagnosed as gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. To date, there are only 4 cases with extremely late gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a rare case which underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma and found to have gastric metastasis at 20. year of his follow-up. PMID:27274897

  12. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the EGM 4000/1 Design class was to investigate a Biomass Management System (BMS) and design, fabricate, and test components for biomass management in a closed-loop life support system (CLLSS). The designs explored were to contribute to the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) at Kennedy Space Center. Designs included a sectored plant growth unit, a container and transfer mechanism, and an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. The work performed by the class members is summarized.

  13. 25 CFR 170.455 - How are design standards used in IRR projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are design standards used in IRR projects? 170.455... Design § 170.455 How are design standards used in IRR projects? The standards in this section must be applied to each construction project consistent with a minimum 20-year design life for highway...

  14. 25 CFR 170.455 - How are design standards used in IRR projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are design standards used in IRR projects? 170.455... Design § 170.455 How are design standards used in IRR projects? The standards in this section must be applied to each construction project consistent with a minimum 20-year design life for highway...

  15. 25 CFR 170.455 - How are design standards used in IRR projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are design standards used in IRR projects? 170.455... Design § 170.455 How are design standards used in IRR projects? The standards in this section must be applied to each construction project consistent with a minimum 20-year design life for highway...

  16. 25 CFR 170.455 - How are design standards used in IRR projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are design standards used in IRR projects? 170.455... Design § 170.455 How are design standards used in IRR projects? The standards in this section must be applied to each construction project consistent with a minimum 20-year design life for highway...

  17. 25 CFR 170.455 - How are design standards used in IRR projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are design standards used in IRR projects? 170.455... Design § 170.455 How are design standards used in IRR projects? The standards in this section must be applied to each construction project consistent with a minimum 20-year design life for highway...

  18. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  19. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  20. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method.

  1. Detection and Clinical Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Colorectal Cancer—20 Years of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Hardingham, Jennifer E; Grover, Phulwinder; Winter, Marnie; Hewett, Peter J; Price, Timothy J; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) may be defined as tumor- or metastasis-derived cells that are present in the bloodstream. The CTC pool in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients may include not only epithelial tumor cells, but also tumor cells undergoing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor stem cells. A significant number of patients diagnosed with early stage CRC subsequently relapse with recurrent or metastatic disease despite undergoing “curative” resection of their primary tumor. This suggests that an occult metastatic disease process was already underway, with viable tumor cells being shed from the primary tumor site, at least some of which have proliferative and metastatic potential and the ability to survive in the bloodstream. Such tumor cells are considered to be responsible for disease relapse in these patients. Their detection in peripheral blood at the time of diagnosis or after resection of the primary tumor may identify those early-stage patients who are at risk of developing recurrent or metastatic disease and who would benefit from adjuvant therapy. CTC may also be a useful adjunct to radiological assessment of tumor response to therapy. Over the last 20 years many approaches have been developed for the isolation and characterization of CTC. However, none of these methods can be considered the gold standard for detection of the entire pool of CTC. Recently our group has developed novel unbiased inertial microfluidics to enrich for CTC, followed by identification of CTC by imaging flow cytometry. Here, we provide a review of progress on CTC detection and clinical significance over the last 20 years. PMID:26605644

  2. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  3. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2007-02-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  4. Fault kinematics in the 1989 Loma Prieta rupture area during 20 years before that event

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The Loma Prieta (LP) compressional bend of the San Andreas fault zone (SAF) appears to be multi-stranded and vertically segmented; thus, faults in this segment other than the one that ruptured in 1989 may: (1) be the source of prior large events associated with this portion of the SAF and (2) be highly stressed after the 1989 LP event. The fault that ruptured in 1989 was remarkably aseismic during the preceding 20 years; seismicity occurred on some of the neighboring faults of the system, but others remained aseismic. The Lake Elsman burst of seismicity within 1.6 years of the main shock is on a set of secondary faults within the foot-wall of the rupture. The shallow ({le}5 km) portion of the SAF, morphologically and structurally characterized as steep and predominantly strike-slip, and the imbricate thrust zone to the northeast were also quiescent. These upper crustal faults may partition oblique motion accomplished by LP-like ruptures in the lower crust into fault-parallel (transcurrence) and fault-normal motion (convergence), respectively. While the overall level of seismicity in the region around LP increased over the 20 years before 1989, the level of seismicity (number of events) on the creeping portion of the SAF next to the LP segment decreased. Moreover, the level of background seismicity on this and other fault segments varied dramatically, both up and down, in conjunction with major regional earthquakes on other segments. Thus, improved models for precursory patterns of seismicity should account for mechanistically more realistic changes than simple seismicity increase or decrease everywhere around an impending rupture.

  5. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  6. Clinical Features of Male Breast Cancer: Experiences from Seven Institutions Over 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji Hyung; Ha, Kyung Sun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Won, Hye Sung; An, Ho Jung; Lee, Guk Jin; Kang, Donghoon; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sarah; Byun, Jae Ho; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Park, Woo Chan; Jung, Sang Seol; Park, Il Young; Chung, Su-Mi; Woo, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. Materials and Methods Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Results Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor–positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti–HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. Conclusion Anti–HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted

  7. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review.

  8. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  9. Temporal and Spatial Trends of Mercury Speciation in the Mediterranean Sea - 20 years of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, M.; Kotnik, J.; Fajon, V.; Zivkovic, I.; Begu, E.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the geological mercury anomaly in the Mediterranean Basin, the concentrations of Hg Hg and its compounds are generally lower than those found in the Atlantic and Pacific waters. Temporal and spatial trends of total mercury and its species in surface and deep waters (dissolved gaseous mercury - DGM, mono and di-methylmercuy - MMHg, and DMHg) obtained during last 20 years will be presented. Total mercury Hg levels in open waters are generally very low (0.81-2.33 pM, av. 1.46 pM) and remain constant over the years. Hg speciation data showed that DGM accounts for up to 50% while MMHg accounted to up to 15% of total Hg in water. Significant spatial and temporal differences were observed for mercury speciation. The relatively high concentrations and fractions of DGM and MMHg indicate the high reactivity of Hg in open marine waters. DGM was present in surface waters mainly as Hg0 as no DMHg was detected at the surface, while towards the bottom a noticeable, but relatively small fraction of DMHg was present. It was found that DGM species were lower in surface with an increasing trend towards the bottom, especially in the tectonically active areas, indicating its geotectonic origin. In surface waters, DGM exhibited higher values in summer. MMHg profiles are mostly related to Chl-a and oxygen concentrations. This underlines the role of planktonic production and regeneration in methylation/ demethylation processes. The low MMHg concentrations found in shelf edge or coastal sediments and water over sediment indicate that coastal or shelf sediments are not a significant MMHg source for adjacent open sea waters. Anthropogenic and natural point sources show local enrichments, while natural diffusive sources influence Hg speciation over larger areas. The results allowed estimation of temporal mass balances to be evaluated for the Mediterranean Sea. Comparability of the measured results was secured by strict quality control measures over the 20 years.

  10. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  11. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  12. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter following 20years of peatland restoration.

    PubMed

    Höll, Bettina S; Fiedler, Sabine; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kalbitz, Karsten; Freibauer, Annette; Drösler, Matthias; Stahr, Karl

    2009-12-15

    The changes in the amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) following long-term peat restoration are unknown, although this fraction of soil organic matter affects many processes in such ecosystems. We addressed this lack of knowledge by investigating a peatland in south-west Germany that was partly rewetted 20 years ago. A successfully restored site and a moderately drained site were compared, where the mean groundwater levels were close to the soil surface and around 30 cm below surface, respectively. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at 4 depths were measured over one year. The specific absorbance was measured at 280 nm and the fluorescence spectra were used to describe the aromaticity and complexity of DOM. The investigations showed that 20 years of peatland restoration was able to create typical peatland conditions. The rewetted site had significantly lower DOC concentrations at different depths compared to the drained site. The specific UV absorbance showed that the rewetted site had a lower level of aromatic DOM structures. The decreasing specific UV absorbance might indicate an increasing contribution of small organic molecules to DOM. It was hypothesized that the decreasing DOC concentrations and the relative enrichment of small, readily degradable organic molecules, reflect the slower decomposition of organic matter after the re-establishment of the water table. Seasonal trends provided substantial evidence for our hypothesis that reduced DOC concentrations were caused by reduced peat decomposition. During summer, the elevated DOC values were accompanied by an increase in DOM aromaticity and complexity. Our results demonstrated a close link between C mineralization and DOC production. We concluded that long-term peatland restoration in the form of the successful re-establishment of the water table might result in reduced peat decomposition and lower DOC concentrations. The restoration of peatlands seems to have a

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  14. A simulation based optimization approach to model and design life support systems for manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, Selen

    This dissertation considers the problem of process synthesis and design of life-support systems for manned space missions. A life-support system is a set of technologies to support human life for short and long-term spaceflights, via providing the basic life-support elements, such as oxygen, potable water, and food. The design of the system needs to meet the crewmember demand for the basic life-support elements (products of the system) and it must process the loads generated by the crewmembers. The system is subject to a myriad of uncertainties because most of the technologies involved are still under development. The result is high levels of uncertainties in the estimates of the model parameters, such as recovery rates or process efficiencies. Moreover, due to the high recycle rates within the system, the uncertainties are amplified and propagated within the system, resulting in a complex problem. In this dissertation, two algorithms have been successfully developed to help making design decisions for life-support systems. The algorithms utilize a simulation-based optimization approach that combines a stochastic discrete-event simulation and a deterministic mathematical programming approach to generate multiple, unique realizations of the controlled evolution of the system. The timelines are analyzed using time series data mining techniques and statistical tools to determine the necessary technologies, their deployment schedules and capacities, and the necessary basic life-support element amounts to support crew life and activities for the mission duration.

  15. A close examination of under-actuated attitude control subsystem design for future satellite missions' life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Quang M.; Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Satellite mission life, maintained and prolonged beyond its typical norm of their expectancy, are primarily dictated by the state of health of its Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA), especially for commercial GEO satellites since torquer bars are no longer applicable while thruster assistant is unacceptable due to pointing accuracy impact during jet firing. The RWA is the primary set of actuators (as compared to thrusters for orbit maintenance and maneuvering) mainly responsible for the satellite mission for accurately and precisely pointing its payloads to the right targets to conduct its mission operations. The RWA consisting of either a set of four in pyramid or three in orthogonal is the primary set of actuators to allow the satellite to achieve accurate and precise pointing of the satellite payloads towards the desired targets. Future space missions will be required to achieve much longer lives and are currently perceived by the GEO satellite community as an "expected norm" of 20 years or longer. Driven by customers' demands/goals and competitive market have challenged Attitude Control Subsystems (ACS) engineers to develop better ACS algorithms to address such an emerging need. There are two main directions to design satellite's under-actuated control subsystem: (1) Attitude Feedback with Zero Momentum Principle and (2) Attitude Control by Angular Velocity Tracking via Small Time Local Controllability concept. Successful applications of these control laws have been largely demonstrated via simulation for the rest to rest case. Limited accuracy and oscillatory behaviors are observed in three axes for non-zero wheel momentum while realistic loss of a wheel scenario (i.e., fully actuated to under-actuated) has not been closely examined! This study revisits the under-actuated control design with detailed set ups of multiple scenarios reflecting real life operating conditions which have put current under-actuated control laws mentioned earlier into a re-evaluation mode

  16. The LIFE Laser Design in Context: A Comparison to the State-of-the-Art

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R J; Bayramian, A J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-03-21

    The current point design for the LIFE laser leverages decades of solid-state laser development in order to achieve the performance and attributes required for inertial fusion energy. This document provides a brief comparison of the LIFE laser point design to other state-of-the-art solid-state lasers. Table I compares the attributes of the current LIFE laser point design to other systems. the state-of-the-art for single-shot performance at fusion-relevant beamline energies is exemplified by performance observed on the National Ignition Facility. The state-of-the-art for high average power is exemplified by the Northrup Grumman JHPSSL laser. Several items in Table I deal with the laser efficiency; a more detailed discussion of efficiency can be found in reference 5. The electrical-to-optical efficiency of the LIFE design exceeds that of reference 4 due to the availability of higher efficiency laser diode pumps (70% vs. {approx}50% used in reference 4). LIFE diode pumps are discussed in greater detail in reference 6. The 'beam steering' state of the art is represented by the deflection device that will be used in the LIFE laser, not a laser system. Inspection of Table I shows that most LIFE laser attributes have already been experimentally demonstrated. The two cases where the LIFE design is somewhat better than prior experimental work do not involve the development of new concepts: beamline power is increased simply by increasing aperture (as demonstrated by the power/aperture comparison in Table I), and efficiency increases are achieved by employing state-of-the-art diode pumps. In conclusion, the attributes anticipated for the LIFE laser are consistent with the demonstrated performance of existing solid-state lasers.

  17. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  18. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  19. Design of Learning Spaces in 3D Virtual Worlds: An Empirical Investigation of "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minocha, Shailey; Reeves, Ahmad John

    2010-01-01

    "Second Life" (SL) is a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world, and educational institutions are adopting SL to support their teaching and learning. Although the question of how 3D learning spaces should be designed to support student learning and engagement has been raised among SL educators and designers, there is hardly any guidance or research…

  20. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... between or among proposed building designs which comply with the applicable energy consumption goal under... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for...

  1. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between or among proposed building designs which comply with the applicable energy consumption goal under... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for...

  2. 10 CFR 435.306 - Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between or among proposed building designs which comply with the applicable energy consumption goal under... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selecting a life cycle effective proposed building design... FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for...

  3. Effects of Game Design Patterns on Basic Life Support Training Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelle, Sebastian; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previous analysis of game design patterns and related effects in an educational scenario, the following paper presents an experimental study. In the study a course for Basic Life Support training has been evaluated and two game design patterns have been applied to the course. The hypotheses evaluated in this paper relate to game design…

  4. The life of the Chief Designer of scientific robotic space systems—Georgii N. Babakin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khartov, V. V.; Romanov, V. M.; Pichkhadze, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is dedicated to the life and creative career of Georgii N. Babakin, the outstanding designer of native robotic space complexes for fundamental scientific studies of the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and Chief Designer of the S.A. Lavochkin machine building enterprise.

  5. Informal Learning in Professional and Personal Life: Implications for Instructional Design and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Moore, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on informal learning and its implications for instructional design and performance improvement. The authors begin by sharing a story of how a novice instructional designer employs informal learning strategies in her professional and personal life. Next, they offer a definition of informal learning that encompasses both…

  6. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  7. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  8. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  9. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, B.; Willyard, B.; Polasek, S.; Clarkson, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  10. The Optimum Design of Hydrodynamic Lubrication Bearing for Minimization of the Total Life Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatsubo, Takuzo; Yamabayashi, Jun

    This paper proposes an optimum design method of journal bearing for minimizing the total life cost which includes not only the initial cost but also the running cost. Journal bearing is one of the typical friction part and physically severe part in machine elements. Therefore, maintenance is required to prevent failure and to keep performance. For this object, the running cost by the maintenance is user's burden. Thus, the optimum design method of the bearing for minimization of the total life cost is required. In this research, the evaluation functions of the total life cost which contains the initial cost and the running cost of the bearing are discussed and the optimum design is proposed under the physical constrain, that is Thermo Hydrodynamic Lubrication theory (THL theory), and inequality constraints. Then design valuables of the optimum journal bearing are obtained.

  11. Severe Hydronephrosis and Dysuria-Hematuria Syndrome after 20 Years of Bladder Exstrophy Correction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Bove, Alfredo Maria; Sergi, Federico; Zullo, Marzio Angelo; Buscarini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a case of severe hydronephrosis and incontinence 20 years after bladder exstrophy repair, managed successfully by secondary ureteroneocystostomy and by transurethral submucosal injection of Macroplastique. PMID:23198264

  12. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting. PMID:25244627

  13. The evolution of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the USA over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Eisenberg, David; Hufford, David; Crawford, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Medical practices that reside outside the mainstream medical structures have existed for centuries, often waxing and waning in prominence and use for various reasons. Recently, there has been a resurgence in interest and use of such practices in the USA generally referred to under the label of 'complementary and alternative medicine' (CAM). In this article we summarize some of the highlight events that punctuated this resurgence over the last 20 years. As in the past, social forces affecting these trends circulate around power, resources, and scope of practice. However, a prominent feature of this dynamic is a discussion about the role of science and 'evidence-based medicine' in addressing pluralistic healthcare-related practices. In the early years of this period, attempts to formulate the place of CAM practices as they relate to epistemology, nonconventional assumptions about health and healing, and the complexity of understanding 'whole systems' were discussed and often examined. Less attention is being paid to those core assumptions in more recent times. The focus now seems to be on how CAM practices can be judiciously and effectively 'integrated' into mainstream medicine. Examples of how this dynamic is evolving are described.

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  15. Implant survival and radiographic outcome of total hip replacement in patients less than 20 years old

    PubMed Central

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Halvorsen, Vera; Nordsletten, Lars; EngesæTer, Ingvild Ø; EngesæTer, Lars B; Marie Fenstad, Anne; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is not recommended for children and very young teenagers because early and repetitive revisions are likely. We investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of THR performed in children and teenage patients. Patients and methods We included 111 patients (132 hips) who underwent THR before 20 years of age. They were identified in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, together with information on the primary diagnosis, types of implants, and any revisions that required implant change. Radiographs and Harris hip score (HHS) were also evaluated. Results The mean age at primary THR was 17 (11–19) years and the mean follow-up time was 14 (3–26) years. The 10-year survival rate after primary THR (with the endpoint being any revision) was 70%. 39 patients had at least 1 revision and 16 patients had 2 or more revisions. In the latest radiographs, osteolysis and atrophy were observed in 19% and 27% of the acetabulae and 21% and 62% of the femurs, respectively. The mean HHS at the final follow-up was 83 (15–100). Interpretation The clinical score after THR in these young patients was acceptable, but many revisions had been performed. However, young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip had lower implant survival. Moreover, the bone stock in these patients was poor, which could complicate future revisions. PMID:27435903

  16. Annular Pancreas: A Cause of Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a 20-Year-Old Patient

    PubMed Central

    Alahmadi, Raha; Almuhammadi, Saud

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 20 Final Diagnosis: Annular pancreas Symptoms: Food intolerance • vomiting Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Annular pancreas is a congenital anomaly that consists of a ring of pancreatic tissue partially or completely encircling the descending portion of the duodenum. It is formed due to the failure of the ventral bud to rotate, thus it elongates and encircles the upper part of the duodenum. It can present in a wide range of clinical severities, and can affect neonates to the elderly, making it difficult to diagnosis. Although diagnosis of annular pancreas can be made pre-operatively by upper GI series, upper GI endoscopy, or CT scan, 40% of diagnoses require surgery for confirmation. Case Report: We report the case of a 20-year-old woman presenting with history of vomiting and weight loss since childhood. We present the clinical characteristics, surgical management in the form of bypass procedure done through a duodenojujenostomy, and follow-up of the patient. Conclusions: Annular pancreas occasionally presents in adults. Variable presentations have been described in the literature, including pancreatic neoplasm, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, duodenal obstruction, and peptic ulcer diseases. Most studies of these lesions are single case reports or small series, which do not allow a surgeon to accumulate extensive experience; therefore, reliance on the combined experience of others in recognition and appropriate management has been the norm. PMID:25300027

  17. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting.

  18. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting…

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  19. Evaluation of study patients with Lyme disease, 10-20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kalish, R A; Kaplan, R F; Taylor, E; Jones-Woodward, L; Workman, K; Steere, A C

    2001-02-01

    To determine the long-term impact of Lyme disease, we evaluated 84 randomly selected, original study patients from the Lyme, Connecticut, region who had erythema migrans, facial palsy, or Lyme arthritis 10-20 years ago and 30 uninfected control subjects. The patients in the 3 study groups and the control group did not differ significantly in current symptoms or neuropsychological test results. However, patients with facial palsy, who frequently had more widespread nervous system involvement, more often had residual facial or peripheral nerve deficits. Moreover, patients with facial palsy who did not receive antibiotics for acute neuroborreliosis more often now had joint pain and sleep difficulty and lower scores on the body pain index and standardized physical component sections of the Short-Form 36 Health Assessment Questionnaire than did antibiotic-treated patients with facial palsy. Thus, the overall current health status of each patient group was good, but sequelae were apparent primarily among patients with facial palsy who did not receive antibiotics for acute neuroborreliosis.

  20. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  1. Mirror neurons (and beyond) in the macaque brain: an overview of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Casile, Antonino

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons in the ventral pre-motor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal lobule (area PFG) that respond during the execution as well as the observation of goal-directed motor acts. These intriguing response properties stirred an intense debate in the scientific community with respect to the possible cognitive role of mirror neurons. The aim of the present review is to contribute to this debate by providing, in a single paper, an extended summary of 20 years of neurophysiological research on mirror neurons in the macaque. To this end, I provide a comprehensive description of the methodology and the main results of each paper about mirror neurons published since their first report in 1992. Particular care was devoted in reporting the different response characteristics and the percentages of neurons exhibiting them in relation to the total number of studied neurons. Furthermore, I also discuss recent results indicating that mirror neurons might not be confined to areas F5 and PFG and that "mirroring" might not be limited to action observation. Finally, I offer a unifying framework for many of the results discussed here by speculating that a potential functional role of mirror neurons might be, during action observation, to generalize from the particular grasping movement being observed to the "concept" of grasping.

  2. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina

    2009-01-01

    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  3. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: what have we learned in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, major advances have clarified how ecological patterns inform theory, and how in turn theory informs applied ecology. Also, there has been an increased recognition that the problem of scale at which ecological processes should be considered is critical if we are to produce general predictions. Ecological dynamics is always stochastic at small scales, but variability is conditional on the scale of description. The radical changes in the scope and aims of ecology over the past decades reflect in part the need to address pressing societal issues of environmental change. Technological advances in molecular biology, global positioning, sensing instrumentation and computational power should not be overlooked as an explanation for these radical changes. However, I argue that conceptual unification across ecology, genetics, evolution and physiology has fostered even more fertile questions. We are moving away from the view that evolution is played in a fixed ecological theatre: the theatre is being rapidly and relentlessly redesigned by the players themselves. The maintenance of ecosystem functions depends on shifts in species assemblages and on cellular metabolism, not only on flows of energy and matter. These findings have far reaching implications for our understanding of how ecosystem function and biodiversity will withstand (or not) environmental changes in the 21st century.

  4. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting….

    PubMed

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH's bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  5. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Altimetry-derived maps of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts. They are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Their calculation however is more complex than standard Eulerian diagnostics, because it requires a Lagrangian algorithms which integrates the velocity field. During the past 20 years, in parallel with the altimeter measurement Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) to Level3 and Level4 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA, and multiple sensor merged maps) processing, different applications and derivated Level4+ products were developed by AVISO+. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21-year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the Lyapunov products that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015, and some examples of applications.

  6. How have researchers studied multiracial populations: A content and methodological review of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    The U. S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic make-up of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied both to recognize the emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990–2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals from primarily the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  7. A 20-Year-Old Retained Surgical Gauze Mimicking a Spinal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Jung Soo

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of lower back and left leg radiating pain that began 1 month prior to his presentation. He underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation 20 years ago at another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed left-sided foraminal stenosis at L4-5. In addition, a paraspinal mass occupying the L4 spinous process and left lamina was observed. We subsequently performed an L4-5 decompression and fusion. During the operation, retained surgical gauze with granulation tissue was found. The term gossypiboma is used to define a mass lesion consisting of retained surgical gauzes and an adjacent foreign body reaction. Gossypibomas are uncommon in the paraspinal area and are mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases. Because there are no specific clinical or radiological signs, they can be confused with other tumorous conditions. Gossypibomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal soft-tissue masses detected in patients with a history of prior spinal surgery. PMID:27799998

  8. Susac's Syndrome in a Patient Diagnosed with MS for 20 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nazliel, Bijen; Akyol, Asli; Zeynep Batur Caglayan, Hale; Yildirim-Capraz, Irem; Irkec, Ceyla

    2014-01-01

    Susac's syndrome is an uncommon neurologic disorder of unknown cause. It has been described as a clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and branch retinal artery occlusions. Clinically the diagnosis is difficult when the patient presents only a portion of a triad. We present a case with vision loss and sensorineural deafness and who had been diagnosed with MS for 20 years. Susac's syndrome is presumed to be an autoimmune endotheliopathy. Neurologic symptoms and signs are diffuse and multifocal, acute or subacute in onset, and progress during the active phase of the disease. In some patients the onset was stroke like and in others that of subacute dementia. Headache, often with migrainous features, was a prominent feature initially in more than one half of the patients. A high index of suspicion leading to correct diagnosis and early appropriate therapy may reduce the permanent sequel seen with this disease. Misdiagnosis is common. In patients in whom diagnosis and treatment are delayed permanent morbidity is higher in terms of visual loss, hearing loss, and neurologic debility. In patients in whom rapid diagnosis has led to early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, recovery can be almost complete. PMID:24716016

  9. [The Italian Places of Nicholas Green 20 years after his assassination].

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Scarabelli, Andrea; Citterio, Franco; De Santo, Luca S; De Rosa, Giusy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Nicholas Green, a 7- year-old American boy was shot, while on vacation, on the Autostrada (motorway) Salerno to Reggio Calabria in Italy. His organs, with the consent of his parents, Reg and Maggie, were removed and 7 persons had their lives changed. In Italy in these last 20 years, organ donation has increased powerfully from 6.2 to 18.2 per million population with a peak at 20 in 2006. Reg and Maggie Green, after Nicholas death, started campaigning for organ donation by making full use of the media. Italian justice was efficient and the criminals were imprisoned quickly. With popular enthusiasm, a total of 103 places were dedicated to Nicholas (schools, halls, squares, streets, parks, gardens, private collections), a proof of great appreciation. Teaching organ donation to children, nurses and medical students is a powerful tool to convey the message of organ donation. To prevent opposition to organ removal when brain death occurs as Professor Francesco Casavola says signing for organ donation should be a family decision and laws for organ donation should be updated frequently in order to meet the progress of modernity.

  10. Optimising treatment strategies in spinal ependymoma based on 20years of experience at a single centre.

    PubMed

    Keil, Vera C; Schmitt, Anne J; Martin, Sean C; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom A D; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2016-07-01

    Spinal ependymomas are rare tumours, with total resection favoured where possible. Several case series assessing the outcome following neurosurgical treatment for spinal ependymoma advocate the usage of adjuvant radiotherapy in cases of subtotal resection, or in unencapsulated tumours. We assessed the outcome of 61 consecutive cases of spinal ependymoma in a single centre over a 20year period using a variety of outcome measures. Sex distribution was equal, with a mean age at surgery of 43.6years (range 5-76years). Overall, most tumours occurred in the lumbosacral region (70.5%), with fewer in the thoracic (27.9%) and cervical regions (18.0%). Myxopapillary features were seen in 41.0% of tumours, and were more common when occurring in the lumbar region (51.2%). Gross total resection was achieved in 52.5%, subtotal resection in 37.7% and biopsy alone in 9.8% of patients and 31.1% received adjuvant radiotherapy. Two-thirds of patients achieved an excellent post-operative neurological outcome (Frankel grade E). Tumour recurrence was rare. Gross total resection and good preoperative neurological condition were most strongly predictive of good outcome. Post-operative radiotherapy did not seem to confer survival benefit in this case series, even in cases of incomplete resection, leading us to question its utility for all cases of spinal cord ependymoma. PMID:26944215

  11. The European College of Veterinary Surgeons 1991-2011: a 20-year success story.

    PubMed

    Auer, Jörg A

    2011-08-01

    The first meeting leading to the formation of the European College of Veterinary Surgeons (ECVS) was held August 30/31, 1990 in Lenzburg, Switzerland. Specialists in small animal and large animal surgery from practice and academicians from many European countries were invited. The constitution was developed based on that of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS). ECVS was founded during the ACVS European Surgical Forum in Nice in 1991. The provisional Board elected at this meeting stayed active during the initial 4 years to provide stability. For the 146 Charter Members to become a Diplomate, they had to pass an examination. Therefore, the ECVS is the only Specialty College that does not have a "Grand Father Clause." In 2000 ECVS, was the first College to acquire full recognition-status by the European Board of Specialization (EBVS), which underlines the leading role the surgeons play in the development of the European veterinary specialty colleges. Like its American Sister College, ECVS maintains high standards for surgical training programs for Residents and administers rigorous certifying examinations. It is appropriate to recall the facts that lead to foundation of ECVS on its 20-year anniversary.

  12. Responses of high-altitude graminoids and soil fungi to 20 years of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Kivlin, Stephanie N; Whitney, Kenneth D; Price, Mary V; Waser, Nickolas M; Harte, John

    2014-07-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate warming because cold temperatures constrain biological processes. Deeper understanding of the consequences of climate change will come from studies that consider not only the direct effects of temperature on individual species, but also the indirect effects of altered species interactions. Here we show that 20 years of experimental warming has changed the species composition of graminoid (grass and sedge) assemblages in a subalpine meadow of the Rocky Mountains, USA, by increasing the frequency of sedges and reducing the frequency of grasses. Because sedges typically have weak interactions with mycorrhizal fungi relative to grasses, lowered abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or other root-inhabiting fungi could underlie warming-induced shifts in plant species composition. However, warming increased root colonization by AM fungi for two grass species, possibly because AM fungi can enhance plant water uptake when soils are dried by experimental warming. Warming had no effect on AM fungal colonization of three other graminoids. Increased AM fungal colonization of the dominant shrub Artemisia tridentata provided further grounds for rejecting the hypothesis that reduced AM fungi caused the shift from grasses to sedges. Non-AM fungi (including dark septate endophytes) also showed general increases with warming. Our results demonstrate that lumping grasses and sedges when characterizing plant community responses can mask significant shifts in the responses of primary producers, and their symbiotic fungi, to climate change.

  13. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting….

    PubMed

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH's bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come.

  14. Transconjunctival Approach for Zygomatic Fracture: A Single Surgeon’s Experience of More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hidetaka; Masumoto, Kazuyuki; Chuman, Takahiro; Satake, Yoshiyasu; Yanai, Tetsu; Harada, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: To let experts evaluate a single surgeon’s experience with a combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in the repair of zygomatic fractures encountered in 46 East Asian patients whom he treated over the past 20 years. Methods: Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. A total of 67 conjunctival and secondary incisions were made on 46 patients for repair of zygomatic fractures. All operative procedures were performed using a combination of transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approaches to repair zygomatic fractures. Results: The infraorbital rim and/or lateral buttress and/or lateral orbit was stabilized with titanium miniplates in 28 patients and absorbable miniplates in 11 patients. Seven patients required only reduction technique with no need of plates. Four cases needed additional canthotomy besides a conjunctival approach. No ectropion or entropion developed in any of the patients. Complications included eyelid laceration during surgery (n = 1), herniation of the conjunctiva (n = 1), temporary pyogenic granuloma of the conjunctiva after surgery (n = 1), and temporary entropion in a secondary incision (n = 1). Conclusions: A combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in repairing zygomatic fractures is simple, easy, and effective, leaving no conspicuous facial scars. It is vitally important, however, that the surgeon masters the technique of transconjunctival approach well before he has good results in East Asian patients. PMID:27482496

  15. [Clinical study of parotid tumors: a 20 year statistical analysis of 633 cases].

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, S; Iwai, H; Kumazawa, H; Nakamura, A; Yukawa, H; Baba, K; Asako, M; Yamashita, T

    1999-06-01

    During the 20 years from 1977 to 1996, 633 cases underwent excisions of parotid tumors (539 benign and 94 malignant) in the department of Otolaryngology of Kansai Medical University. The incidence of Warthin's tumors in the years from (1987 to 1996) was higher than that in the years from 1977 to 1986. On the other hand, the incidence of mucoepidermoid carcinomas was less than in previous reports. Tumors accompanied with spontaneous pain or facial nerve palsy and with invasion to both lobes frequently indicated malignancy. Facial nerve palsy caused by either benign or malignant tumors before operation showed no improvement after surgery. The incidences of facial nerve palsy (1.0% in benign, and 18.3% in malignant) and Frey's syndrome (17.8% in benign, and 18.3% in malignant) after surgery were lower than those in other reports of both benign and malignant tumors. Five-year mortality was 76.1%. All deaths that occurred five years after operation involved highly grade malignant tumors. PMID:10429434

  16. Choledochal cysts in infants and children: experiences over a 20-year period at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsuan; Lin, Lung-Huang; Chen, Der-Fang; Huang, Ching-Shui

    2011-09-01

    This analysis was undertaken to compare the clinicopathological features of infants with choledochal cysts to those of older children with these entities and to evaluate the surgical outcomes for both subject groups. The medical records of all children admitted to the Cathay General Hospital with choledochal cysts over a 20-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-five subjects were included and divided into the infant (<1 year at presentation; 8 subjects) and classical pediatric (1-18 years at presentation; 17 subjects) groups. Anatomical subtypes were: IA (16), IC (6), and IVA (3). The median biliary amylase value was markedly elevated for the pediatric group but not for the infant group. Most (82.4%) patients in the pediatric group, but none in the infant group, presented with abdominal pain. Jaundice and clay-colored stool were present in all patients in the infant group but only 35% of those in the pediatric group. All patients underwent choledochocystectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with good outcomes. Neonates/infants with choledochal cysts present differently from older children with these entities. Amylase measurements may serve to distinguish biliary atresia with cystic dilatation from choledochal cyst in neonates/infants. Prognosis following radical cyst excision and reconstruction with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is excellent. PMID:21350805

  17. A 20-year H2O maser monitoring program with the Medicina 32-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, J.; Felli, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Palla, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-03-01

    The Arcetri/Bologna H2O maser group has been monitoring the 1.3-cm water maser emission from a sample of 43 star-forming regions (SFRs) and 22 late-type stars for about 20 years at a sampling rate of 4-5 observations each year, using the 32-m Medicina Radio Telescope (HPBW 1.‧9 at 22 GHz). For the late-type stars we observe representative samples of OH/IR-stars, Mira's, semi-regular variables, and supergiants. The SFR-sample spans a large interval in FIR luminosity of the associated Young Stellar Object (YSO), from 20 L to 1.5 × 106 L, and offers a unique data base for the study of the long-term (years) variability of the maser emission in regions of star formation. This presentation concerns only the masers in SFRs. The information obtained from single-dish monitoring is complementary to what is extracted from higher-resolution (VLA and VLBI) observations, and can better explore the velocity domain and the long-term variability therein. We characterize the variability of the sources in various ways and we study how it depends on the luminosity and other properties of the associated YSO and its environment.

  18. 20 years of ECRH at W7-A and W7-AS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H. P.; Maaßberg, H.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Kasparek, W.; Müller, G. A.

    2003-11-01

    Basic research on high-power ECRH started 20 years ago at IPP using 28 GHz pulses with 200 kW for 40 ms at the W7-A stellarator. These pilot experiments triggered a strong activity of exploration of the unique capabilities of localized heating and current drive. The achievements in physics were strongly linked with progress in source and transmission line technology. The capability and versatility of ECRH are reviewed using W7-A and W7-AS as example experiments; the latter was shut down on July 31, 2002. The milestone achievements are discussed. Standard heating scenarios such as O-mode and X-mode as well as advanced scenarios like mode-conversion heating via the O-X-B process at different harmonics were investigated and selected results are presented. First experiments with current drive by Bernstein-waves are reported. The physics of wave interaction with stellarator-specific trapped particle populations is discussed. The results from W7-A and W7-AS establish the experimental and technological bases for the 10 MW, CW ECRH system at W7-X, which aims to demonstrate the inherent steady-state capability of stellarators.

  19. How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies.

  20. A systematic review of 1143 parapharyngeal space tumors reported over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Riffat, Faruque; Dwivedi, Raghav C; Palme, Carsten; Fish, Brian; Jani, Piyush

    2014-05-01

    Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare and most clinicians will only see a small number during their career. We performed a systematic review of 1143 parapharyngeal space tumors published in the past 20 years to increase cumulative experience. A systematic literature review was performed and data on histological diagnosis, presentation, surgical approach and postoperative complications of cases published between 1989 and 2009 were compiled and reviewed. The systematic review identified a total of 1143 parapharyngeal space tumors presented in 17 studies. A majority (82%) were benign and 18% were malignant. The most common presentation was a cervical mass (50%) or an intraoral mass (47%). Approximately 70 different histologic subtypes of parapharyngeal space tumors were reported in the cumulative series. The most common primary lesion was a pleomorphic adenoma (34%). Ninety-five percent of patients underwent surgery. The most frequent approach and used to excise the lesions was the cervical approach (48%) and the commonest complication was the vagus nerve injury seen in 14% of the cases.

  1. Short Implants in Partially Edentuolous Maxillae and Mandibles: A 10 to 20 Years Retrospective Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lops, Diego; Bressan, Eriberto; Pisoni, Gianluca; Cea, Niccolò; Corazza, Boris; Romeo, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Evaluation of the short implant (8 mm in height) long-term prognosis and of the implant site influence on the prognosis. Methods. A longitudinal study was carried out on 121 patients (57 males and 64 females) consecutively treated with 257 implants. 108 implants were short. Results. Four (3.6%) short implants supporting fixed partial prostheses failed. Similarly, three standard implants supporting fixed partial prostheses and one supporting single-crown prosthesis failed. Mean marginal bone loss (MBL) and probing depth (PD) of short and standard implants were statistically comparable (P > .05). The 20-year cumulative survival rates of short and standard implants were 92.3 and 95.9%, respectively. The cumulative success rates were 78.3 and 81.4%. The survival rates of short implants in posterior and anterior regions were comparable: 95 and 96.4%, respectively. The difference between survival rates was not significant (P > .05). Conclusions. The high reliability of short implants in supporting fixed prostheses was confirmed. Short and standard implants long-term prognoses were not significantly different. The prognosis of short implants in posterior regions was comparable to that of in anterior regions. Nevertheless, a larger sample is required to confirm this trend. PMID:22829823

  2. Design of Sensors for Control of Closed Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of a Engineering Design sequence, a cooperation between NASA-Kennedy and the University of Florida on the Controlled Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) program. Part of the class was devoted to learning general principles and techniques of design. The next portion of the class was devoted to learning to design, actually fabricating and testing small components and subsystems of a CELSS.

  3. Integrated Design Software Predicts the Creep Life of Monolithic Ceramic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Significant improvements in propulsion and power generation for the next century will require revolutionary advances in high-temperature materials and structural design. Advanced ceramics are candidate materials for these elevated-temperature applications. As design protocols emerge for these material systems, designers must be aware of several innate features, including the degrading ability of ceramics to carry sustained load. Usually, time-dependent failure in ceramics occurs because of two different, delayedfailure mechanisms: slow crack growth and creep rupture. Slow crack growth initiates at a preexisting flaw and continues until a critical crack length is reached, causing catastrophic failure. Creep rupture, on the other hand, occurs because of bulk damage in the material: void nucleation and coalescence that eventually leads to macrocracks which then propagate to failure. Successful application of advanced ceramics depends on proper characterization of material behavior and the use of an appropriate design methodology. The life of a ceramic component can be predicted with the NASA Lewis Research Center's Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (CARES) integrated design programs. CARES/CREEP determines the expected life of a component under creep conditions, and CARES/LIFE predicts the component life due to fast fracture and subcritical crack growth. The previously developed CARES/LIFE program has been used in numerous industrial and Government applications.

  4. Age and blood pressure changes. A 20-year follow-up study in nuns in a secluded order.

    PubMed

    Timio, M; Verdecchia, P; Venanzi, S; Gentili, S; Ronconi, M; Francucci, B; Montanari, M; Bichisao, E

    1988-10-01

    In a prospective study, 144 white nuns belonging to a secluded monastic order and 138 white control laywomen were followed for 20 years to investigate whether living for a long time in a stress-free environment influences the effect of aging on blood pressure. Silence, meditation, and isolation from society are the distinctive features of the life-style examined. At study entry, blood pressure was not dissimilar in the nuns and the control group, but it increased over time only in the controls, with a mean slope of the regression line (beta coefficient) of 0.089 in the nuns (NS) and 2.171 in the controls (p less than 0.0001) for systolic blood pressure and of 0.054 in the nuns (NS) and 0.742 in the controls (p less than 0.0001) for diastolic blood pressure. Weight and body mass index increased similarly over time in the two groups. Family history of hypertension was not dissimilar between the groups. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides, higher at study entry in the nuns, increased similarly over time in the two groups. Twenty-four-hour urinary sodium excretion, collected randomly in both groups, did not differ over time between nuns and controls. None of the women smoked or used oral contraceptives. Educational level was higher in the control group, but subgroups of 48 nuns and 52 laywomen of comparable educational level maintained the same difference in the blood pressure trend over time as in the main cohort. Parity affected the increase of systolic, but not of diastolic, blood pressure with age among the laywomen, but nuns and no-childbirth controls maintained a significantly different blood pressure trend over time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  6. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  7. MOZAIC-IAGOS program : 20 years of in-situ data in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Valérie; Sauvage, Bastien; Nédélec, Philippe; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    -latitudes thanks to 5 aircraft based in Europe flying westbound and eastbound since 1994; Transects over the African continent thanks to daily Air Namibia flights between 2006 and 2013; South Atlantic area thanks to regular flights between Europe and South America; The Asian monsoon region thanks to regular flights between Europe and the Indian-South East Asia area sampling the UT under the influence of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). - Ten years of CO measurements which show an increase in concentration on moving from the Western to Eastern hemisphere. In the US, Atlantic and European sectors CO concentrations have fallen by about 2% per year. - Almost 20 years of Ozone measurements at northern mid-latitudes showing a leveling-off of the mixing ratios for the last 10-12 years over the Atlantic sector while ozone is still increasing over Asia. - Almost 20 years of relative humidity measurements showing that the upper troposphere (10 - 12 km altitude, which corresponds to the aircraft cruise level) is much wetter than reflected in the model analyses of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast).

  8. Management of the infected median sternotomy wound with muscle flaps. The Emory 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Jurkiewicz, M J; Bostwick, J; Wood, R; Bried, J T; Culbertson, J; Howell, R; Eaves, F; Carlson, G; Nahai, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to define those patient variables that contribute to morbidity and mortality of median sternotomy wound infection and the results of treatment by debridement and closure by muscle flaps. BACKGROUND: Infection of the median sternotomy wound after open heart surgery is a devastating complication associated with significant mortality. Twenty years ago, these wounds were treated with either open packing or antibiotic irrigation, with a mortality approaching 50% in some series. In 1975, the authors began treating these wounds with radical sternal debridement followed by closure using muscle or omental flaps. The mortality of sternal wound infection has dropped to < 10%. METHODS: The authors' total experience with 409 patients treated over 20 years is described in relation to flap choices, hospital days after sternal wound closure, and incidence rates of morbidity and mortality. One hundred eighty-six patients treated since January 1988 were studied to determine which patient variables had impact on rates of flap closure complications, recurrent sternal wound infection, or death. Variables included obesity, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, poststernotomy septicemia, internal mammary artery harvest, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and perioperative myocardial infarction and were analyzed using chi square tests. Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mortality rate over 20 years was 8.1% (33/49). Additional procedures for recurrent sternal wound infection were necessary in 5.1% of patients. Thirty-one patients (7.6%) required treatment for hematoma, and 11 patients (2.7%) required hernia repair. Among patients treated since 1988, variables strongly associated with mortality were septicemia (p < 0.00001), perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.006), and intra-aortic balloon pump (p = 0.0168). Factors associated with wound closure complications were intra-aortic balloon pump

  9. Alboran jets, gyres and eddies in a 20-year high resolution simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of the Alboran Sea has long been described as being in a quasi-steady state composed of the Atlantic Jet meandering on the northern bound of two conspicuous gyres: the Western Alboran Gyre and Eastern Alboran Gyre (WAG and EAG). Changes to this 2 gyre flow system (transitions or transient events) are not very well explored yet. Periodic disappearances of the WAG (collapses or migrations) have been reported, but a single event of WAG migration, observed in fall 1996, is described in detail. These studies suggested that WAG is more likely to disappear in winter after drastic changes in the inflow, and that 2-gyre steady states are essentially observed in summer. The transition periods and the occurrence of smaller eddies are episodically referred in the literature but poorly known. Using a 20 yr 2km resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System simulation of the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea basins (from the "Inter-basin Exchange in a changing Mediterranean Sea" project MedEX), a classification of the circulation types and mesoscale structures in the Alboran Sea is conducted, characterizing their duration and frequency of occurrence, and temporal evolution. The 2-gyre quasi-steady state (or blocking situation) is confirmed as the most common flow type in the Alboran (occurring during about 42% of the simulation time) and that it is more frequent in summer. However, periods of double gyre flow in winter are also present although the gyre organization is slightly different and this state is described as a 2-gyre winter type. Long stable periods of a single gyre blocking were also identified, and they occupy about 17% of the 20-year period This single gyre usually constitutes a larger version of the WAG somewhat displaced to the east and occurs all year round although it is more common in winter months. The remaining time, the Alboran Sea is in relatively fast evolving flow transitions. The transitions were classified into, WAG migrations (when the WAG clearly

  10. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  11. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  12. High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hong, Borah; Patterson, Lance; Petit, Christopher J; Ham, J Nina

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P < 0.01). Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

  13. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  14. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  15. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  16. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  17. Head and Neck Schwannomas: 20-Year Experience of a Single Institution Excluding Cutaneous and Acoustic Sites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Patel, Rajiv M; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    While head and neck sites comprise the most common location of schwannomas, clinicopathologic data regarding those tumors occurring in non-acoustic and non-cutaneous locations are relatively sparse. In this study, therefore, we sought to examine retrospectively the clinical and pathologic features of head and neck schwannomas excised at our institution over a 20-year period. During this period, we identified a total cohort of 85 patients, which included 36 males (42.4 %) and 49 females with average age of 41.3 years, the majority of which presented asymptomatically with a mass. Localized symptoms were, however, associated with all of the schwannomas that arose in the oral cavity and larynx, while tumors within or adjacent to bone were often associated with neurologic complaints (7 of 15 such tumors [46.7 %]). Clinical follow-up data was available in 86.4 % of all cases and demonstrated no recurrences or mortality. Pathologically, the microscopic features were characteristic of those well-described for schwannomas in other sites, including alternating Antoni A and B areas and the presence of degenerative changes. Tumor encapsulation, however, was variable and was completely absent in schwannomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. Additionally, a significant minority of the tumors (28.2 %) exhibited foci that resembled neurofibroma. Non-acoustic, non-cutaneous schwannomas of the head and neck appear to have clinicopathologic features similar to their soft tissue counterparts with some subsite variation in presentation and/or microscopic features. PMID:26747460

  18. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  19. [The agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Sapegin, L M; Daĭneko, N M; Timofeev, S F

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying on agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. There were preliminary identified 8 agroecosystems associations by Broaun-Blanquet ecologo-floristic classification: Phalacrolometum septentrionale, Agrostio tenuis Calamagrostietum epigeii, Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis, Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis, Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis, Caricetum hirtae. First three associations were attributed to Agropyretea repentis class, to Agropyretalia repentis order, Convolvulo--Agropyrion union. We consider the association Phalacrolometum septentrionale as the initial stage of agroscosystems overgrowing which is continued with increase of its demonstration in association Agrostio tenuis--Calamagrostietum epigeii and Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis. The associations Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis and Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis we attributed to class Molinio--Arrhenatheretea, to order Arrhenatheretalia and Festuncion pratensis union. The association Caricetum hirtae was attributed to class Plantaginetea majoris, to order Plantaginetalia majoris and to union Agrapyro--Rumicion crispi. For each of the allocated associations and rye sowing there was provided brief characteristic, including 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclids content in soil and air-dry herbage mass. During the period of studies there was marked stable soil and air-dry herbage mass contamination by radionuclides at absence of grass stabilization of studied agroecosystems. The limiting factor on using of meadow agroecosystems herbages is their high level of contamination by 90Sr. The herbage can be used only for obtaining of milk-raw material for processing. PMID:18666581

  20. The evolving role of data scientist during 20 years of the British Atmospheric Data Centre (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Parton, G.; Pascoe, C.; Guillory, A.; da Costa, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    In 2014 The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), now part of the Centre of Environmental Data Archival (CEDA), will celebrate its 20th anniversary. During its lifetime, most BADC staff have defined themselves as data scientists by virtue of being scientists by background and "data workers" by practice. However, the definition of data scientist has been ill defined until recently. As the term has become popularised in the world of business and general information technology, we ask ourselves to what extent the popular definition fits our profession. We observe that data science, as practised at CEDA, encompasses several roles which overlap and compliment each other as we strive to be enablers of data exploitation. For us a data scientist's skills include elements of data curation, software engineering, data infrastructure management and data-intensive research. As data science has evolved the balance between these roles has shifted in response to changes in technology, demands of the research community and funding drivers. We have had to balance our role as enablers of data exploitation, by providing services and infrastructure to the geo-science community, with our role as pioneers of data exploitation itself. By telling the story of how these roles have evolved during the 20 year history of the BADC, we aim to explore the maturing role of data scientist as practised within the geo-sciences and contrast that role with its recently popularised usage. Looking forward we will address questions about how centres of expertise, such as CEDA, can best increase the data capabilities of geo-science research as a whole in order to facilitate the transition to data-intensive science.

  1. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal.

  2. The Epidemiology and Clinical Spectrum of Melioidosis: 540 Cases from the 20 Year Darwin Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Bart J.; Ward, Linda; Cheng, Allen C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over 20 years, from October 1989, the Darwin prospective melioidosis study has documented 540 cases from tropical Australia, providing new insights into epidemiology and the clinical spectrum. Principal Findings The principal presentation was pneumonia in 278 (51%), genitourinary infection in 76 (14%), skin infection in 68 (13%), bacteremia without evident focus in 59 (11%), septic arthritis/osteomyelitis in 20 (4%) and neurological melioidosis in 14 (3%). 298 (55%) were bacteremic and 116 (21%) developed septic shock (58 fatal). Internal organ abscesses and secondary foci in lungs and/or joints were common. Prostatic abscesses occurred in 76 (20% of 372 males). 96 (18%) had occupational exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei. 118 (22%) had a specific recreational or occupational incident considered the likely infecting event. 436 (81%) presented during the monsoonal wet season. The higher proportion with pneumonia in December to February supports the hypothesis of infection by inhalation during severe weather events. Recurrent melioidosis occurred in 29, mostly attributed to poor adherence to therapy. Mortality decreased from 30% in the first 5 years to 9% in the last five years (p<0.001). Risk factors for melioidosis included diabetes (39%), hazardous alcohol use (39%), chronic lung disease (26%) and chronic renal disease (12%). There was no identifiable risk factor in 20%. Of the 77 fatal cases (14%), 75 had at least one risk factor; the other 2 were elderly. On multivariate analysis of risk factors, age, location and season, the only independent predictors of mortality were the presence of at least one risk factor (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.3–39) and age ≥50 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–2.3). Conclusions Melioidosis should be seen as an opportunistic infection that is unlikely to kill a healthy person, provided infection is diagnosed early and resources are available to provide appropriate antibiotics and critical care. PMID:21152057

  3. Where do patients treated for oral cancer die? A 20-year cohort study 1992-2011.

    PubMed

    Kamisetty, A; Magennis, P; Mayland, C; Jack, B; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2015-12-01

    Of 1290 consecutive patients treated between 1992 and 2011 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity at a regional centre, 750 had died by August 2013. About half of them (n=373) died in hospital, 113 (15%) in a hospice, 180 (24%) at home, 57 (8%) in a care home, and 22 (3%) elsewhere. Cancer was the underlying cause of death in 64%, and of them, 56% were oral cancers. The place of death was strongly associated with the age at death and cancer being the underlying cause. The percentage of people who died from cancer at home or in a hospice rose over time across all age groups and, from 2010, accounted for two-thirds. In contrast, less than 1 in 5 who did not die from cancer, died at home or in a hospice, and in this there has been no discernible change over the last 20 years. The percentage of deaths from cancer in hospital and hospice ranged from 32%-38% and 20%-29%, respectively, across age groups. An increase in the number of deaths from cancer in care homes in those aged 75 years and over was mirrored by fewer at home. Most of those who did not die from cancer, died in hospital, two-thirds were under 65 years, 85% were aged 65-84, and 56% were older. This was mirrored by fewer deaths at home in those under 85 and more in care homes in those over 75. In conclusion, our findings suggest that patients' preferences not to die in hospital are being realised. However, at the end of their lives, patients and their carers need more support at home, and more research is required.

  4. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed.

  5. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  6. Factors Associated with Persistant and Non-Persistant Chronic Constipation, Over 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard.; Rey, Enrique; Schleck, Cathy D.; Baum, Charles; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims The prevalence of chronic constipation (CC) has been reported to be as high as 20% in the general population, but little is known about its natural history. We estimated the natural history of CC and characterized features of persistent CC and non-persistent CC, compared to individuals without constipation. Methods In a prospective cohort study, we analyzed data collected from multiple, validated surveys (minimum of 2) of 2853 randomly selected subjects, over a 20-year period (median, 11.6 years). Based on responses, subjects were characterized as having persistent CC, non-persistent CC, or no constipation. We assessed the association between constipation status and potential risk factors using logistic regression models, adjusting for age and sex. Results Of the respondents, 84 had persistent CC (3%), 605 had non-persistent CC (21%), and 2164 had no symptoms of constipation (76%). High scores from the somatic symptom checklist (odds ratio [OR] =2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–3.4) and frequent doctor visits (OR=2.0; 95% CI, 1.0–3.8) were significantly associated with persistent CC, compared to subjects with no constipation symptoms. The only factor that differed was increased use of laxatives or fiber among subjects with persistent CC (OR=3.0; 95% CI, 1.9–4.9). Conclusion The prevalence of constipation might be exaggerated—the proportion of the population with persistent CC is low (3%). Patients with persistent and non-persistent CC have similar clinical characteristics, although individuals with persistent CC use more laxatives or fiber. CC therefore appears and disappears among certain patients, but we do not have enough information to identify these individuals in advance. PMID:22289877

  7. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction.

  8. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  9. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  10. Seroepidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in Évora (southern Portugal): 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an endemic zoonosis in the southern regions of Europe. This paper reports the trend in CanL seroprevalence in the municipality of Évora (southern Portugal), where the disease is endemic, over a period of 20 years. The work comprises three different studies that were conducted in the years of 1990 (n = 3,614), 1999 (n = 3,563) and 2010 (n = 1,485 dogs). Blood samples were collected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaigns. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected with the direct agglutination test (DAT). Findings The total percentages of DAT seropositive dogs were 3.9% (in 1990), 9.4% (in 1999) and 5.6% (in 2010). The overall seroprevalence was significantly higher in 1999 compared to 1990, but in 2010 a significant decrease was found in comparison with 1999. However, compared to 1990 the overall seroprevalence was still significantly higher in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 seroprevalence has switched from significantly lower to higher in the rural areas. Relatively few dogs showed clinical signs of overt disease (0.8% to 2.0%) with lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis and skin involvement as most frequently observed. Gender associated differences in seroprevalence were not found, and most commonly seropositive dogs were working or stray animals. The mean age of seropositive dogs was significantly higher than seronegative dogs in all three sampling rounds. Conclusions A high proportion of dogs, which are apparently healthy, yet seropositive, may remain an important factor in limiting the outcome of zoonotic leishmaniosis control efforts. PMID:23587181

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years. II. Concentric and eccentric knee muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Stensdotter, A K; Nilsson, K G; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    The long-term consequences on knee muscle strength some decades after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are not established. The aims of our study were to examine peak torque more than 20 years after ACL injury and to compare their knee muscle strength to that of healthy controls. We tested 70 individuals with unilateral ACL injury 23 ± 2 years after injury, whereof 33 (21 men) were treated with physiotherapy in combination with ACL reconstruction (ACLR ) and 37 (23 men) with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls (21 men). A Kin-Com(®) dynamometer (90°/s) was used to measure peak torque in knee flexion and extension in both concentric and eccentric contractions. Knee extension peak torque, concentric and eccentric, was ∼10% lower for the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg for both ACLR (P < 0.001; P < 0.001) and ACLPT (P = 0.007; P = 0.002). The ACLPT group also showed reduced eccentric knee flexion torque of the injured leg (P = 0.008). The strength of the non-injured leg in both ACL groups was equal to that of controls. No difference was seen for those with no-or-low degree of knee osteoarthritis compared to those with moderate-to-high degree of osteoarthritis. ACL injury may lead to a persistent reduction of peak torque in the injured leg, which needs to be considered across the lifespan.

  12. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  13. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  14. Adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in a 20-year-old African American male.

    PubMed

    Power, Derek; Lagunes, Diane Reidy

    2009-08-01

    A 20-year-old African American male presented with a history of left flank pain and passing of light pink urine. Medical history included sickle cell trait. Urine analysis was positive for protein and blood. Metabolic profile, autoantibody screen, and complement levels were normal. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed an 41.8% HbS diagnostic of sickle cell trait. Creatinine clearance was normal and proteinuria was nonnephrotic. A noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan showed left proximal hydronephrosis. Urology follow-up was arranged and the differential included renal papillary necrosis, or renal cyst rupture. He presented 3 months later with sudden onset left flank pain and gross hematuria. Serum creatinine was 1.8 mg/dL. Computed tomography scan with contrast revealed innumerable lung lesions, an enlarged heterogenously enhancing left kidney, and retroperitoneal adenopathy. Ultrasound revealed an obstructed left collecting system and a 14-cm enlarged left kidney with no discrete mass. Testicular markers/ultrasound, upper/lower endoscopies were normal. Lung biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma positive for cytokeratin 7. Renal, sarcoma, and gastrointestinal markers were negative. By exclusion, it appeared that the patient had a carcinoma of unknown primary. However, with the clinical and personal history, a diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) was made. RMC is a rare and highly malignant tumor that should always be included in the differential of a patient with sickle cell disorder and hematuria. Renal biopsy typically fails to sample the renal medulla and radiologic findings might not raise the suspicion of a renal tumor. Thus, clinical suspicion must always be high in order to preserve the patient's only chance of prolonged survival.

  15. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:27299124

  16. Correlates of heart rate recovery over 20 years in a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Williams, O. Dale; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) from a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) is a marker of impaired parasympathetic reactivation that is associated with elevated mortality. Our objective was to test whether demographic, behavioral or coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors during young adulthood were associated with the development of slow HRR. Methods Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study underwent symptom-limited maximal GXT using a modified Balke protocol at baseline (1985–86) and 20-year follow-up (2005–06) examinations. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) and HR two-minutes following cessation of the GXT. Slow HRR was defined as 2-minute HRR < 22 beats·min−1. Results In 2,730 participants who did not have slow HRR at baseline, mean HRR was 44 beats*min−1 (SD = 11) at baseline and declined to 40 beats·min−1 (SD=12) in 2005–06; slow HRR developed in 5% (n=135) of the sample by 2005–06. Female sex, black race, fewer years of education, obesity, cigarette smoking, higher depressive symptoms, higher fasting glucose, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity and low fitness were each associated with incident slow HRR. In a multivariable model higher BMI, larger waist, low education, fasting glucose and current smoking remained significantly associated with incident slow HRR. Increasing BMI (per SD higher) over follow-up and incident hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (in the subsets of participants who were free from those conditions at baseline), were each associated with a significantly elevated odds of incident slow HRR. Conclusions On average, HRR declines with aging; however, the odds of having slow HRR in early middle age is significantly associated with traditional CHD risk factors. PMID:21796053

  17. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases.

  18. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  19. Safe-life and damage-tolerant design approaches for helicopter structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddick, H. K., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The safe-life and damage-tolerant design approaches discussed apply to both metallic and fibrous composite helicopter structures. The application of these design approaches to fibrous composite structures is emphasized. Safe-life and damage-tolerant criteria are applied to all helicopter flight critical components, which are generally categorized as: dynamic components with a main and tail rotor system, which includes blades, hub and rotating controls, and drive train which includes transmission, and main and interconnecting rotor shafts; and the airframe, composed of the fuselage, aerodynamic surfaces, and landing gear.

  20. Modified ACES Portable Life Support Integration, Design, and Testing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Cody

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation of exploration missions provide a unique challenge to designers of EVA life support equipment, especially in a fiscally-constrained environment. In order to take the next steps of manned space exploration, NASA is currently evaluating the use of the Modified ACES (MACES) suit in conjunction with the Advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development. This paper will detail the analysis and integration of the PLSS thermal and ventilation subsystems into the MACES pressure garment, design of prototype hardware, and hardware-in-the-loop testing during the spring 2014 timeframe. Prototype hardware was designed with a minimal impact philosophy in order to mitigate design constraints becoming levied on either the advanced PLSS or MACES subsystems. Among challenges faced by engineers were incorporation of life support thermal water systems into the pressure garment cavity, operational concept definition between vehicle/portable life support system hardware, and structural attachment mechanisms while still enabling maximum EVA efficiency from a crew member's perspective. Analysis was completed in late summer 2013 to 'bound' hardware development, with iterative analysis cycles throughout the hardware development process. The design effort will cumulate in the first ever manned integration of NASA's advanced PLSS system with a pressure garment originally intended primarily for use in a contingency survival scenario.

  1. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  2. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  3. Development of Conceptual Design Support Tool Founded on Formalization of Conceptual Design Process for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Yuhara, Naohiro

    Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS), which maintain human lives by recycling substances essential for living, are comprised of humans, plants, and material circulation systems. The plants supply food to the humans or reproduce water and gases by photosynthesis, while the material circulation systems recycle physicochemically and circulate substances disposed by humans and plants. RLSS attracts attention since manned space activities have been shifted from previous short trips to long-term stay activities as such base as a space station, a lunar base, and a Mars base. The present typical space base is the International Space Station (ISS), a manned experimental base for prolonged stays, where RLSS recycles only water and air. In order to accommodate prolonged and extended manned activity in future space bases, developing RLSS that implements food production and regeneration of resources at once using plants is expected. The configuration of RLSS should be designed to suit its own duty, for which design requirements for RLSS with an unprecedented configuration may arise. Accordingly, it is necessary to establish a conceptual design method for generalized RLSS. It is difficult, however, to systematize the design process by analyzing previous design because there are only a few ground-experimental facilities, namely CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) of Japan, BIO-Plex (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex) of the U.S., and BIOS3 of Russia. Thus a conceptual design method which doesn’t rely on previous design examples is required for generalized RLSS from the above reasons. This study formalizes a conceptual design process, and develops a conceptual design support tool for RLSS based on this design process.

  4. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    found that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies.

  5. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    found that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  6. 20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-08-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOE1) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column ClO on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cly = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 × Cl2 + 2 × Cl2O2 + ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cly, which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 ± 0.2, -1.4 ± 0.9, and -0.6 ± 0.4 % year-1, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1σ of trends in stratospheric Cly previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  7. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of ~6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of ~4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity

  8. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  9. Insights into the dynamics of Etna volcano from 20-year time span microgravity and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fanizza, Giovanni; Greco, Filippo; Matera, Alfredo; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    A common ground deformation and microgravity array of benchmarks lies on the southern slope of Mt. Etna volcano and is routinely measured by GPS and relative gravimetry methods. The array was installed for monitoring the ground motion and underground mass changes along the southern rift of the volcano and data are usually processed and interpreted independently. The benchmarks have been installed mainly along a main road crossing the southern side of the volcano with an E-W direction and reaching 2000 m of altitude. The gravity array covers the entire path of the road, while the ground deformation one only the upper one, due to the woods at lower altitude preventing good GPS measurements. Furthermore, microgravity surveys are usually carried out more frequently with respect to the GPS ones. In this work, an integrated analysis of microgravity and ground deformation is performed over a 20-year time span (1994-2014). Gravity variations have been first corrected for the free-air effect using the GPS observed vertical deformation and the theoretical vertical gravity gradient (-308.6 μGal/m). The free-air corrected gravity changes were then reduced from the high frequency variations (noise) and the seasonal fluctuations, mainly due to water-table fluctuations. This long-term dataset constitutes a unique opportunity to examine the behavior of Etna in a period in which the volcano exhibited different styles of activity characterized by recharging phases, flank eruptions and fountaining episodes. The gravity and deformation data allow investigating the response of the volcano in a wider perspective providing insights into the definition of its dynamic behavior and posing the basis to track the unrest evolution and to forecast the style of the eruption. The joint analysis highlights common periods, in which the signals underwent contemporaneous changes occurring mainly in the central and eastern stations. On the other hand, no significant changes in the behavior of

  10. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    , via community-based treatment programmes in 125,000 communities in 33 endemic countries. This 20-year-old effort has achieved a number of notable results, including positive health impacts, economic benefits, strengthened health systems, and the empowerment of communities where the delivery and administration of Mectizan are managed. The MDP serves as a model for similar health programmes in the developing world and has also laid the foundation for the current integration efforts around 'neglected' tropical diseases. It has also taught the world many valuable lessons - about how to mobilize resources to address significant health challenges - and has demonstrated that it is possible, through public-private partnerships, to deliver healthcare to long-neglected populations, despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles including inadequate financial and human resources, lack of social, economic and health infrastructures, civil unrest and political strife, and competing, high-priority health issues.

  11. DUACS DT2014: the new multi-mission altimeter data set reprocessed over 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Taburet, Guillaume; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Pelloquin, Camille; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The new DUACS DT2014 reprocessed products have been available since April 2014. Numerous innovative changes have been introduced at each step of an extensively revised data processing protocol. The use of a new 20-year altimeter reference period in place of the previous 7-year reference significantly changes the sea level anomaly (SLA) patterns and thus has a strong user impact. The use of up-to-date altimeter standards and geophysical corrections, reduced smoothing of the along-track data, and refined mapping parameters, including spatial and temporal correlation-scale refinement and measurement errors, all contribute to an improved high-quality DT2014 SLA data set. Although all of the DUACS products have been upgraded, this paper focuses on the enhancements to the gridded SLA products over the global ocean. As part of this exercise, 21 years of data have been homogenized, allowing us to retrieve accurate large-scale climate signals such as global and regional MSL trends, interannual signals, and better refined mesoscale features.An extensive assessment exercise has been carried out on this data set, which allows us to establish a consolidated error budget. The errors at mesoscale are about 1.4 cm2 in low-variability areas, increase to an average of 8.9 cm2 in coastal regions, and reach nearly 32.5 cm2 in high mesoscale activity areas. The DT2014 products, compared to the previous DT2010 version, retain signals for wavelengths lower than ˜ 250 km, inducing SLA variance and mean EKE increases of, respectively, +5.1 and +15 %. Comparisons with independent measurements highlight the improved mesoscale representation within this new data set. The error reduction at the mesoscale reaches nearly 10 % of the error observed with DT2010. DT2014 also presents an improved coastal signal with a nearly 2 to 4 % mean error reduction. High-latitude areas are also more accurately represented in DT2014, with an improved consistency between spatial coverage and sea ice edge

  12. Tracking log transport and deposition during a 20-year flood in a wide mountain river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Kaczka, Ryszard; Czech, Wiktoria

    2016-04-01

    Distance of large wood transport during floods and conditions for wood deposition in wide mountain rivers are still insufficiently recognised. Tracking logs tagged with radio transmitters was used to investigate differences in depositional conditions and the length of log displacement during a 20-year flood between channel reaches of different morphology in the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians. During a rising limb of the flood, logs were placed into the river at the beginning of an incised reach, close to the beginning of a channelized reach, and 1 km upstream from the beginning of a wide, multi-thread reach. The incised, channelized, and multi-thread reaches retained 12.5%, 33%, and 94% of tagged logs introduced to these reaches, and all the logs retained in the multi-thread reach were deposited in its upstream half. Significant differences in the length of displacement existed between the logs delivered to the river at the three locations, with logs placed into the river at the beginning of the incised reach moved the longest distances and those delivered just upstream from the multi-thread reach the shortest ones. One-fourth of the logs were deposited in a low-flow channel or on channel margin, one-fifth on the floodplain and more than half on gravel bars. After the flood, river cross-sections with deposited logs and a set of cross-sections without wood deposits were surveyed to collect data for one-dimensional modelling of hydraulic conditions at the flood peak. The cross-sections with deposited logs were typified by significantly greater flow width and flow area, and significantly smaller mean flow depth, mean velocity, Froude number, mean bed shear stress and unit stream power. Principal component analysis of the hydraulic parameters in the analysed cross-sections grouped the two types of cross-sections in distinct clusters, indicating that multi-thread cross-sections differed in hydraulic parameters from all the other cross-sections. The experiment

  13. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  14. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    , via community-based treatment programmes in 125,000 communities in 33 endemic countries. This 20-year-old effort has achieved a number of notable results, including positive health impacts, economic benefits, strengthened health systems, and the empowerment of communities where the delivery and administration of Mectizan are managed. The MDP serves as a model for similar health programmes in the developing world and has also laid the foundation for the current integration efforts around 'neglected' tropical diseases. It has also taught the world many valuable lessons - about how to mobilize resources to address significant health challenges - and has demonstrated that it is possible, through public-private partnerships, to deliver healthcare to long-neglected populations, despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles including inadequate financial and human resources, lack of social, economic and health infrastructures, civil unrest and political strife, and competing, high-priority health issues. PMID:18718147

  15. Neurotoxicity in young adults 20 years after childhood exposure to lead: the Bunker Hill experience

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, L.; Letz, R.; Gerr, F.; Kolczak, M.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Kaye, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological study of young adults was conducted to determine whether environmental exposure to lead during childhood was associated with current adverse neurobehavioural effects. METHODS: The exposed group consisted of 281 young adults who had been exposed environmentally to lead as children and the unexposed referent group consisted of 287 age and sex frequency matched subjects. Information on demographics, past and current health, and past exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Swedish Q16 questionnaire were collected by interview. Standard neurobehavioural and neurophysiological tests were administered by computer or trained technicians. K x ray fluorescence was used to estimate tibial bone lead concentrations among the exposed and unexposed groups. Associations were examined between the exposed group and referents and tibial bone lead concentration and the neurobehavioural and neurophysiological outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Among the measures of peripheral nerve function, after controlling for confounders, sural sensory nerve evoked response amplitude, peroneal motor nerve compound motor action potential amplitude, vibrotactile thresholds of fingers and toes, and standing steadiness were significantly associated with exposure group. Among the neurobehavioural tests, hand-eye coordination, simple reaction time latency, trails B latency, symbol digit latency, serial digit, and learning error score were also significantly associated with exposure group after controlling for confounders. Exposed subjects had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms than the referents. Associations between tibial bone lead concentration and scores for vocabulary, vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers, and vibrotactile thresholds of the toes approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant adverse central and peripheral neurological effects were found in a group of young adults 20 years after childhood environmental exposure to lead when compared

  16. Black and White Chains of Risk for Hospitalization over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2008-01-01

    Drawing from the life course perspective, racial disparities in hospitalization are considered in light of a chain of risk. We ask whether race influences admission to, length of stay in, and mortality following hospitalization. Analyses address these questions with data from a national longitudinal sample of adults to assess racial disparities in…

  17. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    PubMed

    Cira, Nate J; Chung, Alice M; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Rensi, Stefano; Sanchez, Gabriel N; Quake, Stephen R; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2015-03-01

    Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course). We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games. PMID:25807212

  18. A Biotic Game Design Project for Integrated Life Science and Engineering Education

    PubMed Central

    Denisin, Aleksandra K.; Rensi, Stefano; Sanchez, Gabriel N.; Quake, Stephen R.; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course). We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games. PMID:25807212

  19. A biotic game design project for integrated life science and engineering education.

    PubMed

    Cira, Nate J; Chung, Alice M; Denisin, Aleksandra K; Rensi, Stefano; Sanchez, Gabriel N; Quake, Stephen R; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2015-03-01

    Engaging, hands-on design experiences are key for formal and informal Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. Robotic and video game design challenges have been particularly effective in stimulating student interest, but equivalent experiences for the life sciences are not as developed. Here we present the concept of a "biotic game design project" to motivate student learning at the interface of life sciences and device engineering (as part of a cornerstone bioengineering devices course). We provide all course material and also present efforts in adapting the project's complexity to serve other time frames, age groups, learning focuses, and budgets. Students self-reported that they found the biotic game project fun and motivating, resulting in increased effort. Hence this type of design project could generate excitement and educational impact similar to robotics and video games.

  20. The optimal design for measurement systems based on uniform accuracy life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Huai; Li, Rui-jun; Jiang, Min-lan; Fei, Ye-tai

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy lives of a measurement system and its components are generally different and it will lead to a waste of resources. In order to make full use of the system's resources and improve its accuracy life, a novel design method based on uniform accuracy life for measurement systems is proposed in this paper. According to the theory of error decomposition and tracing, Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method is employed to decompose the total errors of an error test system for a dial gauge and then the accuracy loss functions for the total system and some error parameters are obtained. Based on the analysis of the transfer function for the accuracy loss between the different parts of the measurement system, a constraint model consisting with the uniform accuracy life principle is set up. Taking the maximum life of the measurement system as the objective function, the uniform design model has been solved by means of the optimization methods. The uniform design method can be used to promote the accuracy life of the measurement system.

  1. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 1, 2, and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank; Stambaugh, Imelda; Curley, Su

    2009-01-01

    NASA is working to develop a new lunar lander to support lunar exploration. The development process that the Altair project is using for this vehicle is unlike most others. In Lander Design Analysis Cycle 1 (LDAC-1), a single-string, minimum functionality design concept was developed, including life support systems for different vehicle configuration concepts, first for a combination of an ascent vehicle and a habitat with integral airlocks, and then for a combined ascent vehicle-habitat with a detachable airlock. In LDAC-2, the Altair team took the ascent vehicle-habitat with detachable airlock and analyzed the design for the components that were the largest contributors to the risk of loss of crew (LOC). For life support, the largest drivers were related to oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control. Integrated abort options were developed at the vehicle level. Many life support failures were not considered to result in LOC because they had a long enough time to effect that abort was considered a feasible option to safely end the mission before the situation became life threatening. These failures were then classified as loss of mission (LOM) failures. Many options to reduce LOC risk were considered, and mass efficient solutions to the LOC problems were added to the vehicle design at the end of LDAC-2. In LDAC-3, the new design was analyzed for large contributors to the risk of LOM. To avoid ending the mission early or being unable to accomplish goals like performing all planned extravehicular activities (EVAs), various options were assessed for their combination of risk reduction and mass cost. This paper outlines the major assumptions, design features, and decisions related to the development of the life support system for the Altair project through LDAC-3.

  2. Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System design - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Reuter, J. L.; Schunk, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) has entered into the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) phase of the program. This paper outlines the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design with emphasis on the systems aspects of the ECLSS. Interactions with other distributed systems, such as data management and electrical power are described. The integration of the ECLSS into the S.S. Freedom pressurized elements and truss are addressed.

  3. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  4. Practicing Learner-Centered Teaching: Pedagogical Design and Assessment of a Second Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Shu Z.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by the principles of learner-centered teaching methodology, a Second Life project is designed to engage students in active learning of virtual commerce through hands-on experiences and teamwork in a virtual environment. More importantly, an assessment framework is proposed to evaluate the learning objectives and learning process of the…

  5. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document seeks to promote the reduction of environmental impacts and health risks through a systems approach to design. The approach is based on die product life cycle, which includes raw materials acquisition and processing, manufacturing, use/service, resource recovery, an...

  6. Total Environment Education: An Open Design to Real Life Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Six global objectives--energy, earth resources, waste disposal, population, interdependence, and quality of life--are used as a framework in preparing this open design for environmental education, one which emphasizes behavioral change in the affective domain. To aid classroom teachers in achieving these goals, the guide is divided into five…

  7. Life Course Research Design: Exploring Career Change Experiences of Former School Teachers and Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Loene M.; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Once associated with lifetime employment, policing and teaching have become increasingly associated with employee attrition. We used a life course research design to explore career turning points and transitions, in the context of preceding and following careers. Former police officers ("n" = 9) and former teachers ("n" = 15)…

  8. How to Enable Knowledge Exchange in "Second Life" in Design Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomassen, Aukje; Rive, Pete

    2010-01-01

    The theory and lessons of knowledge exchange, in both a physical and virtual environment, suggest a framework for understanding the specific requirements for a digital design class in "Second Life". Through teaching and observing students who were asked to complete a machinima project, our research provided examples of the strengths and the…

  9. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  10. From Instructional Systems Design to Managing the Life Cycle of Knowledge in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a framework for managing the life cycle of knowledge in organizations. The framework emerges from years of work with the laboratories and facilities that are under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The article begins by describing the instructional systems design (ISD) process and how it is used to…

  11. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT IN MANAGEMENT, PRODUCT AND PROCESS DESIGN, AND POLICY DECISION MAKING: A CONFERENCE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 24 September 2003, life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and decision makers gathered at the InLCA/LCM Conference in Seattle, Washington, USA (see http://www.lcacenter.org/InLCA-LCM03/index.html) to discuss the role of LCA in management, product design, process development...

  12. The Design of a Mathematics Problem Using Real-Life Context for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the teachers' learning journey on designing a mathematics problem that involves a real-life context is reported. This is part of a larger project undertaken in a primary school in Singapore where the teachers were engaged in planning, observing and critiquing mathematics lessons to investigate teaching and learning. These unique…

  13. Verbal Interaction in "Second Life": Towards a Pedagogic Framework for Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregi, Kristi; Canto, Silvia; de Graaff, Rick; Koenraad, Ton; Moonen, Machteld

    2011-01-01

    Within a European project on Networked Interaction in Foreign Language Acquisition and Research (NIFLAR), "Second Life" was used as a 3D virtual world in which language students can communicate synchronously with native speakers in the target language, while undertaking action together. For this context, a set of design principles for interaction…

  14. NASA five-ball fatigue tester: Over 20 years of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Parker, R. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect on rolling-element fatigue life of contact angle, material hardness, chemistry, heat treatment and processing, lubricant type and chemistry, elastohydrodynamic film thickness, deformation and wear, vacuum, and temperature as well as Hertzian and residual stresses. Correlation was established between the results obtained using the five-ball tester and those obtained with full scale rolling-element bearings.

  15. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  16. What do we mean by Human-Centered Design of Life-Critical Systems?

    PubMed

    Boy, Guy A

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered design is not a new approach to design. Aerospace is a good example of a life-critical systems domain where participatory design was fully integrated, involving experimental test pilots and design engineers as well as many other actors of the aerospace engineering community. This paper provides six topics that are currently part of the requirements of the Ph.D. Program in Human-Centered Design of the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT.) This Human-Centered Design program offers principles, methods and tools that support human-centered sustainable products such as mission or process control environments, cockpits and hospital operating rooms. It supports education and training of design thinkers who are natural leaders, and understand complex relationships among technology, organizations and people. We all need to understand what we want to do with technology, how we should organize ourselves to a better life and finally find out whom we are and have become. Human-centered design is being developed for all these reasons and issues.

  17. Methane Seepage From the Arctic Shelf; 20 Years of Research on the Beaufort Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Collett, T. S.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has lead or played major roles in several efforts over the past 20 years to find geochemical evidence for gas hydrate dissociation on the Beaufort Sea shelf, a region of complex and varied geologic features that include: 1) several river deltas entering the Arctic Ocean, the largest of which is the Mackenzie River, 2) submerged continental shelf underlain by permafrost, 3) known petroleum systems of northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River Delta - Canada, 4), submerged pingo-like features (PLF's ) and, 5) pockmark fields. The results of these studies show that gas hydrate is present and that methane source can be both microbial and thermogenic. In light of our rapidly changing climate, the instability and potential methane release from Arctic gas hydrate deposits are reemerging as pivotal uncertainties. On the Alaskan Beaufort Shelf in water depths or about 10 m or less, methane concentrations in seawater are elevated relative to atmosphere. This methane likely originates from microbial degradation of organic matter deposited by rivers or coastal currents, and may be associated with organics in destabilized from recently thawed submerged shelf permafrost. In deeper water, north and west of the Prudhoe Bay area, some exceptionally high bottom water methane concentrations were measured with carbon isotopic signatures very similar (about -46 to -48‰) to gas hydrate sampled from the Mount Elbert 01 gas hydrate test well drilled in 2007 in the same area. This methane is presumably associated with the Prudhoe Bay gas hydrate and petroleum system, and likely from either gas hydrate dissociation or simple gas migration. Gas venting in and around the Mackenzie River delta is associated with offshore Pingo-like features (PLF's) and pockmarks. These PLF's resemble onshore pingos, but with an unknown origin. The region is underlain by an active petroleum system, submerged shelf permaforst, and gas hydrate. Methane concentrations are elevated in

  18. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  19. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  20. 20 years of surface ozone measurements at El Tololo, Chile (2200 m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard Anet, Julien; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Globally consistent in situ-observations of high precision and known quality are one key element in understanding global climate change and effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere. The spatial coverage of available data strongly depends on the species of interest and varies highly around the globe. In case of surface ozone (O3), the observational network is particularly sparse in Africa, Asia, and South America. The southern hemispheric pristine GAW-regional station "El Tololo", located in the foothills of the Chilean Andes (30.17° S, 70.80° W, 2220 m asl), has been equipped with an ozone photometer in 1995 and has since then been measuring tropospheric ozone permanently. However, these measurements were neither entirely systematically processed nor quality-controlled until recently. This situation was drastically improved in 2015 the framework of the Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) project (www.meteoswiss.ch/catcos). Empa, in coordination with the local operator, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (DMC), and the University of Santiago, revised the entire surface ozone measurements. The unique 20-year-long ozone data-set has been made publicly available on the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, Japan) in mid-2015 and represents an exceptional piece of information on the southern hemispheric surface ozone distribution. In contrary to northern hemispheric stations, the positive trend in the measurements of tropospheric ozone at "El Tololo" did not level off in the recent past. More specifically, "El Tololo" shows a steady positive trend of 0.7 ppb/decade in agreement with other stations on the Southern hemisphere. However, the seasonal cycle differs strongly in behaviour, as maximum values in ozone do not peak in austral winter, but in austral spring - most probably due to stratospheric influence. We also find that the spring maximum has a retrograding tendency of around 5 days per decade. A combined

  1. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  2. The Life and Times of a Learning Technology System: The Impact of Change and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Claus

    2013-01-01

    With the inception of the web now being more than 20 years ago, many web-based learning technology systems (LTS) have had a long life and have undergone many changes, both affecting content and infrastructure technologies. A change factor model can capture the various factors causing LTS to change. Methods for change-aware design of LTS have been…

  3. The environmental control and life-support system for a lunar base: What drives its design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, Warren D.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and briefly discuss some of the ground rules and mission scenario details that become drivers of the environmental control and life support (ECLS) system design and of the logistics related to the design. This paper is written for mission planners and non-ECLS system engineers to inform them of the details that will be important to the ECLS engineer when the design phase is reached. In addition, examples illustrate the impact of some selected mission characteristics on the logistics associated with ECLS systems. The last section of this paper focuses on the ECLS system technology development sequence and highlights specific portions that need emphasis.

  4. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  5. [A computer-aided design assessment system for recovery life support technology options].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Wang, F; Sun, J; Shang, C

    1997-04-01

    A specific computer-aided decision support system was designed and implemented for design computation and decision assessment of environmental control and life support system of manned space station. An advanced multiobjective decision methodology and a hierarchic structure model of assessment index of recovery life support system was developed. The program incorporates a database for each technology option, metabolic design loads associated with crew activity, mission model variables to accommodate evolving mission requirements, and algorithms to produce products criteria in order to provide recommendations relative to candidate technology selection and development. A specific structure was developed for the decision system which consists of a database, a methodology base and a model base as well as their management systems. Moreover, a centre control system with friendly user interface plays a very important role in the man-computer interaction.

  6. Design and Analysis of a Flexible, Reliable Deep Space Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a flexible, reliable, deep space life support system design approach that uses either storage or recycling or both together. The design goal is to provide the needed life support performance with the required ultra reliability for the minimum Equivalent System Mass (ESM). Recycling life support systems used with multiple redundancy can have sufficient reliability for deep space missions but they usually do not save mass compared to mixed storage and recycling systems. The best deep space life support system design uses water recycling with sufficient water storage to prevent loss of crew if recycling fails. Since the amount of water needed for crew survival is a small part of the total water requirement, the required amount of stored water is significantly less than the total to be consumed. Water recycling with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide removal material storage can achieve the high reliability of full storage systems with only half the mass of full storage and with less mass than the highly redundant recycling systems needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Improved recycling systems with lower mass and higher reliability could perform better than systems using storage.

  7. Designing For Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2005-01-01

    Human exploration and utilization of space requires habitats to provide appropriate conditions for working and living. These conditions are provided by environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) that ensure appropriate atmosphere composition, pressure, and temperature; manage and distribute water, process waste matter, provide fire detection and suppression; and other functions as necessary. The tables in appendix I of NASA RP 1324 "Designing for Human Presence in Space" summarize the life support functions and processes used onboard U.S. and U.S.S.R/Russian space habitats. These tables have been updated to include information on thermal control methods and to provide additional information on the ECLS systems.

  8. Current Status of Continued Operation for Kori unit 1 beyond Design Life

    SciTech Connect

    Tai-hyun Kim; Pan-sool Kim; Yeon-sang Yu

    2006-07-01

    Since the commercial operation of Kori Nuclear Power Plant unit 1 in April 1978, Korea has achieved rapid growth in its nuclear industry, and now has 20 operating nuclear power plants. As the design life of Kori unit 1 comes to an end, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.(KHNP) is preparing for the continued operation of the plant for the first time in Korea. The feasibility of continued operation beyond design life has been already proven in many countries. Developed countries, such as the USA, England, Japan and so on, are also proceeding with the continued operation of NPPs whose design life or license is due to expire, as long as the adequate safety and aging management review meet the acceptance criteria. Continued operation is absolutely needed for countries lacking in natural resources, such as Korea, in view of the efficient utilization of energy resources and reduction of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}) emission. For the continued operation beyond design life (30 yrs) of Kori unit 1, KHNP has performed Lifetime Management (PLiM) study, Periodic Safety Review (PSR), Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and Environmental Qualification (EQ), etc. and replaced main equipment, such as Steam Generators, Low Pressure Turbine Rotor, RCP Internals, Main Transformer, Main Generator, and so on. In September 2005, The Regulation of Atomic Energy Act in Korea was revised and published referring to License Renewal Rule of the USA. According to the revised regulations, KHNP is performing Life Assessment for Main Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and Radiological Impacts on the Environment with PSR for continued operation. (authors)

  9. Back to the Future: Help! It Was 20 Years Ago, and We've Only Just Arrived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Kate

    This paper traces an educator's experiences with computers over a span of 20 years, and describes the computerization of and concomitant obstacles faced by the Humanities department at the American University in Cairo, Egypt (AUC). The computerization of AUC began in the 1980s, with workstations mainly in the science, math, engineering, and…

  10. Themes, Orientations, Synergies and a Shared Agenda: The First 20?Years of the SEDA Series of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Ruth; Brown, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Over 20?years, 25 books have been published to date in the SEDA series, and this review article aims to analyse the ways in which books within the series have contributed to thinking in higher education pedagogy over this time. We have approached the texts through three lenses, analysing them chronologically, thematically and by the orientation of…

  11. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  12. Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

  13. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  14. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  15. Reliability approach to rotating-component design. [fatigue life and stress concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D. B.; Lalli, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    A probabilistic methodology for designing rotating mechanical components using reliability to relate stress to strength is explained. The experimental test machines and data obtained for steel to verify this methodology are described. A sample mechanical rotating component design problem is solved by comparing a deterministic design method with the new design-by reliability approach. The new method shows that a smaller size and weight can be obtained for specified rotating shaft life and reliability, and uses the statistical distortion-energy theory with statistical fatigue diagrams for optimum shaft design. Statistical methods are presented for (1) determining strength distributions for steel experimentally, (2) determining a failure theory for stress variations in a rotating shaft subjected to reversed bending and steady torque, and (3) relating strength to stress by reliability.

  16. Environmental Controls and Life Support System (ECLSS) Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda; Sankaran, Subra

    2010-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  17. Environmental Controls and Life Support System Design for a Space Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambaugh, Imelda C.; Rodriguez, Branelle; Vonau, Walt, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Engineers at Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design for the Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV). The SEV will aid to expand the human exploration envelope for Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GEO), Near Earth Object (NEO), or planetary missions by using pressurized surface exploration vehicles. The SEV, formerly known as the Lunar Electric Rover (LER), will be an evolutionary design starting as a ground test prototype where technologies for various systems will be tested and evolve into a flight vehicle. This paper will discuss the current SEV ECLSS design, any work contributed toward the development of the ECLSS design, and the plan to advance the ECLSS design based on the SEV vehicle and system needs.

  18. Lessons about Virtual-Environment Software Systems from 20 years of VE building

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Russell M.; Jerald, Jason; VanderKnyff, Chris; Wendt, Jeremy; Borland, David; Marshburn, David; Sherman, William R.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    What are desirable and undesirable features of virtual-environment (VE) software architectures? What should be present (and absent) from such systems if they are to be optimally useful? How should they be structured? To help answer these questions we present experience from application designers, toolkit designers, and VE system architects along with examples of useful features from existing systems. Topics are organized under the major headings of: 3D space management, supporting display hardware, interaction, event management, time management, computation, portability, and the observation that less can be better. Lessons learned are presented as discussion of the issues, field experiences, nuggets of knowledge, and case studies. PMID:20567602

  19. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  20. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  1. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  2. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  3. Totally Implantable Venous Access Devices – 20 Years' Experience of Implantation in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Royle, T James; Davies, Ruth E; Gannon, Mark X

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs) are widely used to provide long-term, central venous access for antibiotic delivery in cystic fibrosis patients. However, few studies have demonstrated long-term follow-up with large cohorts. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a retrospective review of TIVADs implanted in cystic fibrosis patients by vascular surgeons at a tertiary referral centre, using an open venous cut-down technique, from March 1986 to July 2006. The cephalic vein was preferentially chosen for line placement, in the deltopectoral groove, under fluoroscopic control. TIVAD performance (life-span or survival) and complications were evaluated. Data were extracted by review of a local database (data collated prospectively since 1986), with supplementation from electronic patient records and medical notes. RESULTS In total 165 TIVADs in 109 patients (34 males, 75 females) were reviewed. Median survival was 1441 days (range, 6–4440 days). Cumulative patency was 146,072 catheter-days. No immediate intrathoracic complications (pneumothorax, haemothorax, nerve injury) occurred. There were 3 early and 82 late complications, namely: occlusion (33 TIVADs; median age 510 days), infection (23 TIVADs; median 376 days), leakage (16; median 283 days), pain or discomfort (6), venous thrombosis (5), extravasation/skin necrosis (1), vegetation in right atrium (1). Overall incidence of complications was 0.58 per 1000 catheter-days. CONCLUSIONS This study concurs with others that TIVADs are safe and effective, with a favourable life-span in cystic fibrosis patients if well looked after in a specialist centre. Complications of infection, leakage and occlusion do occur. Using an open, venous cut-down technique with fluoroscopic control avoids any immediate intrathoracic complications. PMID:18990281

  4. Management and design of long-life systems; Proceedings of the Symposium, Denver, Colo., April 24-26, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurmeier, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    The long life of Pioneer interplanetary spacecraft is considered along with a general accelerated methodology for long-life mechanical components, dependable long-lived household appliances, and the design and development philosophy to achieve reliability and long life in large turbine generators. Other topics discussed include an integrated management approach to long life in space, artificial heart reliability factors, and architectural concepts and redundancy techniques in fault-tolerant computers. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  5. Design of a controlled ecological life support system - Regenerative technologies are necessary for implementation in a lunar base CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1992-01-01

    Issues involved in designing a life support system for a new era of space exploration are outlined. A conceptual design is described for a controlled ecological life support system developed for a lunar base. In situ resource utilization for such a system is examined.

  6. How Design of Places Promotes or Inhibits Mobility of Older Adults: Realist Synthesis of 20 Years of Research

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Irene H.; Flood, Johnna Fandel; Thompson, Hannah; Anderson, Lynda A.; Wong, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the environmental features that best support aging in place. Method We conducted a realist synthesis, a theory-driven interpretive method of evidence synthesis, of 120+ articles (published 1991–2011) that attempts to explain how place may influence older adults’ decisions about mobility (e.g., physical activity). We developed an initial program theory, reviewed the literature, identified outcomes, analyzed and synthesized patterns, and created a final program theory. Results Safety was a central mechanism, serving as one of the bridges between environmental components (e.g., connectivity, aesthetics, retail and services) and decisions about mobility. Population density, sidewalk presence, and park proximity did not emerge as key factors. Discussion Safety considerations are one of the most prominent influences of older adults’ decisions about mobility. Street connectivity, pedestrian access and transit, and retail and services were also important. These factors are amenable to change and can help promote mobility for older adults. PMID:24788714

  7. Life Predicted in a Probabilistic Design Space for Brittle Materials With Transient Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Palfi, Tamas; Reh, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Analytical techniques have progressively become more sophisticated, and now we can consider the probabilistic nature of the entire space of random input variables on the lifetime reliability of brittle structures. This was demonstrated with NASA s CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code combined with the commercially available ANSYS/Probabilistic Design System (ANSYS/PDS), a probabilistic analysis tool that is an integral part of the ANSYS finite-element analysis program. ANSYS/PDS allows probabilistic loads, component geometry, and material properties to be considered in the finite-element analysis. CARES/Life predicts the time dependent probability of failure of brittle material structures under generalized thermomechanical loading--such as that found in a turbine engine hot-section. Glenn researchers coupled ANSYS/PDS with CARES/Life to assess the effects of the stochastic variables of component geometry, loading, and material properties on the predicted life of the component for fully transient thermomechanical loading and cyclic loading.

  8. Macroinvertebrate instream flow studies after 20 years: A role in stream management and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gore, J.A.; Layzer, J.B.; Mead, J.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two decades of refinement and application of instream flow evaluations, we have examined the hydraulic habitat of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a variety of conditions, along with the role of these macroinverte-brates in sustaining ecosystem integrity. Instream flow analyses assume that predictable changes in channel flow characteristics can, in turn, be used to predict the change in the density or distribution of lotic species or, more appropriately, the availability of useable habitat for those species. Five major hydraulic conditions most affect the distribution and ecological success of lotic biota: suspended load, bedload movement, and water column effects, such as turbulence, velocity profile, and substratum interactions (near-bed hydraulics). The interactions of these hydraulic conditions upon the morphology and behavior of the individual organisms govern the distribution of aquatic biota. Historically, management decisions employing the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) have focused upon prediction of available habitat for life stages of target fish species. Regulatory agencies have rarely included evaluation of benthos for flow reservations. Although 'taxonomic discomfort' may be cited for the reluctant use or creation of benthic criteria, we suggest that a basic misunderstanding of the links between benthic macroinvertebrate and the fish communities is still a problem. This is derived from the lack of a perceived 'value' that can be assigned to macroinvertebrate species. With the exception of endangered mussel species (for which PHABSIM analysis is probably inappropriate), this is understandable. However, it appears that there is a greater ability to predict macroinvertebrate distribution (that is, a response to the change in habitat quality or location) and diversity without complex population models. Also, habitat suitability criteria for water quality indicator taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera; the so-called 'EPTs

  9. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  10. Retinoblastoma in the Democratic Republic of Congo: 20-Year Review from a Tertiary Hospital in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi Lukusa, Aimé; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Kadima-Tshimanga, Bertin; Mvitu-Muaka, Moïse; Gini Ehungu, Jean Lambert; Ngiyulu, René; Ekulu Mfutu, Pépé; Budiongo Nzazi, Aléine

    2012-01-01

    Background. To determine clinical profile and management of retinoblastoma among children at Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of Congo. Patients and methods. The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma seen at the University Hospital of Kinshasa from January 1985 till December 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical data, modes of treatment and outcome were analysed. Results. A total of 49 children, of whom 40 had adequate data on record were identified as retinoblastoma (28 males and 12 females). Nine cases had bilateral disease. The median age at the first symptoms was 9 months (range, 1 month to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 18 months (range, 1 month to 3.5 years) for bilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at the first oncology consultation was 2.4 years (range, 6 months to 6 years) for unilateral retinoblastoma and 2.4years (range, 9 months to 4 years) for bilateral disease. Leukokoria was present in 67.5% of subjects. Seventy-five percent abandoned the treatment. The mortality was 92.5%. Conclusion. In Democratic Republic of Congo, retinoblastoma remains a life threatening disease characterized by late referral to a specialized unit and affordability of chemotherapy; all leading to an extension of the disease and high mortality. PMID:22619679

  11. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    PubMed

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  12. Considerations in the design of life sciences research facilities for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    The facilities required for life science research on a permanent Space Station are examined. Specifications important to the designing of facilities and planning of activities on the Space Shuttle are: (1) the species to be tested, (2) the number and procedure for testing, (3) the number of specimens at each sampling time, (4) the analyses required, (5) the methods of preserving samples, instruments, and supplies, and (6) the amount of crew time required. Experiments which are relevant to understanding the effects of microgravity on living systems are to be performed on the Space Station. The design and instruments of a Space Station laboratory and specimen centrifuge are described.

  13. The design and development of a release mechanism for space shuttle life-science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. M.; Daniell, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The design, development, and testing of a release mechanism for use in two life science experiments on the Spacelab 1, 4, and D1 missions is described. The mechanism is a self latching ball lock device actuated by a linear solenoid. An unusual feature is the tapering of the ball lock plunger to give it a near constant breakout force for release under a wide range of loads. The selection of the design, based on the design requirements, is discussed. A number of problems occurred during development and test, including problems caused by human factors that became apparent after initial delivery for crewtraining sessions. These problems and their solutions are described to assist in the design and testing of similar mechanisms.

  14. Designing for human presence in space: An introduction to environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Human exploration and utilization of space requires habitats to provide appropriate conditions for working and living. These conditions are provided by environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) that ensure appropriate atmosphere composition, pressure, and temperature; manage and distribute water, process waste matter, provide fire detection and suppression; and other functions as necessary. The functions that are performed by ECLSS are described and basic information necessary to design an ECLSS is provided. Technical and programmatic aspects of designing and developing ECLSS for space habitats are described including descriptions of technologies, analysis methods, test requirements, program organization, documentation requirements, and the requirements imposed by medical, mission, safety, and system needs. The design and development process is described from initial trade studies through system-level analyses to support operation. ECLSS needs for future space habitats are also described. Extensive listings of references and related works provide sources for more detailed information on each aspect of ECLSS design and development.

  15. Life extension of semi-submersible drilling unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, I.; Sinclair, C.I.K.; Magne, E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the life extension of a semi-submersible drilling rig built in the early 1970`s. A nominal design life of 20 years was estimated at the time of building; however, in the interim period, numerous improvements have been made in fatigue life estimation ad life improvement techniques, raising the possibility that a further 20 years of operation could be considered. The life extension strategy made use of a number of aspects of offshore technology which were not available at the time of construction of the rig. Finite element studies and results from offshore research programs were used to gauge the effect of fatigue life improvement techniques. The program demonstrated the feasibility of extending the operation of the rig for a further 20 years, with the interval between in-service inspection increased to every five years. It also provided a valuable database of fracture toughness data for the rig materials, which may be used in future work to address reliability issues.

  16. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  17. Playing Darwin. Part B. 20 years of domestication in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; Fragata, Inês; Santos, Josiane; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Ana; Lima, Margarida; Matos, Margarida

    2010-09-01

    Adaptation to a new environment (as well as its underlying mechanisms) is one of the most important topics in Evolutionary Biology. Understanding the adaptive process of natural populations to captivity is essential not only in general evolutionary studies but also in conservation programmes. Since 1990, the Group of Experimental Evolution (CBA/FCUL) has been performing long-term, real-time evolutionary studies, with the characterization of laboratory adaptation in populations of Drosophila subobscura founded in different times and from different locations. Initially, these experiments involved phenotypic assays and more recently were expanded to studies at the molecular level (microsatellite and chromosomal polymorphisms) and with different population sizes. Throughout these two decades, a clear pattern of evolutionary convergence to long-established laboratory populations has been consistently observed in several life-history traits. However, contingencies across foundations were also found during the adaptive process. In characters with complex evolutionary trajectories, the data suggested that the comparative method lacked predictive capacity relative to real-time evolutionary trajectories (experimental evolution). Microsatellite analysis revealed general similarity in gene diversity and allele number between studied populations, as well as an unclear association between genetic variability and evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, ongoing studies in all foundations are being carried out to further test this hypothesis. A comparison between recently introduced and long-term populations (founded from the same natural location) has shown higher degree of chromosomal polymorphism in recent ones. Finally, our findings suggest higher heterogeneity between small-sized populations, as well as a slower evolutionary rate in characters close to fitness (such as fecundity and mating behaviour). This comprehensive study is aimed at better understanding the processes and

  18. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as 'benign', with the remaining designated as 'atypical lesion' (n = 18, 2.0%), 'malignant' (n = 24, 2.6%), or 'inadequate specimen' (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion.

  19. Persistence of immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi 10-20 years after active Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Kalish, R A; McHugh, G; Granquist, J; Shea, B; Ruthazer, R; Steere, A C

    2001-09-15

    The interpretation of serological results for patients who had Lyme disease many years ago is not well defined. We studied the serological status of 79 patients who had had Lyme disease 10-20 years ago and did not currently have signs or symptoms of active Lyme disease. Of the 40 patients who had had early Lyme disease alone, 4 (10%) currently had IgM responses to Borrelia burgdorferi, and 10 (25%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete, as determined by a 2-test approach (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot). Of the 39 patients who had had Lyme arthritis, 6 (15%) currently had IgM responses and 24 (62%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete. IgM or IgG antibody responses to B. burgdorferi may persist for 10-20 years, but these responses are not indicative of active infection.

  20. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  1. Design of a Regenerative Life Support System for a Moon Base. Preliminary Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Guirado, Víctor; Lasseur, Christophe

    NTE-SENER has finalised a study under an ESA contract, to define a preliminary system design of an European Module to provide Environmental Control and Life Support to a potential Moon base. The design is based on current Life Support System technologies under development in Europe (MELiSSA, GWRU, Sabatier Reactor and UTU) along with contamination and microbial detection technologies (ANITA, MIDASS). The ECLSS is sized to provide water, air and up to the 40 As a support to the study a simulator has been developed to analyse the energy, volume and mass and the flow rates and efficiencies of the different components. The study applied the basics of the ALISSE criteria to evaluate the technologies taking as a source the results of the simulations. Detailed models of the different technologies have been developed including feedback from the pilot designs. The results of the study have showed up opportunities of improvement and many points that need to be further investigated. The technologies used in the study are based on the MELiSSA Pilot Plant reactors implementation and the results could affect their design in the near fu-ture in aspects such as carbon recycling, irrigation methods, energy consumption, technologies involved, etc.

  2. Patterns of Lipid Lowering Therapy among Children ages 8 to 20 years old

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Nina; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Dore, David D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Zachariah, Justin P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pediatric guidelines in 2008 and 2011 recommended lipid lowering therapy in children ≥ 8 with high-risk cardiovascular conditions, such as familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Our objective was to describe the patterns and predictors of LLT initiation in commercially insured children between 2005 and 2010. Study design Using commercial health plan data on children ages 8–20 from 2004 to 2010, we estimated rates of LLT initiation overall and stratified by age. Using a nested case-control design, we used multivariable logistic regression to identify temporal, demographic, clinical and health utilization characteristics associated with LLT initiation. Results Among >13 million children, 665 initiated LLT for an incidence rate 2.6/100,000 person-years (PY). Incidence rates were highest in 2005 (4.1/100,000 PY) and 2008 (3.9/100,000 PY), with no discernable secular trend. Rates of LLT initiation were significantly greater in children ≥15 years (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.9 [95% CI 5.2 – 13.0]), males (2.1[1.7–2.4]), and those with a diagnosis of FH (165.2[129.0–211.6]), other dyslipidemia (175.5 [143.2–215.3]), diabetes type I (7.7[4.7–12.4]), diabetes type II (13.6[8.5–21.7]), hypertension (8.1[4.9–13.3]), obesity (7.8[4.7[12.7]), and ≥ 5 outpatient visits (1.5[1.2–1.7]), and children with dispensing of ≥2 non-LLT prescriptions were less likely to initiate LLT (0.2[0.2–0.3]). Conclusions Despite new guidelines, LLT initiation in children is low and has not increased through 2010. Although diagnosis of FH and other dyslipidemias was associated with higher probability of LLT initiation, our findings suggest LLT is underutilized in this population given the prevalence of these disorders. PMID:25953004

  3. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevicˇiene˙, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P

  4. Hearing Aid Satisfaction: What Does Research from the Past 20 Years Say?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lena L. N.; Hickson, Louise; McPherson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Hearing aid satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional experience as an outcome of an evaluation of performance. Many tools have been designed to measure the degree of satisfaction overall, or along the dimensions of cost, appearance, acoustic benefit, comfort, and service. Various studies have used these tools to examine the relationships between satisfaction and other factors. Findings are not always consistent across studies, but in general, hearing aid satisfaction has been found to be related to experience, expectation, personality and attitude, usage, type of hearing aids, sound quality, listening situations, and problems in hearing aid use. Inconsistent findings across studies and difficulties in evaluating the underlying relationships are probably caused by problems with the tools (eg, lack of validity) and the methods used to evaluate relationships (eg, correlation analyses evaluate association and not causal effect). Whether satisfaction changes over time and how service satisfaction contributes to device satisfaction are unclear. It is hoped that this review will help readers understand current satisfaction measures, how various factors affect satisfaction, and how the way satisfaction is measured may be improved to yield more reliable and valid data. PMID:15004650

  5. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented.

  6. Disability research in counseling psychology journals: a 20-year content analysis.

    PubMed

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Lee, Sharon

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory content analysis of disability research in 5 major counseling psychology journals between 1990 and 2010. The goal was to review the counseling psychology literature to better understand the prevalence of disability research, identify research methods most often conducted, and elucidate the types of concerns most studied. We searched 5 journals (Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology) using keywords derived from disability terms defined by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA). Articles were categorized by methodology and disability category examined. We found that disability research continues to comprise an extremely small amount (from less than 1% to 2.7%) of the counseling psychology literature, with the frequency of articles plateauing in recent years. The research design of articles published has changed, with an increased number of empirical articles and a decrease in literature reviews. We conclude by calling for increased empirical investigation of disability among journals specific to counseling psychology to recognize disability as an important aspect of diversity within the field.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented. PMID:25750046

  8. Epidemiology of Tropical Neglected Diseases in Ecuador in the Last 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cartelle Gestal, Monica; Holban, Alina Maria; Escalante, Santiago; Cevallos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical and zoonotic diseases are major problems in developing countries like Ecuador. Poorly designed houses, the high proportion of isolated indigenous population and under developed infrastructure represent a fertile environment for vectors to proliferate. Control campaigns in Ecuador over the years have had varying success, depending on the disease and vectors targeted. Aims In our study we analyse the current situation of some neglected diseases in Ecuador and the efficiency of the control campaigns (by measuring changes in numbers of cases reported) that the Ecuadorian government has been running to limit the spread of these infectious and parasitic diseases. Results Our study reveals that Brucellosis, Chagas Disease, Rabies and Onchocerciasis have been controlled, but small outbreaks are still detected in endemic areas. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis have been increasing steadily in recent years in Ecuador since the first records. The same increase has been reported world-wide also. Better diagnosis has resulted in a higher number of cases being identified, particularly with regard to the linking of outdoor activities and contact with farm animals as contributing vectors. Improvements in diagnosis are due to regular professional training, implementation of automatized systems, establishing diagnosis protocols and the creation of an epidemiological vigilance network that acts as soon as a case is reported. Conclusion Control campaigns performed in Ecuador have been successful in recent years, although natural phenomena limit their efficiency. Leptospirosis and Echinococcosis infections remain a growing problem in Ecuador as it is worldwide. PMID:26394405

  9. Hearing aid satisfaction: what does research from the past 20 years say?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lena L N; Hickson, Louise; McPherson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Hearing aid satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional experience as an outcome of an evaluation of performance. Many tools have been designed to measure the degree of satisfaction overall, or along the dimensions of cost, appearance, acoustic benefit, comfort, and service. Various studies have used these tools to examine the relationships between satisfaction and other factors. Findings are not always consistent across studies, but in general, hearing aid satisfaction has been found to be related to experience, expectation, personality and attitude, usage, type of hearing aids, sound quality, listening situations, and problems in hearing aid use. Inconsistent findings across studies and difficulties in evaluating the underlying relationships are probably caused by problems with the tools (eg, lack of validity) and the methods used to evaluate relationships (eg, correlation analyses evaluate association and not causal effect). Whether satisfaction changes over time and how service satisfaction contributes to device satisfaction are unclear. It is hoped that this review will help readers understand current satisfaction measures, how various factors affect satisfaction, and how the way satisfaction is measured may be improved to yield more reliable and valid data.

  10. The President's Committee on Health Education: a 20-year retrospective on its politics and policy impact.

    PubMed Central

    Guinta, M A; Allegrante, J P

    1992-01-01

    The President's Committee on Health Education was created by Richard M. Nixon in September 1971 and submitted its final report in September 1973. The committee resulted from the convergence of (1) a perceived national domestic policy need in response to escalating medical costs, (2) Nixon's personal and political ambitions, and (3) the dynamic political context of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Its work led to both private and public initiatives designed to influence the public's health through education; its findings and recommendations also laid the foundation for the National Consumer Health Information and Health Promotion Act of 1976 and thus contributed significantly to the development of subsequent national policy in health promotion and disease prevention. This paper places the work and contributions of the committee into historical perspective by analyzing the committee's origins and methods and the underlying politics that shaped its work and final report. The impact of the President's Committee is traced from the emergence of health education in the early 1970s as a potentially cost-effective alternative to medical care to the pivotal role health education now plays in health promotion and disease prevention efforts. Images p1034-a p1039-a PMID:1609907

  11. A 20-Year Perspective on Preparation Strategies and Career Planning of Pharmacy Deans

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects. Results The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths. Conclusions Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions. PMID:21301596

  12. Standardization of Experimental Design for Crop Cultivation in Life Support Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Silje Aase; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Kittang Jost, Ann-Iren

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, fresh air, and clean water for humans. The extensive work performed have shown that higher plants are able to adapt to space conditions in low Earth orbit, at least from one generation from seed to seed. Since the hardware has turned out to be of great importance for the results in microgravity research, full environmental monitoring and control must be the standard for future experiments. Selecting a few model plants, including crop plants for life support, would further increase the comparability between studies. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plants, with continuous recycling of resources. In the present study, recommended standardization of the experimental design for future scientific work assessing the effects of graded gravity on plant metabolism will be presented. This includes the environmental conditions required for cultivation of the selected MEliSSA species (wheat, bread wheat, soybean and potato), as well as guidelines for sowing, plant handling and analysis. Keywords: microgravity; magnetic field; radiation; MELiSSA; Moon; Mars.

  13. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Society for Agroecology/Organic Farming (SEAE) is a private charity association, founded in 1992, with the purpose to support organic farming practitioners. The principal aim is to join the efforts farmers, technicians and scientifics and others organizations and persons, related to develop sustainable agriculture systems, based on ecological and socioeconomic principles promoted by the international organic farming movement, with the purpose to obtain foods and first resources with high quality, considering the vulnerability of the environment and preserving the soil fertility, with the optimal and adequate use of the local resources, taking in account the rural culture and the ethical value of the social development and the life quality. One of the most relevant and know activity of SEAE is the celebration of one (scientific) Congress every two years. This is the most important event on this issue in Spain. In the last 20 year, eleven events of this kind have been organised in 11 different places (Toledo, Pamplona, Valencia, Córdoba, Gijón-Asturias, Almeria, Zaragoza, Bullas-Murcia, Lleida, Albacete, Vitoria-Gasteiz). The average participation in the Congress was growing up from 100 to 350 persons), from all over Spain. During this events, researchers, advisors, trainers, politicians and operators (farmers, processors, certifiers, marketers, consumers, etc.) shared and update the scientific results, projects in force, political measures, statistics and proposals to develop the organic farming sector Research in organic farming is still low in Spain and the majority of the results in this matter are being presented as papers in this Congresses. Over 1500 papers from over 100 spanish research groups giving information about the research results have been presented in this events, One of the most relevant topic of this research is done on soil conservation, soil fertility and organic crop fertilization and organic matter management in the soil, after

  14. Conceptual design of a biological specimen holding facility. [Life Science Laboratory for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Yakut, M. M.

    1976-01-01

    An all-important first step in the development of the Spacelab Life Science Laboratory is the design of the Biological Specimen Holding Facility (BSHF) which will provide accommodation for living specimens for life science research in orbit. As a useful tool in the understanding of physiological and biomedical changes produced in the weightless environment, the BSHF will enable biomedical researchers to conduct in-orbit investigations utilizing techniques that may be impossible to perform on human subjects. The results of a comprehensive study for defining the BSHF, description of its experiment support capabilities, and the planning required for its development are presented. Conceptual designs of the facility, its subsystems and interfaces with the Orbiter and Spacelab are included. Environmental control, life support and data management systems are provided. Interface and support equipment required for specimen transfer, surgical research, and food, water and waste storage is defined. New and optimized concepts are presented for waste collection, feces and urine separation and sampling, environmental control, feeding and watering, lighting, data management and other support subsystems.

  15. The optimal design of buildings: A life-cycle approach to energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khawas, Ihab Nabil

    This study reports on an energy model designed to minimize the life cycle cost of a building, considering both the building initial cost and its energy consumption. It reports on the structure of this model and a series of experiments conducted to derive optimal design. While there already exist models that analyze the energy consumption and efficiency of buildings, the general model presented here is unique in several ways. First, it addresses the needs of the typical architect who requires rapid technical feedback on the energy efficiency of a building during the initial design process. Second, it considers the trade-off between initial development costs and future operating costs. Different from most models therefore, it does not simply minimizes energy consumption, but takes into account the cost incurred as a result of any method to save energy. Third, it is an optimization model which derives design optima through numerical optimization methods rather than trial and error. However, it can still be used to develop design ideas outside the model optimization scope. Fourth, the model optimizes a number of design features of interest to the architect, including building orientation, dimensions, window placement and size, and choice of building material. Most other models appear to take these features as inputs. Rules of thumb and traditional design guidelines were also investigated through the analysis of a large number of model experiments, with different objective functions and constraint sets. The aim was to simulate a number of real life design alternatives and economic goals. The findings show that the cost of sub-optimal building dimensions and orientation may vary significantly under different user constraints. Generalizations are possible, but must be used with caution. One major finding of this study is that following rules of thumb and traditional guidelines will not always lead to an optimal design. In fact, the study proves that design variables, such

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  17. Maternal deaths in eastern Indonesia: 20 years and still walking: an ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The delays in receiving adequate emergency maternal care described by Thaddeus and Maine twenty years ago are still occurring, as exemplified in this study of cases of maternal deaths in a subdistrict in rural eastern Indonesia. Methods An ethnographic design was conducted, recruiting eleven families who reported on cases of maternal deaths in one sub-district of Indonesia, as well as assessing the geographical and cultural context of the villages. Traditional birth attendants and village leaders provided information to the research team which was thematically and contextually analysed. Results Two stages to the first and second delays have been differentiated in this study. First, delays in the decision to seek care comprised time taken to recognise (if at all) that an emergency situation existed, followed by time taken to reach a decision to request care. The decision to request care resided variously with the family or cadre. Second, delays in reaching care comprised time taken to deliver the request for help and then time for help to arrive. A phone was not available to request care in many cases and so the request was delivered by walking or motorbike. In two cases where the decision to seek care and the delivery of the request happened in a timely way, help was delayed because the midwife and ambulance respectively were unavailable. Conclusions This study, although a small sample, confirmed that either a single delay or a sequence of delays can prove fatal. Delays were determined by both social and geographic factors, any of which alone could be limiting. Initiatives to improve maternal health outcomes need to address multiple factors: increased awareness of equitable access to maternal health care, village preparedness for emergency response, improved access to telecommunications and geographic access. PMID:24447873

  18. 20 years of research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, M.; Baek, S.; Barnard, H.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Ennever, P.; Ernst, D.; Faust, I.; Fiore, C.; Fredian, T.; Gao, C.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Hartwig, Z.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; and others

    2014-11-15

    The object of this review is to summarize the achievements of research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994) and Marmar, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51, 261 (2007)] and to place that research in the context of the quest for practical fusion energy. C-Mod is a compact, high-field tokamak, whose unique design and operating parameters have produced a wealth of new and important results since it began operation in 1993, contributing data that extends tests of critical physical models into new parameter ranges and into new regimes. Using only high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for heating and current drive with innovative launching structures, C-Mod operates routinely at reactor level power densities and achieves plasma pressures higher than any other toroidal confinement device. C-Mod spearheaded the development of the vertical-target divertor and has always operated with high-Z metal plasma facing components—approaches subsequently adopted for ITER. C-Mod has made ground-breaking discoveries in divertor physics and plasma-material interactions at reactor-like power and particle fluxes and elucidated the critical role of cross-field transport in divertor operation, edge flows and the tokamak density limit. C-Mod developed the I-mode and the Enhanced Dα H-mode regimes, which have high performance without large edge localized modes and with pedestal transport self-regulated by short-wavelength electromagnetic waves. C-Mod has carried out pioneering studies of intrinsic rotation and demonstrated that self-generated flow shear can be strong enough in some cases to significantly modify transport. C-Mod made the first quantitative link between the pedestal temperature and the H-mode's performance, showing that the observed self-similar temperature profiles were consistent with critical-gradient-length theories and followed up with quantitative tests of nonlinear gyrokinetic models. RF research highlights include direct experimental

  19. 20 years of research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamaka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwald, M.; Bader, A.; Baek, S.; Bakhtiari, M.; Barnard, H.; Beck, W.; Bergerson, W.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Bonoli, P.; Brower, D.; Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Candy, J.; Churchill, M.; Cziegler, I.; Diallo, A.; Dominguez, A.; Duval, B.; Edlund, E.; Ennever, P.; Ernst, D.; Faust, I.; Fiore, C.; Fredian, T.; Garcia, O.; Gao, C.; Goetz, J.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Grulke, O.; Hartwig, Z.; Horne, S.; Howard, N.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; Izzo, V.; Kessel, C.; LaBombard, B.; Lau, C.; Li, C.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Loarte, A.; Marmar, E.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; McDermott, R.; Meneghini, O.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mossessian, D.; Mumgaard, R.; Myra, J.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Ochoukov, R.; Olynyk, G.; Parker, R.; Pitcher, S.; Podpaly, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J.; Rowan, W.; Schmidt, A.; Scott, S.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sierchio, J.; Smick, N.; Snipes, J. A.; Snyder, P.; Sorbom, B.; Stillerman, J.; Sung, C.; Takase, Y.; Tang, V.; Terry, J.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Tronchin-James, A.; Tsujii, N.; Vieira, R.; Walk, J.; Wallace, G.; White, A.; Whyte, D.; Wilson, J.; Wolfe, S.; Wright, G.; Wright, J.; Wukitch, S.; Zweben, S.

    2014-11-01

    The object of this review is to summarize the achievements of research on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994) and Marmar, Fusion Sci. Technol. 51, 261 (2007)] and to place that research in the context of the quest for practical fusion energy. C-Mod is a compact, high-field tokamak, whose unique design and operating parameters have produced a wealth of new and important results since it began operation in 1993, contributing data that extends tests of critical physical models into new parameter ranges and into new regimes. Using only high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for heating and current drive with innovative launching structures, C-Mod operates routinely at reactor level power densities and achieves plasma pressures higher than any other toroidal confinement device. C-Mod spearheaded the development of the vertical-target divertor and has always operated with high-Z metal plasma facing components—approaches subsequently adopted for ITER. C-Mod has made ground-breaking discoveries in divertor physics and plasma-material interactions at reactor-like power and particle fluxes and elucidated the critical role of cross-field transport in divertor operation, edge flows and the tokamak density limit. C-Mod developed the I-mode and the Enhanced Dα H-mode regimes, which have high performance without large edge localized modes and with pedestal transport self-regulated by short-wavelength electromagnetic waves. C-Mod has carried out pioneering studies of intrinsic rotation and demonstrated that self-generated flow shear can be strong enough in some cases to significantly modify transport. C-Mod made the first quantitative link between the pedestal temperature and the H-mode's performance, showing that the observed self-similar temperature profiles were consistent with critical-gradient-length theories and followed up with quantitative tests of nonlinear gyrokinetic models. RF research highlights include direct experimental

  20. Seismology@School - Nearly 20 years for the first experiences in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenguer, Jean Luc; Balestra, Julien; Courboulex, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    The original and innovative aspect of this programme stems from giving students the opportunity to install a seismometer in their school. The recorded signals, reflecting regional or global seismic activity, feed into an on-line database, a genuine seismic resource centre and a springboard for educational and scientific activities. In the footsteps of the U.S PEPP project, we have started this experiment in Europe in order to see how we can confront high school students with the current practice of scientific data acquisition, and how we can establish a specific educational structure tailored to the European system. The French network 'EduSismo' (numbering some hundred stations installed in metropolitan France, the overseas departments and territories and a few French high schools abroad) is the outgrowth of an experiment conducted some twenty years back. Since then, the programme implemented has gone beyond simply acquiring seismic signals, which could have been procured by research and monitoring centres. By appropriating a scientific measurement, the student becomes personally involved and masters complex concepts about geophysics and geosciences. The development of simple devices and the design of concrete experiments associated with an investigative approach make it possible to instil the students with a high-quality scientific culture and an education about risks. A lot of similar projects were run in Europe and more … data streaming, database on line, examples of models … are not the only link between schools. The European network stay alive with some events: 'EDUSEIS', 'NaRAS', 'O3E', 'NERA' European programs, teachers/researchers workshops, school challenges, projects between schools, social network … it was a great opportunity to share experiences with teachers and researchers through a huge worldwide network. During the twenty last years, 'Seismology@school' concept has developed initiatives to link more people, and has provided more tools to teach

  1. Conceptual design and programmatics studies of space station accommodations for Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs and programmatics of the space station accommodations for the Life Sciences Research Facilities (LSRF) are presented. The animal ECLSS system for the LSRF provides temperature-humidity control, air circulation, and life support functions for experimental subjects. Three ECLSS were studied. All configurations presented satisfy the science requirements for: animal holding facilities with bioisolation; facilities interchangeable to hold rodents, small primates, and plants; metabolic cages interchangeable with standard holding cages; holding facilities adaptable to restrained large primates and rodent breeding/nesting cages; volume for the specified instruments; enclosed ferm-free workbench for manipulation of animals and chemical procedures; freezers for specimen storage until return; and centrifuge to maintain animals and plants at fractional g to 1 g or more, with potential for accommodating humans for short time intervals.

  2. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  3. What Teachers Should Know about the Evolution-Intentional Design Debate on the Origin of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    This paper discusses the beginning of life on Earth, the formation of life forms, evolution, and the origin of life. The paper suggests that how life first appeared on earth is not known and may never be known. (YDS)

  4. Design of the fiber optic support system and fiber bundle accelerated life test for VIRUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Ian M.; Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard J.; Heisler, James T.; Mock, Jason R.; Mollison, Nicholas T.; Good, John M.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Anderson, Seth C.; Bauer, Svend M.; Kelz, Andreas; Roth, Martin M.; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2010-07-01

    The quantity and length of optical fibers required for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope* Dark Energy eXperiment (HETDEX) create unique fiber handling challenges. For HETDEX‡, at least 33,600 fibers will transmit light from the focal surface of the telescope to an array of spectrographs making up the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). Up to 96 Integral Field Unit (IFU) bundles, each containing 448 fibers, hang suspended from the telescope's moving tracker located more than 15 meters above the VIRUS instruments. A specialized mechanical system is being developed to support fiber optic assemblies onboard the telescope. The discrete behavior of 448 fibers within a conduit is also of primary concern. A life cycle test must be conducted to study fiber behavior and measure Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD) as a function of time. This paper focuses on the technical requirements and design of the HETDEX fiber optic support system, the electro-mechanical test apparatus for accelerated life testing of optical fiber assemblies. Results generated from the test will be of great interest to designers of robotic fiber handling systems for major telescopes. There is concern that friction, localized contact, entanglement, and excessive tension will be present within each IFU conduit and contribute to FRD. The test apparatus design utilizes six linear actuators to replicate the movement of the telescope over 65,000 accelerated cycles, simulating five years of actual operation.

  5. Lunar base Controlled Ecological Life Support System (LCELSS): Preliminary conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual design for a self-sufficient LCELSS. The mission need is for a CELSS with a capacity to supply the life support needs for a nominal crew of 30, and a capability for accommodating a range of crew sizes from 4 to 100 people. The work performed in this study was nominally divided into two parts. In the first part, relevant literature was assembled and reviewed. This review identified LCELSS performance requirements and the constraints and advantages confronting the design. It also collected information on the environment of the lunar surface and identified candidate technologies for the life support subsystems and the systems with which the LCELSS interfaced. Information on the operation and performance of these technologies was collected, along with concepts of how they might be incorporated into the LCELSS conceptual design. The data collected on these technologies was stored for incorporation into the study database. Also during part one, the study database structure was formulated and implemented, and an overall systems engineering methodology was developed for carrying out the study.

  6. Sustainable design for automotive products: dismantling and recycling of end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Chen, Ming

    2014-02-01

    The growth in automotive production has increased the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) annually. The traditional approach ELV processing involves dismantling, shredding, and landfill disposal. The "3R" (i.e., reduce, reuse, and recycle) principle has been increasingly employed in processing ELVs, particularly ELV parts, to promote sustainable development. The first step in processing ELVs is dismantling. However, certain parts of the vehicle are difficult to disassemble and use in practice. The extended producer responsibility policy requires carmakers to contribute in the processing of scrap cars either for their own developmental needs or for social responsibility. The design for dismantling approach can be an effective solution to the existing difficulties in dismantling ELVs. This approach can also provide guidelines in the design of automotive products. This paper illustrates the difficulty of handling polymers in dashboards. The physical properties of polymers prevent easy separation and recycling by using mechanical methods. Thus, dealers have to rely on chemical methods such as pyrolysis. Therefore, car designers should use a single material to benefit dealers. The use of materials for effective end-of-life processing without sacrificing the original performance requirements of the vehicle should be explored.

  7. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    modalities and (iv) system solutions with high end-user added value and cost benefits. The common thread is deployment and deployment evaluation. In particular, satisfaction of application requirements, involvement of the end-user in the design and deployment process, satisfactory system performance and user acceptance are concerns addressed in many of the contributions. The contributions form a valuable set, which help to identify the priorities for research in this burgeoning area: Robust, reliable and efficient data collection in embedded wireless multi-hop networks are essential elements in creating a true deploy-and-forget user experience. Maintaining full connectivity within a WSN, in a real world environment populated by other WSNs, WiFi networks or Bluetooth devices that constitute sources of interference is a key element in any application, but more so for those that are safety-critical, such as disaster response. Awareness of the effects of wireless channel, physical position and line-of-sight on received signal strength in real-world, outdoor environments will shape the design of many outdoor applications. Thus, the quantification of such effects is valuable knowledge for designers. Sensors' failure detection, scalability and commercialization are common challenges in many long-term monitoring applications; transferable solutions are evidenced here in the context of pollutant detection and water quality. Innovative, alternative thinking is often needed to achieve the desired long-lived networks when power-hungry sensors are foreseen components; in some instances, the very problems of wireless technology, such as RF irregularity, can be transformed into advantages. The importance of an iterative design and evaluation methodology—from analysis to simulation to real-life deployment—should be well understood by all WSN developers. The value of this is highlighted in the context of a challenging WPAN video-surveillance application based on a novel Nomadic Access

  8. Design and Delivery of Game-Based Learning for Virtual Patients in Second Life: Initial Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro-Troconis, Maria; Meeran, Karim; Higham, Jenny; Mellström, Ulf; Partridge, Martyn

    This chapter will present game-based learning activities developed for virtual patients based on the four-dimensional framework developed by De Freitas and Martin, as well as other design considerations that look at emergent narratives and modes of representation. This chapter will also present the interaction and call-management structure implemented between the Second LifeTM (SL) virtual world environment and the world wide web environment. This chapter also represents an overview of the finding of a recent trial aimed to explore attitude towards two e-learning delivery methods including the delivery of game-based learning for virtual patients in SL.

  9. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  10. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  11. Tap-Hole Life Cycle Design Criteria: A Case Study Based on Silicomanganese Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenkamp, J. D.; Sutherland, J. J.; Hayman, D. A.; Muller, J.

    2016-06-01

    Managing the tapping of furnaces is a challenge to most furnace operators. As a hole is made in the refractory lining and re-filled with clay, several times a day, the tap-hole is one of the weak spots in the refractory lining. Tap-hole failures are high-risk events, and steps should be taken to minimize the risks. Designing for the life-cycle of the tap-hole is proposed and discussed as a way of minimizing the risks associated with tap-hole failure. Design criteria are proposed not only for a total reline and normal operation but also for emergency conditions, as well as maintenance, and repair of the tap-hole. The criteria are discussed in the context of silicomanganese production in South Africa.

  12. Design of high pressure oxygen filter for extravehicular activity life support system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    The experience of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with extravehicular activity life support emergency oxygen supply subsystems has shown a large number of problems associated with particulate contamination. These problems have resulted in failures of high pressure oxygen component sealing surfaces. A high pressure oxygen filter was designed which would (a) control the particulate contamination level in the oxygen system to a five-micron glass bead rating, ten-micron absolute condition (b) withstand the dynamic shock condition resulting from the sudden opening of 8000 psi oxygen system shutoff valve. Results of the following program tasks are reported: (1) contaminant source identification tests, (2) dynamic system tests, (3) high pressure oxygen filter concept evaluation, (4) design, (5) fabrication, (6) test, and (7) application demonstration.

  13. The embodiment design of the heat rejection system for the portable life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Francois, Jason; Laughlin, Julia; Phillips, Lee; Carrion, Carlos A.

    1994-01-01

    The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) provides a suitable environment for the astronaut in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), and the heat rejection system controls the thermal conditions in the space suit. The current PLSS sublimates water to the space environment; therefore, the system loses mass. Since additional supplies of fluid must be available on the Space Shuttle, NASA desires a closed heat rejecting system. This document presents the embodiment design for a radiative plate heat rejection system without mass transfer to the space environment. This project will transform the concept variant into a design complete with material selection, dimensions of the system, layouts of the heat rejection system, suggestions for manufacturing, and financial viability.

  14. The design of aircraft brake systems, employing cooling to increase brake life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scaringe, R. P.; Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A research program was initiated to determine the feasibility of using cooling to increase brake life. An air cooling scheme was proposed, constructed and tested with various designs. Straight and curved slotting of the friction material was tested. A water cooling technique, similar to the air cooling procedure, was evaluated on a curved slotted rotor. Also investigated was the possibility of using a phase-change material within the rotor to absorb heat during braking. Various phase-changing materials were tabulated and a 50%, (by weight) LiF - BeF2 mixing was chosen. It was shown that corrosion was not a problem with this mixture. A preliminary design was evaluated on an actual brake. Results showed that significant improvements in lowering the surface temperature of the brake occurred when air or water cooling was used in conjunction with curved slotted rotors.

  15. Elevation-dependent temperature trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: changes over a 56- and 20-year record.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Chris R; Nufio, César R; Bowers, M Deane; Guralnick, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953-2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989-2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution against

  16. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  17. Multi-physics design and analyses of long life reactors for lunar outposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriener, Timothy M.

    Future human exploration of the solar system is likely to include establishing permanent outposts on the surface of the Moon. These outposts will require reliable sources of electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kWe to support exploration and resource utilization activities. This need is best met using nuclear reactor power systems which can operate steadily throughout the long ˜27.3 day lunar rotational period, irrespective of location. Nuclear power systems can potentially open up the entire lunar surface for future exploration and development. Desirable features of nuclear power systems for the lunar surface include passive operation, the avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and the integrated power system, moderate operating temperatures to enable the use of conventional materials with proven irradiation experience, utilization of the lunar regolith for radiation shielding and as a supplemental neutron reflector, and safe post-operation decay heat removal and storage for potential retrieval. In addition, it is desirable for the reactor to have a long operational life. Only a limited number of space nuclear reactor concepts have previously been developed for the lunar environment, and these designs possess only a few of these desirable design and operation features. The objective of this research is therefore to perform design and analyses of long operational life lunar reactors and power systems which incorporate the desirable features listed above. A long reactor operational life could be achieved either by increasing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel in the core or by improving the neutron economy in the reactor through reducing neutron leakage and parasitic absorption. The amount of fuel in surface power reactors is constrained by the launch safety requirements. These include ensuring that the bare reactor core remains safely subcritical when submerged in water or wet sand and flooded with seawater in the unlikely

  18. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    In recent years, nanocoatings with exceptionally improved and new performance properties have found numerous applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, chemical, electronics, steel, construction, and many other industries. Especially the formulations providing multiple functionalities to cured paint films are believed to dominate the coatings market in the near future. It has shifted the focus of research towards building sustainable coating recipes which can deliver multiple functionalities through applied films. The challenge to this exciting area of research arrives from the insufficient knowledge about structure-property correlations of nanocoating materials and their design complexity. Experimental efforts have been successful in developing certain types of nanopaints exhibiting improved properties. However, multifunctional nanopaint design optimality is extremely difficult to address if not impossible solely through experiments. In addition to this, the environmental implications and societal risks associated with this growing field of nanotechnology raise several questions related to its sustainable development. This research focuses on the study of a multiscale sustainable nanocoating design which can have the application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement point of view, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications. The nanocoating design is studied using computational simulations of nano- to macro- scale models and sustainability assessment study over the life-cycle. Computational simulations aim at integrating top-down, goals/means, inductive systems engineering and bottom-up, cause and effect, deductive systems engineering approaches for material development. The in-silico paint resin system is a water-dispersible acrylic polymer with hydrophilic nanoparticles incorporated into it. The nano-scale atomistic and micro-scale coarse-grained (CG) level

  19. A case report of Gordon's syndrome in a 20-year-old male with free medical family history.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, Ioannis D; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos G; Aravantinos, Dionysios C; Gkizis, Ilias G; Cholidou, Kyriaki G; Papadopoulos, Dimitris P

    2013-01-01

    Gordon's syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease that manifests in childhood. It is characterized by hypertension, hyperkalemic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, low renin and usually normal aldosterone levels, and it is sensitive to thiazide diuretics. A 20-year-old male with a history of diagnosed Gordon's syndrome was referred to a nephrology clinic for evaluation. The patient, who was under treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, had been diagnosed with Gordon's syndrome at the age of 11, when he presented hypertension and episodes of hyperkalemic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. However, none of his relatives had been diagnosed with this syndrome. Therefore, we assume that our patient might be a case of de novo gene mutation.

  20. A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Taras, M E

    1989-01-01

    Relevant journals were reviewed (n = 23) for a 20 year period (1967 to 1987) to assess the status of treatments for severe behavior problems of developmentally delayed persons. A hand search of journals was made; 382 studies were identified. Procedures were analyzed by problem behaviors treated, side effects reported, whether the procedure involved painful stimuli, nonpainful stimuli, food satiation, positive procedures, extinction or combinations of methods. The number of studies reported yearly was also plotted. The implication of these data for federal and state policy makers and for treatment programs dealing with difficult to treat clients is discussed. PMID:2648505

  1. Neuropsychological sequelae of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a 20-year-old woman: selective impairment of a frontal memory system.

    PubMed

    Parkin, A J; Dunn, J C; Lee, C; O'Hara, P F; Nussbaum, L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the neuropsychological sequelae of Wernicke's Encephalopathy in a 20-year-old woman. After amelioration of acute symptoms, the patient showed a range of cognitive impairments the most marked of which was a severe impairment on free recall tasks involving both verbal and nonverbal material. In contrast, recognition memory appeared remarkably well preserved. Some evidence of frontal lobe and general intellectual impairment was also noted. The case is discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, criteria for its diagnosis, and the multicomponent nature of memory deficits.

  2. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  3. COBE: 20 Years Ago

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite rocketed into Earth orbit on Nov. 18, 1989, and quickly revolutionized our understanding of the early cosmos. This archival video was reissued by ...

  4. 20 Years of RECONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

    2014-01-01

    RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  5. EDITORIAL Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences Wireless sensor networks: design for real-life deployment and deployment experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaura, Elena; Roedig, Utz; Brusey, James

    2010-12-01

    modalities and (iv) system solutions with high end-user added value and cost benefits. The common thread is deployment and deployment evaluation. In particular, satisfaction of application requirements, involvement of the end-user in the design and deployment process, satisfactory system performance and user acceptance are concerns addressed in many of the contributions. The contributions form a valuable set, which help to identify the priorities for research in this burgeoning area: Robust, reliable and efficient data collection in embedded wireless multi-hop networks are essential elements in creating a true deploy-and-forget user experience. Maintaining full connectivity within a WSN, in a real world environment populated by other WSNs, WiFi networks or Bluetooth devices that constitute sources of interference is a key element in any application, but more so for those that are safety-critical, such as disaster response. Awareness of the effects of wireless channel, physical position and line-of-sight on received signal strength in real-world, outdoor environments will shape the design of many outdoor applications. Thus, the quantification of such effects is valuable knowledge for designers. Sensors' failure detection, scalability and commercialization are common challenges in many long-term monitoring applications; transferable solutions are evidenced here in the context of pollutant detection and water quality. Innovative, alternative thinking is often needed to achieve the desired long-lived networks when power-hungry sensors are foreseen components; in some instances, the very problems of wireless technology, such as RF irregularity, can be transformed into advantages. The importance of an iterative design and evaluation methodology—from analysis to simulation to real-life deployment—should be well understood by all WSN developers. The value of this is highlighted in the context of a challenging WPAN video-surveillance application based on a novel Nomadic Access

  6. Multi-physics design and analyses of long life reactors for lunar outposts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriener, Timothy M.

    Future human exploration of the solar system is likely to include establishing permanent outposts on the surface of the Moon. These outposts will require reliable sources of electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kWe to support exploration and resource utilization activities. This need is best met using nuclear reactor power systems which can operate steadily throughout the long ˜27.3 day lunar rotational period, irrespective of location. Nuclear power systems can potentially open up the entire lunar surface for future exploration and development. Desirable features of nuclear power systems for the lunar surface include passive operation, the avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and the integrated power system, moderate operating temperatures to enable the use of conventional materials with proven irradiation experience, utilization of the lunar regolith for radiation shielding and as a supplemental neutron reflector, and safe post-operation decay heat removal and storage for potential retrieval. In addition, it is desirable for the reactor to have a long operational life. Only a limited number of space nuclear reactor concepts have previously been developed for the lunar environment, and these designs possess only a few of these desirable design and operation features. The objective of this research is therefore to perform design and analyses of long operational life lunar reactors and power systems which incorporate the desirable features listed above. A long reactor operational life could be achieved either by increasing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel in the core or by improving the neutron economy in the reactor through reducing neutron leakage and parasitic absorption. The amount of fuel in surface power reactors is constrained by the launch safety requirements. These include ensuring that the bare reactor core remains safely subcritical when submerged in water or wet sand and flooded with seawater in the unlikely

  7. ND:GLASS LASER DESIGN FOR LASER ICF FISSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J A; Agrawal, V; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Britten, J; Chen, D; Cross, R; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Feit, M; Freitas, B; Ghosh, C; Haefner, C; Homoelle, D; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; Molander, W; Murray, J; Rubenchik, S; Schaffers, K; Siders, C W; Stappaerts, E; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Trenholme, J; Barty, C J

    2008-10-28

    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive.

  8. Designing an embedded probe for hazardous material shelf-life monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Grant A.; McClintic, Katherine T.; Holder, A. G.; Babich, Gregory A.

    1999-05-01

    Navy administrators estimate that hundreds of tons of hazardous material (HAZMAT) are being wastefully discarded due to premature disposal. Currently, HAZMAT items are coded when they are brought into the DoD supply system to indicate their storage lifetime. However, this process has come under criticism for generating shelf life codes that are too conservative and can not account for the varying storage conditions experienced by an individual item. Naturally, a detailed laboratory examination could determine when an time has reached the end of its useful shelf life, but this logistically clumsy approach is rarely undertaken, and thus HAZMAT is wastefully discarded. An ideal inspection method would be fast, reliable and non-invasive. We have investigated the development and use of an inexpensive nondestructive sensor to actively assess the shelf state of a ubiquitous HAZMAT, Silicon Alkyd Haze Gray paint. A simple sensor was designed to measure six features of the paint: ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, electric mobility and polarization and temperature and thermal diffusivity. To simulate the storage environment, an accelerated environmental degradation procedure was implemented to force the paint along realistic and prominent failure modes. During this degradation process, the material was monitored with the sensor and a set of standard laboratory measurement techniques. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to identify key characteristics of the data and to design a classifier to discriminate between different classes of the aged samples. Issues of sensitivity, uniqueness and indeterminacy in the problem were considered. Based on these results, a prototype sensor for shelf life management of hazardous silicon alkyd paint appears to be promising.

  9. Conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system containing crops and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Liu, Hong

    2010-04-01

    This article summarizes a conceptual design of a bioregenerative life support system for permanent lunar base or planetary exploration. The system consists of seven compartments - higher plants cultivation, animal rearing, human habitation, water recovery, waste treatment, atmosphere management, and storages. Fifteen kinds of crops, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, and mulberry, were selected as main life support contributors to provide the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms fed by crop leaves were designated to produce partial animal nutrition for the crew. Various physical-chemical and biological methods were combined to reclaim wastewater and solid waste. Condensate collected from atmosphere was recycled into potable water through granular activated carbon adsorption, iodine sterilization, and trace element supplementation. All grey water was also purified though multifiltration and ultraviolet sterilization. Plant residue, human excrement, silkworm feces, etc. were decomposed into inorganic substances which were finally absorbed by higher plants. Some meat, ingredients, as well as nitrogen fertilizer were prestored and resupplied periodically. Meanwhile, the same amount and chemical composition of organic waste was dumped to maintain the steady state of the system. A nutritional balanced diet was developed by means of the linear programming method. It could provide 2721 kcal of energy, 375.5 g of carbohydrate, 99.47 g of protein, and 91.19 g of fat per capita per day. Silkworm powder covered 12.54% of total animal protein intakes. The balance of material flows between compartments was described by the system of stoichiometric equations. Basic life support requirements for crews including oxygen, food, potable and hygiene water summed up to 29.68 kg per capita per day. The coefficient of system material closure reached 99.40%.

  10. Optimal design of multiple stress constant accelerated life test plan on non-rectangle test region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenhua; Gao, Liang; Liu, Juan; Qian, Ping; Pan, Jun

    2012-11-01

    For optimal design of constant stress accelerated life test(CSALT) with two-stress, if the stresses could not reach the highest levels simultaneously, the test region becomes non-rectangular. For optimal CSALT design on non-rectangle test region, the present method is only focused on non-rectangle test region with simple boundary, and the optimization algorithm is based on experience which can not ensure to obtain the optimal plan. In this paper, considering the linear-extreme value model and the optimization goal to minimize the variance of lifetime estimate under normal stress, the optimal design method of two-stress type-I censored CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. First, two properties of optimal test plans are proved and the relationship of all the optimal test plans is determined analytically. Then, on the basis of the two properties, the optimal problem is simplified and the optimal design method of two-stress CSALT plan on general non-rectangular test region is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. The result shows that the proposed method could obtain the optimal test plan on non-rectangular test regions with arbitrary boundaries. This research provides the theory and method for two-stress optimal CSALT planning on non-rectangular test regions.

  11. Nitrogen isotopes of coral skeleton-bound organic matter and a 20-year record from Central Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Sigman, D. M.; Sinclair, D.; Sherrell, R. M.; Rafter, P. A.; Ren, H.; Cobb, K.; Weigand, A.; Oleynik, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a sensitive method for measuring nitrogen isotopes of coral skeleton-bound organic matter, requiring 5 mg of chemically cleaned coral skeleton powder and yielding a standard deviation for measured d15N of ~0.3%. This method allows for the generation of high-resolution d15N records of coral skeleton-bound organic matter, which we seek to advance as a proxy for the ocean nitrogen cycle in the past. A 20-year coral d15N record (1977-1997) from the Central Equatorial Pacific (Line Islands, Kiribati (2°N, 157°W)) yields an average d15N of 13%, which is similar to the d15N of mixed layer nitrate in this region but 6% higher than the subsurface nitrate being upwelled in this region. The 21 samples over this 20 year period yield a range of only 1.5% (12.5-14.0%), suggesting no substantial change of the mixed layer nitrogen pool over this period. There is some evidence for a lower d15N during El Nino events, but this requires testing by extension of the record and higher resolution sampling. If robust, this d15N decrease may reflect an increased reliance of corals on particulate organic nitrogen and recycled forms of nitrogen relative to nitrate during El Nino events, when mixed layer nitrate concentration declines in the Central Equatorial Pacific.

  12. The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: The First 20 Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea Volcano since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in volcano monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.

  13. Interpersonal emotional behaviors and physical health: A 20-year longitudinal study of long-term married couples.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Holley, Sarah R; Bloch, Lian; Verstaen, Alice; Levenson, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Objectively coded interpersonal emotional behaviors that emerged during a 15-min marital conflict interaction predicted the development of physical symptoms in a 20-year longitudinal study of long-term marriages. Dyadic latent growth curve modeling showed that anger behavior predicted increases in cardiovascular symptoms and stonewalling behavior predicted increases in musculoskeletal symptoms. Both associations were found for husbands (although cross-lagged path models also showed some support for wives) and were controlled for sociodemographic characteristics (age, education) and behaviors (i.e., exercise, smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption) known to influence health. Both associations did not exist at the start of the study, but only emerged over the ensuing 20 years. There was some support for the specificity of these relationships (i.e., stonewalling behavior did not predict cardiovascular symptoms; anger behavior did not predict musculoskeletal symptoms; neither symptom was predicted by fear nor sadness behavior), with the anger-cardiovascular relationship emerging as most robust. Using cross-lagged path models to probe directionality of these associations, emotional behaviors predicted physical health symptoms over time (with some reverse associations found as well). These findings illuminate longstanding theoretical and applied issues concerning the association between interpersonal emotional behaviors and physical health and suggest opportunities for preventive interventions focused on specific emotions to help address major public health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment. PMID:26588081

  15. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment.

  16. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  17. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Society for Agroecology/Organic Farming (SEAE) is a private charity association, founded in 1992, with the purpose to support organic farming practitioners. The principal aim is to join the efforts farmers, technicians and scientifics and others organizations and persons, related to develop sustainable agriculture systems, based on ecological and socioeconomic principles promoted by the international organic farming movement, with the purpose to obtain foods and first resources with high quality, considering the vulnerability of the environment and preserving the soil fertility, with the optimal and adequate use of the local resources, taking in account the rural culture and the ethical value of the social development and the life quality. One of the most relevant and know activity of SEAE is the celebration of one (scientific) Congress every two years. This is the most important event on this issue in Spain. In the last 20 year, eleven events of this kind have been organised in 11 different places (Toledo, Pamplona, Valencia, Córdoba, Gijón-Asturias, Almeria, Zaragoza, Bullas-Murcia, Lleida, Albacete, Vitoria-Gasteiz). The average participation in the Congress was growing up from 100 to 350 persons), from all over Spain. During this events, researchers, advisors, trainers, politicians and operators (farmers, processors, certifiers, marketers, consumers, etc.) shared and update the scientific results, projects in force, political measures, statistics and proposals to develop the organic farming sector Research in organic farming is still low in Spain and the majority of the results in this matter are being presented as papers in this Congresses. Over 1500 papers from over 100 spanish research groups giving information about the research results have been presented in this events, One of the most relevant topic of this research is done on soil conservation, soil fertility and organic crop fertilization and organic matter management in the soil, after

  18. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level), with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1) changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2) improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3) enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the potential to provide

  19. 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future. Proceedings [of the] 2013 EUROCALL Conference (Évora, Portugal, September 11-14, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Linda, Ed.; Thouësny, Sylvie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCALL 2013's theme was "20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future." The conference seeked to establish an overview of EUROCALL's twentieth anniversary. As a professional organization, EUROCALL has been aiming, along its 20 years of existence, to promote innovative research, development and practice in the…

  20. A Hybrid Design for Studying Genetic Influences on Risk of Diseases with Onset Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, C. R.; Umbach, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of genetic contributions to risk can be family-based, such as the case-parents design, or population-based, such as the case-control design. Both provide powerful inference regarding associations between genetic variants and risks, but both have limitations. The case-control design requires identifying and recruiting appropriate controls, but it has the advantage that nongenetic risk factors like exposures can be assessed. For a condition with an onset early in life, such as a birth defect, one should also genotype the mothers of cases and the mothers of controls to avoid potential confounding due to maternally mediated genetic effects acting on the fetus during gestation. The case-parents approach is less vulnerable than the case-mother/control-mother approach to biases due to population structure and self-selection. The case-parents approach also allows access to epigenetic phenomena like imprinting, but it cannot evaluate the role of nongenetic cofactors like exposures. We propose a hybrid design based on augmenting a set of affected individuals and their parents with a set of unaffected, unrelated individuals and their parents. The affected individuals and their parents are all genotyped, whereas only the parents of unaffected individuals are genotyped, although exposures are ascertained for both affected and unaffected offspring. The proposed hybrid design, through log-linear, likelihood-based analysis, allows estimation of the relative risk parameters, can provide more power than either the case-parents approach or the case-mother/control-mother approach, permits straightforward likelihood-ratio tests for bias due to mating asymmetry or population stratification, and admits valid alternative analyses when mating is asymmetric or when population stratification is detected. PMID:16175508

  1. Walking in simulated Martian gravity: influence of the portable life support system's design on dynamic stability.

    PubMed

    Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Layne, Charles S; Josić, Kresimir; Kurz, Max J

    2009-09-01

    With human exploration of the moon and Mars on the horizon, research considerations for space suit redesign have surfaced. The portable life support system (PLSS) used in conjunction with the space suit during the Apollo missions may have influenced the dynamic balance of the gait pattern. This investigation explored potential issues with the PLSS design that may arise during the Mars exploration. A better understanding of how the location of the PLSS load influences the dynamic stability of the gait pattern may provide insight, such that space missions may have more productive missions with a smaller risk of injury and damaging equipment while falling. We explored the influence the PLSS load position had on the dynamic stability of the walking pattern. While walking, participants wore a device built to simulate possible PLSS load configurations. Floquet and Lyapunov analysis techniques were used to quantify the dynamic stability of the gait pattern. The dynamic stability of the gait pattern was influenced by the position of load. PLSS loads that are placed high and forward on the torso resulted in less dynamically stable walking patterns than loads placed evenly and low on the torso. Furthermore, the kinematic results demonstrated that all joints of the lower extremity may be important for adjusting to different load placements and maintaining dynamic stability. Space scientists and engineers may want to consider PLSS designs that distribute loads evenly and low, and space suit designs that will not limit the sagittal plane range of motion at the lower extremity joints.

  2. Small Displacement, Long Life On-Orbit Compressor Design and Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerlach, C. R.; Schroeder, E. C.; Deffenbaugh, D. D.; Masetta, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    The focus is the generation of technology and fabrication of prototype hardware applicable to seven Space Station compressor system applications. The compressors are of the single acting reciprocating piston type and, in general, may be termed miniature in size compared with normal commercially available equipment. The initial technology development is focused on improved valve designs, and the control of pulsations and heating effects in order to increase compressor efficiency and reduce cycle temperatures, thus permitting significantly increased stage pressure ratios. The initial test compressor was successfully operated at pressure ratios of up to 50:1, and this significant extension of allowable pressure ratio will result in a reduction of the number of required stages and, hence, total hardware thereby reducing system weight and volume. These experiments have also identified the need to employ low shaft speeds, on the order of 250 to 500 rpm, to enhance heat transfer and increase life. The prototype compressor currently being designed, is to be driven by a low-speed brushless dc motor sealed in a case common to the compressor drive mechanism case. The compressor and motor case will communicate with stage suction pressure so that any minor gas leakage past the piston rings will be returned to the suction. Emphasis in this prototype design is being placed on simplicity, durability, commonality of components, and high efficiency.

  3. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work. PMID:27263235

  4. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. PMID:26489525

  7. Methodology to improve design of accelerated life tests in civil engineering projects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods.

  8. Methodology to Improve Design of Accelerated Life Tests in Civil Engineering Projects

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhou, Jilai; Gao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    For reliability testing an Energy Expansion Tree (EET) and a companion Energy Function Model (EFM) are proposed and described in this paper. Different from conventional approaches, the EET provides a more comprehensive and objective way to systematically identify external energy factors affecting reliability. The EFM introduces energy loss into a traditional Function Model to identify internal energy sources affecting reliability. The combination creates a sound way to enumerate the energies to which a system may be exposed during its lifetime. We input these energies into planning an accelerated life test, a Multi Environment Over Stress Test. The test objective is to discover weak links and interactions among the system and the energies to which it is exposed, and design them out. As an example, the methods are applied to the pipe in subsea pipeline. However, they can be widely used in other civil engineering industries as well. The proposed method is compared with current methods. PMID:25111800

  9. Solo Life to Second Life: The Design of Physical and Virtual Learning Spaces Inspired by the Drama Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Jennifer; Philip, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the design of virtual and physical learning spaces developed for students of drama and theatre studies. What can we learn from the traditional drama workshop that will inform the design of drama and theatre spaces created in technology-mediated learning environments? The authors examine four examples of spaces created for…

  10. Design, fabrication, and test of a hydrothermal reactor for origin-of-life experiments.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Randall E; Russell, Michael J; Wilson, Philip R; McGlynn, Shawn E; Coleman, Max; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik

    2010-10-01

    We describe a continuous high-pressure flow reactor designed to simulate the unforced convective interaction of hydrothermal solutions and ocean waters with submarine crust on early Earth-conditions appropriate to those that may have led to the onset of life. The experimental operating conditions are appropriate for investigating kinetic hydrothermal processes in the early history of any sizable wet, rocky planet. Beyond the description of the fabrication, we report an initial experiment that tested the design and investigated the feasibility of sulfide and silica dissolution in alkaline solution from iron sulfide and basaltic rock, and their possible subsequent transport as HS(-) and H(2)SiO(2-)(4) in hot alkaline solutions. Delivery of hydrogen sulfide and dihydrogen silicate ions would have led to the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide, hydroxysilicates, and iron sulfides as integral mineral components of an off-ridge compartmentalized hydrothermal mound in the Hadean. Such a mound could, we contend, have acted as a natural chemical and electrochemical reactor and, ultimately, as the source of all biochemistry on our planet. In the event, we show that an average of ∼1 mM/kg of both sulfide and silica were released throughout, though over 10 mM/kg of HS(-) was recorded for ∼100 minutes in the early stages of the experiment. This alkaline effluent from the reactor was injected into a reservoir of a simulacrum of ferrous iron-bearing "Hadean Ocean" water in an experiment that demonstrated the capacity of such fluids to generate hydrothermal chimneys and a variety of contiguous inorganic microgeode precipitates bearing disseminations of discrete metal sulfides. Comparable natural composite structures may have acted as hatcheries for emergent life in the Hadean. PMID:21087160

  11. Design, fabrication, and test of a hydrothermal reactor for origin-of-life experiments.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Randall E; Russell, Michael J; Wilson, Philip R; McGlynn, Shawn E; Coleman, Max; Kidd, Richard; Kanik, Isik

    2010-10-01

    We describe a continuous high-pressure flow reactor designed to simulate the unforced convective interaction of hydrothermal solutions and ocean waters with submarine crust on early Earth-conditions appropriate to those that may have led to the onset of life. The experimental operating conditions are appropriate for investigating kinetic hydrothermal processes in the early history of any sizable wet, rocky planet. Beyond the description of the fabrication, we report an initial experiment that tested the design and investigated the feasibility of sulfide and silica dissolution in alkaline solution from iron sulfide and basaltic rock, and their possible subsequent transport as HS(-) and H(2)SiO(2-)(4) in hot alkaline solutions. Delivery of hydrogen sulfide and dihydrogen silicate ions would have led to the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide, hydroxysilicates, and iron sulfides as integral mineral components of an off-ridge compartmentalized hydrothermal mound in the Hadean. Such a mound could, we contend, have acted as a natural chemical and electrochemical reactor and, ultimately, as the source of all biochemistry on our planet. In the event, we show that an average of ∼1 mM/kg of both sulfide and silica were released throughout, though over 10 mM/kg of HS(-) was recorded for ∼100 minutes in the early stages of the experiment. This alkaline effluent from the reactor was injected into a reservoir of a simulacrum of ferrous iron-bearing "Hadean Ocean" water in an experiment that demonstrated the capacity of such fluids to generate hydrothermal chimneys and a variety of contiguous inorganic microgeode precipitates bearing disseminations of discrete metal sulfides. Comparable natural composite structures may have acted as hatcheries for emergent life in the Hadean.

  12. Does Perceived Physical Attractiveness in Adolescence Predict Better Socioeconomic Position in Adulthood? Evidence from 20 Years of Follow Up in a Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J.; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a ‘beauty premium’ in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in ‘real life’ situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36– in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important. PMID:23717520

  13. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect. PMID:22197556

  14. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics.

  15. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect.

  16. Recurrence of cervical myelopathy secondary to a strut graft fracture 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kida, Kazunobu; Takaya, Shogo; Tadokoro, Nobuaki; Kumon, Masashi; Kiyasu, Katsuhito; Kato, Tomonari; Takemasa, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on a 70-year-old man with recurrent cervical myelopathy 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion of C4-7 using a free vascularised strut graft. The recurrent myelopathy was secondary to a kyphotic deformity of a fractured graft and residual ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with stenosis at C3/4. Intraoperative spinal cord-evoked potentials indicated that spinal cord traction secondary to progressive kyphosis of the cervical spine after the graft fracture was the cause. The patient underwent laminoplasty at C3 and laminectomy at C4 to decompress the stenosis at C3/4 as well as posterior cervical spinal fusion at C3-7 with pedicle screws and a lateral mass screw and a bone graft to prevent further progression of the kyphosis. At postoperative 18 months, the patient's Japanese Orthopaedic Association score had improved to 14 from 8, and he could walk without support. PMID:26321562

  17. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  18. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  19. The changes of subtypes in pediatric diabetes and their clinical and laboratory characteristics over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Lee, Hae Sang; Shim, Young Seok; Jeong, Hwal Rim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively. Results The characteristics were compared between the 2 groups of patients. The result showed an increase in percentage of type 2 diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients between the 2 groups. HbA1c and total cholesterol level had statistical significances to explain increasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among age, HbA1c, total cholesterol level, and z-scores of weight and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. R-square was 0.074. However, z-score of BMI and total cholesterol level, not HbA1c, had statistical significances in type 1 diabetic patients. R-square was 0.323. Conclusion The increase in the proportions of both type 2 diabetes and MODY in the last 10 years needed to be reminded when diagnosing the subtypes of DM, and the dyslipidemia should be attended more as a common problem of pediatric diabetic patients. PMID:27462584

  20. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  1. The microbiologic profile of diabetic foot infections in Turkey: a 20-year systematic review: diabetic foot infections in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, M; Mutluoglu, M; Uzun, G; Karabacak, E; Turhan, V; Lipsky, B A

    2014-06-01

    The causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections differ in studies of European compared with Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the causative microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in diabetic patients with a foot infection in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of these two continents. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies pertaining to DFIs in patients cared for in Turkey. To assess changes in causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns over time, we compared the results of just the most recent 5 years (2007-2011) with those of the past 20-years (1989-2011). We identified 31 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, these studies reported 2,097 patients, from whom 1,974 microorganisms were isolated. The total percentage of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria were similar in each of the assessed periods. The rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus during the entire period, compared with just the past 5 years, was 23.8% and 19.1%, respectively, while the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 7.8% and 5.7%, respectively. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 13.7% for the entire period and 14.9% for the past 5 years. While linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most active agents against gram-positive microorganisms, imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most active against gram-negative microorganisms. This systematic review demonstrated few substantial changes in diabetic foot microbiology over the past 20 years. The data may help develop and update local clinical guidelines regarding antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections in Turkey. Further studies, especially with optimal culture methods, would be useful to validate these findings.

  2. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  3. Prevention of depression and anxiety in later life: design of a randomized controlled trial for the clinical and economic evaluation of a life-review intervention

    PubMed Central

    Korte, Jojanneke; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Smit, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms in older adults could develop into significant health problems with detrimental effects on quality of life and a possibly poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for preventive interventions which are at once effective, acceptable and economic affordable. Methods and design This paper describes the design of a study evaluating "The stories we live by", a preventive life-review group intervention, which was recently developed for adults of 55 years and over with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both clinical and economic effectiveness will be evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the 8-session preventive intervention. The participants in the control condition will have access to usual care. Clinical end-terms are depressive and anxiety symptoms, current major depressive episode, quality of life and positive mental health post-treatment (3 months after baseline) and at follow-ups (6 and 12 months after baseline). Additional goals of this study are to identify groups for whom the intervention is particularly effective and to identify the therapeutic pathways that are vital in inducing clinical change. This will be done by analyzing if treatment response is moderated by demographics, personality, past major depressive episodes, important life events and chronically disease, and mediated by reminiscence functions, perceived control, automatic positive thoughts and meaning in life. Finally the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to care as usual will be assessed by computing incremental costs per case of depression and anxiety avoided (cost-effectiveness) and per quality adjusted life year (QALY) (cost utility). Discussion It is expected that both the life-review intervention and its evaluation will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, the intervention is unique in linking life-review with narrative therapy

  4. Preventing Depression in Later Life: Translation From Concept to Experimental Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Sriwattanakomen, Roy; Ford, Angela F.; Thomas, Stephen B.; Miller, Mark D.; Stack, Jacqueline A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Kasckow, John; Brown, Charlotte; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The authors detail the public health need for depression prevention research and the decisions made in designing an experiment testing problem solving therapy as “indicated” preventive intervention for high-risk older adults with subsyndromal depression. Special attention is given to the recruitment of African Americans because of well-documented inequalities in mental health services and depression treatment outcomes between races. Methods A total of 306 subjects (half white, half African American) with scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale, but with no history of major depressive disorder in the past 12 months, are being recruited and randomly assigned to either problem solving therapy-primary care or to a dietary education control condition. Time to, and rate of, incident episodes of major depressive disorder are to be modeled using survival analysis. Level of depressive symptoms will be analyzed via a mixed models approach. Results Twenty-two subjects have been recruited into the study, and to date eight have completed the randomly assigned intervention and postintervention assessment. Four of 22 have exited after developing major depressive episodes. None have complained about study procedures or demands. Implementation in a variety of community settings is going well. Conclusion The data collected to date support the feasibility of translating from epidemiology to RCT design and implementation of empirical depression prevention research in later life. PMID:18515690

  5. Design rule of indium bump in infrared focal plane array for longer cycling life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Yanqiu; Si, Junjie; Meng, Qingduan

    2016-05-01

    In light of the proposed equivalent method, a three-dimensional structural modeling of InSb infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) is created, and the simulated strain distribution is identical to the deformation distribution on the top surface of InSb IRFPAs. After comparing the deformation features at different regions with the structural characteristics of IRFPAs, we infer that the flatness of InSb IRFPAs will be improved with a thinner indium bump array, and this inference is verified by subsequent simulation results. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is smaller than 20 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain on the whole top surface of InSb IRFPAs is uniform, and the deformation amplitude is small. When the diameter of indium bump is larger than 28 μm, the simulated Z-components of strain increases rapidly with the thicker indium bump, and the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is worsened rapidly. According to the changing trend of deformation amplitude with diameters of indium bump, and employing element pitches normalization method, a design rule of indium bump is proposed. That is, when the diameter of indium bump is shorter than 0.4 times the element pitch, the flatness of InSb IRFPAs is in an acceptable range. This design rule was supported by different IRFPAs with different formats delivered by several main research groups for achieving a longer cycling life.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  7. Artificial pigs in space: using artificial intelligence and artificial life techniques to design animal housing.

    PubMed

    Stricklin, W R; de Bourcier, P; Zhou, J Z; Gonyou, H W

    1998-10-01

    Computer simulations have been used by us since the early 1970s to gain an understanding of the spacing and movement patterns of confined animals. The work has progressed from the early stages, in which we used randomly positioned points, to current investigations of animats (computer-simulated animals), which show low levels of learning via artificial neural networks. We have determined that 1) pens of equal floor area but of different shape result in different spatial and movement patterns for randomly positioned and moving animats; 2) when group size increases under constant density, freedom of movement approaches an asymptote at approximately six animats; 3) matching the number of animats with the number of corners results in optimal freedom of movement for small groups of animats; and 4) perimeter positioning occurs in groups of animats that maximize their distance to first- and second-nearest neighbors. Recently, we developed animats that move, compete for social dominance, and are motivated to obtain resources (food, resting sites, etc.). We are currently developing an animat that learns its behavior from the spatial and movement data collected on live pigs. The animat model is then used to pretest pen designs, followed by new pig spatial data fed into the animat model, resulting in a new pen design to be tested, and the steps are repeated. We believe that methodologies from artificial-life and artificial intelligence can contribute to the understanding of basic animal behavior principles, as well as to the solving of problems in production agriculture in areas such as animal housing design.

  8. Application of Energy Integration Techniques to the Design of Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory

    2000-01-01

    Exchanging heat between hot and cold streams within an advanced life support system can save energy. This savings will reduce the equivalent system mass (ESM) of the system. Different system configurations are examined under steady-state conditions for various percentages of food growth and waste treatment. The scenarios investigated represent possible design options for a Mars reference mission. Reference mission definitions are drawn from the ALSS Modeling and Analysis Reference Missions Document, which includes definitions for space station evolution, Mars landers, and a Mars base. For each scenario, streams requiring heating or cooling are identified and characterized by mass flow, supply and target temperatures and heat capacities. The Pinch Technique is applied to identify good matches for energy exchange between the hot and cold streams and to calculate the minimum external heating and cooling requirements for the system. For each pair of hot and cold streams that are matched, there will be a reduction in the amount of external heating and cooling required, and the original heating and cooling equipment will be replaced with a heat exchanger. The net cost savings can be either positive or negative for each stream pairing, and the priority for implementing each pairing can be ranked according to its potential cost savings. Using the Pinch technique, a complete system heat exchange network is developed and heat exchangers are sized to allow for calculation of ESM. The energy-integrated design typically has a lower total ESM than the original design with no energy integration. A comparison of ESM savings in each of the scenarios is made to direct future Pinch Analysis efforts.

  9. Computer-Aided Optimization of Macroscopic Design Factors for Lithium-Ion Cell Performance and Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric-drive vehicles enabled by power- and energy-dense batteries promise to improve vehicle efficiency and help reduce society's dependence on fossil fuels. Next generation plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles may also enable vehicles to be powered by electricity generated from clean, renewable resources; however, to increase the commercial viability of such vehicles, the cost, performance and life of the vehicles batteries must be further improved. This work illustrates a virtual design process to optimize the performance and life of large-format lithium ion batteries. Beginning with material-level kinetic and transport properties, the performance and life of multiple large-format cell designs are evaluated, demonstrating the impact of macroscopic design parameters such as foil thickness, tab location, and cell size and shape under various cycling conditions. Challenges for computer-aided engineering of large-format battery cells, such as competing requirements and objectives, are discussed.

  10. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  11. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ∼15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ∼7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ∼7 years, characterized by

  12. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  13. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  14. Learning Life Sciences: Design and Development of a Virtual Molecular Biology Learning Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbach, Joerg; Schmitt, Stefanie; Reimann, Peter; Starkloff, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    The life sciences, in particular molecular genetics, have become a pivotal area of research and innovation, and at the same time are amongst the most controversially discussed in today's society. Despite this discussion, the demand for life science expertise increases rapidly, creating a growing need for life science education in particular and…

  15. The Gulf War depleted uranium cohort at 20 years: bioassay results and novel approaches to fragment surveillance.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Breyer, Richard; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Engelhardt, Susan M; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Kane, Robert; Cernich, Alison; Kaup, Bruce; Hoover, Dennis; Gaspari, Anthony A; Liu, Juan; Harberts, Erin; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Gray, Patrick J; Xu, Hanna; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-04-01

    During the 1991 GulfWar, U.S. service members were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) through friendly-fire incidents involving DU munitions and vehicles protected by DU armor. Routes of exposure to DU involved inhalation of soluble and insoluble DU oxide particles, wound contamination, and retained embedded DU metal fragments that continue to oxidize in situ and release DU to the systemic circulation. A biennial health surveillance program established for this group of Veterans by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has shown continuously elevated urine DU concentrations in the subset of veterans with embedded fragments for over 20 years. While the 2011 assessment was comprehensive, few clinically significant U-related health effects were observed. This report is focused on health outcomes associated with two primary target organs of concern for long term effects of this combat-related exposure to DU. Renal biomarkers showed minimal DU-related effects on proximal tubule function and cytotoxicity, but significant biomarker results were observed when urine concentrations of multiple metals also found in fragments were examined together. Pulmonary tests and questionnaire results indicate that pulmonary function after 20 y remains within the clinical normal range. Imaging of DU embedded fragment-associated tissue for signs of inflammatory or proliferative reactions possibly associated with foreign body transformation or with local alpha emissions from DU was also conducted using PET-CT and ultrasound. These imaging tools may be helpful in guiding decisions regarding removal of fragments. PMID:23439138

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence.

  17. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  18. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence.

  19. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    PubMed

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  20. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence. PMID:2305597