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Sample records for 20-year prospective study

  1. A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457

  2. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  3. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Heissel, Jennifer A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Ross, Emily C.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Levy, Dorainne J.; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N = 50 Black, N = 62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key

  4. Combination of Helicobacter pylori Antibody and Serum Pepsinogen as a Good Predictive Tool of Gastric Cancer Incidence: 20-Year Prospective Data From the Hisayama Study

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Fumie; Shikata, Kentaro; Hata, Jun; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Mukai, Naoko; Nagata, Masaharu; Yoshida, Daigo; Yonemoto, Koji; Esaki, Motohiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little information regarding whether the combination of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody and serum pepsinogen (sPG), which is a marker of the degree of atrophic gastritis, has a discriminatory ability for detecting incident gastric cancer. We examined this issue in a long-term prospective cohort study of a Japanese population. Methods A total of 2446 Japanese community-dwelling individuals aged ≥40 years were stratified into four groups according to baseline H. pylori serological status and sPG: Group A (H. pylori[−], sPG[−]), Group B (H. pylori[+], sPG[−]), Group C (H. pylori[+], sPG[+]), and Group D (H. pylori[−], sPG[+]), and participants were followed up prospectively for 20 years. Results During the follow-up, 123 subjects developed gastric cancer. Compared with that in Group A, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was significantly increased in Groups B, C, and D, whereas no significant difference was found between Groups C and D. The multivariable-adjusted risk of gastric cancer was significantly increased in Group B (hazard ratio [HR], 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62–10.28) and in Groups C and D combined (HR 11.1; 95% CI, 4.45–27.46). When the multivariable model with H. pylori antibody was changed into that with the combination of H. pylori antibody and sPG, the C statistics for developing gastric cancer increased significantly (0.773 vs 0.732, P = 0.005), and the continuous net reclassification improvement value was 0.591 (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the combination of H. pylori antibody and sPG is a useful tool for predicting the development of gastric cancer. PMID:27265836

  5. Risk of Cataract after Exposure to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: A 20-Year Prospective Cohort Study among US Radiologic Technologists

    PubMed Central

    Bekiroglu, Nural; Hauptmann, Michael; Alexander, Bruce H.; Freedman, D. Michal; Doody, Michele Morin; Cheung, Li C.; Simon, Steven L.; Weinstock, Robert M.; Bouville, André; Sigurdson, Alice J.

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the risk of cataract among radiologic technologists with respect to occupational and nonoccupational exposures to ionizing radiation and to personal characteristics. A prospective cohort of 35,705 cataract-free US radiologic technologists aged 24–44 years was followed for nearly 20 years (1983–2004) by using two follow-up questionnaires. During the study period, 2,382 cataracts and 647 cataract extractions were reported. Cigarette smoking for ≥5 pack-years; body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2; and history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or arthritis at baseline were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with increased risk of cataract. In multivariate models, self-report of ≥3 x-rays to the face/neck was associated with a hazard ratio of cataract of 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.47). For workers in the highest category (mean, 60 mGy) versus lowest category (mean, 5 mGy) of occupational dose to the lens of the eye, the adjusted hazard ratio of cataract was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.40). Findings challenge the National Council on Radiation Protection and International Commission on Radiological Protection assumptions that the lowest cumulative ionizing radiation dose to the lens of the eye that can produce a progressive cataract is approximately 2 Gy, and they support the hypothesis that the lowest cataractogenic dose in humans is substantially less than previously thought. PMID:18664497

  6. Maternal Vitamin D Status at Week 30 of Gestation and Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Health at 20 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study over Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Grandström, Charlotta; Cohen, Arieh; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant women and since the fetus relies exclusively on maternal supply, deficiency could potentially interfere with fetal development. Vitamin D blood concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with offspring cardio-metabolic health in a few previous studies but the evidence is still inconsistent and only one previous study has followed the offspring into adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal serum concentration of vitamin D (25(OH)D) in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors at 20 years. Subjects/Methods A follow up study of a Danish birth cohort from 1988–89 (n = 965) was conducted. A blood sample was drawn from the women in week 30 of gestation. In 2008–2009, 95% of the original mother and child dyads could be identified in the central registration registry and were alive and living in Denmark. The offspring were followed up with self-reported anthropometrics (N = 629, 69%) and a clinical examination (N = 410, 45%). Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors adjusting for potential confounders. Results No overall association was observed between maternal 25(OH)D in week 30 of gestation and offspring cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, the analyses did suggest a possible inverse association with blood pressure in females. Conclusions No clear association between maternal 25(OH)D concentration in week 30 of gestation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the 20 year old offspring was found. PMID:27764169

  7. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  8. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  9. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  10. Temporal trends in canine leishmaniosis in the Balearic Islands (Spain): a veterinary questionnaire. Prospective canine leishmaniosis survey and entomological studies conducted on the Island of Minorca, 20 years after first data were obtained.

    PubMed

    Alcover, M M; Ballart, C; Serra, T; Castells, X; Scalone, A; Castillejo, S; Riera, C; Tebar, S; Gramiccia, M; Portús, M; Gállego, M

    2013-12-01

    Leishmaniosis is present in the Mediterranean region of Europe, where Leishmania infantum is responsible for the disease, dogs are the main reservoir, and sand flies of the Phlebotomus genus, subgenus Larroussius, are proven vectors. Some areas, including Minorca in the Balearic Islands, are considered free of the disease, despite the presence of vectors. However, in the context of the current expansion of canine leishmaniosis in parts of Europe, an epidemiological study using a veterinary questionnaire was carried out to establish the current situation of the disease in the Balearic Islands. While 50% of veterinarians thought that the incidence of canine leishmaniosis had not changed over time, 26.2% perceived an increasing trend, mainly those from Minorca, where most of the veterinarians polled (88.1%) considered the new diagnosed cases as autochthonous. A cross-sectional serological study performed in this island gave a seroprevalence rate of 24%. Seroprevalence among animals of local origin and with no history of movements to endemic areas was 31%. The presence of autochthonous canine leishmaniosis in Minorca was not correlated with an increase in vector density. The environmental and climatic factors that influenced the distribution and density of Phlebotomus perniciosus on the island and the possible causes of the apparent emergence of canine leishmaniosis in Minorca are discussed.

  11. Diabetes in midlife and cognitive change over 20 years: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andreea M.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Coresh, Josef; Albert, Marilyn; Couper, David; Griswold, Michael; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Windham, B. Gwen; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with dementia risk, however evidence is limited for possible associations of diabetes and pre-diabetes with cognitive decline. Objective To determine if diabetes in mid-life is associated with 20-year cognitive decline, and to characterize long-term cognitive decline across clinical categories of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Design Prospective cohort. Setting The community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Participants 13351 black and white adults aged 48-67 years at baseline (1990-1992). Measurements Diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis or medication use or HbA1c≥6.5%. Undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes, and glucose control in persons with diagnosed diabetes were defined using clinical categories of HbA1c. Delayed Word Recall, Digit Symbol Substitution, and Word Fluency tests were used to assess cognitive performance, and were summarized using a global Z-score. Results Diabetes in midlife was associated with significantly greater cognitive decline over 20 years (adjusted global Z-score difference=-0.15, 95% CI:-0.22,-0.08), representing a 19% greater decline than those without diabetes. Cognitive decline was significantly greater among persons with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) than those without diabetes and HbA1c<5.7%. Participants with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c≥7.0%) had a larger decline compared to persons whose diabetes was controlled (adjusted global Z-score difference=-0.16,p-value=0.071). Longer duration of diabetes was also associated with greater late-life cognitive decline (p-value-for-trend=<0.001). No significant differences in the rates of declines were seen in whites compared to blacks (p-value-for-interaction=0.4357). Limitations Single measurement of HbA1c at baseline, only one test to per cognitive domain, potential geographic confounding of race comparisons. Conclusions These findings suggest that diabetes prevention and glucose control in

  12. Participation in Intellectual Disability Research: A Review of 20 Years of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Sakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Researchers have noted difficulties in attracting adequate numbers of participants with intellectual disabilities (ID) to their studies. Methods: This study was a review of participation by adults with ID in research conducted in South Eastern Ontario over a 20-year period (1987-2006). Original research studies were identified by local…

  13. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  14. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  15. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  16. Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Linda S; Harrow, Martin; Rosen, Cherise; Faull, Robert; Strauss, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to provide data on sex differences in the course of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Ninety-seven participants (43 women and 54 men) were assessed during index hospitalization when they were in the acute phase of illness and then reassessed prospectively at 6 consecutive follow-ups over a 20-year period. Patients were evaluated by a series of standardized measures on many aspects of illness including the presence of psychosis, global outcome, and rate of recovery. When women were compared to men in this sample, the data demonstrated a lower percentage of psychotic activity for women over the course of illness (significant at the 7.5- and 20-year follow-ups), and a significant improvement in psychotic activity over 20 years for women (P < .05), but not for men. In addition, women showed significantly better global functioning (P < .05) at 3 of the 6 follow-ups (the 2-, 7.5-, and 10-year follow-ups). Significantly higher percentages (P < .05) of women were in recovery at 2 of the 6 follow-up years (the 2- and 10-year follow-ups). Cumulatively, 61% of the women with schizophrenia showed a period of recovery at some point during the 20-year period compared to 41% of the men. The sex difference patterns were similar for patients with schizophrenia and for those with other types of psychotic disorders. Sex differences in this sample were specifically not attributable to differences in age of onset or premorbid developmental achievements.

  17. A 20-Year Study of Undergraduate Astronomy Students' Beliefs and Knowledge in Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C. D.

    2011-09-01

    This poster presents data from a 20-year study into the science literacy of undergraduates enrolled in introductory astronomy courses. Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed. We present students' responses to both science literacy and belief questions by year and demographic variables, as well as trends in open-ended responses. Analysis revealed that demographic variables accounted for only 7% of the variance in students' science literacy scores. The strongest predictor of a student's overall science literacy score was how many science courses they had completed, yet this only accounted for 4% of the variance, as did students' beliefs regarding science and technology issues.

  18. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  19. Maternal Concentrations of Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants and the Risk of Asthma in Offspring: Results from a Prospective Cohort with 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Maslova, Ekaterina; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rytter, Dorte; Bech, Bodil H.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous findings suggest that developmental exposures to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may be detrimental for the development of the immune system in the offspring. Whether these suspected immunoregulatory effects persist beyond early childhood remains unclear. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal serum concentrations of POPs and the risk of asthma in offspring after 20 years of follow-up. Methods: A birth cohort with 965 women was formed in 1988–1989 in Aarhus, Denmark. Concentrations of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) were quantified in maternal serum (n = 872) collected in gestation week 30. Information about offspring use of asthma medications was obtained from the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results: Maternal serum concentrations of HCB and dioxin-like PCB-118 were positively associated with offspring asthma medication use after 20 years of follow-up (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with subjects in the first tertile of maternal concentration, those in the third tertile of PCB-118 had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.23). For HCB the HR for the third versus the first tertile of maternal concentration was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.21). Weak positive associations were also estimated for PCB-156 and the non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180). No associations were found for p,p´-DDE. Conclusions: Maternal concentrations of PCB-118 and HCB were associated with increased risk of asthma in offspring followed through 20 years of age. Citation: Hansen S, Strøm M, Olsen SF, Maslova E, Rantakokko P, Kiviranta H, Rytter D, Bech BH, Hansen LV, Halldorsson TI. 2014. Maternal concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants and the risk of asthma in offspring: results from a prospective cohort with 20 years of follow

  20. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  1. How have researchers studied multiracial populations: A content and methodological review of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    The U. S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic make-up of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied both to recognize the emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990–2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals from primarily the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  2. Ability of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents in Diagnosing Jaw Cysts: A Retrospective 20 Years Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Hassan; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of odontogenic cysts despite of their benign nature is a critical and challenging problem especially among undergraduate and postgraduate students. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the capability of oral and maxillofacial surgery residents in diagnosing odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was executed on 312 patient records over the past 20 years since October 1995 till December 2014 in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All recorded data was based on 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. The differential diagnosis was made by 65 residents based on clinical and paraclinical evaluations established in the charts. Differential diagnoses made by the residents were compared to the histopathological examination as the gold standard for identifying the nature of the cysts. Weighted kappa test was used to show the degree of agreement. Results Data extracted from 312 records were analyzed. The mean age of examined patients was 27.6 years. The accuracy of diagnosis among the residents was moderate (kw=0.5). The diagnosis made by the residents was significantly related to the radiographic view of the cysts (p<0.05). The residents were able to identify odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts in most cases. Conclusion There are several factors associated with the occurrence of pathologic odontogenic cysts which could help either the clinician or the pathologist in diagnosing the odontogenic cysts of the jaws. The surgeons should consider these related factors before the final diagnosis and choosing the appropriate treatment plan. PMID:28209002

  3. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina

    2009-01-01

    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  4. Suicide and Fire: A 20-Year Study of Self-Immolation Death in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Maher; Cherif El Khal, Mohamed; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Yassine Brahem, Mohamed; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Zemni, Majed; Kamel Souguir, Mohamed

    2016-11-15

    Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia. A total of 41 cases were collected, of which 23 were men (56%). The mean age was 36.1 years. Prior to 2011, 78.9% of the victims of self-immolation were women and after 2011, 86.4% were men. The rural origin of the victims was found in 56.25% of the cases. History of psychiatric illness was found in four individuals. The self-immolation took place in the victims' homes in 19 cases (46.3%). It came after a conjugal or family conflict in 14 cases (34.1%) and it is of protest character in 8 cases (19.5%). This study confirmed the increasing frequency of self-immolation in Tunisia after the 2011 revolution and noted a change in the victims' profiles.

  5. A 20-year study on 190 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a developing country: Turkey experience.

    PubMed

    Usta, Arif; Alhan, Etem; Cinel, Akif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Erem, Cihangir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 190 PHPT patients, of whom 137 were asymptomatic (72%). The mean serum calcium at the time of diagnosis was 11.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL. The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 467 ± 78 pg/mL. Ultrasonography (USG) identified all abnormal glands accurately (82.6%) and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) was used in 89.4% of the patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 61%. The common use of USG and MIBI detected 92% of the lesions. Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was performed in 12.2% of the patients and focused unilateral neck exploration (FUNE) in the remaining 87.8%. Surgical intervention was unsuccessful in 1 patient (0.5%). The conversion ratio from FUNE to BNE was 5.2%. The mean operation time and mean hospital stay decreased significantly in patients with FUNE. Pathologic examination revealed single adenoma in 93% of the patients. New imaging techniques result in the conversion of surgical treatments of PHPT. FUNE in parathyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon may provide successful treatment rates.

  6. Food price and diet and health outcomes: 20 years of The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite surging interest in taxation as a policy to address poor food choice, US research directly examining the association of food prices with individual intake is scarce. Methods This 20-year longitudinal study included 12,123 respondent days from 5,115 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Associations between food price, dietary intake, overall energy intake, weight, and HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were assessed using conditional log-log and linear regression models. Results The real price (inflated to 2006 dollars) of soda and pizza decreased over time; the price of whole milk increased. A 10% increase in the price of soda or pizza was associated with a -7.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -63.5, -10.71) or -11.5% (95%CI: -17.50, -5.50) change in energy from these foods respectively. A $1.00 increase in soda price was also associated with lower daily energy intake (-124 [95%CI: -198, -50] kcal), lower weight (-2.34 [95%CI: -4.00, -0.68] lbs), and lower HOMA-IR score (0.42 [95%CI: -0.60, -0.23]); similar trends were observed for pizza. A $1.00 increase in the price of both soda and pizza was associated with greater changes in total energy intake (-181.49 [95%CI: -247.79, -115.18] kcal), body weight (-3.66 [95%CI: -5.19, -2.14] lbs), and HOMA-IR (-0.45 [95%CI: -0.59, -0.31]). Conclusions Policies aimed at altering the price of soda or away-from-home pizza may be effective mechanisms to steer US adults toward a more healthful diet and help reduce long-term weight gain or insulin levels over time. PMID:20212177

  7. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    PubMed

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  8. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    PubMed

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  9. A single-institution, 20-year prospective experience with an affordable Fc-receptor blockade method to treat patients with chronic, refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Gómez, Roberto; Vargas-Castro, Olga; Oropeza-Borges, Mabel; González-Carrillo, Martha L; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2007-01-01

    In a 20-year period in a single institution, 34 patients with chronic, refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura were prospectively treated with ex vivo anti-D opsonized autologous red blood cells. All patients had received previous treatment with steroids and/or immunosuppressive agents, and 11 had been splenectomized. Twenty one patients had an increase in the platelet count; in five cases, the increase was more than 50 x 10(9)/L platelets and in 16 the increase was more than 100 x 10(9)/L platelets. Early responses were observed in 20 patients and late responses in seven, whereas seven patients (20%) did not respond at all. Nine of the 20 individuals who achieved an ER had a subsequent drop in the platelet count; however, only three had a drop below 50 x 10(9)/L. When last censored, of the 34 patients, 24 (70%) had a platelet count above 50 x 10(9)/L. The 84-month thrombocytopenia-free (over 50 x 10(9)/L platelets) status of the whole group is 70%, whereas the 84-month complete remission (over 100 x 10(9)/L platelets) status of the whole group is 50%. It is concluded that the use of ex vivo anti-D opsonized red blood cells may represent another, substantially cheaper treatment of patients with chronic, refractory, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  10. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  11. Stability of Diagnosis: A 20-Year Retrospective Cohort Study of Israeli Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valevski, Avi; Ratzoni, Gideon; Sever, Jonathan; Apter, Alan; Zalsman, Gil; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Sam

    2001-01-01

    Outcome according to diagnosis and stability of diagnosis were investigated in a follow-back study, with a duration of 15-19 years, of 351 adolescents with various psychiatric disorders hospitalized in a closed psychiatric ward. Findings indicated that transient adolescent psychosis is associated with a relatively good prognosis and should…

  12. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  13. Clear regression of harvested intertidal mollusks. A 20-year (1994-2014) comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riera, Rodrigo; Pérez, Óscar; Álvarez, Omar; Simón, David; Díaz, Dácil; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2016-02-01

    Intertidal mollusks are subjected to an intense environmental pressure, from human-induced stressors, mainly harvesting, to competition for food and space with other species. Here we used mollusk shell size as a measure of size distribution and reproductive potential of intertidal limpets. Two species of exploited limpets (Patella candei crenata and Patella aspera) were monitored throughout the littoral of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), an overpopulated island with a high coastal pressure. The exploitation of these two limpet species is controlled by regional legislation, with seasonal closures and limits of harvest for professional (10 kg) and recreational harvesters (3-5 kg). A long-term comparison (1994-2014) of limpet size has been conducted as a surrogate of the state of conservation of these two limpets. Both species showed populations dominated largely by small-sized individuals (<30 mm) and a lack of large adults (>60 mm). The proximity to coastal settlements was not a factor to explain limpet assemblage structure. The temporal (1994-2014) comparative study showed a sharp decrease in the mean size of both limpet species (7 mm in P. aspera and 5 mm in P. candei crenata). These results might be indicative of overharvesting of both species in Tenerife. The conservation of the two studied species needs to be accomplished by the strict fulfillment of current protective strategies, as well as the creation of marine protected areas where intertidal harvesting is totally banned all over the year.

  14. Α Deformation study in Central Greece using 20 years of GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinou, Aggeliki; Papazissi, Kaliopi; Mitsakaki, Christiana; Paradissis, Demitris; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Anastasiou, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Central Greece is a region recognized for its intense tectonic activity with the main characterics being the extension in the North-South direction. This extension is revealed mainly in the form of large parallel grabens. Among these rifts is the Corinth Gulf, which is the most active tectonically, the basin between Parnassos and Kallidromo Mt, the Locris basin and the graben of North Evoikos Gulf, while in the south lays the Thebes basin and the South Evoikos Gulf. Since the late eighties the Laboratory of Higher Geodesy and the Dionysos Satellite Observatory of the National Technical University of Athens, in cooperation with several National and International Universities and Institutions have established, in various Greek areas, of high seismic activity, geodetic networks in order to monitor tectonic displacements. These geodetic networks were observed periodically using Satellite Geodesy techniques and in recent years almost entirely GPS. In this study all the available GPS data, referring to the broader area of Evia, Attiki and Viotia, for the years 1989 to 2008, are analyzed. The displacement field and its temporal changes for the area between the two major geological features, the Corinth Gulf and the Evoikos Gulf, are investigated. Αll the kinematic models that were used do not confirm that the area of study is deforming homogeneously, while an indication of a discontinuity has been detected.

  15. Thyroid cancer in children: a 20-year study at a Romanian oncology institute.

    PubMed

    Piciu, Doina; Piciu, Andra; Irimie, Alexandru

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) has an increasing incidence in the last decade and continues to represent the most frequent form of endocrine tumor. The aim of the study was to analyze the pediatric files of TC from the registry of "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta" Institute of Oncology Cluj-Napoca, Romania (IOCN) and to provide the data related to the impact of nuclear fallout of Chernobyl on this pathology. We studied 72 children with TC treated between 1991 and 2010. The mean age was 15.3 years; the ratio female/male was 6.2:1. Twenty-nine children (40.2%) revealed metastasis in regional lymph nodes or lungs at the initial diagnostic. There were 63 differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), 6 cases with medullary cancer (MC), 1 case with anaplastic carcinoma (AC), and 2 mixed cases. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and the radioiodine was administered in 64 cases (activities between 1.1 - 28.1 GBq I-131). Fifty-two children (80.5%) are free of disease, 8 are in partial remission and 4 children are in evolution of the disease at minimum 12 months of follow-up. The incidence of TC was significantly increased 10 years after the accident. In the years after, the increasing trendline was stopped and at 25 years, the number of cases is stationary. The diagnosis of pediatric TC is made frequently in metastatic disease and the therapies must be conducted for many years till complete remission. A more clear strategy adapted to children is needed in the future.

  16. Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-11-01

    Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies.

  17. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ∼15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ∼7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ∼7 years, characterized by

  18. From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006).

    PubMed

    Pavy-Le Traon, A; Heer, M; Narici, M V; Rittweger, J; Vernikos, J

    2007-09-01

    Bed rest studies of the past 20 years are reviewed. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight. As well as continuing to search for better understanding of the physiological changes induced, these studies focused mostly on identifying effective countermeasures with encouraging but limited success. HDBR is characterised by immobilization, inactivity, confinement and elimination of Gz gravitational stimuli, such as posture change and direction, which affect body sensors and responses. These induce upward fluid shift, unloading the body's upright weight, absence of work against gravity, reduced energy requirements and reduction in overall sensory stimulation. The upward fluid shift by acting on central volume receptors induces a 10-15% reduction in plasma volume which leads to a now well-documented set of cardiovascular changes including changes in cardiac performance and baroreflex sensitivity that are identical to those in space. Calcium excretion is increased from the beginning of bed rest leading to a sustained negative calcium balance. Calcium absorption is reduced. Body weight, muscle mass, muscle strength is reduced, as is the resistance of muscle to insulin. Bone density, stiffness of bones of the lower limbs and spinal cord and bone architecture are altered. Circadian rhythms may shift and are dampened. Ways to improve the process of evaluating countermeasures--exercise (aerobic, resistive, vibration), nutritional and pharmacological--are proposed. Artificial gravity requires systematic evaluation. This review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.

  19. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.

  20. The use of contact lenses during water-polo play: a 20-year study of Japanese college players.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yasuka; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Murase, Yosuke; Enomoto, Itaru; Takagi, Hideki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of contact-lens use in Japanese college water-polo male players over 20 years (1991-2011, once every five years). Information about the use of contact lenses during play and the types of contact lens was obtained through a self-report questionnaire. The proportion of contact lens use among the players while playing water polo differed from 1991 to 2011 (χ2(4) = 25.28, P < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.63). Fifty-four per cent of the players used contact lenses while playing in 1991 (P < 0.001); more than 74% in 1996; 89% in 2001; 84% in 2006; and 86% in 2011. While 96% of the contact lenses used by the players in 1991 were the soft type, 74%, 92%, 86%, and 88% of the contact lenses used in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, respectively, were the disposable type. These findings indicated a high percentage of players were using contact lenses while playing water polo between 1996 and 2011. This could be because the majority of players used disposable lenses. The results suggest that increasing use of contact lenses by water-polo players is beneficial.

  1. Association of physical activity and IL-10 levels 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure: Sardasht-Iran cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kermani-Jalilvand, Arezou; Yaraee, Roya; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Foroutan, Abbas; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Soroush, Mohammad R; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2009-12-01

    IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is important in the regulation of inflammatory processes in different conditions. Sulfur mustard (SM) intoxicated patients are suffering from different inflammatory diseases in their lung, skin and eyes. Physical activity (PA) is reported to control inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our previous study revealed lower PA and more sedentary lifestyle among SM exposed population. This study aimed to determine the relationship of PA with IL-10 production in SM exposed subjects. Baseline, mitogen-induced and the serum levels of IL-10 were evaluated. In a historical cohort study, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS), 372 SM exposed participants were studied 20 years after exposure and were compared with 128 unexposed control participants. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ; developed by WHO) was used to obtain a self-reported measure of physical activity. Whole blood culture supernatants and serum samples were used for IL-10 measurement by ELISA technique. In both the control and exposed groups mitogen-induced IL-10 production was significantly elevated with severity of PA intensity (p<0.05). In the control subjects with moderate PA intensity, the mitogen-induced IL-10 production was higher than the corresponding in the exposed group (p<0.05). In the exposed group, mitogen-induced IL-10 production had significant positive correlation with total PA, total transport PA, total recreational PA and total moderate intensity work (p<0.05). The positive relationship between high PA and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 indicates a need to encourage a more active lifestyle among the SM exposed subjects who have various inflammatory complications.

  2. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence.

  3. Anagrelide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Spivak, Jerry L

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and may be asymptomatic or associated with transient microvascular vaso-occlusive symptoms or large vessel arterial or venous thrombosis. Failure of either the hematocrit or the platelet count to correlate with thrombotic events is a peculiar conundrum of the MPDs. Asymptomatic thrombocytosis in young MPD patients with no cardiovascular risk factors does not require treatment. It is also undisputed that lowering the platelet count reduces the incidence of microvascular events in MPD patients. At the same time, no study to date has demonstrated that platelet count reduction prolongs survival in MPD patients. Agents such as hydroxyurea, busulfan, IFN-alpha and anagrelide, have been used to reduce an elevated platelet count and decrease thrombohemorrhagic events in at-risk patients with thrombocytosis associated with an MPD. When treatment is required, it makes sense to use drugs that are not myelotoxic or mutagenic. Based on the Primary Thrombocythaemia 1 study, hydroxyurea is the treatment of choice for thrombocytosis-associated transient ischemic attacks. However, hydroxyurea does not prevent venous thrombosis, is not more effective in preventing arterial thrombosis than anagrelide and its long-term safety is not established. Therefore, unless curative therapy is planned, one should use the least myelotoxic agent when platelet count reduction is required. In this regard, anagrelide can be considered a first-line drug. With regard to long-term safety of anagrelide, the EMEA has required close monitoring of the safety points identified in future Periodic Safety Update Reports and in a Post Authorisation Safety Study in the EU, which will focus especially on cardiovascular events and acute leukemia. In this article, we review anagrelide pharmacology, the physiology of thrombopoiesis, the differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis and the management of patients with an elevated platelet

  4. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  5. Is the war really over? A 20-year longitudinal study on trajectories of suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following combat.

    PubMed

    Snir, Avigal; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CSR) has widespread long-term consequences, including profound psychopathology in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have established the link between combat, PTSD, and suicidality. However, little is known about the temporal course of suicidal ideation (SI) in general, specifically among war veterans. We aimed to trace the trajectories of SI in the aftermath of war and to explore the role of CSR and PTSD in SI trajectories. Israeli veterans with CSR (n=164) and a matched control group (NCSR, n=111) were assessed, using self-report measures at three points over the course of 20 years. Veterans with CSR reported significantly higher levels of SI, compared to the NCSR group at all measurement points. Among veterans with CSR, SI increased 2 years after the war and then decreased 20 years following the war. This pattern was particularly characteristic of veterans with chronic PTSD. The results indicate that CSR is a strong predictor of subsequent PTSD and suicidality. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and treatment efforts for these traumatized veterans, who are at risk for suicide even 20 years after the end of the war.

  6. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  7. Severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN): a qualitative study of patients with 20+ years of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul H; Kukucska, Roza; Guidetti, Giulia; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how patients with long-term eating disorders manage their clinical problems. We carried out a preliminary qualitative study (using Thematic Analysis) of patients with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN) in which we undertook recorded interviews in eight participants whose conditions had lasted 20-40 years. We found 15 principle features in physical, psychological, social, family, occupational and treatment realms. Psychological and social realms were most affected. Severe physical problems were reported. They described feelings of unworthiness, frugality regarding money and obsessive time-keeping. Persisting with negligible social networks, participants described depression and hopelessness, while somehow achieving a sense of pride at their endurance and survival in spite of the eating disorder. They emphasized the importance of professional help in managing their care. The severe and enduring description, often reserved for people with psychotic illness, is appropriately applied to SEED-AN, which has major impacts in all realms.

  8. Parenteral Pethidine for labour pain relief and substance use disorder: 20-year follow-up cohort study in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kanhai, Humphrey; Rosendaal, Frits; van Dommelen, Paula; Swaab, Dick; Rodrigues Pereira, Erik; van de Wetering, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of intrapartum Pethidine pain analgesia increases the risk for substance use disorder in adult offspring. Design Analysis of data from a cohort study. Setting Academic hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants 133 cases and 164 control individuals, aged 18–20 years at follow-up. Main outcome measure Incidence of substance use disorder or use of alcohol and tobacco. Results The lifetime use of addictive substances in children exposed to intrapartum Pethidine analgesia was 45% of 133 children versus 48% of 164 not-exposed subjects (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.29). Recent use of alcohol, tobacco and hard drugs showed no statistical difference either. Conclusion Pethidine for labour pain medication appears not to be associated with substance misuse or smoking in later life. PMID:22649173

  9. Allergy to betalactam antibiotics in children: results of a 20-year study based on clinical history, skin and challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Ponvert, C; Perrin, Y; Bados-Albiero, A; Le Bourgeois, M; Karila, C; Delacourt, C; Scheinmann, P; De Blic, J

    2011-06-01

    Studies based on skin and challenge tests have shown that 12-60% of children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity were allergic to betalactams. Responses in skin and challenge tests were studied in 1865 children with suspected betalactam allergy (i) to confirm or rule out the suspected diagnosis; (ii) to evaluate diagnostic value of immediate and non-immediate responses in skin and challenge tests; (iii) to determine frequency of betalactam allergy in those children, and (iv) to determine potential risk factors for betalactam allergy. The work-up was completed in 1431 children, of whom 227 (15.9%) were diagnosed allergic to betalactams. Betalactam hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 50 of the 162 (30.9%) children reporting immediate reactions and in 177 of the 1087 (16.7%) children reporting non-immediate reactions (p<0.001). The likelihood of betalactam hypersensitivity was also significantly higher in children reporting anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reactions, and (potentially) severe skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and drug reaction with systemic symptoms than in other children (p<0.001). Skin tests diagnosed 86% of immediate and 31.6% of non-immediate sensitizations. Cross-reactivity and/or cosensitization among betalactams was diagnosed in 76% and 14.7% of the children with immediate and non-immediate hypersensitivity, respectively. The number of children diagnosed allergic to betalactams decreased with time between the reaction and the work-up, probably because the majority of children with severe and worrying reactions were referred for allergological work-up more promptly than the other children. Sex, age, and atopy were not risk factors for betalactam hypersensitivity. In conclusion, we confirm in numerous children that (i) only a few children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity are allergic to betalactams; (ii) the likelihood of betalactam allergy increases with earliness and

  10. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks. Design Longitudinal social network analysis. Setting Framingham Heart Study social network. Participants 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003. Main outcome measures Happiness measured with validated four item scale; broad array of attributes of social networks and diverse social ties. Results Clusters of happy and unhappy people are visible in the network, and the relationship between people’s happiness extends up to three degrees of separation (for example, to the friends of one’s friends’ friends). People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1.6 km) and who becomes happy increases the probability that a person is happy by 25% (95% confidence interval 1% to 57%). Similar effects are seen in coresident spouses (8%, 0.2% to 16%), siblings who live within a mile (14%, 1% to 28%), and next door neighbours (34%, 7% to 70%). Effects are not seen between coworkers. The effect decays with time and with geographical separation. Conclusions People’s happiness depends on the happiness of others with whom they are connected. This provides further justification for seeing happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon. PMID:19056788

  11. Removal of the eye in a tertiary care center of China: a retrospective study on 573 cases in 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Wang, Xin; Chen, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the original protopathy, direct indications, clinical characteristics, complications of orbit plants and visual conditions of eye enucleation/evisceration. METHODS A retrospective study of 573 eyes removed (573 inpatients) at Ophthalmology Department in a tertiary care center of China from January 1993 to December 2012 was completed. RESULTS Cases underwent removal of the eye accounted for 2.15% of total ophthalmology inpatients, whose annual frequency declined from 3.80% to 0.52%. There were 167 eyes (29.14%) being enucleated and 406 (70.86%) eviscerated. Annual proportion of evisceration rose from 16.67% in 1993 to 90.48% in later years. Trauma was the top one (65.62%) in original protopathies followed by neoplasm (13.44%) and ocular infections (5.76%). Phthisis bulbi (45.20%) was the most common direct indication, succeeded by malignant tumor (12.57%), loss/unreconstructed of intraocular tissues due to trauma (11.00%), untreatable inflammation (9.60%), intractable glaucoma (8.55%) and sclerocorneal staphyloma (5.24%). Exenteration was underwent in 20 (25.97%) cases (40% for recurrent carcinoma). Following evisceration, secondary prosthesis implantation was more and earlier, implant exposure occurred in less but earlier and infection and extraction/exchange of implants were more than those following enucleation. Male, phthisis bulbi, evisceration and secondary implantation meant lower risk of implant exposure; eyes removed within 24h following trauma was an independent risk factor. There were 14.37% of eyes with vision of light perception at least as been removed. In the residual contralateral eyes, low vision accounted 5.58% and blindness 3.14%. CONCLUSION Ocular trauma, tumor and infections were great threats to eyeball preservation. Early and effective controlling of any original protopathies was vital. Generally evisceration presented more superior and safe outcomes than enucleation did. Visual conditions of the sufferers should be focused

  12. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  13. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  14. When does subluxation of the first carpometacarpal joint cause swan-neck deformity of the thumb in rheumatoid arthritis: a 20-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Belt, E; Kaarela, K; Lehtinen, J; Kautiainen, H; Kauppi, M; Lehto, M U

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of subluxation of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC I) and to evaluate which degree of subluxation produces swan-neck deformity of the thumb in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurring over 20 years. The hands of 83 rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive RA patients with recent (< or = 6 months) arthritis were evaluated radiographically at onset and at 1, 3, 8 and 15 years; 68 patients were evaluated at 20 years from entry. Subluxation was assessed in millimetres and compared with the MCP-I angle measurement to evaluate the thumb deformity. A statistical end-point analysis was performed between two different grades of subluxation. Subluxation of 2-3 mm was non-specific and only one third of these thumbs showed swan-neck deformity. At the end-point, subluxation of > or = 4mm was present in 17% of the thumbs, 81% of which had the swan-neck deformity; only five thumbs did not show this deformity, but presented deformed and unstable MCP I and interphalangeal joints. The frequency of swan-neck deformity was highly significantly (p < 0.0001) increased in the thumbs with severe CMC I subluxation (> or = 4 mm) compared with lesser subluxation (< 4 mm). When subluxation of the CMC I exceeds 4 mm, the swan-neck deformity of the thumb is a common consequence. This deformity is often progressive, and the hand function of such patients should be followed up carefully, both clinically and radiographically.

  15. Associations of retrospective and concurrent lipid levels with subclinical atherosclerosis prediction after 20 years of follow-up: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Lewis A.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Loria, Catherine M.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Pletcher, Mark J.; Shikany, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we sought to determine how well lipids measured at baseline and at 20 years predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Complete risk factor, coronary artery calcification (CAC), and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) data were available for 2435 participants. Lipids were categorized into quartiles, CAC at Y20 was dichotomized as present/absent, and CIMT was dichotomized as ≥84 or <84th overall percentile. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the association between lipids and CAC/CIMT. C statistics were used to assess the discriminative value of each lipid measure in predicting the presence of CAC or CIMT at Y20. Results Lipid levels measured in young adulthood as well as middle age were both associated with subclinical disease in middle age. The discriminatory value of lipids was virtually identical at baseline, when participants were 18–30 years of age, and 20 years later. Neither baseline nor Y20 lipid data were strong predictors of Y20 subclinical disease despite statistically significant associations. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that early-life exposure to nonoptimal lipids matters and lifestyle modifications administered earlier in the lifespan could slow the progress of the atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:23889858

  16. Long-term effects of sulfur mustard on civilians’ mental health 20 years after exposure (The Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent that induces short and long term toxicity on various organs. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term psychological symptoms among samples of exposed to sulfur mustard gas compared with unexposed civilians 20 years after exposure. Methods This historical cohort study was conducted on 495 civilians of Sardasht and Rabat in two age matched groups, including 367 sulfur mustard exposed participants from Sardasht and 128 unexposed subjects from Rabat. Psychological symptoms was assessed using the Symptom Check List-90 Revised (SCL-90-R) including measures of somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism providing three global distress indices namely: Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Total (PST) and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). Comparison was made between exposed and unexposed civilians. Results There were significant differences in somatization (P = 0.002), obsessive-compulsive (P = 0.031), depression (P = 0.007), anxiety (P = 0.042), and hostility (P = 0.002), between the exposed and unexposed groups. In addition there were significant differences between two groups concerning the GSI (P = 0.045) and the PSDI (P < 0.001). The differences between two groups in other subscales were not significant. Conclusions The findings from this study showed that civilians who exposed to sulfur mustard gas were suffering from a number of psychological symptoms even 20 years after exposure. Providing mental health services and more resource allocation for this community are highly recommended. PMID:23618038

  17. A SURVEY OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL BIOPSIES IN CHILDREN. A SINGLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 20 YEARS IN PELOTAS-BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Giana da Silveira; Fontes, Silvia Terra; de Araújo, Lenita Maria Aver; Etges, Adriana; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Gomes, Ana Paula Neutzling

    2008-01-01

    Despite the large number of published cases about oral and maxillofacial pediatric lesions, the literature is scarce on epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of these entities. This study retrieved oral and maxillofacial pediatric lesions from the Center of Diagnosis of Oral Diseases (CDDB) at the Dental School of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPEL), comprising a 20-year period (1983-2002). From the total of 9,465 biopsies received in this period, 625 (6.6%) were from children aged 0 to 14 years. Regardless of the histopathological diagnosis, patient data referring to lesion location, sex and age were collected. Diagnoses were grouped in 13 categories. As much as 89% of the cases occurred in patients aged 7 to 14 years (53% in females and 47% in males). Mucocele (17.2%) was the most common type of lesion, followed by dentigerous cyst (8.6%). In the category of odontogenic tumors, odontoma was the most frequent lesion (64.2%). Malignant lesions were observed in a small section of the sample (1.2%). Generally, the results of the present study are in line with those reported in the literature concerning the most prevalent lesions in the pediatric population. Most lesions were benign, and malignant lesions were diagnosed in a very small part of the sample. PMID:19082398

  18. The Prospects Study and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that greater caution is required when drawing conclusions from statistical results than the Armor study has done, and describes the "Prospects" study (begun in 1989), the largest longitudinal study of educational outcomes conducted in the United States. "Prospects" provides much data useful in evaluating the school…

  19. Mainstreaming Revisited: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Daryl J.; Wigle, Stanley E.

    This study investigated the changes in the mainstreaming practices of five school districts, which were originally described in a 1974 study by Birch. The districts involved were: Tacoma (Washington), Richardson (Texas), Plano (Texas), Tucson (Arizona), and Louisville (Kentucky). Survey forms were sent to superintendents of the original six…

  20. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  1. Left atrial dimension and traditional cardiovascular risk factors predict 20-year clinical cardiovascular events in young healthy adults: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Anderson C.; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Stephen; Colangelo, Laura A.; Kishi, Satoru; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Arynchyn, Alex; Jacobs, David R.; Correia, Luís C.L.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Lima, João A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether the addition of left atrial (LA) size determined by echocardiography improves cardiovascular risk prediction in young adults over and above the clinically established Framingham 10-year global CV risk score (FRS). Methods and results We included white and black CARDIA participants who had echocardiograms in Year-5 examination (1990–91). The combined endpoint after 20 years was incident fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease: myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and atrial fibrillation/flutter. Echocardiography-derived M-mode LA diameter (LAD; n = 4082; 149 events) and 2D four-chamber LA area (LAA; n = 2412; 77 events) were then indexed by height or body surface area (BSA). We used Cox regression, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) to assess the prediction power of LA size when added to calculated FRS or FRS covariates. The LAD and LAA cohorts had similar characteristics; mean LAD/height was 2.1 ± 0.3 mm/m and LAA/height 9.3 ± 2.0 mm2/m. After indexing by height and adjusting for FRS covariates, hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.12, 1.60) and 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for LAD and LAA, respectively; AUC was 0.77 for LAD and 0.78 for LAA. When LAD and LAA were indexed to BSA, the results were similar but slightly inferior. Both LAD and LAA showed modest reclassification ability, with non-significant NRIs. Conclusion LA size measurements independently predict clinical outcomes. However, it only improves discrimination over clinical parameters modestly without altering risk classification. Indexing LA size by height is at least as robust as by BSA. Further research is needed to assess subgroups of young adults who may benefit from LA size information in risk stratification. PMID:24534011

  2. Host Resistance and Survival in Carcinoma of Breast: A Study of 104 Cases of Medullary Carcinoma in a Series of 1,411 Cases of Breast Cancer Followed for 20 years*

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, H. J. G.; Richardson, W. W.; Field, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    This paper deals with a special type of mammary carcinoma, generally of high-grade malignancy, which carries a remarkably good prognosis—the so-called “medullary carcinoma of the breast with lymphoid infiltrate.” Probably the increased lymphoid tissue seen in these tumours is concerned with cell-mediated and humoral immunological reactions and reflects a strong host-defence mechanism which is responsible for the remarkably high survival rates following radical treatment. Since the evidence for host resistance to malignant disease is based largely on animal data, the opportunity to study a group of patients followed for 20 years, in whom this type of defence reaction appears to exist, is of considerable clinical interest. Among 1,411 cases of breast cancer there were 104 with medullary carcinoma (7·4%), for which the corrected 5- to 20-year survival rates have been calculated. After 20 years 74% of cases with operable medullary tumours were alive, compared with 14% of cases with similar stage non-medullary cancer. In the presence of histologically proved axillary metastases the 20-year survival rate was 61% for medullary cases, compared with only 13% for other types of breast cancer. In 30 cases of medullary cancer in which the axilla was free, the corrected 20-year survival rate was 95% following a combination of radical operation and radiotherapy. No evidence could be found that axillary dissection or postoperative irradiation is harmful to women with operable highly malignant breast cancer in whom a well-marked host resistance is thought to be present. A combination of radical mastectomy and postoperative irradiation appears to be the most effective treatment for such cases. The present grounds for rejecting a radical approach to treatment of breast cancer, based on current immunological considerations, are regarded as being quite inadequate. PMID:5448777

  3. An Investigation into Associations with Attachment, Companion Pet Attachment, Empathy, and Prosocial Behaviors in 18-20 Year Old College Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines empathy, parental attachment, companion pet attachment and social behaviors in a sample of 120 students between the ages of 18-20 enrolled at Front Range Community College in Westminster CO during the fall semester 2008. The study is based on the research questions posed by Thompson and Gullone (2008) but pays particular…

  4. Student failures on first-year medical basic science courses and the USMLE step 1: a retrospective study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Burns, E Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, solely or in combination, have previously been found to be predictors of achievement in the basic science years and/or on the Step 1. The purposes of this retrospective study were to: (1) determine if our statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between preadmission variables (MCAT, uGPA, and applicant pool size), and (2) study correlates of the number of failures in five M1 courses with those preadmission variables and failures on Step 1. Statistical analysis confirmed previously published relationships between all preadmission variables. Only one course, Microscopic Anatomy, demonstrated significant correlations with all variables studied including the Step 1 failures. Physiology correlated with three of the four variables studied, but not with the Step 1 failures. Analyses such as these provide a tool by which administrators will be able to identify what courses are or are not responding in appropriate ways to changes in the preadmissions variables that signal student performance on the Step 1.

  5. Moral Emotion Attributions and Personality Traits as Long-Term Predictors of Antisocial Conduct in Early Adulthood: Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Asendorpf, Jens B.; Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated long-term relations between moral emotion attributions in childhood and adolescence and antisocial conduct in early adulthood while taking into account potentially confounding personality factors. Specifically, onset of prediction, unique and indirect effects of moral emotion attributions were examined. In a longitudinal…

  6. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  7. Does prior coronary artery bypass surgery alter the gender gap in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome? A 20-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Singh, Rajvir; Al Binali, Hajar A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies demonstrated women presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have poor outcomes when compared with men ‘the gender gap phenomenon’. The impact of prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) on women presenting with ACS is unknown. We hypothesised that the gender gap is altered in ACS patients with prior CABG. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients presenting with ACS according to their gender and history of prior CABG. Design Retrospective, observational (cohort) study. Setting Data were collected from hospital-based registry of patients hospitalised with ACS in Doha, Qatar, from 1991 through 2010. The data were analysed according to their gender and history of prior CABG. Participants A total of 16 750 consecutive patients with ACS were studied. In total, 693 (4.3%) patients had prior CABG; among them 125 (18%) patients were women. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparisons of clinical characteristics, inhospital treatment, and outcomes, including inhospital mortality and stroke were made. Results Women with or without prior CABG were older, less likely to be smokers, but more likely to have diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and renal impairment than men (p=0.001). Women were less likely to receive reperfusion and early invasive therapies. When compared with men, women without prior CABG carried higher inhospital mortality (11% vs 4.9%; p=0.001) and stroke rates (0.9% vs 0.3%; p=0.001). Female gender was independent predictor of poor outcome. Among prior CABG patients, despite the fact that women had worse baseline characteristics and were less likely to receive evidence-based therapy, there were no significant differences in mortality or stroke rates between the two groups. Conclusions Consistent with the world literature, women presenting with ACS and without prior CABG had higher death rates compared with men. Patients with prior CABG had comparable death rates regardless of the gender status. PMID:23194954

  8. Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes among People Aged over 20 Years in Ahvaz: A 5-Year Perspective Study (2009–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Hajieh; Hardani Pasand, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study is the fourth cohort study conducted in the Middle East on the evaluation of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, implemented in Ahvaz, Iran. Methodology. The individuals aged over twenty years who had participated in a study on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 2009 (Phase 1) in Ahvaz were invited again in 2014. The questionnaires were completed via interview, and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard method. The logistic regression and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results. In the median of five-year follow-up, a number of 593 people participated in reexamination from which 396 individuals were nondiabetic in Phase 1. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes was 21.9 and 40.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Among Phase 1 prediabetics, 16.8% were diagnosed with diabetes in a five-year period. The factors affecting the incidence of prediabetes among the people younger than 65 years include age, family history of diabetes, and gender. The age factor plays an important role in the transformation of prediabetes to diabetes. Conclusion. The city of Ahvaz with type 2 diabetes incidence of 13.64 per 1000 person-years is one of the areas with high incidence of diabetes in Iran. PMID:28004008

  9. A 20-year population-based study on the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, L; Valke, L L F G; Diets, I J; van den Brand, M; Aben, K; Raemaekers, J M M; Hebeda, K M; van Krieken, J H J M

    2016-02-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by a unique clinical and histological presentation. Because of the rare nature of this disease, few large-scale studies are available. We conducted a cohort study in which patients were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry in the Southeast of the Netherlands between 1990 and 2010. Of these patients, we collected all clinical characteristics and re-reviewed pathologic material to confirm NLPHL diagnosis. Seventy-three histologically confirmed cases of NLPHL were analyzed with a median follow-up of 65 months (range 4-257 months). Median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range 1-87); 84.9 % of the patients were male; B symptoms were present in 5.5 %; and stage I/II disease was most common (75.4 %). Patients were primarily treated with radiotherapy (50.7 %), chemotherapy (26 %), combined modality (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) (11 %), or surgical excision with careful watch-and-wait (12.3 %). Relapses occurred in seven patients (9.6 %) after a median of 26 months (21-74 months). Six patients (8.2 %) developed histologic transformation to large cell lymphoma. Five patients (6.8 %) died during follow-up due to progression of NLPHL (n = 1), histologic transformation (n = 2) and intercurrent deaths (n = 2). The estimated 10-year overall survival was 94.0 % and the 10-year progression-free survival 75.8 %. Our study confirms the distinct characteristics of NLPHL with a relatively good long-term prognosis. It may be possible to reduce treatment intensity in early stage NLPHL without affecting long-term outcome.

  10. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries.

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma surgery outcomes in the developing world: A 20-year retrospective cohort study at the National Cancer Institute of Peru.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy; Rojas Rojas, Teresa; Berrospi, Francisco; Chávez, Ivan; Luque, Carlos; Cano, Luis; Doimi, Franco; Pineau, Pascal; Deharo, Eric; Bertani, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In the developing world, most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma present with advanced-stage disease, considered to be incurable based on current therapeutic algorithms. Here, we demonstrate that curative liver resection is achievable in a portion of Peruvian patients not addressed by these treatment algorithms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 253 hepatocellular carcinoma patients that underwent a curative hepatectomy between 1991 and 2011 at the National Cancer Institute of Peru. The median age of the cohort was 36 years, and merely 15.4% of the patients displayed cirrhosis. The average tumor size was over 14 cm in diameter, resulting in 76.3% of major hepatectomies performed. The 5- and 10-year survival probability estimates were 37.5% and 26.2%, respectively. Age (>44 vs. ≤44 years old; P = 0.005), tumor size (>10 cm vs. ≤10 cm in diameter; P = 0.009), cirrhosis (P < 0.001), satellite lesions (P < 0.001), macroscopic vascular invasion (P < 0.001), allogeneic blood transfusion (P = 0.011), and spontaneous rupture of the tumor (P = 0.006) were independent predictive factors for prognosis. Hepatocellular carcinomas in Peru are characterized by a distinct clinical presentation with notable features compared with those typically described throughout relevant literature. Despite a large number of advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinomas, the outcomes of liver resection observed in the present study were in good standing with the results previously described in other series. It thus appears that staging systems and associated therapeutic algorithms designed for use in the developed world remain inadequate in certain populations, especially in the context of Peruvian patients. Our findings suggest that clinicians in the developing world should reconsider management guidelines pertaining to hepatocellular carcinoma. Indeed, we hypothesize that, in developing countries, a strict adherence to these therapeutic algorithms might create a selection bias

  12. Mortality associated with depression as compared with other severe mental disorders: a 20-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Lemogne, Cédric; Nabi, Hermann; Melchior, Maria; Goldberg, Marcel; Limosin, Frédéric; Consoli, Silla M; Zins, Marie

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with severe mental disorders (SMD) have an increased risk of mortality from somatic diseases. This study examined whether this risk is different in persons with depressive disorders compared to those with other SMD (i.e. schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). In 1989, 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company (15,011 men and 5614 women, aged 35-50) agreed to participate in the GAZEL cohort study. Three diagnosis groups were created based on sick leave spells from 1978 onwards: 1) no SMD, 2) depressive disorders and 3) other SMD. Dates and causes of death were available from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2010. The association of diagnosis groups with mortality was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) computed using Cox regression. During a mean follow-up of 19.8 years, 1544 participants died, including 1343 from a natural cause, of which 258 died from cardiovascular diseases. After adjustment for age, gender, occupational status, alcohol consumption, smoking and body-mass index, participants with a history of sickness absence for SMD had a greater risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.24, CI: 1.08-1.43), cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.49, CI: 1.08-2.05) and non-cardiovascular natural mortality (HR: 1.19, CI: 1.02-1.39). Compared to depressive disorders, other SMD were associated with an increased risk of natural mortality (HR: 1.94, CI: 1.17-3.22) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.58, CI: 1.53-8.39). Job security and systematic medical follow-up may fall short of preventing premature death among workers with sickness absence due to SMD.

  13. Long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence following infant vaccination against hepatitis B and evaluation of anamnestic response: a 20-year follow-up study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Crasta, Priya Diana; Messier, Marc; Hardt, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine has been available worldwide since the mid-1980s. This vaccine was evaluated in a clinical trial in Thailand, conducted on subjects born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive and hepatitis B e-antigen positive mothers and vaccinated according to a 4-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 and 12 mo of age and a single dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin concomitantly at birth. All enrolled subjects seroconverted and were followed for 20 y to assess the persistence of antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) (NCT00240539). At year 20, 64% of subjects had anti-HBs antibody concentrations≥10 milli-international units per milli liter (mIU/ml) and 92% of subjects had detectable levels (≥3.3 mIU/ml) of anti-HBs antibodies. At year 20, subjects with anti-HBs antibody titer<100 mIU/ml were offered an additional dose of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to assess immune memory (NCT00657657). Anamnestic response to the challenge dose was observed in 96.6% of subjects with an 82-fold (13.2 to 1082.4 mIU/ml) increase in anti-HBs antibody geometric mean concentrations. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the 4-dose regimen of the HBV vaccine eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis B for up to at least 20 y after vaccination.

  14. Pattern of skin cancer among Saudi patients attending a tertiary care center in Dhahran, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A 20-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.

  15. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-01-01

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China’s existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p < 0.01). The BMDLs of the cumulative occupational lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m3 and 0.30 mg-year/m3 for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m3 and 0.01 mg/m3 for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning. PMID:26999177

  16. Combining thermodynamic simulations, element and surface analytics to study U(VI) retention in corroded cement monoliths upon >20 years of leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Schild, D.; Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Lagos, M.; Plaschke, M.; Kienzler, B.

    Retention or release of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes strongly depends on the geochemical environment and on the interaction with near-field components, e.g. waste packages and backfill materials. Deep geological disposal in rock salt is one of the concepts considered for cemented low- and intermediate-level wastes. Long-term experiments were performed to observe the evolution of full-scale cemented waste simulates (doped with (NH4)2U2O7) upon reaction with relevant salt brines, e.g. MgCl2-rich and saturated NaCl solutions, and to examine the binding mechanisms of uranium. Throughout the experiments, concentrations of major solution components, uranium and pH values were monitored regularly and compared to thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, which indicate that close-to-equilibrium conditions have been achieved after 13-14 years duration of the leaching experiments. Two of the full-scale cemented waste simulates were recovered from the solutions after 17-18 years and studied by different analytical methods to characterize the solids, especially with respect to uranium incorporation. In drill core fragments of various lateral and horizontal positions of the corroded monoliths, U-rich aggregates were detected and analyzed by means of space-resolved techniques. Raman, μ-XANES and μ-XRD analyses of several aggregates demonstrate that they consist of an amorphous diuranate-type solid. Within error, calculated U solubilities controlled by Na-diuranate (Na2U2O7·H2O) are consistent with measured U concentrations in both, the NaCl and the MgCl2-system. Since uranophane occurs also in the corroded monoliths, it is proposed that a transition towards the thermodynamic equilibrium U(VI) phase is kinetically hindered.

  17. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-03-16

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p < 0.01). The BMDLs of the cumulative occupational lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m³ and 0.30 mg-year/m³ for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m³ and 0.01 mg/m³ for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  18. Distribution and dynamics of soil contamination with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in Poland and prevention measures proposed after 20 years of study.

    PubMed

    Mizgajska-Wiktor, Hanna; Jarosz, Wojciech; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka

    2017-01-30

    The studies conducted in the years 1994-2013 allowed to determine the distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in the soil of different types of urban and rural areas in Poland and to establish seasonal and multi-year dynamics of soil contamination with T. cati and T. canis eggs. Out of 3309 soil samples examined, 14.9% contained the eggs and the average density was 3.43 eggs/100g of soil. The level of soil contamination was the highest in cities, lower in villages, and lowest in small towns. In urban areas eggs of T. cati were found more frequently than of T. canis, while in rural areas the opposite was true. Both, in urban and rural areas, the sites most heavily contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs were household surroundings (backyards). Recreation areas (parks, playgrounds, lake beaches) were significantly less contaminated. In older parts of Poznań, in backyards, soil contamination with the eggs was generally high each month, being lowest in July and highest in December and the prevalence of T. cati eggs was much higher than of T. canis. The prevention policy introduced in the city thus far - paying great attention to dog faeces but not to cats was unsatisfactory. After 18 years of such policy, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs dropped significantly but it was not a linear phenomenon - the intensity of soil contamination fluctuated. To be more effective, preventive measures should be preceded with discrimination of T. canis and T. cati eggs recovered in the soil and for this purpose the new molecular techniques should be applied. A survey conducted in the population in 2010 showed that people's awareness on the significance of pets in the transmission of dangerous zoonoses to humans was unsatisfactory. We recommend to expand the knowledge of the subject among the populace.

  19. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Huang, Ya-Li; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  20. Relation of left ventricular mass at age 23 to 35 years to global left ventricular systolic function 20 years later (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study).

    PubMed

    Kishi, Satoru; Armstrong, Anderson C; Gidding, Samuel S; Jacobs, David R; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Schreiner, Pamela J; Liu, Kiang; Lima, João A C

    2014-01-15

    Left ventricular (LV) mass and the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) are major independent predictors of future cardiovascular disease. The association of LV mass with the future LVEF in younger populations has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of LV mass index (LVMI) at ages 23 to 35 years to LV function after 20 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. CARDIA is a longitudinal study that enrolled young adults in 1985 and 1986. In this study, participants with echocardiographic examinations at years 5 and 25 were included. LVMI and the LVEF were assessed using M-mode echocardiography at year 5 and using M-mode and 2-dimensional imaging at year 25. Statistical analytic models assessed the correlation between LVMI and LV functional parameters cross-sectionally and longitudinally. A total of 2,339 participants were included. The mean LVEF at year 25 was 62%. Although there was no cross-sectional correlation between LVMI and the LVEF at year 5, there was a small but statistically significant negative correlation between LVMI at year 5 and the LVEF 20 years later (r = -0.10, p <0.0001); this inverse association persisted for LVMI in the multivariate model. High LVMI was an independent predictor of systolic dysfunction (LVEF <50%) 20 years later (odds ratio 1.46, p = 0.0018). In conclusion, LVMI in young adulthood in association with chronic risk exposure affects systolic function in middle age; the antecedents of heart failure may occur at younger ages than previously thought.

  1. A 20-Year Study of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Patrick; Callingham, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring educational changes over many years is problematic when there are differences in curricula, the nature of the variables being measured, and the selection of participants. Rasch measurement techniques provide a procedure that enables each of these issues to be examined. Using archived and specially collected data, tests of numeracy…

  2. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  3. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability (ID) over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of…

  4. NCCN: 20 Years of Improving Patients' Lives.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    In his Keynote Address at the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Robert W. Carlson, MD, reflected on the achievements of NCCN and described how the organization will continue to grow under his leadership. Recognizing that the founding of NCCN was by a group of visionary leaders who came together 20 years ago to assure access of patients to high-quality cancer care, Dr. Carlson said "All our efforts within NCCN are focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of patient care, so that our patients can live better lives."

  5. Altered speech following adenoidectomy: a 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K J; Ahmad, T; Razzell, R E; Watson, A C H

    2002-09-01

    Altered speech related to velopharyngeal insufficiency is a rare but well-recognised complication of adenoidectomy. Over a 20 year period, 42 patients were referred to the Edinburgh cleft team for investigation of altered speech persisting for more than 12 months after adenoidectomy. We studied the cases to ascertain the incidence, clinical features and causes of altered speech in these patients and to assess the efficacy of a selective treatment policy. All data were prospectively collected when the patients were assessed in a multidisciplinary clinic and investigated by videofluoroscopy. Nasopharyngoscopy was also possible in half of the patients. Overall, 27 patients were male and 15 were female, and their mean age was 6.5 years. The incidence was one in 1200 adenoidectomies. Diagnoses included five submucous cleft palates, six occult submucous cleft palates, 22 cases of velopharyngeal disproportion, seven developmental or neurological causes, one iatrogenic palatal injury and one case that defied diagnosis. In six patients treatment was not required, 13 responded to speech therapy and 23 required surgical intervention. The choice of operation was based on the findings at investigation. Ten patients were treated by a superiorly based pharyngeal flap, 10 underwent a sphincteric pharyngoplasty and three had an intravelar veloplasty. Speech outcome was assessed in 36 cases. Treatment resulted in significantly improved speech in all but one patient and normal speech in 16 patients. Persistently altered speech is a rare complication of adenoidectomy. Preoperative screening by clinical examination will prevent some but not all of such problems. When patients present they should undergo multidisciplinary assessment and multi-modality investigation. A good outcome can be anticipated in most patients.

  6. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types…

  7. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    An important component of psychoneuroimmunology research is to reveal the myriad ways that behaviors and health are inter-related, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that underlie these interactions. Research in human psychoneuroimmunology has shown that immunoregulatory processes are an integral part of a complex network of adaptive responses. As such, this review provides a perspective from our laboratory over the last 20 years to define the inter-relationships between behavior and immunity; to identify the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and autonomic mechanisms that link the central nervous system and immune responses; to examine the clinical implications of immune alterations during depression or life stress on inflammatory and infectious disease risk; and to explore the reciprocal role of immune mediators on behavior in humans.

  8. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Microteaching Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Maria L.; Robinson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Microteaching Lesson Study [MLS] is a cooperative learning experience that we felt could challenge our prospective teachers thinking about teaching and support their connection of theory and practice during an initial course on learning to teach mathematics. We studied seventy-four prospective teachers' perspectives on MLS over four sections of…

  9. Alterations in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra) 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure: Sardasht-Iran cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yaraee, Roya; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Ardestani, Sussan K; Rezaei, Abbas; Kariminia, Amina; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Mostafaie, Ali; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Soroush, Mohammad R; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2009-12-01

    Mustard gas, even in low doses, has the ability to inflict damage in multiple organs especially the skin, eyes, as well as the respiratory tract. This damage may cause many complications which persist during the lifespan of exposed subjects. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra cause systemic inflammatory reactions and numerous changes including altered cell signaling and migration, changes in cytokine production and fever. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of these cytokines in subjects who were exposed to mustard gas 20 years ago in comparison with an unexposed control group. In this historical cohort study 368 sulfur mustard (SM) exposed participants from Sardasht and 126 age-matched unexposed volunteers from Rabat (a nearby town) as controls were chosen by a random systematic sampling. The serum concentrations of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1Ra and TNF were measured by a sandwich ELISA technique. Median of the serum levels of cytokines TNF, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra in the control group was 23.79, 1.89, 1.91 and 32.9 pg/ml respectively, while in the SM-exposed participants these values were 11.11, 0.81, 1.73 and 26.7 pg/ml respectively. The serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly lower in the exposed group than in controls (p<0.01). There was also significant positive correlation between concentration of all of mentioned cytokines, the strongest being between IL-1beta and TNF (r=0.809 in the control group). The observed down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines should be considered in interpretation of diagnosis and therapeutic measures taken to improve clinical complications.

  10. Intranasal and transantral ethmoidectomy: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Katsantonis, G P

    1990-04-01

    Ethmoidectomy is an operation that has engendered controversy concerning the best route of surgical access. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the authors' experience in more than 1300 intranasal sphenoethmoidectomies and transantral sphenoethmoidectomies performed over a 20-year period. The authors contend that the most effective ethmoidectomy is the most complete ethmoidectomy and have previously presented a case for ethmoid marsupialization. Polyp recurrence rates of less than 20% and a major complication rate of less than 1% were reported in this study.

  11. Biological consequences of Chernobyl: 20 years on.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2006-04-01

    The disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 released 80 petabecquerel of radioactive caesium, strontium, plutonium and other radioactive isotopes into the atmosphere, polluting 200 000 km(2) of land in Europe. As we discuss here, several studies have since shown associations between high and low levels of radiation and the abundance, distribution, life history and mutation rates of plants and animals. However, this research is the consequence of investment by a few individuals rather than a concerted research effort by the international community, despite the fact that the effects of the disaster are continent-wide. A coordinated international research effort is therefore needed to further investigate the effects of the disaster, knowledge that could be beneficial if there are further nuclear accidents, including the threat of a "dirty bomb".

  12. My first 20 years in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Maisky, V A

    2011-01-01

    Intriguing facts were obtained in the first electrophysiological investigations (1964) that the action potentials (AP) produced by direct depolarization of the cell membrane in different species of mollusks showed specific relations to changes in external ionic composition. In Helix neurons, the generation of AP was well maintained in sodium-free solutions with high calcium or barium content. The amplitude of the spike overshoot in the case was linearly related to the logarithm of calcium concentration. It is interesting that increase in external calcium ions decreased the ionic conductance of the resting membrane (R0) also in linear relation to the logarithm of Ca2+ or Ba2+ concentration. It was found for the first time (1965) that addition of Ba2+ to the external solution produced in the neurons well-developed prolonged (protracted) APs in all cases. However, the excitability of Planorbis and Limnea neurons was rapidly (during 3 min) reversibly depressed in sodium-free solutions. We found that, after injections of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) in the spinal cord of cats, the enzyme was transported retrogradely to brain stem neurons in the bulbar medial reticular formation, the vestibular complex, and the red nucleus. We obtained (1975) intriguing facts in our investigations: we recorded the labeled neurons in the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus, as well as in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. The existence of straight pathways from hypothalamus to the spinal cord has not been demonstrated earlier. The next step of our study was to determine the corresponding spinal funiculi where descending fibers (from various brain stem cell groups) are located. Indeed, in our pioneer studies (1977), we found that the fibers from the hypothalamus, which descend throughout the spinal cord, are located mainly in the lateral funiculus, ipsilaterally.

  13. Radium in man - 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1940, there was a need to set a standard for internal exposure to radium for the instrument industry that required luminous characters painted with radium paint. A committee was convened to review the existing information on the health effects of internal radium. Twenty-seven persons had been studied, seven with burdens of 0.5 {mu}g or less with no health effects and twenty with burdens of 1.2 {mu}g or more with health effects. The radium burden dividing the two groups was assumed at 1 {mu}g (an implied threshold), a safety factor of 10 was applied, and the internal radium standard was set at 0.1 {mu}g, a value that still stands today. Over the next five or six decades, about 2000 subjects were investigated, including many measurements on almost all the subjects. In the intervening years, several analyses of the data, available at each particular time, have been made with radical differences in interpretation.

  14. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  15. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  16. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  17. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  18. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  19. Survival Trends After Surgery for Acute Subdural Hematoma in Adults Over a 20-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Daniel M.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Adams, Hadie; Bond, Simon J.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine 30-day survival trends and prognostic factors following surgery for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in England and Wales over a 20-year period. Summary of Background Data: ASDHs are still considered the most lethal type of traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear whether the adjusted odds of survival have improved significantly over time. Methods: Using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, we analyzed ASDH cases in the adult population (>16 yrs) treated surgically between 1994 and 2013. Two thousand four hundred ninety-eight eligible cases were identified. Univariable and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, using multiple imputation for missing data. Results: The cohort was 74% male with a median age of 48.9 years. Over half of patients were comatose at presentation (53%). Mechanism of injury was due to a fall (<2 m 34%, >2 m 24%), road traffic collision (25%), and other (17%). Thirty-six per cent of patients presented with polytrauma. Gross survival increased from 59% in 1994 to 1998 to 73% in 2009 to 2013. Under multivariable analysis, variables independently associated with survival were year of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, age, and pupil reactivity. The time interval from injury to craniotomy and direct admission to a neurosurgical unit were not found to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: A significant improvement in survival over the last 20 years was observed after controlling for multiple prognostic factors. Prospective trials and cohort studies are expected to elucidate the distribution of functional outcome in survivors. PMID:27172128

  20. Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangtong; Fine, Jason Peter; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. A questionnaire was used to measure diabetes risk factors, including dietary habits, lifestyle, psychological factors, cognitive function, and physical condition. Gray test and a subdistribution hazards model were used to construct a prediction algorithm for 20-year risk of diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, bootstrap cross-validated Wolber concordance index (C-index) statistics, and calibration plots were used to assess model performance. During the 20-year follow-up period, 144 cases were documented for diabetes incidence with a median follow-up of 10.9 years (interquartile range: 8.0–15.3 years). The cumulative incidence function of 20-year diabetes incidence was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risk of nondiabetes death. Gray test showed that body mass index, FPG, self-rated heath status, and physical activity were associated with the cumulative incidence function of diabetes after adjusting for age. Finally, 5 standard risk factors (poor self-rated health status [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.73, P = 0.005], less physical activity [SHR = 1.39, P = 0.047], 55–65 years old [SHR = 4.37, P < 0.001], overweight [SHR = 2.15, P < 0.001] or obesity [SHR = 1.96, P = 0.003], and impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [SHR = 1.99, P < 0.001]) were significantly associated with incident

  1. 20 Years Later: How One Flagship Has Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the University of Kansas has changed in 20 years. Twenty years ago, annual operating expenses for the University of Kansas campus here were $204-million. Today the institution spends more than triple that, even though its enrollment, 26,000, is almost exactly the same. During the same period, tuition and fees for in-state…

  2. Support-Staff Jobs Double in 20 Years, Outpacing Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Fain, Paul; Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Colleges have added managers and support personnel at a steady, vigorous clip over the past 20 years, new research shows, far outpacing the growth in student enrollment and instructors. Support staff--like budget analysts, computer specialists, and loan counselors--nearly doubled from 1987 to 2007. Meanwhile, jobs for instructors increased by only…

  3. The Systems Librarian: Reflecting on 20 Years of Library Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author relates his experiences in the use of library technology over his 20-year career at Vanderbilt University. He describes how computers in libraries have transformed almost every aspect of how the library provides its services and performs its work behind the scenes. In addition, the author shares a few successful…

  4. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  5. 20 Years of Investing in a Clear, Healthy Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community Information Fact Sheet with information about Lake Tahoe's history, the roles of EPA, state, and local government in protecting the Lake Tahoe Basin, priorities for the next 20 years, as well as actions that you can take to protect Lake Tahoe.

  6. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  7. Reflections on 20 Years of Research on Violence and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue reflecting on what people have learned about violence and trauma over the past 20 years and where we need to go in the next 10 years. The author emphasizes the importance of learning to communicate in order to form effective community partnerships. Evidence-based research is noted as a methodological…

  8. Histidinaemia. Part III: Impact; a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, J T; Kammerer, B L; Levy, H L; Hirsch, B Z; Scriver, C R

    1983-01-01

    We describe a prospective study of histidinaemia. Probands and siblings (n = 21) with typical histidinaemia in 16 families were ascertained by newborn screening; diagnosis was confirmed by appropriate investigations in each subject; none had been treated by low histidine diet. The median age of subjects with histidinaemia was 9.5 y (mean 10.0, SD 3.5, range 6-18). Age-matched sib-pairs and their mothers were studied. IQ scores (Full Scale, Verbal and Performance Scores), Visual-Motor Integration Performance (Bender Gestalt and Koppitz scores), Wide Range Achievement Test (Reading and Mathematics), school performance, and psychological history were evaluated, as well as the medical history (pregnancy, delivery, neonatal, post-natal development). Findings were correlated with biochemical phenotype. CNS development in histidinaemic subjects (mean and distribution of scores) was normal; outlier values did not correlate with degree of histidinaemia. We can conclude that histidinaemia detected by newborn screening is a non-disadaptive phenotype.

  9. Swiss prospective study on spider bites.

    PubMed

    Gnädinger, Markus; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-09-04

    Knowledge of spider bites in Central Europe derives mainly from anecdotal case presentations; therefore we aimed to collect cases systematically. From June 2011 to November 2012 we prospectively collected 17 cases of alleged spider bites, and together with two spontaneous notifications later on, our database totaled 19 cases. Among them, eight cases could be verified. The causative species were: Cheiracanthium punctorium (3), Zoropsis spinimana (2), Amaurobius ferox, Tegenaria atrica and Malthonica ferruginea (1 each). Clinical presentation was generally mild, with the exception of Cheiracanthium punctorium, and patients recovered fully without sequelae. In Switzerland, spider bites generally have a benign clinical course, which is characterised by minor effects, with rapid and complete recovery. Since only verified spider bites can be regarded as spider bites, in the case of clinically important arachnidism, the spider should be sent to an expert for identification. Our study may help to diminish spider fear and reassure people who have experienced a bite.

  10. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  11. Neoplasia in immunosuppressed renal transplant patients: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, T.C.; Tallent, M.B. Jr.; Richie, R.E.; Johnson, H.K.; MacDonell, R.C.; Turner, B.

    1985-05-01

    This review examines a 20-year experience in renal transplantation at our center to determine the effects of immunosuppression on the subsequent development of malignancies. Twenty patients had 21 malignancies from primary sites other than skin, yielding an incidence of 2.5%. There were 0.65 malignancies for each 100 cumulative patient years of immunosuppression. Suppression of the host immune response is associated with an increased incidence of malignancies.

  12. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  13. Salivary levels of secretary IgA, C5a and alpha 1-antitrypsin in sulfur mustard exposed patients 20 years after the exposure, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Mostafaie, Ali; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Yaraee, Roya; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Sharifnia, Zarin; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong toxic agent that causes acute and chronic health effects on a myriad of organs following exposure. Although the primary targets of inhaled mustard gas are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract, the lower respiratory tract is the focus of the current study, and upper tract complications remain obscure. To our knowledge there is no study addressing the secretory IgA (S-IgA), C5a, alpha 1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in the saliva of SM-exposed victims. In this study, as many as 500 volunteers, including 372 SM-exposed cases and 128 control volunteers were recruited. A 3 ml sample of saliva was collected from each volunteer, and the level of secretory IgA, C5a, and alpha 1 antitrypsin in the samples were compared between the two groups. The SM-exposed group showed a significantly higher amount of salivary alpha 1 antitrypsin and secretary IgA compared to the control group (p<.006 and p<.018 respectively). The two groups showed no significant difference (p=0.192) in the level of C5a. The results also showed that the level of salivary A1AT is more than that of IgA in severely injured cases. The findings presented here provide valuable insight for both researchers and practitioners dealing with victims of the chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard. This research indicates that certain branches of the inflammatory processes mandate serious attention in therapeutic interventions.

  14. A Study of Prospective Teachers' Consumption Patterns on Special Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify prospective teachers' consumption patterns on special days. The sample was comprised of 29 prospective teachers (22 females and 7 males) who studied Primary School Teaching in the Faculty of Education at Sakarya University during the 2014-2015 Academic Year. The study was designed as a phenomenological…

  15. Study of Prospective Teachers' Conceptualization of Value Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruklu, Nermin; Aktamis, Hilal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any changes in the conceptualization of prospective teachers' values preferences during their university studies. The research group was composed of 208 prospective teachers who were studying at Science Education, Social Science Education and Fine Arts Education at Adnan Menderes…

  16. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusionmore » devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.« less

  17. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-06-05

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfv,nic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate similar ~ √(nα/ne) driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. Recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. Finally, we discuss prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  18. Ion cyclotron emission studies: Retrospects and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkov, N. N.

    2016-05-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) studies emerged in part from the papers by A.B. Mikhailovskii published in the 1970s. Among the discussed subjects were electromagnetic compressional Alfvénic cyclotron instabilities with the linear growth rate √ {n_α /n_e } driven by fusion products, -particles which draw a lot of attention to energetic particle physics. The theory of ICE excited by energetic particles was significantly advanced at the end of the 20th century motivated by first DT experiments on TFTR and subsequent JET experimental studies which we highlight. More recently ICE theory was advanced by detailed theoretical and experimental studies on spherical torus (ST) fusion devices where the instability signals previously indistinguishable in high aspect ratio tokamaks due to high toroidal magnetic field became the subjects of experiments. We discuss further prospects of ICE theory applications for future burning plasma (BP) experiments such as those to be conducted in ITER device in France, where neutron and gamma rays escaping the plasma create extremely challenging conditions fusion alpha particle diagnostics.

  19. Periodontal disease and breast cancer: Prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Freudenheim, Jo L; Genco, Robert J; LaMonte, Michael J; Millen, Amy E; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; Nwizu, Ngozi; Andrews, Christopher A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease (PD) has been consistently associated with chronic disease; there are no large studies of breast cancer although oral-associated microbes are present in breast tumors. Methods In the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women, 73,737 women without previous breast cancer were followed. Incident, primary, invasive breast tumors were verified by physician adjudication. PD was by self-report. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards, adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. Because the oral microbiome of those with PD differs with smoking status, we examined associations stratified by smoking. Results 2,124 incident, invasive breast cancer cases were identified after mean follow-up of 6.7 years. PD, reported by 26.1% of women, was associated with increased breast cancer risk (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26), particularly among former smokers who quit within 20 years (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77). Among current smokers, the trend was similar (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.83 to 2.11); there were few cases (n=74) and the CI included the null. The population attributable fraction was 12.06% (95% CI 1.12 to 21.79) and 10.90% (95% CI 10.31 to 28.94) for PD among former smokers quitting within 20 years and current smokers, respectively. Conclusion PD, a common chronic inflammatory disorder, was associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, particularly among former smokers who quit in the past 20 years. Impact Understanding a possible role of the oral microbiome in breast carcinogenesis could impact prevention. PMID:26689418

  20. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  1. Q-Method 20 Years Later: Its Uses and Abuses in Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Leonard

    William Stephenson's Q methodology has been linked to the future of communications research by some and condemned as treacherous by others. This study reviews the uses of Q in published mass communications research over the past 20 years. The survey found 30 mass communications studies published in English in the scholarly journals related to mass…

  2. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  3. [Surgical treatment of esophageal achalasia--20 years experience].

    PubMed

    Yaramov, N; Sokolov, M; Angelov, K; Toshev, S; Petrov, B

    2009-01-01

    Achalasia comes from a Greek word that means "failure to relax." Cardiospasm and achalasia refer to the same condition. This report addresses esophageal achalasia--its history, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options. We report our experience in treating this disorder surgically using modified Heller myotomy combined or not with partial gastric fundoplication. 47 patients with achalasia surgically operated in 20-years period are reported by authors. These features make it reasonable to reasses the relative indications for surgery and nonsurgical therapy in achalasia of the esophagus.

  4. Neurosurgery in rural Nigeria: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rabiu, Taopheeq Bamidele; Komolafe, Edward Oluwole

    2016-01-01

    Background: Africa has very few neurosurgeons. These are almost exclusively in urban centers. Consequently, people in rural areas, most of the African population, have poor or no access to neurosurgical care. We have recently pioneered rural neurosurgery in Nigeria. Objectives: This report details our initial experiences and the profile of neurosurgical admissions in our center. Methods: A prospective observational study of all neurosurgical patients managed at a rural tertiary health institution in Nigeria from December 2010 to May 2012 was done. Simple descriptive data analysis was performed. Results: A total of 249 males (75.2%) and 82 females (24.8%) were managed. The median age was 37 years (range: Day of birth – 94 years). Trauma was the leading cause of presentation with 225 (68.0%) and 35 (10.6%) having sustained head and spinal injuries, respectively. Operative intervention was performed in 54 (16.3%). Twenty-four (7.2%) patients discharged against medical advice, mostly for economic reasons. Most patients (208, 63.4%) had satisfactory outcome while 30 (9.1%) died. Conclusion: Trauma is the leading cause of rural neurosurgical presentations. There is an urgent need to improve access to adequate neurosurgical care in the rural communities. PMID:27695224

  5. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio; de Figueiredo Neto, José Albuquerque; de Sousa, Rosângela Maria Lopes; Costa, Vera Lívia Xavier de Castro; Silva, Flor de Maria Araújo Mendonça; da Hora, Ana Flávia Lima Teles; da Silva, Edna Lúcia Coutinho; Reis, Lívia Mariane Castelo Branco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Objective To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. Results The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%), 39 men (68.42%), 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%), 16 literate (28.07 %) and 30 married (52.63%). The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32%) at time zero to 17 (29.82%) after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28%) before and 10 (17.54%) after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14%) to 28 (49.12%), and severe of three (5.26%) for two (3.51%) patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory. PMID:24598954

  6. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  7. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  8. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  9. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  10. What Works: 20 Years of Curriculum Development and Research for Advanced Learners, 1988-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Stambaugh, Tamra, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to highlight "what works" based on the curriculum development and research work of the Center for Gifted Education during the past 20 years. Areas of study include curriculum development, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Through the use of the Integrated Curriculum Model as a template for …

  11. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  12. Insights gained from 20 years of soy research.

    PubMed

    Messina, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Soyfoods have long been recognized for their high-protein and low-saturated fat content, but over the past 20 y an impressive amount of soy-related research has evaluated the role of these foods in reducing chronic disease risk. Much of this research has been undertaken because the soybean is essentially a unique dietary source of isoflavones, a group of chemicals classified as phytoestrogens. The estrogen-like properties of isoflavones have also raised concern, however, that soyfoods might exert adverse effects in some individuals. There is intriguing animal and epidemiologic evidence indicating that modest amounts of soy consumed during childhood and/or adolescence reduces breast cancer risk. Evidence also suggests that soy reduces prostate cancer risk and inhibits prostate tumor metastasis, but additional clinical support for the chemopreventive effects of soyfoods is needed. Soy protein is modestly hypocholesterolemic and there is suggestive epidemiologic evidence that soyfoods lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of effects on cholesterol. In clinical studies, soy favorably affects multiple CHD risk factors; however, with the exception of improved endothelial function, the data are too limited and/or inconsistent to allow definitive conclusions to be made. In regard to bone health, although recent clinical data have not supported the skeletal benefits of isoflavones, 2 large prospective epidemiologic studies found soy intake is associated with marked reductions in fracture risk. Soybean isoflavones also modestly alleviate hot flashes in menopausal women. Finally, other than allergic reactions, there is almost no credible evidence to suggest traditional soyfoods exert clinically relevant adverse effects in healthy individuals when consumed in amounts consistent with Asian intake.

  13. [Evaluation of 20 years' experience of enuresis in children].

    PubMed

    Averous, M; Lopez, C

    1997-06-01

    The clinical and urodynamic approach to enuretic children over a period of more than 20 years has allowed the authors to develop a multifactorial pathophysiological concept of this disorder. The main factors involved are psychological, familial, genetic, vesical, due to bladder immaturity, hormonal, due to a defect of nocturnal ADH secretion, hygiene and dietary habits, etc. The sleep factor is predominant in the majority of cases. Although nocturnal enuresis is apparently isolated in many cases, it is often associated with a state of bladder immaturity, sometimes latent during the day, but occurring at night with episodes of detrusor hyperactivity, occurring during various phases of sleep. In practice, the recognition, in children, of these factors, some of which require specific treatments, implies a management combining several of these therapeutic modalities.

  14. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  15. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  16. Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective.

    PubMed

    Parker, K J; Doyley, M M; Rubens, D J

    2011-01-07

    After 20 years of innovation in techniques that specifically image the biomechanical properties of tissue, the evolution of elastographic imaging can be viewed from its infancy, through a proliferation of approaches to the problem to incorporation on research and then clinical imaging platforms. Ultimately this activity has culminated in clinical trials and improved care for patients. This remarkable progression represents a leading example of translational research that begins with fundamentals of science and engineering and progresses to needed improvements in diagnostic and monitoring capabilities applied to major categories of disease, surgery and interventional procedures. This review summarizes the fundamental principles, the timeline of developments in major categories of elastographic imaging, and concludes with recent results from clinical trials and forward-looking issues.

  17. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  18. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  19. 20 years of leptin: connecting leptin signaling to biological function.

    PubMed

    Allison, Margaret B; Myers, Martin G

    2014-10-01

    Hypothalamic leptin action promotes negative energy balance and modulates glucose homeostasis, as well as serving as a permissive signal to the neuroendocrine axes that control growth and reproduction. Since the initial discovery of leptin 20 years ago, we have learned a great deal about the molecular mechanisms of leptin action. An important aspect of this has been the dissection of the cellular mechanisms of leptin signaling, and how specific leptin signals influence physiology. Leptin acts via the long form of the leptin receptor LepRb. LepRb activation and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation recruits and activates multiple signaling pathways, including STAT transcription factors, SHP2 and ERK signaling, the IRS-protein/PI3Kinase pathway, and SH2B1. Each of these pathways controls specific aspects of leptin action and physiology. Important inhibitory pathways mediated by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins and protein tyrosine phosphatases also limit physiologic leptin action. This review summarizes the signaling pathways engaged by LepRb and their effects on energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and reproduction. Particular emphasis is given to the multiple mouse models that have been used to elucidate these functions in vivo.

  20. Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after 20 years: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Maron, Martin S; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common familial heart disease with vast genetic heterogeneity, demonstrated over the past 20 years. Mutations in 11 or more genes encoding proteins of the cardiac sarcomere (>1,400 variants) are responsible for (or associated with) HCM. Explosive progress achieved in understanding the rapidly evolving science underlying HCM genomics has resulted in fee-for-service testing, making genetic information widely available. The power of HCM mutational analysis, albeit a more limited role than initially envisioned, lies most prominently in screening family members at risk for developing disease and excluding unaffected relatives, which is information not achievable otherwise. Genetic testing also allows expansion of the broad HCM disease spectrum and diagnosis of HCM phenocopies with different natural history and treatment options, but is not a reliable strategy for predicting prognosis. Interfacing a heterogeneous disease such as HCM with the vast genetic variability of the human genome, and high frequency of novel mutations, has created unforeseen difficulties in translating complex science (and language) into the clinical arena. Indeed, proband diagnostic testing is often expressed on a probabilistic scale, which is frequently incompatible with clinical decision making. Major challenges rest with making reliable distinctions between pathogenic mutations and benign variants, and those judged to be of uncertain significance. Genotyping in HCM can be a powerful tool for family screening and diagnosis. However, wider adoption and future success of genetic testing in the practicing cardiovascular community depends on a standardized approach to mutation interpretation, and bridging the communication gap between basic scientists and clinicians.

  1. Deferiprone‐induced agranulocytosis: 20 years of clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Uetrecht, Jack; Galanello, Renzo; Connelly, John; Rozova, Anna; Spino, Michael; Palmblad, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Use of the iron chelator deferiprone for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia patients is associated with concerns over agranulocytosis, which requires weekly absolute neutrophil counts (ANC). Here, we analyze all episodes of agranulocytosis (n = 161) and neutropenia (n = 250) during deferiprone use in clinical trials (CT) and postmarketing surveillance programs (PMSP). Rates of agranulocytosis and neutropenia in CT were 1.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Of the agranulocytosis cases, 61% occurred during the first 6 months of therapy and 78% during the first year. These events appeared to be independent of dose, and occurred three times more often in females than males. Their duration was not significantly shortened by use of G‐CSF. No patient with baseline neutropenia (n = 12) developed agranulocytosis during treatment, which raises questions about the validity of prior neutropenia as a contraindication to use. Only 1/7 novel neutropenia cases in CT progressed to agranulocytosis with continued treatment, indicating that neutropenia does not necessarily lead to agranulocytosis. The agranulocytosis fatality rate was 0% in CT and 15/143 (11%) in PMSP. Rechallenge with deferiprone produced agranulocytosis in 75% of patients in whom the event had already occurred, and in 10% with previous neutropenia. Weekly ANC monitoring allows early detection and interruption of therapy, but does not prevent agranulocytosis from occurring. Its relevance appears to decrease after the first year of therapy, when agranulocytosis occurs less often. Based upon analysis of data collected over the past 20 years, it appears that patient education may be the key to minimizing agranulocytosis‐associated risks during deferiprone therapy. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1026–1031, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27415835

  2. Sources of happiness and stress for college students: a replication and comparison over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Cosmar, David; Kaffenberger, Joshua

    2007-12-01

    The advancement of positive psychology is dependent upon measures of happiness, both globally and in specific contexts. Data are presented on two measures of sources of college students' happiness from two samples. Testing of the two cohorts (Ns=258, 68) was separated by 20 years. Measures for both samples had acceptable psychometric properties. There was an increase in college students' self-reported happiness across the 20-year period in the rankings of different sources of college happiness and general happiness. In a second study, a different group of students (N= 176) were given a list and asked to select the most important uplifts and hassles in their lives. In general, mean scores on affect measures were relatively stable across time, but transportation hassles were reported as a new source of negative affect in the present study.

  3. [The Health Surveillance database of a large hospital enterprise: a 20-year analysis].

    PubMed

    Talini, Donatella; Baldasseronil, Alberto; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Magnani, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the aging of the working population and its effects, a 20 years observational study was conducted on health surveillance data of a large healthcare company. The data showed a gradual increase in the mean age of workers, especially among subjects with restrictions/requirements regarding their job title. If no preventive/corrective measures are taken, the socio-economnic situation will get worse with economic and social damages.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland: technological and physical prospects after 20 years of experiences.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika; Timonen, Marjut; Reijonen, Vappu; Kuusela, Linda; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Salli, Eero; Koivunoro, Hanna; Seppälä, Tiina; Lönnroth, Nadja; Välimäki, Petteri; Hyvönen, Heini; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Kuronen, Antti; Heikkinen, Sami; Kosunen, Antti; Auterinen, Iiro

    2013-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy method developed to treat patients with certain malignant tumours. To date, over 300 treatments have been carried out at the Finnish BNCT facility in various on-going and past clinical trials. In this technical review, we discuss our research work in the field of medical physics to form the groundwork for the Finnish BNCT patient treatments, as well as the possibilities to further develop and optimize the method in the future. Accordingly, the following aspects are described: neutron sources, beam dosimetry, treatment planning, boron imaging and determination, and finally the possibilities to detect the efficacy and effects of BNCT on patients.

  5. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, David E. . E-mail: dejacobs@starpower.net; Nevin, Rick

    2006-11-15

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels {>=}10 {mu}g/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries.

  6. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  7. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  8. Women's Studies in the 1990s: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judith

    1991-01-01

    This speech examines women's studies in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s, limitations and problems facing women's studies in the 1990s, and prospects. Discussed are effects of the "Dawkins Revolution," women's studies and feminist scholarship, women's studies curricula, institutional problems, political problems, and the changing faculty…

  9. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  10. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  11. Inter-Hospital Variability of Postoperative Pain after Tonsillectomy: Prospective Registry-Based Multicentre Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Geißler, Katharina; Komann, Marcus; Schlattmann, Peter; Meissner, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although tonsillectomy is one of the most frequent and painful surgeries, the association between baseline and process parameters and postoperative pain are not fully understood. Methods A multicentre prospective cohort study using a web-based registry enrolled 1,527 women and 1,008 men aged 4 to 85 years from 52 German hospitals between 2006 and 2015. Maximal pain (MP) score the first day after surgery on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from 0 (no pain) to 10 (MP) was the main outcome parameter. Results The mean maximal pain score was 5.8±2.2 (median 6). Multivariable analysis revealed that female gender (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 1.56; p = 0.001), age <20 years (OR = 1.56; CI = 1.27 to 1.91; p<0.0001), no pain counselling (OR = 1.78; CI = 1.370 to 2.316; p<0.001), chronic pain (OR = 1.34; CI = 1.107 to 1.64; p = 0.004), and receiving opioids in recovery room (OR = 1.89; CI = 1.55 to 2.325; p<0.001) or on ward (OR = 1.79; CI = 1.42 to 2.27; p<0.001) were independently associated with higher experienced maximal postoperative pain (greater the median of 6). The effect of age on pain was not linear. Maximal pain increased in underage patients to a peak at the age of 18 to 20 years. From the age of ≥20 years on, maximal pain after tonsillectomy continuously decreased. Even after adjustment to all statistically important baseline and process parameters, there was substantial variability of maximal pain between hospitals with a heterogeneity variance of 0.31. Conclusion Many patients seem to receive insufficient or ineffective analgesia after tonsillectomy. Further research should address if populations at risk of higher postoperative pain such as females, younger patients or those with preexisting pain might profit from a special pain management protocol. Beyond classical demographical and process parameters the large variability between different hospitals is striking and indicates the existence of other unknown factors

  12. PROSPECTIVE PREGNANCY STUDY DESIGNS FOR ASSESSING REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective Pregnancy Study Designs for Assessing Reproductive and Developmental Toxicants
    Germaine M. Buck,1 Courtney D. Johnson,1 Joseph Stanford,2 Anne Sweeney,3 Laura Schieve,4 John Rockett,5 Sherry G. Selevan,6 Steve Schrader 7

    Abstract
    The origin of successfu...

  13. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  14. Students' Perception on the Prospect of Economics Education Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiriza, Mica Siar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which perceptions of students on the prospect of the Economics Education Program. The method used in this research is descriptive method in which the required data is obtained through questionnaire and technique of analyzing data used is percentages. Questionnaires were distributed through the Student…

  15. Offenders with Intellectual Disability: A Prospective Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, P.; Hassiotis, A.; Banes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intellectually disabled offenders (IDO) are a poorly served and under-recognized group, who are likely to require long-term specialist treatments and interventions. Method This prospective study investigated the characteristics and factors that influence outcome in this group, with particular reference to therapeutic interventions. Sixty-one…

  16. Prospects of Elliptic Flow Studies at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraksiev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying elliptic flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the elliptic flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.

  17. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  18. Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary Prospective Study

    Cancer.gov

    A large cohort study of etiologic determinants of cancer carried out within an NCI trial for the evaluation of screening procedures for the early detection of prostate, lung, colon, and ovarian cancer (the PLCO Trial) at 10 U.S. screening centers

  19. Mastalgia-Cancer Relationship: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ali Cihat; Yıldız, Pınar; Yıldız, Mustafa; Kahramanca, Şahin; Kargıcı, Hülagü

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is an important symptom affecting approximately 70% of women and it disrupts the quality of life especially due to the worry of having cancer. In our study, the type and severity of mastalgia symptom of patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with mastalgia complaint were assessed along with their physical examination findings and radiology results. The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the relationship between mastalgia and malignity when assessed in combination with the risk factors of patients. Materials and Methods The age, family history, menopausal status, age at the first childbirth, menarche, presence/absence of hormone replacement therapy, type of mastalgia, comorbidities and examination findings of 104 patients, who presented to the General Surgery outpatient clinic with mastalgia symptom, were recorded and assessed in the light of radiological study results. Results With respect to the mastalgia types of the patients, 38.5% had cyclic pain, 57.7% non-cyclic pain and 3.8% other types of pain. Mild mastalgia was present in 46.2% of the patients, moderate mastalgia in 24% and severe mastalgia in 29.8% of them. According to the BIRADS category, 48.1% of the patients were identified to have BIRADS 1 mass lesions, 39.4% BIRADS 2, 9.6% BIRADS 3 and 2.9% BIRADS 5 mass lesions. The patients who were identified to have BIRADS 5 mass lesions described non-cyclic and severe pain in the post-menopausal period. They had palpable masses along with the pain symptom. Conclusion Our study suggests that mastalgia symptom does not per se result in suspicion of malignancy, but physical examination and radiological imaging should also be used as needed for confirmation. Studies with a larger patient population are needed to shed light on the mastalgia epidemiology and its relationship with cancer.

  20. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  1. Smoking and Parkinson's disease: systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Campbell, Michael J; Hofman, Albert; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Fernández-Crehuet Navajas, Rafael

    2004-06-01

    We estimated the pooled risk of tobacco smoking for Parkinson's disease (PD). Inclusion criteria included systematic searches of MedLine, PsycLIT, Embase, Current Contents, previously published reviews, examination of cited reference sources, and personal contact and discussion with several investigators expert in the field. Published prospective studies on PD and cigarette smoking. When two or more studies were based on an identical study, the study that principally investigated the relationship or the study that was published last was used. Seven prospective studies were carried out between 1959 and 1997, of which six reported risk estimates. Four cohorts were based on standardised mortality rates, which were exclusively of male. Only one study included risk estimates for both males and females separately. The risk of ever smoker was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.61). There was an obvious protective effect of current smoking in the pooled estimate (relative risk, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.26-0.47). Former smokers had lower risk compared with never smokers (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49-0.88). Although our pooled estimates show that smoking is inversely associated with the risk of PD, the four prospective studies that were based on follow-up of mortality of smokers had many limitations. Further studies evaluating the association between smoking and PD in women are strongly needed.

  2. Fatigue in advanced cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Katherine; Walsh, Declan; Rybicki, Lisa A; Davis, Mellar P; Seyidova-Khoshknabi, Dilara

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a common advanced cancer symptom. Clinical features are not well known. The authors surveyed consecutive patients admitted to a palliative medicine program to identify clinical correlates of fatigue. Data collected included age, sex, performance status, primary site, prior chemotherapy/radiation therapy, and blood transfusions. Visual analogue scales assessed fatigue, quality of life, and ability to perform daily activities. Weight change was estimated. Laboratory results including lactate dehydrogenase and hemoglobin were recorded. Fatigue severity was associated with brain metastases, poor performance status, poor quality of life, and reduced ability to perform activities. Prior radiation therapy was associated with less severe fatigue. Age, sex, and hemoglobin level were not associated with fatigue. Fatigue was universal on referral. Brain metastases and poor quality of life independently predicted severity. Hemoglobin level did not predict fatigue. Further studies are necessary to define the clinical features and relationships of fatigue.

  3. Trends in acoustic neuroma management: a 20-year review of the oxford skull base clinic.

    PubMed

    Mackeith, Samuel A C; Kerr, Richard S; Milford, Chris A

    2013-08-01

    Objective To describe the change in the management of acoustic neuromas at one United Kingdom center over a 20-year period and to compare this with what is known regarding trends in practice on a national and international scale. Design, Setting, and Participants Data was collected prospectively on all patients attending the Oxford Skull Base Clinic between 1990 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients managed initially by observation versus radiotherapy versus surgery was recorded for each year. Results Significantly more patients received radiation treatment (instead of surgery) between 2000 and 2009 when compared with 1990 to 1999. Compared with national audit data, the Oxford Skull Base Clinic treats a higher proportion of patients with radiotherapy and significantly lower proportion with surgery, though the trend nationally is toward more observation and radiotherapy and less surgery. Conclusion Surgery will remain crucial in the management of some patients with acoustic neuromas (usually those with the larger tumors where radiosurgery is recognized to be less appropriate), but using current trends to predict future practice would suggest that alternative nonmicrosurgical treatment may play an increasingly important role in the future.

  4. Black and White Chains of Risk for Hospitalization Over 20 Years*

    PubMed Central

    FERRARO, KENNETH F.; SHIPPEE, TETYANA PYLYPIV

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the life course perspective, racial disparities in hospitalization are considered in light of a chain of risk. We ask whether race influences admission to, length of stay in, and mortality following hospitalization. Analyses address these questions with data from a national longitudinal sample of adults to assess racial disparities in the hospitalization experience (n = 6,833). Survey data were merged with hospital records abstracted over 20 years of observation. Multivariate analyses revealed that there were no racial differences in admission, but that black adults generally had longer stays. When isolating each stay prospectively, black adults had longer stays during the first, third, and fourth hospitalizations. Post-hospital mortality after the first stay was also higher for black adults than for their white counterparts, even after controlling for morbidity and status resources. The findings suggest that the racial disparities in hospital length of stay and mortality are explained by the cumulative effects of social and health inequalities over the life course. PMID:18649502

  5. 20 years from NCX purification and cloning: milestones.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Debora A; Ottolia, Michela; Goldhaber, Joshua I; Philipson, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger protein was first isolated from cardiac sarcolemma in 1988 and cloned in 1990. This allowed study of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange at the molecular level to begin. I will review the story leading to the cloning of NCX and the research that resulted from this event. This will include structure-function studies such as determination of the numbers of transmembrane segments and topological arrangement. Information on ion transport sites has been gathered from site-directed mutagenesis. The regions involved in Ca(2+) regulation have been identified, analyzed, and crystallized.We have also generated genetically altered mice to study the role of NCX in the myocardium. Of special interest are mice with atrial- or ventricular-specific KO of NCX that reveal new information on the role of NCX in excitation-contraction coupling and in cardiac pacemaker activity.

  6. Pulmonary gas transfer 20 years after pneumonectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, F; Kraan, J K; Orie, N G; Peset, R

    1977-01-01

    The changes in pulmonary function after pneumonectomy in 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have been studied. The data at the time of two follow-up studies are compared with those obtained before the pneumonectomy. The first follow-up was carried out between 5 and 30 months postoperatively and the second between 20 and 24 years later. The results of this second follow-up show a relatively normal arterial oxygen saturation and gas transfer factor but an increased residual volume which cannot be explained by increasing age alone. PMID:841538

  7. Adherence to immunosuppression: a prospective diary study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E J; Prohaska, T R; Gallant, M P; Siminoff, L A

    2007-12-01

    Immunosuppression adherence among kidney transplant recipients is essential for graft survival. However, nonadherence is common, jeopardizing graft survival. Besides skipping dosages, little is known about other forms of medication nonadherence and their underlying reasons. This study sought to examine patients' extent of medication adherence over time and reasons for nonadherence. Thirty-nine new kidney transplant recipients were asked to complete a month-long medication-taking diary that included reporting medication nonadherence such as skipped medications, medications taken early or late, taking dosages greater or less than prescribed, and the reason for each occurrence of nonadherence. Of the 20 (51%) patients who completed the diary, 11 (55%) reported at least 1 form of nonadherence. Eleven patients reported taking their immunosuppression at least 1 hour later than the prescribed time, 1 patient reported skipping medication, but no patients reported changing the dosage on their own. Immunosuppression was taken on average 1.5 hours after the prescribed time. Of those patients who took their medications late, there were on average 3.1 occasions of taking it late. The most common reasons for this behavior included health care-related issues, followed by oversleeping, being away from home, work-related barriers, and forgetting. The majority of kidney transplant recipients took medications later than prescribed during 1 month. Future research should determine the clinical impact on graft function of late administration of immunosuppression. Interventions should be designed to better assist kidney recipients with taking medications on time, especially when they are away from home.

  8. 20 Years of the MENC Biennial Conference: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palkki, Joshua; Albert, Daniel J.; Hill, Stuart Chapman; Shaw, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and intended audiences for educational sessions offered at MENC biennial conferences in order to illuminate trends and topics in professional development. The researchers performed a content analysis of each session (N?= 2,593) using program booklets from conferences between 1988 and 2008,…

  9. 20 Years Later: Dynamics of the School-College Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, Revital

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the dynamics of partnership over time between a training school and a college of education. Its purpose was to provide a deeper understanding of the dynamics of collaboration within the context of the partnership between the school and the college. The dynamics of the changes occurring in this collaboration over a…

  10. [Prenatal diagnosis. Review, personal and prospective studies].

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Empson, J; DeLozier, D; McGee, B; da Costa Woodson, E; Engel-de Montmollin, M; Carter, T; Lorber, C; Cassidy, S B; Millis, J; Heller, R M; Boehm, F; Vanhooydonk, J

    1979-07-07

    instruments is particularly useful in cases where a severe fetal morphologic malformation cannot currently be identified by indirect visualization (ultrasound) or by analysis of cytogenetic or molecular markers. 6. Pathological accumulations of alpha-fetoprotein which are associated with diverse feto-placental abnormalities (particularly open malformations of the neural tube) can be detected in the amniotic fluid and/or maternal blood. In extension of this approach, it is foreseeable that conditions existing prenatally will be diagnosed in a growing number of cases from the study of fetal cells and molecules which can be isolated from the venous blood of pregnant women. This will become feasible as a result of some well-developed techniques which allow separation of fetal from maternal cells and metabolites, and also to some extremely fine analytic techniques, notably examination of the DNA itself by means of restriction enzymes.

  11. Scientometric analysis and mapping of 20 years of glaucoma research

    PubMed Central

    Ramin, Shahrokh; Pakravan, Mohammad; Habibi, Gholamreza; Ghazavi, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    AIM To provide a scientometric analysis in the field of glaucoma. METHODS A bibliometric method was used to obtain a view of the scientific production in field of glaucoma by data extracted from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) from 1993 to 2013. Specific parameters were retrieved from the ISI. Articles about glaucoma were analyzed regarding the topics' structure, history, and document relationships using HistCite software. Also, the trends in the most influential publications and authors were analyzed. RESULTS The number of articles was constantly increasing, and most highly cited articles addressed clinical and epidemiologic topics in this field. During the past three years, there has been a trend towards genomic research studies and also more molecular translational research. CONCLUSION This was the first scientometric report on glaucoma, analyzing the characteristics of papers and the trends in scientific production. A constant increase was observed in the number of papers, while the subject of papers had a shift in the past three years towards genomic research studies. PMID:27672601

  12. The Attention System of the Human Brain: 20 Years After

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Steven E.; Posner, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we update our 1990 Annual Review of Neuroscience article, “The Attention System of the Human Brain.” The framework presented in the original article has helped to integrate behavioral, systems, cellular, and molecular approaches to common problems in attention research. Our framework has been both elaborated and expanded in subsequent years. Research on orienting and executive functions has supported the addition of new networks of brain regions. Developmental studies have shown important changes in control systems between infancy and childhood. In some cases, evidence has supported the role of specific genetic variations, often in conjunction with experience, that account for some of the individual differences in the efficiency of attentional networks. The findings have led to increased understanding of aspects of pathology and to some new interventions. PMID:22524787

  13. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB{sub 66} crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing.

  14. Angelman syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese: A 20 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Luk, H M; Lo, Ivan F M

    2016-06-01

    AS(OMIM #105830) is a neurodevelopmental disease that characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, happy disposition, ataxia, epilepsy and distinct behavioural profile. A tertiary wide study was performed in Hong Kong with aim to examine the clinical and molecular features, genotype-phenotype correlation of the Angelman syndrome (AS) patients. There were total 55 molecularly confirmed AS between January 1995 to September 2015 for review. 65.5% of them were caused by maternal microdeletion, 10.9% by paternal uniparental disomy, 3.6% by imprinting center defect and 14.5% by UBE3A gene mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed epilepsy and microcephaly is more common in microdeletion type as compared with non-microdeletional type. We have concluded that the incidence rate, clinical features and underlying genetic mechanisms in Hong Kong Chinese were comparable with other western populations. The overall average age of diagnosis in this cohort was 6.2 years old (95% C.I was 5.0-7.5 years old). It is hope that by increasing awareness and early referral could result in early diagnosis and better management for AS patient.

  15. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnino, A. )

    1992-01-01

    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  16. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  17. Toxic oil syndrome: the perspective after 20 years.

    PubMed

    Posada de la Paz, M; Philen, R M; Borda, A I

    2001-01-01

    manufacturing conditions of L-tryptophan led to an increase in impurities in the product that were later associated with the illness. These risks are even greater in countries with few or inconsistent control systems, making the food and drug supply potential portals of entry for serious health hazards, as is further exemplified by the tragic episode of pediatric renal failure in Haiti associated with a legitimate consumer product, paracetamol elixir, that had been manufactured using a fraudulently supplied toxic ingredient, diethylene glycol (81). The potential toxicants in the adulterated rapeseed oil were present in extremely small amounts. If fatty acid anilides or related compounds are indeed the etiologic agents in toxic oil syndrome, then these compounds must be extremely toxic at the parts per million concentrations at which they were found. Further, the roles of causative agents in the development of disorders such as scleroderma, eosinophilic fasciitis, eosinophilic perimyositis, and other similar diseases are unknown, but scientists can speculate that some sort of low level environmental agent may play a role if such extremely small quantities of contaminants are indeed capable of causing disease. Although the exact identity of the etiologic agent in toxic oil syndrome remains unknown, work on toxic oil syndrome continues. Follow-up clinical studies and long-term mortality studies are under way. Investigation of the mechanisms involved in toxic oil syndrome continues. The identification of suspect chemical compounds, their characterization, and effects will hopefully one day contribute to the prevention of other similar diseases.

  18. 20 years of SAR measurements along the NAFS: interseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramondo, S.; Walter, T. R.; Ergintav, S.; Diao, F.; Wang, R.; Polcari, M.; Serpelloni, E.; Devoti, R.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the earthquake cycle is a key issue for the definition of the hazard in seismic areas. Advanced SAR Interferometry (A-InSAR) techniques have today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to the capability to detect and measure slow surface movements along wide areas, and to follow the evolution of signal along a certain time periods. A-InSAR techniques have been applied to large datasets of SAR images spanning long time intervals and, together with in-situ surveys and ground measurements, can provide suitable information about the causes of post seismic (deformation rebound or residual strain release) and interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. In the framework of FP7 MARSITE (Marmara Supersite) project we have investigated the Western sector of North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) from Istanbul toward Duzce area. From West toward the Marmara Sea region (Mudurnu/Akyaz) the NAFS begins to lose its single fault line character and splays into a complex fault system. The main Marmara Fault is argued to be a very young structure and exhibits typical characteristics of a major strike slip fault. In 1999 the August 17th Izmit earthquake was followed few months later by the Duzce mainshock. We compare the A-InSAR results to permanent GPS stations installed in the region after the Izmit/Duzce earthquakes. These observations allow studying the post-seismic deformation of the 1999 Izmit/Düzce earthquake. We investigate the response of the eastern Marmara Fault to the quasi-static loading caused by Izmit/Düzce earthquakes. Overlapped post-seismic processes of fault creep (or afterslip) and viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and the upper mantle were investigated. We firstly estimated the viscoelastic relaxation effect using well covered long-term GPS data. This relaxation effect was subtracted from the InSAR data and the remaining InSAR data was inverted to identify localized slip variation along the MMF. Our inversion results imply that part

  19. Average and Bright Adults with Parents with Mild Cognitive Difficulties: The Huck Finn Syndrome 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Audrey Myerson

    2011-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study of 20 average and bright adults with parents with cognitive difficulties follows a study 20 years earlier of their childhood adaptation to their parents. Method: Semistructured interviews about life situation and changes and perception of family-of-origin. Results: The participants' socioeconomic status changed…

  20. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  1. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Scott, James; William, Gail M.; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M.

    2017-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (<20 years) have -3.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -4.3, -1.8) points lower IQ compared to children born to mothers ≥20 years and were more likely to have a low IQ (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3). Adjustment for a range of confounding and mediating factors including parental socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, maternal smoking and binge drinking in pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1). Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk for

  2. Rehabilitation of Patients Following Autogenic Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone ACL Reconstruction: A 20-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Mark S.; McDivitt, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has undergone remarkable improvements over the past two decades. During this time, ACL research has been at the forefront of many orthopaedic and sports physical therapy clinics. With over 20 years of ACL rehabilitation experience (senior author) and prior collaboration with accelerated ACL rehabilitation pioneer K. Donald Shelbourne, the authors wish to present a unique perspective on the evolution of ACL rehabilitation. Prior to the classic article by Paulos et al in 1981,1 literature on ACL rehabilitation was quite sparse. The basis for ACL rehabilitation at this time was founded in basic science studies conducted with animal models. In an effort to protect the graft, emphasis was placed on immobilization, extension limitation, restricted weight bearing, and delayed return to activity. Despite achieving good ligamentous stability, patients often experienced a spectrum of complications. In 1990, Shelbourne and Nitz2 proposed an accelerated rehabilitation protocol following ACL reconstruction based on clinical experience. Their program emphasized delayed surgery, earlier range of motion and weight bearing, and full extension. As a result, patients experienced better clinical outcomes while maintaining knee stability. The rehabilitation program presented in this paper is still largely based on the principles of the accelerated protocol. As evidence-based practice and the call for prospective, randomized clinical research continues, the continued progress in treating patients with this injury will be enhanced. Furthermore, clinicians are urged not to lose sight of the clinical reasoning that helped evolve the ACL rehabilitation process where it is today. PMID:21522223

  3. [A glaucoma follow-up of 1500 persons over 20 years].

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, Y; Corbe, C; Hamard, H; Perdriel, G

    1988-01-01

    The parameters of glaucoma risk have been compiled and computer processed on 1,571 patients during 20 years at the C.P.E.M.P.N. (Medical Evaluation Center for the Aeronautic Staff) of Paris. The goal of this study is to follow in real time the évolution of these parameters and to determine their physiological variations across time in terms of age and professional categories. An average intra-ocular pressure of 15.1 mmHg as well as hypertonia and glaucoma percentages respectively of 3.88% and 0.6% have been recorded in this study. These results were below the results of other previous surveys due to the greater age range of our study the youngest being 15 years old. There was no significant difference among pilots and non pilots. The optic disc examination was not decisive for diagnostic screening.

  4. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  5. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. Results A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and

  6. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  7. Vitamin D and hypertension: Prospective study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Dan; Nie, Xiao-lu; Wu, Shouling; Cai, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to determine the link between vitamin D concentrations and incident hypertension in prospective study and meta-analysis. Methods The study was embedded in the Kailuan Study, a population-based cohort of adults that contains underground miners. In 2012, we studied 2,456 men and women free of prevalent hypertension, age 21 to 67 at baseline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured from previously frozen baseline samples using ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoadSorbent Assay). We use the logistic regression analysis to estimate the odd radio (ORs) 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with incident hypertension. To help place our new data in context, we conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective reports of vitamin D and hypertension. Results During a median follow-up of 2 years, 42.6% of the cohort (n = 1047) developed hypertension. Compared with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D >30ng/ml, 25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml was associated with a greater hypertension risk (OR: 1.225 [95% CI: 1.010 to 1.485] p = 0.04), although the association was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders (OR: 1.092 [95% CI: 0.866 to 1.377] p = 0.456). This meta-analysis included seven prospective studies for 53,375 participants using adjusted HR founded a significant association between vitamin D deficiencies and incident hypertension (HRs = 1.235 (95% CI: 1.083 to 1.409, p = 0.002)). Conclusion Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not associated with a greater risk of incident hypertension. More research is needed to further determine the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in hypertension prevention and therapy. PMID:28358827

  8. Is DVT prophylaxis overemphasized? A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kosir, M A; Kozol, R A; Perales, A; McGee, K; Beleski, K; Lange, P; Dahn, M

    1996-02-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate a previously published prognostic index for predicting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in general surgical patients with conventional prophylaxis. Patients undergoing procedures of at least 1 hr duration (abdominal, thoracic, head and neck, inguinal) requiring general or spinal anesthetic were prospectively randomized into the following groups: Group 1, sequential pneumatic compression devices during surgery and 2 days postoperatively; Group 2, subcutaneous heparin (5000 U q 12 hr) starting 1 hr before surgery and for 7 days postop; Group 3, control group. All patients underwent duplex evaluation of bilateral lower extremity deep venous systems preoperatively and on postoperative Days 1, 3, and 30. In addition, a previously developed predictive DVT incidence indicator, the prognostic index (PI), was calculated for each patient. A total of 137 patients were entered into the study with 29 removed for patient/staff reasons. There were no differences in PI among the three groups at the 0.05 level (ANOVA). The distribution of risk factors for DVT including increased age, body size, hemoglobin (Hb), and colorectal procedures were distributed evenly among the groups. Additional factors such as diabetes, COPD, PVD, immobilization, and cancer were also evenly distributed among the groups. The PI predicted a 20% incidence of DVT. For Groups 1 (n = 25), 2 (n = 38), and 3 (n = 45) no DVTs were detected over the 30 days of study. During the study period, 8 DVTs were detected by duplex evaluation in general surgical patients not in the study (1.5%). In conclusion, in a prospective randomized study using sequential pneumatic compression devices, subcutaneous heparin or no prophylaxis in matched general surgical patients at moderate to high risk for thromboembolism, no DVTs occurred for up to 30 days. Furthermore, neither a PI nor other factors associated with DVT accurately predicted the incidence of DVT in this patient population.

  9. Body mass index and incident coronary heart disease in women: a population-based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); however, a low BMI may also be associated with an increased mortality risk. There is limited information on the relation of incident CHD risk across a wide range of BMI, particularly in women. We examined the relation between BMI and incident CHD overall and across different risk factors of the disease in the Million Women Study. Methods 1.2 million women (mean age = 56 years) participants without heart disease, stroke, or cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline (1996 to 2001) were followed prospectively for 9 years on average. Adjusted relative risks and 20-year cumulative incidence from age 55 to 74 years were calculated for CHD using Cox regression. Results After excluding the first 4 years of follow-up, we found that 32,465 women had a first coronary event (hospitalization or death) during follow-up. The adjusted relative risk for incident CHD per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 1.25). The cumulative incidence of CHD from age 55 to 74 years increased progressively with BMI, from 1 in 11 (95% CI 1 in10 to 12) for BMI of 20 kg/m2, to 1 in 6(95% CI 1 in 5 to 7) for BMI of 34 kg/m2. A 10 kg/m2 increase in BMI conferred a similar risk to a 5-year increment in chronological age. The 20 year cumulative incidence increased with BMI in smokers and non-smokers, alcohol drinkers and non-drinkers, physically active and inactive, and in the upper and lower socioeconomic classes. In contrast to incident disease, the relation between BMI and CHD mortality (n = 2,431) was J-shaped. For the less than 20 kg/m2 and ≥35 kg/m2 BMI categories, the respective relative risks were 1.27 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.53) and 2.84 (95% CI 2.51 to 3.21) for CHD deaths, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.94) and 1.85 (95% CI 1.78 to 1.92) for incident CHD. Conclusions CHD incidence in women increases progressively with BMI, an

  10. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  11. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-03-05

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats.

  12. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  13. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of ‘mechanistic territorial models’. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  14. [Familial Mediterranean fever in Mexico City. A 20-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Halabe-Cherem, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Carolina; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Mercado-Atri, Moisés; Sigala-Rodríguez, Carolina; Castañón-González, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (MFF) is an autosomic recessive, inherited inflammatory disease principally seen in persons from the Mediterranean area. Clinical findings include fever, abdominal pain, and pleuritis. The most severe complication of MFF is renal amyloidosis, manifested as nephrotic syndrome, which evolves into chronic renal failure. In this study, we described clinical findings, evolution, and response to treatment in 52 patients diagnosed with MFF living in Mexico City in whom the most important clinical features were fever and abdominal pain. Differing from previous reported series of patients from the Mediterranean area, patient developed renal amyloidosis during the 20-year follow-up, which suggests that an environmental factor might have a significant influence in development of renal amyloidosis.

  15. Role of 3-D ultrasound in clinical obstetric practice: evolution over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Martins, Wellington P; Guimarães Filho, Hélio; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-05-01

    The use of 3-D ultrasound in obstetrics has undergone dramatic development over the past 20 years. Since the first publications on this application in clinical practice, several 3-D ultrasound techniques and rendering modes have been proposed and applied to the study of fetal brain, face and cardiac anatomy. In addition, 3-D ultrasound has improved calculations of the volume of fetal organs and limbs and estimations of fetal birth weight. And furthermore, angiographic patterns of fetal organs and the placenta have been assessed using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound quantification. In this review, we aim to summarize current evidence on the clinical relevance of these methodologies and their application in obstetric practice.

  16. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-08-07

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review.

  17. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  18. Prospective study of chemical exposures and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, MG; Morozova, N; O'Reilly, EJ; McCullough, ML; Calle, EE; Thun, MJ; Ascherio, A

    2009-01-01

    Background Although environmental toxins, including pesticides, are suspected of contributing to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), no data exist from large prospective investigations. This study assessed the association between exposure to chemicals and risk of ALS in a prospective cohort study. Methods We prospectively assessed the relation between self-report of regular exposure to 11 different chemical classes or X-rays and ALS mortality among over 1 million participants in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Follow-up from 1989 through 2004 identified 617 deaths from ALS among men and 539 among women. We calculated adjusted rate ratios (RR) using Cox proportional hazards. Results The RR for ALS mortality among individuals exposed to pesticides/herbicides compared to the unexposed was 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.44), but somewhat higher after excluding those with missing duration of pesticides exposure (RR: 1.44; 95% CI: 0.89-2.31; p=0.14). A non-significant increase in ALS mortality was found among individuals who reported exposure to formaldehyde (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.93-1.92). Excluding those with missing duration of formaldehyde exposure, the RR was 2.47 (95% CI: 1.58-3.86), and there was a strongly significant dose-response relation with increasing years of exposure (p-trend=0.0004). Conclusions We found little evidence for an association between pesticides/herbicide exposure and ALS. In contrast, we found evidence suggesting an increased risk of ALS with formaldehyde exposure. Because of the longitudinal design, this result is unlikely to be due to bias, but it should nevertheless be interpreted cautiously and needs to be independently verified. PMID:19372290

  19. A 20 year audit of nose-tip symmetry in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Timoney, N; Smith, G; Pigott, R W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the process and outcome in terms of nasal-tip symmetry of the first 20 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treated by the Pigott alar leapfrog primary nasal correction in the early 1970s and followed for 20 years. Symmetry was assessed using the Coghlan computer-based analysis of frontal and basal views to determine the stability of the correction. The Abyholm technique of alveolar bone grafting was performed in 12 of the 20 patients. Various other secondary procedures have been performed on the nose tip and septum to improve the airway or appearance. Photographs were taken within one year of ages 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, and the lower border of the nose, the alar domes and the nostrils were assessed. To assess the overall change from 5 years to 20 years, both views were available for 17 patients. No significant change was found in the lower border or nostril symmetry, but significant deterioration at the P< 0.01 level was found on the basal view. We assessed the 10, 15 and 20 year views of all 12 patients who had undergone alveolar bone grafting to determine early and late changes. No significant benefit was found from alveolar bone grafting or minor secondary procedures for appearance. Consequently, our criteria for undertaking minor adjustments to improve appearance have become more stringent. We consider that objective reporting of appearance should become essential in peer-reviewed journals.

  20. Haematological abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D.; Imrie, C. W.; Davidson, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively in the first week of their admission using haematological and coagulation tests. Platelet counts initially fell and later returned to admission levels. Rising levels of plasma fibrinogen were recorded. The kaolin cephalin clotting time was shorter than its control in twenty-one patients. Eighteen patients had elevated fibrinogen degradation products and fourteen had a positive ethanol gelation test. It is suggested that by taking into account the results in series of individual patients a degree of intravascular coagulation may be a common feature of acute pancreatitis. In one patient (presented in detail) strong evidence for disseminated intravascular coagulation was found PMID:887529

  1. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  2. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  3. Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, R; McGale, P; Grant, E J; Ozasa, K; Peto, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of smoking on overall mortality and life expectancy in a large Japanese population, including some who smoked throughout adult life. Design The Life Span Study, a population-based prospective study, initiated in 1950. Setting Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Participants Smoking status for 27 311 men and 40 662 women was obtained during 1963-92. Mortality from one year after first ascertainment of smoking status until 1 January 2008 has been analysed. Main outcome measures Mortality from all causes in current, former, and never smokers. Results Smokers born in later decades tended to smoke more cigarettes per day than those born earlier, and to have started smoking at a younger age. Among those born during 1920-45 (median 1933) and who started smoking before age 20 years, men smoked on average 23 cigarettes/day, while women smoked 17 cigarettes/day, and, for those who continued smoking, overall mortality was more than doubled in both sexes (rate ratios versus never smokers: men 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.97 to 2.48), women 2.61 (1.98 to 3.44)) and life expectancy was reduced by almost a decade (8 years for men, 10 years for women). Those who stopped smoking before age 35 avoided almost all of the excess risk among continuing smokers, while those who stopped smoking before age 45 avoided most of it. Conclusions The lower smoking related hazards reported previously in Japan may have been due to earlier birth cohorts starting to smoke when older and smoking fewer cigarettes per day. In Japan, as elsewhere, those who start smoking in early adult life and continue smoking lose on average about a decade of life. Much of the risk can, however, be avoided by giving up smoking before age 35, and preferably well before age 35. PMID:23100333

  4. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 participants using a validated 276-item dietary questionnaire. Since phytanic acid is not currently included in food composition tables, we used the published phytanic acid content of 151 major food items to estimate total daily intake. During up to 20 years of follow-up, a total of 1,929 incident prostate cancer cases (including 438 advanced cases) were identified. Higher phytanic acid intake, though unrelated to the risk of localized disease [relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for increasing quartiles of intake = 1.00 (ref), 0.83 (0.68–1.01), 0.76 (0.62–0.94), and 0.91 (0.74–1.13); p trend = 0.23], was associated with increased risks of advanced prostate cancer [RR and 95% CI = 1.00 (ref), 1.43 (1.09–1.89), 1.31 (0.99–1.75), and 1.38 (1.02–1.89); p trend = 0.06]. This association appeared to be driven predominantly by phytanic acid obtained from dairy products (particularly butter). Our study indicates that phytanic acid may contribute to previously observed associations between high-fat animal foods (particularly dairy products) and prostate cancer risk, although some caution is warranted as it may be acting as a surrogate marker of dairy fat. PMID:22120496

  5. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Jonathan M; Thomson, W Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status.

  6. Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W. Murray; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Zeng, Jiaxu; Foster Page, Lyndie A.; Poulton, Richie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between community water fluoridation (CWF) and IQ. Methods. We conducted a prospective study of a general population sample of those born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April 1, 1972, and March 30, 1973 (95.4% retention of cohort after 38 years of prospective follow-up). Residence in a CWF area, use of fluoride dentifrice and intake of 0.5-milligram fluoride tablets were assessed in early life (prior to age 5 years); we assessed IQ repeatedly between ages 7 to 13 years and at age 38 years. Results. No clear differences in IQ because of fluoride exposure were noted. These findings held after adjusting for potential confounding variables, including sex, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and birth weight (as well as educational attainment for adult IQ outcomes). Conclusions. These findings do not support the assertion that fluoride in the context of CWF programs is neurotoxic. Associations between very high fluoride exposure and low IQ reported in previous studies may have been affected by confounding, particularly by urban or rural status. PMID:24832151

  7. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  8. Colonic atresia in cattle: A prospective study of 43 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Norm G.; Arighi, Mimi; Horney, F. Don; Barker, Ian K.; Livesey, Michael A.; Hurtig, Mark H.; Johnson, Roger P.

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study was initiated to document the success rate obtained in the treatment of colonic atresia in calves, identify factors that influence survival rate, and to report the histopathological appearance of the proximal blind end of the ascending colon. Forty-three calves with intestinal obstruction due to colonic atresia were admitted to the Ontario Veterinary College between September 1982 and May 1986. Parameters recorded prospectively in this study included age, breed, sex, history, vital signs, acid-base and electrolyte status, location of intestinal atresia, medical and surgical management, and outcome. The typical history and clinical signs included failure to pass meconium or feces, decreased appetite, and progressive depression and abdominal distension. The most common site of colonic atresia was the midportion of the spiral loop of the ascending colon (n = 25). Of the 43 calves, three (7%) were euthanized at surgery, 21 (49%) died in the hospital, and 19 (44%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. Four of the surviving calves died subsequent to discharge giving an overall long-term (mean 15.9 months) survival rate of 35%. No significant risk factors were identified, although experienced surgeons showed a trend towards increased survival rate. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423141

  9. Stress and dysmenorrhoea: a population based prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Wang, X; Wang, W; Chen, C; Ronnennberg, A; Guang, W; Huang, A; Fang, Z; Zang, T; Wang, L; Xu, X

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhoea is the most common gynaecological disorder in women of reproductive age. Despite the association between stress and pregnancy outcomes, few studies have examined the possible link between stress and dysmenorrhoea. Aims and Methods: Using a population based cohort of Chinese women, the independent effect of women's perceived stress in the preceding menstrual cycle on the incidence of dysmenorrhoea in the subsequent cycle was investigated prospectively. The analysis included 1160 prospectively observed menstrual cycles from 388 healthy, nulliparous, newly married women who intended to conceive. The perception of stress and the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea in each menstrual cycle were determined from daily diaries recorded by the women. Results: After adjustment for important covariates, the risk of dysmenorrhoea was more than twice as great among women with high stress compared to those with low stress in the preceding cycle (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3). The risk of dysmenorrhoea was greatest among women with both high stress and a history of dysmenorrhoea compared to women with low stress and no history of dysmenorrhoea (OR = 10.4, 95% CI 4.9 to 22.3). Stress in the follicular phase of the preceding cycles had a stronger association with dysmenorrhoea than stress in the luteal phase of the preceding cycles. Conclusion: This study shows a significant association between stress and the incidence of dysmenorrhoea, which is even stronger among women with a history of dysmenorrhoea. PMID:15550609

  10. [Mason vertical gastroplasty in treatment of morbid obesity. Results of a prospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Naef, M; Sadowski, C; de Marco, D; Sabbioni, M; Balsiger, B; Laederach, K; Bürgi, U; Büchler, M W

    2000-04-01

    Morbid obesity (body mass index > 40 kg/m2) is a risk factor for cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, neoplastic, and psychologic sequelae. In the present prospective clinical study 65 patients (11 men, 54 women) underwent vertical banded gastroplasty (Mason procedure) from June 1994 to October 1997. The median age was 41 +/- 5.3 years (range 18-69; n = 65). Preoperative body weight was 135 +/- 23 kg (96-229; n = 65), excess body weight in kg was 75 +/- 6.9 (44-155; n = 65) or in % 126 +/- 10 (78-223; n = 65) and BMI was 49 +/- 7.4 kg/m2 (39-69; n = 65). Mean hospital stay was 9.7 +/- 2.4 days (6-18; n = 65). Hospital mortality was 0% (0/65). Early complications were vomiting (30%) and problems in wound healing (15%; n = 65). Late complications (> 30 days) were incisional hernias (13.8%) and staple-line disruptions (12.3%; n = 65) with a reoperation rate of 23% (15/65). Median follow-up was 15.0 +/- 5.2 months (2-42) with a follow up rate of 100%. Mean weight loss after 12 months was 38.5 +/- 17 kg (30-98; n = 34) (P < 0.0001) and loss of excessive body weight 65 +/- 10% (57-86; n = 34), respectively (P < 0.0001). Cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia) were significantly improved within 12 months (n = 34). Vertical banded gastroplasty (Mason procedure)--well established for 20 years--is a good, safe therapy for morbid obesity if strict indications for operation are observed and if there is multidisciplinary long-term follow-up. Comorbid risk factors are considerably reduced and a long-term weight loss of more than 50% can be achieved without the risk of pathological metabolic changes.

  11. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M; Wu, Z; Du, Q; Petsonk, E; Peng, K; Li, Y; Li, S; Han, G; Atffield, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the early pattern of longitudinal change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) among new Chinese coal miners, and the relation between coal mine dust exposure and the decline of lung function. Methods: The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in FEV1 over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the groupxtime interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines. PMID:16234407

  12. Portion Distortion! Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years?

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Portion Distortion Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? Anyone eating ... run or at restaurants has probably noticed that food portions have gotten larger. Some portions are called " ...

  13. Hypnosis and dental anesthesia in children: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Huet, Adeline; Lucas-Polomeni, Marie-Madeleine; Robert, Jean-Claude; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Wodey, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this prospective study initially hypothesized that hypnosis would lower the anxiety and pain associated with dental anesthesia. Thirty children aged 5 to 12 were randomly assigned to 2 groups receiving hypnosis (H) or not (NH) at the time of anesthesia. Anxiety was assessed at inclusion in the study, initial consultation, installation in the dentist's chair, and at the time of anesthesia using the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (mYPAS). Following anesthesia, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a modified objective pain score (mOPS) were used to assess the pain experienced. The median mYPAS and mOPS scores were significantly lower in the H group than in the NH group. Significantly more children in the H group had no or mild pain. This study suggests that hypnosis may be effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children receiving dental anesthesia.

  14. [Prospect of application of molecular phylogeography in study of geoherbs].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qingjun; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan

    2009-08-01

    This paper firstly introduces the concept, method and current research of molecular phylogeography and then discusses its application in the study of geoherbs. The relativity between three genetic differentiation patterns of plant inferred by molecular phylogeography (i.e. allopatric fragmentation, restricted gene flow with isolation by distance and range expansion) and the formation of genuine character is analysed. Molecular authentication of geoherbs based on molecular phylogeography has the advantage of former molecular identification at technology and knowing genetic differentiation of geoherbs. Using molecular phylogeography for study on changing history of geoherbs habitat is also explicated. The problem of germplasm degeneration in cultural geoherbs could be effectively resolved by molecular phylogeography method. The application of molecular phylogeography in these subjects opens up prospects for study on geoherbs by using the principle and method of molecular phylogeography.

  15. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  16. A prospective study of bilateral inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed Central

    Serpell, J. W.; Johnson, C. D.; Jarrett, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of outcome after inguinal hernia repair in patients undergoing simultaneous repair of bilateral hernias (n = 31), sequential repair of bilateral hernias (n = 5), and unilateral hernia repair (n = 75) is reported. There were no differences in wound complications, post-operative respiratory complications, or other adverse effects in the three groups. Operating time was similar in the unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs (median 55 min), but was longer (100 min) for the combination of two sequential repairs. Hospital stay was shortest for patients undergoing unilateral repair (2 days) but was less with bilateral simultaneous repair (4 days) than after two sequential repairs (total of 6 days). There were 12 (11%) wound complications of which five (5%) were infections. There was no difference in complication rate between unilateral and bilateral hernia repair. Postoperative recovery was assessed prospectively and was recorded at 1 month. There was no difference between unilateral and bilateral simultaneous repairs in the number of days before the patient was able to climb stairs easily, drive a car or return to work. The duration of the requirement for analgesia was similar in each group. We conclude that bilateral simultaneous hernia repair can be carried out with no greater morbidity than a unilateral repair, and the return to normal activity is as rapid. Bilateral hernias should be repaired simultaneously rather than sequentially. PMID:2221764

  17. Turkey Revisited: Reflections on Turkish Society and Culture after 20 Years of Absence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    0 o TURKEY REVISITED: REFLECTIONS ON TURKISH SOCIETY AND CULTURE AFTER 20 YEARS OF ABSENCE Graham E, Fuller December 1988 14 LECTEIff P-7513 mens... culture . He read dozens of Turkish novels of the time and became acquainted with many of their authors. As a result, he wrote a book- length analysis of the...SOCIETY AND CULTURE AFTER 20 YEARS OF ABSENCE Graham E. Fuller There is much merit in abandoning an intellectual discipline for lengthy periods of

  18. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  19. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  20. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  1. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-09-22

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes.

  2. Uniparental disomy in congenital disorders: A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Lindor, N.M.; Karnes, P.S.; Michels, V.V.

    1995-08-28

    Whole chromosome uniparental disomy (UPD) for several different chromosomes has been described in individuals with phenotypes that encompass a broad range of abnormalities. We prospectively searched for UPD in 25 cytogenetically normal individuals who had one or more of the following features: nonsyndromic multiple congenital anomalies, short stature, mental retardation, or dysmorphic findings. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite repeats, biparental inheritance of at least one locus on every chromosome was found in every individual and uniparental inheritance was not detected at any locus. If UPD does exist in this clinical setting, its frequency is less than 13.7% (95% confidence interval). Our data indicate that additional studies will be required to determine the true incidence of UPD in this population. 41 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Marine Microbiological Enzymes: Studies with Multiple Strategies and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Qinghao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce a series of promising enzymes that have been widely used or are potentially valuable for our daily life. Both classic and newly developed biochemistry technologies have been broadly used to study marine and terrestrial microbiological enzymes. In this brief review, we provide a research update and prospects regarding regulatory mechanisms and related strategies of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) lactonase, which is an important but largely unexplored enzyme. We also detail the status and catalytic mechanism of the main types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that broadly exist among marine microorganisms but have been poorly explored. In order to facilitate understanding, the regulatory and synthetic biology strategies of terrestrial microorganisms are also mentioned in comparison. We anticipate that this review will provide an outline of multiple strategies for promising marine microbial enzymes and open new avenues for the exploration, engineering and application of various enzymes. PMID:27669268

  4. [Postoperative pain therapy in urology. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Gronau, E; Pannek, J; Benninghoff, A; Seibold, W; Senge, T

    2002-05-01

    A sufficient analgesic treatment in the early postoperative period is important for the patients comfort level. Moreover, physical therapy for prophylaxis of pneumonia and thrombosis is better tolerated. In a prospective study, we compared two postoperative pain management regimens to establish a sufficient pain management without the need of additional costs or manpower. Of 215 patients undergoing major urologic surgery, 111 patients received on demand medication exclusively (group 1), whereas 104 patients were treated with basic analgesics combined with on demand medication (group 2). Pain intensity, side effects and subjective well being were evaluated with a visual analogue scale and a standardised interview. Pain intensity and side effects were significantly lower in group 2. Thus, with combined analgesic treatment, postoperative pain relieve can be achieved safely and without additional costs.

  5. [Study and prospects for clinical diseases treated with scraping therapy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-ying; Yang, Jin-sheng

    2009-02-01

    In order to explore characteristics of clinical diseases treated by scraping therapy, summarize laws of clinical application of scraping therapy, and prospect for research direction of scraping therapy in future, collect 437 articles about scraping therapy between 1994-2007 and analyze and summarize the treated diseases and methods of scraping therapy. Results indicate that scraping therapy has been widely applied to commonly encountered diseases and frequently encountered diseases in departments of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology and pediatrics, etc. with more obvious therapeutic effects. Clinically, it can combine with acupuncture and moxibustion, cupping, massage, blood-letting puncture and other methods. In future, the studies on standardization of manipulation and standards for assessment of therapeutic effect, suitable diseases and the mechanisms of scraping therapy, and development of tools and media, etc. of scraping therapy should be strengthened.

  6. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K.; Schaller, Bernhard; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay) in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe. PMID:25191182

  7. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Solgård, L; Nielsen, A B; Møller-Madsen, B; Jacobsen, B W; Yde, J; Jensen, J

    1995-01-01

    During 1986, all sports injuries (n = 5222) were prospectively recorded at the two casualty departments in Arhus, Denmark. Volleyball injuries (n = 278) accounted for 5.3% of all sports injuries. An evaluation of the rehabilitation period and the consequences of the injuries was undertaken by questionnaire three years after the injury. The injury incidence was 1.9 injuries/1000 inhabitants/year. Hand, finger, and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries. Female players had significantly more hand/finger injuries than male players, who incurred more ankle/foot injuries. Knee (6%) and ankle injuries (31%) were responsible for the longest duration of absence from sports participation. There were relatively few chronic injuries. The study suggests the need to enhance prophylactic measures with regard to blocking and overhand pass techniques, in order to reduce the number and extent of ankle and hand/finger injuries. PMID:8800857

  8. Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland: our experience over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Christopher; Zhao, Xiangrong; Deng, Fang-Ming; Das, Kasturi

    2013-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, often presenting with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings, and are thus underrecognized. They are occasionally associated with malignant neoplasms, which can greatly mimic benign lesions and carry detrimental clinical consequences if misdiagnosed. Here we present our 20-year experience (1992-2012) with these lesions at an academic medical center. Among more than 4500 adrenal gland specimens, 31 cases of adrenal lesions with a predominant cystic component were identified in 30 patients with an age range of 34 to 86 years (median, 55.5 years) and a male/female ratio of 13:17. Macroscopic descriptions, available histologic and immunostain slides, and available radiologic records were reviewed for all included cases. Radiologic studies and gross examination correlated well, and hemorrhage (26 cases; 84%) and encapsulation (25 cases; 81%) appeared to be nonspecific radiologic/gross features shared across histologic subtypes. Microscopic review identified 12 cases (39%) of pseudocysts, 2 cases (6%) of endothelium-derived cysts, and 17 cases (55%) of epithelium-derived cysts. Among these 31 cystic adrenal lesions, 2 cases (6%) were malignant neoplasms (1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma). Radiologic impression and histopathologic diagnosis were concordant in 11 (73%) of the 15 cases for which radiologic records were available. This study represents the second largest case series to date on cystic adrenal lesions and presents a comprehensive review on their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and gross and microscopic pathologic features, as well as their differential diagnoses.

  9. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (EMHJ): a 20-year overview (1995-2014).

    PubMed

    Mandil, A; Curlet, F; El-Din, H Nour; Abu-Saleh, N; Soliman, M

    2016-11-02

    The EMHJ was established in 1995 to provide a peer-reviewed platform for health professionals to share their research with the scientific community. The objective of this review was to examine EMR public health research trends, as reflected by EMHJ publications in 20 years (1995-2014), through secondary data analysis. Published articles were categorized according to EMR strategic priority areas (93%), i.e. health systems strengthening (25%); reproductive and child health (22%); communicable diseases (26%); noncommunicable diseases (25%); emergency preparedness (1.5%). Most papers were original research articles (85 %), published in English (94 %), but just over half (52 %) mentioned obtaining a form of ethical clearance in the text. Six countries had each over 100 papers published during the study period, i.e. Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, Pakistan. Half EMHJ publications during this period came from 4 countries only (Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan), which calls for further study to evaluate why other EMR nations are less well represented and how to encourage greater contribution from them over the coming years.

  10. Bacterial keratitis: a prospective clinical and microbiological study

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, F.; Bruttin, O.; Zografos, L.; Guex-Crosier, Y.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To define the clinical and microbiological profile of bacterial keratitis at the Jules Gonin Eye Hospital and to test the in vitro bacterial resistance.
METHODS—Patients presenting with bacterial keratitis were prospectively followed; clinical features (age, risk factors, visual acuity) and response to therapy were analysed. Bacteriological profile was determined and the sensitivity/resistance of isolated strains were tested towards 12 ocular antibiotics (NCCLS disc diffusion test).
RESULTS—85 consecutive patients (mean age 44.3 (SD 20.7) years) were prospectively enrolled from 1 March 1997 to 30 November 1998. The following risk factors were identified: contact lens wear, 36%; blepharitis, 21%; trauma, 20%; xerophthalmia, 15%; keratopathies, 8%; and eyelid abnormalities, 6%. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 40%; Staphylococcus aureus, 22%; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8%; others Streptococcus species, 5%; Pseudomonas, 9%; Moraxella and Serratia marcescens, 5% each; Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Alcaligenes xyloxidans, Morganella morganii, and Haemophilus influenza, 1% each. 1-15% of strains were resistant to fluoroquinolones, 13-22% to aminoglycosides, 37% to cefazolin, 18% to chloramphenicol, 54% to polymyxin B, 51% to fusidic acid, and 45% to bacitracin. Five of the 85 patients (5.8%) had a poor clinical outcome with a visual loss of one or more lines of visual acuity.
CONCLUSION—Fluoroquinolones appear to be the therapy of choice for bacterial keratitis, but, based upon these in vitro studies, some strains may be resistant.

 PMID:11423460

  11. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  12. Responses of high-altitude graminoids and soil fungi to 20 years of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Kivlin, Stephanie N; Whitney, Kenneth D; Price, Mary V; Waser, Nickolas M; Harte, John

    2014-07-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate warming because cold temperatures constrain biological processes. Deeper understanding of the consequences of climate change will come from studies that consider not only the direct effects of temperature on individual species, but also the indirect effects of altered species interactions. Here we show that 20 years of experimental warming has changed the species composition of graminoid (grass and sedge) assemblages in a subalpine meadow of the Rocky Mountains, USA, by increasing the frequency of sedges and reducing the frequency of grasses. Because sedges typically have weak interactions with mycorrhizal fungi relative to grasses, lowered abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or other root-inhabiting fungi could underlie warming-induced shifts in plant species composition. However, warming increased root colonization by AM fungi for two grass species, possibly because AM fungi can enhance plant water uptake when soils are dried by experimental warming. Warming had no effect on AM fungal colonization of three other graminoids. Increased AM fungal colonization of the dominant shrub Artemisia tridentata provided further grounds for rejecting the hypothesis that reduced AM fungi caused the shift from grasses to sedges. Non-AM fungi (including dark septate endophytes) also showed general increases with warming. Our results demonstrate that lumping grasses and sedges when characterizing plant community responses can mask significant shifts in the responses of primary producers, and their symbiotic fungi, to climate change.

  13. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others.

  14. Renal profile in patients with orthopaedic trauma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ashish; John, Bobby; Pawar, Basant; Sadiq, Shalinder

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and to identify factors contributing to development of ARF in orthopaedic trauma patients. A total of 55 patients who presented over a period of one year with trauma to upper and lower limbs were studied. Patients with renal injury, chest or abdominal injury, isolated fractures of the hands, feet and axial skeleton involvement were excluded. Out of these, five developed acute renal failure, three recovered and two died. The overall incidence of ARF in this study was 9.1%. Patients with lower limb injuries are at higher risk of developing ARF. Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) > or = 7, higher age, patient presenting with shock, increased myoglobin levels in urine and serum have been correlated with a greater risk of patients developing ARF and a higher mortality. This study attempts to determine the magnitude of crush injury causing renal failure and the incidence of renal failure in patients with injuries affecting the appendicular skeleton exclusively.

  15. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  16. A study of geothermal prospects in the western United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The commercial development potential of 13 underdeveloped geothermal prospects in the Western United States was examined, and the prospects were ranked in order of relative potential for development on the basis of investment considerations. The following were considered in the ranking: geotechnical and engineering data, energy market accessibility, administrative constraints, and environmental and socio-economic factors. The primary ranking criterion is the unit cost of energy production expected from each prospect. Secondary criteria are administrative constraints, environmental factors and the quality of the geotechnical data.

  17. Prospective study concerning 71 cases of caesarean scar endometriosis (CSE).

    PubMed

    Pas, Katarzyna; Joanna, Skręt-Magierło; Renata, Raś; Skręt, Andrzej; Barnaś, Edyta

    2017-04-11

    A prospective study was undertaken involving 71 patients with caesarean scar endometriosis (CSE) between the years 2007 and 2013. A prospective study enabled us to find out: mean age of patients with CSE; 34.0 years (range 22.0-48.0), time between CS and diagnosis of CSE; 12.0 months (range 19.0-39.0), duration between symptoms and surgery; 24.0 months (range 1.0-204.0), mean operation time; 40.0 min. (range 15.0-160.0), and mean lesion size; 54.4 ± 42.3 mm(3). In three patients (4.2%) a large deficit in the abdominal wall was closed by means of polypropylene mesh. One of them conceived a year later. Surgical excision is the only effective treatment in patients with CSE. Wide local excision with clear margins is the key to prevent recurrence. Repair of large post-excisional deficits with mesh may also be offered to woman planning their next pregnancy. Impact statement • What is already known on this subject? Endometriosis in the scar may occur after various abdominal surgeries, more frequently after caesarean sections. The excision of large nodules is connected with suboptimal cosmetic outcomes and the possibility of recurrence. • What the results of this study add? In this study including 71 patients with CSE, wide excision with electrocoagulatory was associated with a single recurrence in 12-month follow-up. In three patients (4.2%) large deficits in the abdominal wall were closed with the use of polypropylene mesh. One of them conceived a year later and had a successful pregnancy. • What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or futher research? Surgical excision is the only effective treatment in patients with CSE. Wide local excision with clear margins is the key to preventing recurrence. Repair of large post excisional deficit with mesh may be offered also to woman planning pregnancy.

  18. The national marrow donor program 20 years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; King, Roberta J; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Bolan, Charles D; Agura, Edward; Hartzman, Robert J; Kernan, Nancy A

    2008-09-01

    In the 20 years since the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) facilitated the first unrelated donor transplant, the organization has grown to include almost 7 million donors, and has facilitated over 30,000 transplants on 6 continents. This remarkable accomplishment has been facilitated by the efforts of over 600 employees, and an extensive international network including 171 transplant centers, 73 donor centers, 24 cord blood banks, 97 bone marrow collection centers, 91 apheresis centers, 26 HLA typing laboratories, and 26 Cooperative Registries. In this article, we review the history of the NMDP, and cite the major trends in patient demographics, graft sources, and conditioning regimens over the last 20 years.

  19. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Malcolm, A.W.; Bothe, A. Jr.; Valerio, D.; Blackburn, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    A prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation was carried out in 32 patients with a primary pelvic malignancy and prior weight loss. Both curative and palliative patients were eligible for the study. Seventeen patients were randomized to receive intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) and fifteen patients served as controls who were maintained on their regular diet. Patients were stratified by percent body weight loss. Tolerance to therapy was assessed by evaluation of functional status and by using nutritional parameters of body weight change, change in serum protein levels, and response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests. The curative IVH group tolerated therapy well by both functional and nutritional measurements. All curative IVH patients completed the planned radiation therapy without a treatment break and were fully active following treatment. Patients gained an average of 4.0 kg body weight during irradiation, which was significantly different from the curative control patients. They demonstrated a significant increase in serum transferrin reflecting an improvement in visceral protein. In addition, all showed a positive response to delayed hypersensitivity skin tests at the completion of irradiation. The palliative IVH patients often did poorly because of progression of disease and demonstrated only an elevation of serum transferrin during treatment. The results in the curative IVH group suggest a potential adjunctive role for intravenous hyperalimentation in the malnourished cancer patient undergoing pelvic irradiation. Clearly, further study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation is needed using curative patients with a single tumor type and significant prior weight loss.

  20. New prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Rees, R. J. W.

    1969-01-01

    Although Mycobacterium leprae was identified earlier than Myco. tuberculosis, it has still not been cultured in vitro and only in 1960 was an infection obtained in laboratory animals. However, important advances have been made in the field of experimental leprosy in the last decade due to the development of new techniques and models for studying Myco. leprae in vivo, thus overcoming the limitations imposed by a non-cultivable mycobacterium. Quantitative techniques using Myco. lepraemurium provided the first model for developing an indirect method for distinguishing dead (non-infectious) from living (infectious) bacilli, based on morphological differences in organisms stained by the Ziehl—Neelsen method. However, the most important advances resulted from the limited and localized growth of Myco. leprae when inoculated into the foot pads of mice and, later, the more substantial and generalized multiplication of Myco. leprae in immunologically deficient mice (thymectomized and irradiated with a dose of 900 r). Moreover, in the immunologically deficient animals, the infection eventually resulted in a disease replicating that of lepromatous type leprosy in man, including the involvement of peripheral nerves. The results from these studies and the future prospects for the study of leprosy in the laboratory are reviewed in this article. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 4FIG. 7 PMID:4898388

  1. A Prospective Study of Herpes Zoster in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katakam, Bhumesh Kumar; Kiran, Geeta; Kumar, Udaya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. Aims: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. Consecutive cases clinically diagnosed as HZ in the pediatric age group were taken up. Results: We report the clinico-epidemiological study of 26 cases of HZ, their benign course and recovery among children. Conclusions: HZ is a rare disease in childhood. Varicella in early childhood is a risk factor of HZ in immunocompromised and immunocompetent children. Childhood zoster occurs in either healthy or underlying immunodeficient children. The appearance of HZ in a young child does not always imply an underlying immunodeficiency or malignancy. But the identification of HZ with or without immunodeficiency is of prime importance from the treatment and prognostic point of view and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vesicular eruptions. The prognosis is generally good in healthy children. PMID:27688444

  2. Structured Smoking Cessation Training for Medical Students: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Ronja; Schiekirka, Sarah; Brown, Jamie; Bobak, Alex; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physician adherence to guideline recommendations regarding the provision of counseling and support for smokers willing to quit is low. A lack of training during undergraduate medical education has been identified as a potential cause. This prospective intervention study evaluated a novel teaching module for medical students. Methods: As part of a 6-week cardiovascular course, 125 fourth-year undergraduate medical students received a multimodal and interactive teaching module on smoking cessation, including online learning material, lectures, seminars, and practical skills training. Short- and medium-term effects on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-reported practice were measured using written examinations and an objective structured clinical examination at the end of the module and 6 months later. Results were compared to data obtained from a historical control cohort (n = 70) unexposed to the intervention. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, scores in the knowledge test were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (61.1% vs. 51.7%; p < .001). A similar pattern was observed in the objective structured clinical examination (71.5% vs. 60.5%; p < .001). More students in the intervention than control group agreed that smoking was a chronic disease (83.1% vs. 68.1%; p = .045). The control group was more likely to report recording smoking status (p = .018), but no group difference was detected regarding the report of advising to quit (p = .154). Conclusions: A novel teaching module for undergraduate medical students produced a sustained learning outcome in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes but not self-reported practice. Implications: Studies across the world have identified considerable knowledge gaps and deficits in practical training with regard to smoking cessation counseling in undergraduate medical students. This paper describes a teaching intervention informed by current recommendations for the design of

  3. Criminal poisoning of commuters in Bangladesh: prospective and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Majumder, M Mahbub Alam; Basher, Ariful; Faiz, M Abul; Kuch, Ulrich; Pogoda, Werner; Kauert, Gerold F; Toennes, Stefan W

    2008-08-25

    Travel-related poisoning is an emerging social and public health emergency in Bangladesh but its cause and significance have not been determined. To investigate this syndrome we performed a prospective clinical study and retrospective analysis of hospital records in a general medicine unit of a public tertiary care teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using toxicological analysis by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS). The participants of the prospective study were 130 consecutive patients aged 16-80 years who were admitted with central nervous system depression (Glasgow Coma Score 3-14) after using public transportation, in the absence of other abnormalities, from January through June 2004, and a convenience sample of 15 such patients admitted during 3 days in May 2006. In 2004-2006, travel-related poisoning increased from 6.1 to 9.5% of all admissions (210-309 of 3266-3843 per year), representing 46.6-55.7% of all admitted poisoning cases. Incidents were associated with bus (76%), taxi, train, and air travel, or local markets; 98% of patients remembered buying or accepting food or drinks before losing consciousness. Direct financial damage (missing property) was diverse and frequently existential. Among 94 urine samples analyzed by FPIA, 74% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Among 15 urine samples analyzed by LC-TOF MS, lorazepam was detected in all; five also contained diazepam or metabolites; nitrazepam was present in three. FPIA results obtained for these 15 samples were below the recommended cut-off in eight (53%; lorazepam only). Our findings show that the massive medicosocial emergency of travel-related poisoning in Bangladesh is the result of drug-facilitated organized crime and that benzodiazepine drugs are used to commit these crimes, suggesting modifications to the local emergency management of the victims of this type of poisoning. They also highlight the

  4. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  5. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  6. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.

  7. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between phytoplankton cell counts and subsequent illness among recreational beachgoers.METHODS:We recruited beachgoers at Boquer6n Beach, Puerto Rico, during the summer of 2009. We conducted interviews at three time points to assess baseline health, water activities, and subsequent illness. Daily water samples were quantitatively assayed for phytoplankton cell count. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age and sex, were used to assess the association between exposure to three categories of phytoplankton concentration and subsequent illness.RESULTS: During 26 study days, 15,726 individuals successfully completed all three interviews. Daily total phytoplankton cell counts ranged from 346 to 2,012 cells/ml (median, 712 cells/ml). The category with the highest (≥75th percentile) total phytoplankton cell count was associated with eye irritation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.01, 1.66], rash (OR = 1.27; 95% Cl: 1.02, 1.57), and earache (OR = 1.25; 95% Cl: 0.88, 1.77). In phytoplankton group-specific analyses, the category with the highest Cyanobacteria counts was associated with respiratory illness (OR = 1.37; 95% Cl: 1.12, 1

  8. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  9. Massage Therapy for Lyme Disease Symptoms: a Prospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Meghan J.; Moyer, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect. Methods A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session. Results LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session. Conclusions MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted. PMID:23429967

  10. Risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, I P; Peponis, V; Parikakis, E; Maniatea, A; Patsea, E; Mitropoulos, P

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate risk factors for intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) in patients undergoing phacoemulsification.MethodsParticipants in the study were 1274 consecutive patients, who underwent routine phacoemulsification cataract surgery. The following data were recorded and evaluated as possible risk factors: ophthalmological conditions, axial length of the eye, sociodemographic features, clinical data (hypertension and diabetes mellitus), medications being taken at the time of surgery, and duration of their intake. Cases were characterized intraoperatively as IFIS and non-IFIS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed.ResultsIFIS was observed in 63/1274 eyes (4.9%, 95% CI: 3.9-6.7%). Current use of tamsulosin, alfuzosin, terazosin, benzodiazepines, quetiapine, and finasteride, as well as hypertension, were all independently associated with IFIS. Significant associations were noted for male sex, rivastigmine, and short axial length, which did not reach significance at the multivariate analysis. Duration of α-blockers intake was not found to be associated with IFIS.ConclusionApart from the well-established associations with α-blockers, this prospective study points to benzodiazepines, quetiapine, finasteride, and hypertension as potential risk factors for IFIS. Short axial length and rivastigmine were significantly associated with IFIS only at the univariate analysis.

  11. A prospective clinical study of polycarboxylate cement in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Sánchez, Bárbara; García-Mira, Berta; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of polycarboxylate cement as retrograde filling material. Design: A prospective clinical study was made of 25 patients subjected to periapical surgery with ultrasound and magnifying loupes, in which polycarboxylate cement was used as retrograde filling material. Measurements were made of the area and diameter of the lesions pre- and postoperatively, and 6 and 12 months after the operation. The apical resection and retrograde filling areas were also measured, and the prognosis following surgery was recorded. Results: A total of 23 patients with 31 apicoectomized teeth were studied (2 patients being lost to follow-up). The mean area of the periapical lesions before surgery was 52.25 mm2, with a mean major diameter of 6.1 mm and a mean lesser diameter of 4.8 mm. The success rate after 12 months was 54.7%, according to the criteria of Von Arx and Kurt. The prognosis was poorer in females, in larger lesions, and in cases with larger retrograde filling areas. Conclusions: Polycarboxylate cement offers good results, with important bone regeneration after periapical surgery. Key words: Periapical surgery, endodontic treatment, polycarboxylate cement. PMID:22143701

  12. Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Meulen, Marjon F G; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2010-08-01

    Migrant sensory neuropathy (Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis) is characterized by sudden numbness in the distribution of one or multiple cutaneous nerves. To study disease course and outcome, we prospectively followed 12 patients who presented to our tertiary referral neuromuscular outpatient clinic between January 2003 and January 2004. Medical history, neurological, laboratory and electrophysiological examinations were obtained from all patients. All patients were reviewed a second time in 2007, and five had a follow-up electrophysiological examination. At the first visit, 50% described an episode of stretching preceding the sensory complaints. All but three described pain in the affected area before or concomitant with sensory loss. At clinical examination a median of six skin areas were affected, and in 75% this could be confirmed by nerve conduction studies in at least one nerve. Forty-two percent had involvement of the trigeminal nerve. After a mean disease duration of 7.5 years, three patients reported a complete disappearance of sensory complaints and five that the pain had disappeared, but numbness remained. Three patients still had both painful and numb sensory deficits. One patient developed a distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy. In conclusion, Wartenberg's sensory neuritis is a distinct, exclusively sensory, neuropathy, marked by pain preceding numbness in affected nerves. An episode of stretching preceding pain is not necessary for the diagnosis. Wartenberg's sensory neuritis often retains its spotty, exclusively sensory characteristics after long term follow-up.

  13. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  14. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  15. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  16. A Qualitative Case Study of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge about Instructional Strategies: Introducing Particulate Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boz, Nihat; Boz, Yezdan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate prospective chemistry teachers' knowledge about instructional strategies, one component of pedagogical content knowledge about introducing particulate theory, as well as sources of this knowledge. Twenty-two prospective chemistry teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by the means of a…

  17. A Comparative Study of Problematic Internet Use and Loneliness among Turkish and Korean Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutgun, Aylin; Deniz, Levent; Moon, Man-Ki

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to compare the problematic internet use and its relation to loneliness among two nations' prospective teachers, Turkey and South Korea. Five hundred and ninety five prospective teachers from three universities, two from Turkey and one from South Korea participated in the study. Generalized Problematic Internet Use…

  18. An Instrument Development Study for Determining Prospective Science Teachers' Science-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    The study is focusing on development of an instrument to determine science-specific epistemological beliefs of prospective science teachers. The study involved 364 (male = 82, female = 282) prospective science teachers enrolled in a science teacher education program. The confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis and correlation analysis…

  19. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group - it was 20 years ago today.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, D A; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Gladman, D; Hanly, J G

    2011-11-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group is 20 years old this year (2011). This brief review traces the origins of the group focussing on its more recent history and reviewing some of its major contributions to lupus research during the past two decades.

  20. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  1. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  2. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  3. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  4. Changes and Challenges in 20 Years of Research into the Development of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This review of 20 years of developmental research on Executive Functions (EF) offers a broad-brushstroke picture that touches on multiple issues including: (i) findings from typical and atypical groups, from infancy to adolescence; (ii) advances in assessment tools and in statistical analysis; (iii) the interplay between EF and other cognitive…

  5. 20 Years after "The Ontogeny of Human Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective," Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabès, Adeline; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, Nelson published a paper describing a model of memory development during the first years of life. The current article seeks to provide an update on the original work published 20 years ago. Specifically, we review our current knowledge on the relation between the emergence of explicit memory functions throughout development and the…

  6. Four Themes from 20 Years of Research on Infant Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews progress over the past 20 years in four areas of research on infant perception and cognition. Work on perception of dynamic events has identified perceptual constraints on perception of object unity and object trajectory continuity that have led to a perceptual account of early development that supplements Nativist accounts.…

  7. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  8. 3D Heart Model and 4D Flow MRI 20 Years after Spiral Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Kheradvar, Arash; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Rickers, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Case of a patient is presented here 20 years after spiral direct anastomosis of the great arteries in an arterial switch operation. Three-dimensional model of the heart combined with four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging presents a novel comprehensive way to assess surgical results. PMID:28018823

  9. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse

    PubMed Central

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Rout, Emily D.; Vap, Linda M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Hassel, Diana M.; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  10. Long-Term Instructional Development: A 20-Year ID and Implementation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Howard; Ice, Kay; Niedermeyer, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of long-term instructional development focuses on the development and implementation of a K-12 energy education curriculum over a 20-year period. Highlights include field testing; fund raising; learner performance on posttests; revisions and updates; and guidelines for long-term instructional development projects. (LRW)

  11. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  12. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  13. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  14. Metabolic Bone Disease in Viral Cirrhosis: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Goubraim, Rabia; Kabbaj, Nawal; Salihoun, Mouna; Chaoui, Zakia; Nya, M'Hamed; Amrani, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Metabolic Bone disorders are well-recognized extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. The aim was to report their prevalence and the associated factors to their development in patients with viral cirrhosis. Patients and Methods. All consecutive patients with viral cirrhosis were prospectively enrolled. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, liver function, and phosphocalcic tests were measured in all patients. Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine and total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Forty-six cirrhotic patients were included with hepatitis C (87%) and hepatitis B (13%). The Child-Pugh score was grade A in 87% of cases and grade B in 13%. Thirty-seven patients had decreased bone mineral density with osteopenia in 24 patients and osteoporosis in 13 patients. Decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D was found in 95.6% of cases. Bone disorders were significantly more frequent in old patients with low body mass index, long duration of liver disease, and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. None of these factors was an independent factor associated with bone disorders. Conclusion. Our study revealed a high prevalence of metabolic bone disorders among viral cirrhotic patients. Consequently, bone mineral density assessment should be performed systematically in all cirrhotic patients. PMID:27398385

  15. Neuropsychological correlates of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, L D; Poynton, A; Bridges, P K; Bartlett, J R

    1991-12-01

    Stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy is a surgical procedure performed for the alleviation of intractable affective disorders. It involves the destruction of bifrontal pathways located beneath and in front of the head of the caudate nucleus. We report the first prospective study of the neuropsychological correlates of this operation in 23 patients. Tests of general intelligence, speed and attention, as well as a wide range of focal cognitive tests, including tasks which have been reported in the literature to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction, were administered 1 wk before the operation, 2 wks after the operation and approximately 6 mths after the operation. The results indicated that this operation does not cause any significant, long-term adverse, cognitive deficits. In the post-operative assessment, however, patients show a significant deterioration in their performance on recognition memory tests and a large proportion of them present with a marked tendency to confabulate on recall tasks. In addition, their performance on some of the tasks which are considered to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction is found to be significantly impaired. These deficits are interpreted to reflect frontal lobe dysfunction due to widespread post-operative oedema rather than damage to the subcaudate pathways. The potential for research on these transient effects of the operation for the advancement of our understanding of frontal lobe functions is discussed.

  16. Necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ramin; Sibdari, Siamak Yousef; Rafiee, Elham; Yazdanian, Shideh

    2011-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection and is a necrosis of the fascia and surrounding tissues. Despite recent advances in its management, outcomes have not improved and mortality rate is still high. Between September 2007 and August 2009, we prospectively studied twenty-four histopathologically proven necrotizing fasciitis patients to assess the prognostic factors that indicate the outcome. Mortality rate was 20.8%. Twelve patients (50%) improved, while seven patients (29.2%) were complicated by limb loss. Mortality rates related to upper and lower limb involvement were similar (20% vs. 22.2%). The rates of gangrene and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than other comorbidities. Patients with gram-positive infections had significantly lower rates of amputation (15.4% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.04). Mean band cell count and serum potassium level were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors same as leukocyte count in the patients with gangrene, while serum sodium level was significantly lower in nonsurvivors. We conclude that hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased band cells in the peripheral blood of patients may be useful parameters in distinguishing life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis; hence, we recommended lower threshold to amputation during surgery for this group of patients.

  17. Endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy: a long-term prospective study.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, M E; Kaban, L B; Troulis, M J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic vertical ramus osteotomy (EVRO) with rigid fixation for the treatment of mandibular prognathism or asymmetry. Inclusion criteria were age >15 years, adequate clinical and radiographic documentation, and minimum postoperative follow-up of 3 years. Exclusion criteria were refusal to consent, rheumatoid arthritis, steroid use, and smoking. Demographic data, pre-operative (T0), immediate postoperative (T1), and latest follow-up (T2) clinical examinations and cephalometric analysis, procedure data, complications, and length of hospital stay (LOS) were documented. Ten fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Diagnoses included mandibular hyperplasia (n = 5), stable condylar hyperplasia (n = 4), and mandibular asymmetry secondary to condylar resorption (n = 1). In total, 17 EVROs were performed. The mean operative time was 33 min per side. Mean mandibular setback was 4.7 mm. Mean LOS was 1.9 days. Latest follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Skeletal stability was confirmed in nine patients. One patient exhibited recurrence of mandibular prognathism at 5 years due to late growth. No VII nerve deficits were encountered. Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) paresthesia was noted in four patients, which resolved postoperatively. EVRO was fast and resulted in minimal blood loss, quick recovery, and skeletal stability.

  18. A Prospective Three Generational Study of Fathers’ Constructive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study considered multiple influences on 102 fathers’ constructive parenting of 181 children. Fathers in the second generation (G2) were recruited as boys on the basis of neighborhood risk for delinquency and assessed through early adulthood. The fathers’ parents (G1) and the G2 mothers of G3 also participated. A multiagent, multimethod approach was used to measure G1 and G2 constructive parenting (monitoring, discipline, warmth, and involvement), G2 positive adolescent adjustment, and problem behavior in all 3 generations, including G3 difficult temperament and externalizing problems in early and middle childhood, respectively. Path modeling supported direct transmission of G1 constructive parenting of G2 in late childhood to G2 constructive parenting of G3 in middle childhood. Of note, G1 parenting indirectly influenced G2 parenting through G2 positive adjustment but not through G2 adolescent antisocial behavior. G1 parenting influenced G2 parenting in both early and middle childhood of G3. G2 parenting influenced G3 problem behavior but not vice versa. Intergenerational continuities in parenting persisted, even when additional influences were considered. Transmission pathways are not limited to life-course adversity. Rather, constructive parenting is maintained, in part, by engendering positive adjustment in offspring. PMID:19702390

  19. Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, WM; Zeng, J; Broadbent, JM; Foster Page, LA; Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Williams, SM; Braithwaite, AW; Robertson, SP; Poulton, R

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a longstanding prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were: (1) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion; and (2) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Materials and Methods Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Results Overall, mean telomere length reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Conclusions Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. PMID:26713854

  20. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry; De Wit, Matty; Vennema, Harry; Vinjé, Jan; De Bruin, Erwin; Van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Koopmans, Marion

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the natural history of human Calicivirus infection in the community. Clinical information was obtained from 99 subjects infected with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) and 40 subjects infected with Sapporo-like viruses (SLV) in a prospective, community-based cohort study. NLV infection was common in all age groups, whereas SLV infection was mainly restricted to children aged <5 years. Symptoms lasted for a median of 5 and 6 days for NLV and SLV infections, respectively. Disease was characterized by diarrhea during the first 5 days (87% of patients with NLV infection and 95% of patients with SLV infection) and vomiting on the first day (74% for NLV and 60% for SLV). Vomiting was less common in children aged <1 year (59% for NLV and 44% for SLV) than it was among children aged >/=1 year (>75% for NLV and >67% for SLV). Overall, NLV was detected in 26% of patients up to 3 weeks after the onset of illness. This proportion was highest (38%) for children aged <1 year. SLV shedding subsided after 14 days. These data show that the durations of disease and viral shedding of caliciviruses are longer than has been described elsewhere. Therefore, the impact of these infections may have been underestimated.

  1. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  2. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  3. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  4. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  5. A prospective study of patient safety incidents in gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matharoo, Manmeet; Haycock, Adam; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Medical error occurs frequently with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aime to assess the frequency and type of endoscopy patient safety incidents (PSIs). Patients and methods A prospective observational study of PSIs in routine diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy was undertaken in a secondary and tertiary care center. Observations were undertaken within the endoscopy suite across pre-procedure, intra-procedure and post-procedure phases of care. Experienced (Consultant-level) and trainee endoscopists from medical, surgical, and nursing specialities were included. PSIs were defined as any safety issue that had the potential to or directly adversely affected patient care: PSIs included near misses, complications, adverse events and “never events”. PSIs were reviewed by an expert panel and categorized for severity and nature via expert consensus. Results One hundred and forty procedures (92 diagnostic, 48 therapeutic) over 37 lists (experienced operators n = 25, trainees n = 12) were analyzed. One hundred forty PSIs were identified (median 1 per procedure, range 0 – 7). Eighty-six PSIs (61 %) occurred in 48 therapeutic procedures. Zero PSIs were detected in 13 diagnostic procedures. 21 (15 %) PSIs were categorized as severe and 12 (9 %) had the potential to be “never events,” including patient misidentification and wrong procedure. Forty PSIs (28 %) were of intermediate severity and 78 (56 %) were minor. Oxygen monitoring PSIs occurred most frequently. Conclusion This is the first study documenting the range and frequency of PSIs in endoscopy. Although many errors are minor without immediate consequence, further work should identify whether prevention of such recurrent errors affects the incidence of severe errors, thus improving safety and quality. PMID:28191498

  6. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence.

  7. Lifestyle and Weight Predictors of a Healthy Overweight Profile over a 20 year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Michael; Canning, Karissa L.; Mirdamadi, Paul; Ardern, Chris I.; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether changes in modifiable risk factors (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body weight and diet composition) are associated with the transition to metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) versus metabolically abnormal overweight/obese. Methods This analysis included 1358 adults (aged 25.0 (3.5) years) from the CARDIA study who were healthy at baseline and overweight/obese at follow-up. Participants with zero or one of the following six risk factors were classified as MHO: elevated triglycerides, LDL, blood pressure, fasting glucose and HOMA-insulin resistance and low HDL. Results Over the 20 year follow-up, the sample gained weight (BMI 24.5 kg/m2 to 31.1 kg/m2) and the prevalence of MHO was 47% of overweight/obese at follow-up. After adjusting for changes in CRF, diet and weight change, physical activity and macronutrient intake were not independently associated with MHO (p>0.05), while changes in CRF (fit-unfit: RR (95%) = 0.58, 0.52–0.66; unfit-unfit: RR = 0.67, 0.58–0.76, versus fit-fit) and weight (gain: RR (95%) = 0.54, 0.43–0.67; cycle: RR = 0.74, 0.57–0.94; versus stable) were independently associated with MHO. Conclusion Focusing on high CRF and strategies to limit weight gain may be important for individuals with overweight and obesity in early to mid-adulthood to maintain a metabolically healthy profile. PMID:26010328

  8. Rationale, scope, and 20-year experience of vascular surgical training with lifelike pulsatile flow models.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Schmidli, Jürg; Schumacher, Hardy; Gürke, Lorenz; Klemm, Klaus; Duschek, Nikolaus; Meile, Toni; Assadian, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    technical skills of vascular surgical residents at national or international board examinations. This article gives an overview of our experiences of >20 years of practical training of beginners and advanced vascular surgeons using lifelike pulsatile vascular surgical training models.

  9. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  10. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement.

  11. Water balance along a chain of tundra lakes: A 20-year isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.

    2014-11-01

    Stable isotope measurements and isotope mass balance (IMB) calculations are presented in support of an unprecedented 20-year water balance assessment for a tailings pond and a chain of downstream lakes at the Salmita-Tundra mine site, situated near Courageous Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada (65°03‧N; 111°11‧W). The method is shown to provide a comprehensive annual and interannual perspective of water balance fluxes along a chain of lakes during the period 1991-2010, without the need for continuous streamflow gauging, and reveals important lake-order-dependent patterns of land-surface runoff, discharge accumulation, and several key diagnostic ratios, i.e., evaporation/inflow, evaporation/evapotranspiration, land-surface-runoff/precipitation and discharge/ precipitation. Lake evaporation is found to be a significant component of the water balance, accounting for between 26% and 32% of inflow to natural lakes and between 72% and 100% of inflow to mine-tailings ponds. Evaporation/evapotranspiration averages between 7% and 22% and is found to be higher in low-precipitation years, and in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes. Runoff ratios for land-surface drainages and runoff ratios for watersheds (including lakes) ranged between 14-47% and 20-47%, respectively, and were higher in low precipitation years, in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes, and in watersheds less affected by mining development. We propose that in general these two runoff ratios will likely converge as lake order increases and as land cover conditions become regionally representative. Notably, the study demonstrates application of IMB, validated with streamflow measurements, to constrain local water balance in a remote low-arctic region. For IMB chain-of-lakes applications, it underlines the importance of accounting for evaporatively-enriched upstream sources to avoid overestimation of evaporation losses.

  12. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia. A prospective outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Bochud, P Y; Moser, F; Erard, P; Verdon, F; Studer, J P; Villard, G; Cosendai, A; Cotting, M; Heim, F; Tissot, J; Strub, Y; Pazeller, M; Saghafi, L; Wenger, A; Germann, D; Matter, L; Bille, J; Pfister, L; Francioli, P

    2001-03-01

    We initiated a prospective study with a group of practitioners to assess the etiology, clinical presentation, and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia in patients diagnosed in the outpatient setting. All patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of pneumonia and an infiltrate on chest X-ray underwent an extensive standard workup and were followed over 4 weeks. Over a 4-year period, 184 patients were eligible, of whom 170 (age range, 15-96 yr; median, 43 yr) were included and analyzed. In 78 (46%), no etiologic agent could be demonstrated. In the remaining 92 patients, 107 etiologic agents were implicated: 43 were due to "pyogenic" bacteria (39 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 3 Haemophilus spp., 1 Streptococcus spp.), 39 were due to "atypical" bacteria (24 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9 Chlamydia pneumoniae, 4 Coxiella burnetii, 2 Legionella spp.), and 25 were due to viruses (20 influenza viruses and 5 other respiratory viruses). There were only a few statistically significant clinical differences between the different etiologic categories (higher age and comorbidities in viral or in episodes of undetermined etiology, higher neutrophil counts in "pyogenic" episodes, more frequent bilateral and interstitial infiltrates in viral episodes). There were 2 deaths, both in patients with advanced age (83 and 86 years old), and several comorbidities. Only 14 patients (8.2%) required hospitalization. In 6 patients (3.4%), the pneumonia episode uncovered a local neoplasia. This study shows that most cases of community-acquired pneumonia have a favorable outcome and can be successfully managed in an outpatient setting. Moreover, in the absence of rapid and reliable clinical or laboratory tests to establish a definite etiologic diagnosis at presentation, the spectrum of the etiologic agents suggest that initial antibiotic therapy should cover both S. pneumoniae and atypical bacteria, as well as possible influenza viruses during the epidemic season.

  14. Liquid versus gel handrub formulation: a prospective intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Ousmane; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Lübbe, Jann; Griffiths, William; Pittet, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hand hygiene is one of the cornerstones of the prevention of health care-associated infection, but health care worker (HCW) compliance with good practices remains low. Alcohol-based handrub is the new standard for hand hygiene action worldwide and usually requires a system change for its successful introduction in routine care. Product acceptability by HCWs is a crucial step in this process. Methods We conducted a prospective intervention study to compare the impact on HCW compliance of a liquid (study phase I) versus a gel (phase II) handrub formulation of the same product during daily patient care. All staff (102 HCWs) of the medical intensive care unit participated. Compliance with hand hygiene was monitored by a single observer. Skin tolerance and product acceptability were assessed using subjective and objective scoring systems, self-report questionnaires, and biometric measurements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictors and compliance with the handrub formulation as the main explanatory variable and to adjust for potential risk factors. Results Overall compliance (phases I and II) with hand hygiene practices among nurses, physicians, nursing assistants, and other HCWs was 39.1%, 27.1%, 31.1%, and 13.9%, respectively (p = 0.027). Easy access to handrub improved compliance (35.3% versus 50.6%, p = 0.035). Nurse status, working on morning shifts, use of the gel formulation, and availability of the alcohol-based handrub in the HCW's pocket were independently associated with higher compliance. Immediate accessibility was the strongest predictor. Based on self-assessment, observer assessment, and the measurement of epidermal water content, the gel performed significantly better than the liquid formulation. Conclusion Facilitated access to an alcohol-based gel formulation leads to improved compliance with hand hygiene and better skin condition in HCWs. PMID:17477858

  15. A prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and breast cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may protect against breast cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated breast cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of physiologic response to physical activity habits. Methods We examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of death from breast cancer in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Women (N=14,811), aged 20 to 83 years with no prior breast cancer history, received a preventive medical examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, between 1970 and 2001. Mortality surveillance was completed through December 31, 2003. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified as maximal treadmill exercise test duration and was categorized for analysis as low (lowest 20% of exercise duration), moderate (middle 40%), and high (upper 40%). At baseline, all participants were able to complete the exercise test to at least 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results A total of 68 breast cancer deaths occurred during follow-up (mean=16 years). Age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates per 10,000 woman-years were 4.4, 3.2, and 1.8 for low, moderate, and high cardiorespiratory fitness groups, respectively (trend P = 0.008). After further controlling for body mass index, smoking, drinking, chronic conditions, abnormal exercise electrocardiogram responses, family history of breast cancer, oral contraceptive use, and estrogen use, hazard ratios (95% CI) for breast cancer mortality across incremental cardiorespiratory fitness categories were 1.00 (referent), 0.67 (0.35–1.26), 0.45 (0.22–0.95); trend P = 0.04. Conclusions These results indicate that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a reduced risk of dying from breast cancer in women. PMID:19276861

  16. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rahmani, Seyed-Hessam; Rostami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical) according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E) was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8%) and critical injuries (24.7%), followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes. PMID:22375188

  17. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  18. Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity. The Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; And Others

    This publication is the first interim report from the Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity (Prospects), and describes students' characteristics and the schools they attend. Prospects is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of Chapter 1 program participation by following for 5 years large…

  19. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Views about Socioscientific Issues: A Concurrent Parallel Design Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özden, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the prospective elementary school teachers' perceptions on socioscientific issues. The research was conducted on prospective elementary school teachers studying at a university located in western Turkey. The researcher first taught the subjects of global warming and nuclear power plants from a perspective…

  20. A prospective study of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Mir, Inocencia; García-López, Mercedes; Palop, Vicente; Ferrer, José M; Rubio, Elena; Morales-Olivas, Francisco J

    1999-01-01

    Aims There are few publications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among paediatric patients, though ADR incidence is usually stated to be higher during the first year of life and in male patients. We have carried out a prospective study to assess the extent, pattern and profile risk for ADRs in hospitalized patients between 1 and 24 months of age. Methods An intensive events monitoring scheme was used. A total of 512 successive admissions to two medical paediatric wards (47 beds) were analysed. The hospital records were screened daily during two periods (summer, 105 days and winter, 99 days), and adverse clinical events observed were recorded. Results A total of 282 events were detected; of these, 112 were considered to be manifestations of ADRs. The cumulative incidence was 16.6%, no differences being observed between periods. Although there were no differences between patients under and over 12 months of age, risk was found to be significantly higher among girls compared with boys (RR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.52). The gastro-intestinal system was most frequently affected. The therapeutic group most commonly implicated was anti-infective drugs and vaccines (41.5%). The ADRs were mild or moderate in over 90% of cases. A consistent relationship was noted between the number of drugs administered and the incidence of ADRs. Conclusions Hospitalized patients exhibited an ADR risk profile that included female sex and the number of drugs administered. No particular age predisposition was observed. The most commonly prescribed drugs are those most often implicated in ADRs in paediatric patients. PMID:10383547

  1. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  2. Prospective Study of Dental Intervention for Hematopoietic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K.; Akashi, M.; Furudoi, S.; Yakushijin, K.; Kawamoto, S.; Okamura, A.; Matsuoka, H.; Komori, T.

    2015-01-01

    Various chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with hematopoietic malignancy cause serious side effects, including myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Immunosuppression makes patients more susceptible to infection, resulting in an increased risk of infectious complications, including the development of severe septicemia that may be life-threatening. It is necessary for dental staff to be familiar with an appropriate protocol in such cases and to share information about the chemotherapy with a hematologist. To verify the effectiveness of our dental intervention protocol, we conducted a prospective study on the incidence of complications for each myelosuppressive grade of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancy. We compared the incidence of complications between treatment P (patients who finished all the dental treatments according to the protocol) and treatment Q (patients who did not) per grade (A, B, C, D) and incidence of systemic or oral findings. We also compared the incidence of oral complication related to the residual teeth between first chemo (patients who were undergoing chemotherapy for the first time) and prior chemo (not the first time). There were significant differences in inflammatory complications between treatment P and treatment Q. We found that both systemic and oral inflammatory complications increased with higher-grade myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the incidence of oral complications related to the residual teeth between first chemo and prior chemo. Complete implementation of the dental intervention protocol was associated with fewer oral and systemic infectious and inflammatory complications in patients with hematopoietic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy. The incidence of oral and systemic complications also increased with grade of chemotherapy. These results support the validity of our dental intervention protocol. We should pay close attention to the oral

  3. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  4. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, E; Van der Beek, A J; Bouter, L; Bahr, R; Mechelen, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains. Methods: 486 players from the second and third Dutch national volleyball divisions participated in the study and were followed prospectively during a whole season. Three measurements were made during the season (baseline, follow up 1, and follow up 2), where all players completed a questionnaire on demographic variables (only at baseline), sports participation, use of preventive measures, and previous injuries. Volleyball exposure during training and matches was recorded for each individual player by the coach on a weekly exposure form. In case of injury the coach provided the injured player with an injury registration form, which had to be completed within one week after the onset of injury. Results: 100 injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 2.6 injuries/1000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 2.0/1000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 41) accounted for most of the acute injuries, and 31 (75%) of all players with an ankle sprain reported a previous ankle sprain. Twenty five overuse injuries were reported. The overall incidence of overuse injuries was 0.6/1000 hours; the back and the shoulder were the most common sites. Conclusions: Ankle sprain is the most common injury in volleyball, accounting for 41% of all volleyball related injuries. Previous injury seems to be an important risk factor for an ankle sprain. Injury prevention programmes should focus on ankle sprains and concentrate on players with previous ankle sprains. PMID:15273190

  5. Central venous catheterization: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mer, Mervyn; Duse, Adriano Gianmaria; Galpin, Jacqueline Suzanne; Richards, Guy Antony

    2009-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are extensively used worldwide. Mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are well described with their use and may be associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased medical costs and mortality. CVCs account for an estimated 90% of all catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and a host of risk factors for CVC-related infections have been documented. The duration of use of CVCs remains controversial and the length of time such devices can safely be left in place has not been fully and objectively addressed in the critically ill patient. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters have been introduced in an attempt to limit catheter-related infection (CRI) and increase the time that CVCs can safely be left in situ. Recent meta-analyses concluded that antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs appear to be effective in reducing CRI. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study at Johannesburg Hospital over a 4-year period. The study entailed a comparison of standard triple-lumen versus antimicrobial impregnated CVCs on the rate of CRI. Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the duration of catheter insertion time from our standard practice of seven days to 14 days, to assess the influence of the antimicrobial impregnated catheter on the incidence of CRI, and to elucidate the epidemiology and risks of CRI. One hundred and eighteen critically ill patients were included in the study which spanned 34 951.5 catheter hours (3.99 catheter years). It was found that antimicrobial catheters did not provide any significant benefit over standard catheters, which the authors feel can safely be left in place for up to 14 days with appropriate infection control measures. The most common source of CRI was the skin. The administration of parenteral nutrition and the site of catheter insertion (internal jugular vein vs subclavian vein) were not noted to be risk factors for CRI. There was no clinical evidence

  6. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p<0.05). Despite this reduction, we observed a greater frequency of poor CSA outcomes in the MB compared to the PB (77.8% and 40.6%; p>0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; p<0.05). There was significantly higher odds ratio (7.75; 95%CI: 1.56–38.45) for poor CSA outcomes only for M nerve in patients with reactions. Poor echogenicity outcomes were more frequent in MB (59.4%) compared to PB (22.2%) (p<0.05). There was significant association between poor Doppler outcomes and neuritis. Gender, disease duration, and leprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions

  7. Lung biopsies and patient care at university-affiliated hospitals: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Lung biopsies have been performed since 1967 at the University of California at Los Angeles and its affiliated institutions. In the span of 20 years, the author performed 4285 cases and developed several procedures. This article discusses the importance of risk management and patient care and presents statistics on malignancies, complications, and contraindications. Images Figure 1A Figure 1B Figure 2A Figure 2B PMID:2398507

  8. Chinese medicines reported to have effects on contact dermatitis in the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngchul; Kim, Byungju; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2017-03-02

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is one of the most common skin diseases in industrialized countries. Chinese medicines (CMs) have been investigated worldwide as complementary and alternative medicines for corticosteroids, which are the first choice for treatment of inflammatory skin diseases owing to their favorable efficacy. This article describes the CMs that have been reported to have anti-dermatitis effects against CD in the last 20 years.

  9. ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma".

    PubMed

    Orner, Roderick J

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors' experiences and turning away from survivors' narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers' theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  10. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Pieter, Willy

    2004-01-01

    Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females) participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E). The males (79.9/1,000 A-E) sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E). The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E), followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E). Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx) were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E). All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E). However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E) followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E). Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E). Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E). Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction. PMID:15279679

  11. Prospective Multicenter Study of Children With Bronchiolitis Requiring Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Piedra, Pedro A.; Stevenson, Michelle D.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Forgey, Tate F.; Clark, Sunday; Espinola, Janice A.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and/or intubation for children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged <2 years with bronchiolitis. For 3 consecutive years from November 1 until March 31, beginning in 2007, researchers collected clinical data and a nasopharyngeal aspirate from study participants. We oversampled children from the ICU. Samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 18 pathogens. RESULTS: There were 161 children who required CPAP and/or intubation. The median age of the overall cohort was 4 months; 59% were male; 61% white, 24% black, and 36% Hispanic. In the multivariable model predicting CPAP/intubation, the significant factors were: age <2 months (odds ratio [OR] 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–11.5), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.9), birth weight <5 pounds (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0–2.6), breathing difficulty began <1 day before admission (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2–2.1), presence of apnea (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.5–8.5), inadequate oral intake (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3–4.3), severe retractions (OR 11.1; 95% CI 2.4–33.0), and room air oxygen saturation <85% (OR 3.3; 95% CI 2.0–4.8). The optimism-corrected c-statistic for the final model was 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we identified several demographic, historical, and clinical factors that predicted the use of CPAP and/or intubation, including children born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. We also identified a novel subgroup of children who required mechanical respiratory support <1 day after respiratory symptoms began. PMID:22869823

  12. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  13. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  14. Eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vaes, Bart; Van Keer, Karel; Struelens, Lara; Schoonjans, Werner; Nijs, Ivo; Vandevenne, Jan; Van Poucke, Sven

    2017-04-01

    The eye lens is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation injury and exposure might lead to radiation induced cataract. Eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology has been published in few clinical trials and an active debate about the causality of radiation induced cataract is still ongoing. Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a reduction in the annual dose limit for occupational exposure for the lens of the eye from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over a period of 5 years, with the dose in a single year not exceeding 50 mSv. This prospective study investigated eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology practice during a routine year of professional activity. The radiation exposure measured represented the exposure in a normal working schedule of a random anesthesiologist during 1 month and this cumulative eye lens dose was extrapolated to 1 year. Next, eye lens doses were measured in anesthesiology during neuro-embolisation procedures, radiofrequency ablations or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty procedures. The eye lens doses are measured in terms of the dose equivalent H p(3) with the Eye-D dosimeter (Radcard, Poland) close to the right eye (on the temple). In 16 anesthesiologists, the estimated annual eye lens doses range from a minimum of 0.4 mSv to a maximum of 3.5 mSv with an average dose of 1.33 mSv. Next, eye lens doses were measured for nine neuro-embolisation procedures, ten radiofrequency ablations and six vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty procedures. Average eye lens doses of 77 ± 76 µSv for neuro-embolisations, 38 ± 34 µSv for cardiac ablations and 40 ± 44 µSv for vertebro-/kyphoplasty procedures were recorded. The maximum doses were respectively 264, 97 and 122 µSv. This study demonstrated that the estimated annual eye lens dose is well below the revised ICRP's limit of 20 mSv/year. However, we demonstrated high maximum and average doses during neuro-embolisation, cardiac ablation and vertebro

  15. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

  16. Neurotoxicity in young adults 20 years after childhood exposure to lead: the Bunker Hill experience

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, L.; Letz, R.; Gerr, F.; Kolczak, M.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Kaye, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological study of young adults was conducted to determine whether environmental exposure to lead during childhood was associated with current adverse neurobehavioural effects. METHODS: The exposed group consisted of 281 young adults who had been exposed environmentally to lead as children and the unexposed referent group consisted of 287 age and sex frequency matched subjects. Information on demographics, past and current health, and past exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Swedish Q16 questionnaire were collected by interview. Standard neurobehavioural and neurophysiological tests were administered by computer or trained technicians. K x ray fluorescence was used to estimate tibial bone lead concentrations among the exposed and unexposed groups. Associations were examined between the exposed group and referents and tibial bone lead concentration and the neurobehavioural and neurophysiological outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Among the measures of peripheral nerve function, after controlling for confounders, sural sensory nerve evoked response amplitude, peroneal motor nerve compound motor action potential amplitude, vibrotactile thresholds of fingers and toes, and standing steadiness were significantly associated with exposure group. Among the neurobehavioural tests, hand-eye coordination, simple reaction time latency, trails B latency, symbol digit latency, serial digit, and learning error score were also significantly associated with exposure group after controlling for confounders. Exposed subjects had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms than the referents. Associations between tibial bone lead concentration and scores for vocabulary, vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers, and vibrotactile thresholds of the toes approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant adverse central and peripheral neurological effects were found in a group of young adults 20 years after childhood environmental exposure to lead when compared

  17. 20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-08-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOE1) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column ClO on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cly = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 × Cl2 + 2 × Cl2O2 + ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cly, which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 ± 0.2, -1.4 ± 0.9, and -0.6 ± 0.4 % year-1, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1σ of trends in stratospheric Cly previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  18. [20 years' experience in the treatment of children with terminal renal insufficiency in Yugoslavia].

    PubMed

    Peco-Antić, A; Popović-Rolović, M; Jovanović, O; Marsenić, O; Babić, D; Kostić, M; Kruscić, O; Culić, D; Trajković, D

    2000-01-01

    The first specialized haemodialysis (HD) paediatric centre in former Yugoslavia was established at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in January 1980. A total of 194 children (F: 98, M: 96), aged less than 19 years (10.12 +/- 4.23), were treated for renal replacement therapy (RRT) over 20 years. Average annual incidence rate was 1.59 per million of child population (pmcp) aged less than 19 years for the period 1980-1990 (former Yugoslavia) and 2.85 pmcp aged less than 19 years for the period 1990-2000 (present Yugoslavia). Reflux nephropathy was the most frequent underlying disease and accounted for 37.06% of total cases, while other primary renal diseases were: glomerulonephritis (GN) 17.26%, cystic/hereditary familial nephropathy 12.69%, congenital disease 11.68%, interstitial nephritis 5.58%, non-recovered tubular necrosis 3.55%, secondary GN 1.52% and 10.66% remained with doubtful diagnosis. HD was the first RRT in 84.02%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 14.43% and pre-emptive transplantation in 1.55% of all patients. A total of 53 patients (27.3% of total terminal renal failure (TRF) patients) received 56 kidney transplants (58.93% live related, 37.50% cadaveric, 3.57% live-non related). Actual survival in RRT was 64.53% 5 in years; 51.68% in 10 and 48.23% in 15 years. Patient survival in HD was significantly better over the last ten-year period than in the first ten-year period (35.88% vs. 75.75%; p < 0.005) as well as the survival of transplanted patients in the same two periods (67.62% vs. 95.45%). Graft survival was 79.85% in 5 and 70.50% in 10 years. Cardiovascular complications were the most common cause of death of patients on RRT (56.10 posto) followed by infection (24.39). On December 31, 1999, 54 patients on RRT were alive less than 19 years: 75.92% in HD; 22.22% with functioning graft and 1.85% on automatic PD. This is the first national-wide long-term study of incidence and aetiology of paediatric TRF and outcome of paediatric RRT in

  19. Trends in cerebrovascular mortality and in its risk factors in Finland during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sarti, C; Vartiainen, E; Torppa, J; Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970s, the mortality rates from cerebrovascular disease in Finland were among the highest in the world. In addition, the levels of the main known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking, were by international comparisons very high. Within Finland, higher mortality from both stroke and ischemic heart disease was observed in the eastern part of the country, where the levels of the risk factors mentioned were higher than in the western regions. Official mortality statistics show that deaths from stroke in Finland declined steeply in the 1970s, and continued to decline, although at a slower pace, during the 1980s. Furthermore, the decline in stroke mortality was greater in eastern Finland than in the western part of the country, such that the gap observed between east and west Finland in stroke mortality has now almost disappeared. These findings are supported by the trends observed from the North Karelia stroke register and from the FINMONICA stroke register. A cohort study has demonstrated that high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol level and cigarette smoking are risk factors for fatal stroke in the male population of eastern Finland. In women, only high blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for fatal stroke, while for cigarette smoking and high blood cholesterol levels the risk, though increased, was not statistically significant. A national strategy has been developed to control and reduce the main cardiovascular risk factors in Finland. The North Karelia project, started in Finland in 1972, was the first program of its type aimed at the reduction of risk factors in a whole population. Arterial blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels have decreased significantly during the last 20 years in both men and women. The prevalence of cigarette smoking has been reduced only in men. The changes in risk factors that have occurred parallel the

  20. 20 Years of ClO Measurements in the Antarctic Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOEl) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column C1O on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cl(sub y) = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 x Cl2 + 2 x Cl2+ ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cl(sub y), which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 +/-0.2, -1.40.9, and -0.60.4% per year, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1sigma of trends in stratospheric Cl(sub y) previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  1. Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sivin, Irving

    2007-06-01

    This article examines interrelated questions concerning the extent of need for contraception in women 40 years and older and the degree to which that need can be served when use of collared T IUDs is initiated in women aged 25-35 years. Differentials in the impacts of intrauterine device (IUD) use on health issues in the second decade of contraception are also addressed. Although fertility of all women aged 40-44 years is below 100 per 1000 in all regions of the world today, the risk of pregnancy among married or cohabiting women who do not use contraception is estimated at 270-300 per 1000 or 27-30% per year. At ages 45-49 years, the annual risk of pregnancy to women in union who do not use contraception lies at or above 10% per year. Data from three studies show that users of collared copper IUDs who continued using the same device beyond the completion of 10 years experienced no pregnancies through the end of 15 years. A small number of women continued with the same IUD through 20 years and still experienced no pregnancies. Use of collared copper T IUDs beyond 10 years was not associated with intensification of side effects nor with an increase in the relative frequency of those effects, with the exception of the experience of perimenopausal symptoms and problems. Neither increased bleeding nor increased severity of pelvic disease was manifest in the second decade of continuous use of the same IUD, as compared with the first decade of such use. Under our current understanding of the duration of IUD effectiveness, only a small percentage of women complete 10 years of use. Even with revised understanding of the duration of effectiveness of long-acting copper devices, average annual continuation rates must be quite high in order that 20% of women aged 25-35 years initiate a second decade of continuous IUD use. Those who do so would find considerable protection against pregnancy and reasonable economic benefits in continuing to use the same device.

  2. [The preclinical efficacy of emergency care. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Hennes, H J; Reinhardt, T; Otto, S; Dick, W

    1993-07-01

    Quality assurance has become an important issue in emergency medicine. At present, no prospective studies are available that quantify the efficacy of interventions performed by emergency doctors. The development and implementation of a rapid, yet simple scoring system, allowing preclinical assessment of all emergency medicine patients, is required. Once the scoring system is implemented, evaluation of the prehospital intervention, based upon objective parameters, is possible. METHODS. The Mainz Emergency Evaluation Score (MEES) is based on seven parameters: level of consciousness, heart rate, heart rhythm, arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, partial arterial oxygen saturation and pain. A coded value is assigned to each parameter, with the normal physiological condition securing a score of 4, while a life-threatening condition receives a value of 1. For the parameter of pain there is no life-threatening condition, so the lowest value allowed is 2 (Table 2). Addition of the respective values from the seven parameters yields the MEES value, which objectively reflects the patients' condition (minimum = 8, maximum = 28). Comparing the MEES value before (MEES1) and after the intervention (MEES2) allows an objective evaluation of the efficacy of the preclinical care (delta-MEES = MEES2-MEES1). A difference of > or = +2 is considered an improvement, +1, +/- 0, -1 are rated as unchanged and < or = -2 is considered a deterioration in the patients condition. For more detailed evaluation the patients were allocated to 16 diagnosis groups (Table 3). Statistical evaluation utilized analysis of variance, the rank sum test (Wilcoxon) and the correlation coefficient (Kendall-Tau). RESULTS. In 356 patients the condition of 187 (52%) patients improved during the preclinical treatment; the condition of 156 (44%) patients did not change. In 13 patients (3%) the condition became worse (Table 5, Fig. 2). Allocation to 16 diagnosis groups revealed that the improvement in the

  3. Prospective study on laser-assisted laparascopic partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Hennig, Georg; Zilinberg, Katja; Khoder, Wael Y.

    2012-02-01

    margin, but could not measured so far. Based on this experiences a simple and easy to use instrument described serving also for suction and rinsing. Conclusion: This prospective in-vivo feasibility study shows that laser assisted partial nephrectomy seems to be a safe and promising medical technique which could be provided either during open surgery as well as laparascopically. This application showed good haemostasis and minimal parenchymal damage. Further investigations and development are needed for on-line detection of the remain coagulation margin. An optimised treatment equipment will support the applicability of laser assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  4. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  5. Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL™ hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 ± 2.4, 8.8 ± 4.0 and 10.4 ± 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL™ hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25–6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16–4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL™ hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05–12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3

  6. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  7. Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    FRONT COVER FUNDING NO. 87PP7875 S L. TITLE: Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early Stage HIV Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prospective Double-Blind Study of Zidovudine (AZT) in Early State HIV Infection 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Shannon M. Harrison 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b...COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP HIV , Zidovudine, Early, Infection 06

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of Career Expectations and Outcomes of Academically Talented Students 10 and 20 Years Post-High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Tschopp, Molly K.; Snyder, Erin R.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Hyatt, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career expectations and outcomes for individuals who were identified as academically talented high school students. Data for this study were collected at two different time periods: 10 years and 20 years after participants' high school graduation. A decade after graduation from high school, participants…

  9. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  10. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland: Large Ice-Discharge Episodes from 20 Years of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiker, M.; Johannessen, O. M.; Miles, M. W.; Miles, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of Greenland can undergo large mass losses through calving of icebergs and bottom melting from floating ice tongues. Recent observations of outlet glaiers around Greenland have shown that large and rapid changes in solid-ice fluxes are possible. The Petermann glacier in remote northern Greenland is the region’s largest floating-tongue glacier (~70 km by 10 km). In summer 2008 a large calving event was observed, as well as large cracks upstream of the remaining calving front, portending a more massive near-term loss. These observations may herald extraordinary and unprecedented change. However, the long-term variability of calving events and ice velocities are poorly known. Our research goal here is to identify the temporal variability and possible trends in solid-ice flux indicators - variability of the calving front and ice velocity - for Petermann glacier. The methodological approach is observational, based primarily on analysis of 20 years of repetitive satellite data over a period starting from 1990, together with sporadic earlier observations. The multisensor data range from high-resolution optical images from Landsat, SPOT and Terra ASTER and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from ERS and ENVISAT. These disparate data have been imported, geo-registered and analysed within a Geographic Information System. The following measurements are made: (1) delineating changes in the calving front, (2) estimating the area of glacial ice loss during calving events, and (3) estimating the ice-surface velocity using sequential satellite images. We find evidence of a number of previous calving episodes of similar magnitude to the summer 2008. The ice-velocity estimates compare well with other estimates for particular years, and moreover are relatively consistent during the 20-year period. These findings suggest business-as-usual for Petermann glacier; however, a near-term calving event exceeding those observed

  11. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment.

  12. Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after approximately 20 years: implications for human health assessment.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Randall R; Horstwood, Matthew; Arnason, John G; Chenery, Simon; Brewer, Tim; Lloyd, Nicholas S; Carpenter, David O

    2008-02-01

    Inhaled depleted uranium (DU) aerosols are recognised as a distinct human health hazard and DU has been suggested to be responsible in part for illness in both military and civilian populations that may have been exposed. This study aimed to develop and use a testing procedure capable of detecting an individual's historic milligram-quantity aerosol exposure to DU up to 20 years after the event. This method was applied to individuals associated with or living proximal to a DU munitions plant in Colonie New York that were likely to have had a significant DU aerosol inhalation exposure, in order to improve DU-exposure screening reliability and gain insight into the residence time of DU in humans. We show using sensitive mass spectrometric techniques that when exposure to aerosol has been unambiguous and in sufficient quantity, urinary excretion of DU can be detected more than 20 years after primary DU inhalation contamination ceased, even when DU constitutes only approximately 1% of the total excreted uranium. It seems reasonable to conclude that a chronically DU-exposed population exists within the contamination 'footprint' of the munitions plant in Colonie, New York. The method allows even a modest DU exposure to be identified where other less sensitive methods would have failed entirely. This should allow better assessment of historical exposure incidence than currently exists.

  13. Prevalence, prospective risk markers, and prognosis associated with the presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in young adults: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chintan S; Colangelo, Laura A; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R; Cook, Nakela L; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Ogunyankin, Kofo O

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to determine the prevalence, prospective risk markers, and prognosis associated with diastolic dysfunction in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. The CARDIA Study cohort includes approximately equal proportions of white and black men and women. The authors collected data on risk markers at year 0 (1985-1986), and echocardiography was done at year 5 when the participants were 23-35 years of age. Participants were followed for 20 years (through 2010) for a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Diastolic function was defined according to a validated hierarchical classification algorithm. In the 2,952 participants included in the primary analysis, severe diastolic dysfunction was present in 1.1% and abnormal relaxation was present in 9.3%. Systolic blood pressure at year 0 was associated with both severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation 5 years later, whereas exercise capacity and pulmonary function abnormalities were associated only with abnormal relaxation 5 years later. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios for the composite endpoint in participants with severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation were 4.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 9.3) and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), respectively. Diastolic dysfunction in young adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and the identification of prospective risk markers associated with diastolic dysfunction could allow for targeted primary prevention efforts.

  14. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease

  15. Higher vaginal pH is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women: a prospective case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Das, Satyajit; Sabin, Caroline; Allan, Sriskandab

    2005-04-01

    This is a prospective case-controlled study of female attendees in Coventry. This study found an association of higher vaginal pH with chlamydial infection, independent of any other factors. Studies in vitro have shown that an acidic vaginal secretion inhibits chlamydial infection. Our objective was to analyse the association of vaginal pH and chlamydial infection in women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Chlamydial infections were diagnosed with ELISA and confirmed within direct immunofluorescence. Vaginal pH was measured by a pH indicator tape ranging from 3 to 8. Consecutive female attendees with no sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were included as controls. In all, 144 female cases, diagnosed with chlamydial infection, had a median age of 20 years. Seventeen women had associated bacterial vaginosis. Eighty-two women had no other STIs. Ninety-eight women were using the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). The 145 control women had a median age of 26 years and 52 were receiving the OCP. A significantly higher vaginal pH was seen in the cases (P = 0.0001, Wilcoxon test), even after adjusting for other risk factors associated with vaginal pH, including OCP use (odds ratio: 6.49, 95% confidence interval, 3.59-11.73, P = 0.0001). Chlamydial infection in women was associated with a higher vaginal pH level, independent of any other factors. This study has implications for the treatment of other conditions known to lead to an increase in vaginal pH, even in asymptomatic individuals.

  16. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  17. Kawasaki Disease in India, Lessons Learnt Over the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, Kawasaki disease is being increasingly recognized in India and it may soon replace acute rheumatic fever to become the commonest cause of acquired heart disease amongst children. However, the vast majority of children with Kawasaki disease in India are still not being diagnosed. Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on a constellation of clinical findings which have a typical temporal sequence. All pediatricians must we familiar with the nuances involved in arriving at a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the risk of coronary artery abnormalities can be significantly reduced.

  18. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care).

  19. Early excision and grafting of face and neck burns in patients over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jana K; Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S; Costa, Beth A; Nakamura, Dana Y; Moore, Merilyn L; Blayney, Carolyn B; Hoover, Carolyn L

    2002-04-01

    Although excision and grafting of burns has become common and standard, many surgeons have been reluctant to excise and graft face burns. In fact, we could find photographic results at 1 year after grafting of only eight patients in the English literature. We began excision and grafting of face burns in 1979 and presented our first 16 patients in 1986 in this journal. With encouragement from Janzekovic and Jackson, we continued and have now used essentially the same procedure for more than 20 years in approximately 100 patients and, from this large series, are able to present outcomes. From January of 1979 to May of 1999, we performed excision and grafting on 91 patients with deep face burns. Data were recorded and 35-mm photographs were obtained throughout the 20-year period. We reviewed that database and the slide files of these patients. We found 45 patients with complete photographic sets including 1-year follow-up. Since, in our opinion, there is no useful, objective measure of appearance, we decided to simply publish all 45 sets of complete photographs, permitting the reader to subjectively form an opinion of the outcome of this procedure. The results are all shown as "full" face burns and two "partial" face burns. We continue to believe that early excision and grafting is indicated for face burns that will not heal within 3 weeks and that the procedure yields results that permit the burn victims to return to society and minimizes the time off work or out of school.

  20. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  1. Temperament disturbances measured in infancy progress to substance use disorder 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Michelle S.; Reynolds, Maureen; Braxter, Betty; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study determined whether temperament before two years of age predicts transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) up to a decade later and SUD outcome in adulthood. Method Boys between 10 and 12 years of age (N = 482) were tracked to age 22. The previously validated transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered at baseline, and temperament prior to two years of age was retrospectively rated. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) was administered to document presence/absence of SUD for parents at baseline and sons at age 22. Results Path analysis revealed that number of parents with SUD predicted severity of temperament disturbance in their sons which in turn predicted TLI score at age 10–12, presaging SUD. Temperament before age two did not predict SUD at age 22. The association between number of SUD parents and transmissible risk was mediated by severity of temperament disturbance. Conclusion Temperament disturbance in early childhood, reflecting quality of behavioral and emotion regulation, comprise psychological antecedents of transmissible risk for SUD. PMID:26900197

  2. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  3. The microbiologic profile of diabetic foot infections in Turkey: a 20-year systematic review: diabetic foot infections in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, M; Mutluoglu, M; Uzun, G; Karabacak, E; Turhan, V; Lipsky, B A

    2014-06-01

    The causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections differ in studies of European compared with Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the causative microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in diabetic patients with a foot infection in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of these two continents. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies pertaining to DFIs in patients cared for in Turkey. To assess changes in causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns over time, we compared the results of just the most recent 5 years (2007-2011) with those of the past 20-years (1989-2011). We identified 31 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, these studies reported 2,097 patients, from whom 1,974 microorganisms were isolated. The total percentage of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria were similar in each of the assessed periods. The rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus during the entire period, compared with just the past 5 years, was 23.8% and 19.1%, respectively, while the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 7.8% and 5.7%, respectively. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 13.7% for the entire period and 14.9% for the past 5 years. While linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most active agents against gram-positive microorganisms, imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most active against gram-negative microorganisms. This systematic review demonstrated few substantial changes in diabetic foot microbiology over the past 20 years. The data may help develop and update local clinical guidelines regarding antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections in Turkey. Further studies, especially with optimal culture methods, would be useful to validate these findings.

  4. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  5. Methane Seepage From the Arctic Shelf; 20 Years of Research on the Beaufort Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Collett, T. S.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has lead or played major roles in several efforts over the past 20 years to find geochemical evidence for gas hydrate dissociation on the Beaufort Sea shelf, a region of complex and varied geologic features that include: 1) several river deltas entering the Arctic Ocean, the largest of which is the Mackenzie River, 2) submerged continental shelf underlain by permafrost, 3) known petroleum systems of northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River Delta - Canada, 4), submerged pingo-like features (PLF's ) and, 5) pockmark fields. The results of these studies show that gas hydrate is present and that methane source can be both microbial and thermogenic. In light of our rapidly changing climate, the instability and potential methane release from Arctic gas hydrate deposits are reemerging as pivotal uncertainties. On the Alaskan Beaufort Shelf in water depths or about 10 m or less, methane concentrations in seawater are elevated relative to atmosphere. This methane likely originates from microbial degradation of organic matter deposited by rivers or coastal currents, and may be associated with organics in destabilized from recently thawed submerged shelf permafrost. In deeper water, north and west of the Prudhoe Bay area, some exceptionally high bottom water methane concentrations were measured with carbon isotopic signatures very similar (about -46 to -48‰) to gas hydrate sampled from the Mount Elbert 01 gas hydrate test well drilled in 2007 in the same area. This methane is presumably associated with the Prudhoe Bay gas hydrate and petroleum system, and likely from either gas hydrate dissociation or simple gas migration. Gas venting in and around the Mackenzie River delta is associated with offshore Pingo-like features (PLF's) and pockmarks. These PLF's resemble onshore pingos, but with an unknown origin. The region is underlain by an active petroleum system, submerged shelf permaforst, and gas hydrate. Methane concentrations are elevated in

  6. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  7. Using the Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business as a Learning Outcomes Assessment: Evidence from a Review of 20 Years of Institution-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Bochenek, Jennifer; Burkander, Kri

    2015-01-01

    By applying multilevel models with random effects, the authors reviewed and synthesized findings from 30 studies that were published in the last 20 years exploring the relationship between the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business (MFTB) and related factors. The results suggest that MFTB scores correlated…

  8. Developmental antecedents of partner abuse: a prospective-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Magdol, L; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Silva, P A

    1998-08-01

    Prospective measures of risk factors for partner abuse were obtained from a large birth cohort in 4 domains: socioeconomic resources, family relations, educational achievements, and problem behaviors. Partner abuse outcomes were measured at age 21. Results showed that antecedents of abuse included risk factors from all 4 domains. Risk factors were similar for men and women. Some age 3 antecedents were significant, but the strongest correlations were from age 15. In multivariate analyses, the most consistent predictor was the presence of early problem behaviors. In a cross-validation tests, abuse was moderately predictable by the same antecedents, whether the outcome measure was self-report or reports from partners of sample members. Findings suggest that theories of partner abuse should account for developmental influences from multiple life domains and that primary prevention of partner abuse should begin in adolescence.

  9. Sleep attacks and antiparkinsonian drugs: a pilot prospective pharmacoepidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Montastruc, J L; Brefel-Courbon, C; Senard, J M; Bagheri, H; Ferreira, J; Rascol, O; Lapeyre-Mestre, M

    2001-01-01

    A prospective survey was performed to characterize the prevalence of sleep attacks and to evaluate precipitating factors in a group of 236 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Sleep attacks were reported by 72 patients (30.5%). Multivariate analysis showed a marked association between the occurrence of sudden sleep episodes and first autonomic failure, followed by treatment with ropinirole and bromocriptine. The present work underlines the major contributing role of autonomic failure followed by dopamine agonists in the occurrence of such an event. Because a relationship between sleep attacks and not only ropinirole but also bromocriptine treatment was described, the present work suggests that sleep attacks are a common side effect of all dopamine agonists.

  10. PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED STUDY COMPARING TWO ANESTHETIC METHODS FOR SHOULDER SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Ikemoto, Roberto Yukio; Murachovsky, Joel; Prata Nascimento, Luis Gustavo; Bueno, Rogerio Serpone; Oliveira Almeida, Luiz Henrique; Strose, Eric; de Mello, Sérgio Cabral; Saletti, Deise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suprascapular nerve block in combination with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space, compared with interscalene block. Methods: Forty-five patients with small or medium-sized isolated supraspinatus tendon lesions who underwent arthroscopic repair were prospectively and comparatively evaluated through random assignation to three groups of 15, each with a different combination of anesthetic methods. The efficacy of postoperative analgesia was measured using the visual analogue scale for pain and the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and opioid drug consumption. Inhalation anesthetic consumption during surgery was also compared between the groups. Results: The statistical analysis did not find any statistically significant differences among the groups regarding anesthetic consumption during surgery or postoperative analgesic efficacy during the first 48 hours. Conclusion: Suprascapular nerve block with infusion of anesthetic into the subacromial space is an excellent alternative to interscalene block, particularly in hospitals in which an electrical nerve stimulating device is unavailable. PMID:27022569

  11. Association between body mass index and prognosis of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junga; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Giovannucci, Edward; Jeon, Justin Y

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported conflicting results on the association between body mass index (BMI) and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we have conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies, which examined the association of pre- and post-diagnostic BMI with colorectal cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality in patients with colorectal cancer. We searched Medline and EMBASE database published between 1970 and September 2014. A total of 508 articles were identified, of which 16 prospective cohort studies were included for the current meta-analysis. The analysis included 58,917 patients who were followed up over a period ranging from 4.9 to 20 years (median: 9.9 years). We found that being underweight before cancer diagnosis was associated with increased all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR]: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.18-2.23, p < 0.01) and being obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) before cancer diagnosis was associated with increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality (RR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.003-1.35, p < 0.01) and all-cause mortality (RR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.14-1.36, p < 0.01). On the other hand, being underweight (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.20-1.47, p < 0.01), obese (RR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.3, p < 0.01), and class II/III obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2); RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23, p < 0.01) after diagnosis were associated with significantly increased all-cause mortality. Being obese prior to diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas being obese after diagnosis was associated with increased all-cause mortality. The associations with being underweight may reflect reverse causation. Maintaining a healthy body weight should be discussed with colorectal cancer survivors.

  12. A Report to the People. 20 Years of Your National Commitment to Public Broadcasting, 1967-1987. 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This annual report for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for fiscal year 1986 also summarizes the CPB's activities over the last 20 years. The front inside cover folds out to three pages and provides a chronology of the important events in CPB history from its inception in 1967 to 1987. A narrative report on the CPB's 20 years of…

  13. Non-surgical interventions for pelvic organ prolapse in rural Nepal: a prospective monitoring and evaluation study

    PubMed Central

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Bhatta, Surya; Sherpa, Tenzing Y; Malla, Bishwo S; A Fitchett, Elizabeth J; Samen, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a major cause of morbidity in Nepal, particularly affecting women in the rural communities. Women with POP in Nepal may suffer from symptoms for decades. At present, the Government of Nepal advocates surgical intervention but access to surgical care is inadequate. This report evaluated the feasibility of a non-surgical public health programme in rural Nepal, and describes risk factors associated with POP in this setting. Design Prospective monitoring and evaluation study of a new public health programme. Setting Baglung district, rural Nepal. Participants Women with gynaecological symptoms of POP. Main outcome measures Risk factors for disease progression were assessed using Fisher’s exact test, Pearson’s χ2-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 74 women included in this analysis, 70.8% were diagnosed with stage 2 POP or greater. The majority of women did not have any further children following the onset of POP symptoms (63.5%). Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 months to 60 years, with 73.4% of women suffering for over 5 years and 28.4% suffering for over 20 years. Univariate analyses identified age at screening, age at onset of symptoms, the duration of symptoms and an associated rectocele as factors associated with increasing POP severity (p < 0.05). Kegel exercises were taught to 25 (33.8%) women with POP and ring pessaries were offered to 47 (63.5%) women with POP. Conclusions Non-surgical interventions may provide an opportunity to address the significant burden of POP in rural Nepal. PMID:26664731

  14. Macroinvertebrate instream flow studies after 20 years: A role in stream management and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gore, J.A.; Layzer, J.B.; Mead, J.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two decades of refinement and application of instream flow evaluations, we have examined the hydraulic habitat of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a variety of conditions, along with the role of these macroinverte-brates in sustaining ecosystem integrity. Instream flow analyses assume that predictable changes in channel flow characteristics can, in turn, be used to predict the change in the density or distribution of lotic species or, more appropriately, the availability of useable habitat for those species. Five major hydraulic conditions most affect the distribution and ecological success of lotic biota: suspended load, bedload movement, and water column effects, such as turbulence, velocity profile, and substratum interactions (near-bed hydraulics). The interactions of these hydraulic conditions upon the morphology and behavior of the individual organisms govern the distribution of aquatic biota. Historically, management decisions employing the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) have focused upon prediction of available habitat for life stages of target fish species. Regulatory agencies have rarely included evaluation of benthos for flow reservations. Although 'taxonomic discomfort' may be cited for the reluctant use or creation of benthic criteria, we suggest that a basic misunderstanding of the links between benthic macroinvertebrate and the fish communities is still a problem. This is derived from the lack of a perceived 'value' that can be assigned to macroinvertebrate species. With the exception of endangered mussel species (for which PHABSIM analysis is probably inappropriate), this is understandable. However, it appears that there is a greater ability to predict macroinvertebrate distribution (that is, a response to the change in habitat quality or location) and diversity without complex population models. Also, habitat suitability criteria for water quality indicator taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera; the so-called 'EPTs') may also provide additional management options to stream regulators. The greatest application for macroinvertebrate criteria will be in low-order streams where a more immediate link to fish communities can be established. We present an example from Queens Creek, in North Carolina, USA, in which monthly allocations required to preserve the integrity of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were significantly higher than for the target benthic fish species, Cottus bairdi. In the months when both Cottus and community diversity of macroinvertebrates were the 'bottleneck' life stages, preservation of only fish species could result in an additional 5-25% loss in macroinvertebrate habitat. We suggest that, as there becomes an increased emphasis on maintaining macroinvertebrates as monitors of stream health, there will be a concurrent emphasis on incorporating hydraulic habitat conditions as a part of bioassessment. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The Dishevelled Protein Family: Still Rather a Mystery After Over 20 Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Dishevelled (Dsh) is a key component of Wnt-signaling pathways and possibly also has other functional requirements. Dsh appears to be a key factor to interpret Wnt signals coming via the Wnt-receptor family, the Frizzled proteins, from the plasma membrane and route them into the correct intracellular pathways. However, how Dsh is regulated to relay signal flow to specific and distinct cellular responses upon interaction with the same Wnt-receptor family remains very poorly understood. PMID:26969973

  16. Spectral Analysis of Dynamic PET Studies: A Review of 20 Years of Method Developments and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography (PET), spectral analysis (SA) allows the quantification of dynamic data by relating the radioactivity measured by the scanner in time to the underlying physiological processes of the system under investigation. Among the different approaches for the quantification of PET data, SA is based on the linear solution of the Laplace transform inversion whereas the measured arterial and tissue time-activity curves of a radiotracer are used to calculate the input response function of the tissue. In the recent years SA has been used with a large number of PET tracers in brain and nonbrain applications, demonstrating that it is a very flexible and robust method for PET data analysis. Differently from the most common PET quantification approaches that adopt standard nonlinear estimation of compartmental models or some linear simplifications, SA can be applied without defining any specific model configuration and has demonstrated very good sensitivity to the underlying kinetics. This characteristic makes it useful as an investigative tool especially for the analysis of novel PET tracers. The purpose of this work is to offer an overview of SA, to discuss advantages and limitations of the methodology, and to inform about its applications in the PET field. PMID:28050197

  17. A 20-year experience in unilateral cleft lip repair: From Millard to the triple unilimb Z-plasty technique

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes a 20-year experience of treating patients with unilateral cleft lip. During this time, various techniques were used including Millard's technique and its modification and two types of geometrically designed procedures. The study objective was to compare surgical outcomes of different surgical techniques for unilateral cleft lip repair. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective audit of outcomes after unilateral cleft lip repair performed by a single surgeon since 1995. Of the 827 patients who underwent surgery, 277 met the criterion of having anthropometric measurements performed ≥1 year postoperatively. The patients were stratified into three groups according to cleft severity: incomplete, complete with less deficiency (3–6 mm difference between cleft and non-cleft lip height) and complete with more deficiency (>6 mm difference between cleft and non-cleft lip height). Anthropometric measurements, scar assessment and complications were recorded. Results: There were no differences in outcomes between Millard and Reichert-Millard techniques for incomplete unilateral cleft lip. For complete unilateral cleft lip and less tissue deficiency, lip symmetry was better using upper rotation advancement plus double unilimb Z-plasty than the Reichert-Millard technique. For complete unilateral cleft lip and more tissue deficiency, lip symmetry was better after triple unilimb Z-plasty than after upper rotation advancement plus double unilimb Z-plasty. Conclusions: We presented a 20-year experience performing unilateral cleft lip repair. An individualised classification system with corresponding surgical techniques was successfully used during this period. The individualised surgical protocol used in this study allowed us to achieve improved surgical outcomes. PMID:28216814

  18. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  19. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  20. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time.

  1. Lingual access for third molar surgery: a 20-year retrospective audit.

    PubMed

    Moss, C E; Wake, M J

    1999-08-01

    We describe a technique for obtaining lingual access for the insertion of a wide metal retractor to protect the lingual nerve from accidental damage during third molar surgery. We also report an audit of a single practice over a 20-year period using the technique described. The approach involves raising soft tissues on the lingual side of the lower third molar tooth to allow insertion of a broad Hovell's lingual retractor. We conclude that raising lingual tissues to form a wide tension-free flap and inserting a specifically designed retractor does not increase the incidence of lingual nerve morbidity. Indeed, the overall incidence of lingual nerve damage was particularly low compared with those in other published series.

  2. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  3. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  4. [20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].

    PubMed

    Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

    1992-02-28

    The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.

  5. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  6. Stability of the interstellar hydrogen inflow longitude from 20 years of SOHO/SWAN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Quémerais, E.; Katushkina, O.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Schmidt, W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: A recent debate on the decade-long stability of the interstellar He flow vector, and in particular the flow longitude, has prompted us to check for any variability in the interstellar H flow vector as observed by the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. Methods: We used a simple model-independent method to determine the interstellar H flow longitude, based on the parallax effects induced on the Lyman-α intensity measured by SWAN following the satellite motion around the Sun. Results: Our results show that the interstellar H flow vector longitude does not vary significantly from an average value of 252.9°± 1.4° throughout the 20-year span of the SWAN dataset, further strengthening the arguments for the stability of the interstellar gas flow.

  7. Factitious aortic dissection leading to thoracotomy in a 20-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Elise; Yager, Joel; Apfeldorf, William; Camps-Romero, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to an emergency department with dramatic, sudden-onset, tearing chest pain. He also claimed to have been previously diagnosed with Ehler-Danlos syndrome and a previous Type I aortic dissection (intimal tear of ascending aorta), rapidly increasing his treating physician's suspicion of an emergent aortic dissection. The patient was quickly transferred to a large university hospital, where he underwent a median sternotomy and thoracotomy, with no aortic pathology found on operation and biopsy. After the patient's postoperative recovery, he was treated at a mental health facility, where he remained ambivalent about his psychiatric condition and did not respond well to treatment. This case report describes a unique case of factitious disorder that led to a serious operative intervention and subsequent psychiatric care and assesses factors that might have contributed to his hospital course.

  8. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice.

  9. [Improvements in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies: what have we learnt in these last 20 years?].

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Luz B; Ayala-Madrigal, M Luz; van Heusden, Dave; Estrada-Mena, Francisco J; Canto, Patricia; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2011-02-16

    INTRODUCTION. Dystrophinopathies are X-linked genetic disorders caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Genetic tests are of utmost importance for management and genetic counseling of these diseases. However, the complexity of the DMD gene is a challenge for diagnosis. AIM. To describe recent advances in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies, after 20 years since the firsts molecular assays for genetic screening for these diseases. DEVELOPMENT. Currently, a variety of strategies such as automated mutation detection, cell-based methods and high throughput haplotyping have been developed to facilitate diagnosis of dystrophinopathies, carrier detection, prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis. CONCLUSION. New technologies have improved early detection and optimal management of dystrophinopathies and have established the basis for future molecular medicine. The most significant advances in dystrophinopathy diagnosis are reviewed herein.

  10. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  11. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  12. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter following 20years of peatland restoration.

    PubMed

    Höll, Bettina S; Fiedler, Sabine; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kalbitz, Karsten; Freibauer, Annette; Drösler, Matthias; Stahr, Karl

    2009-12-15

    The changes in the amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) following long-term peat restoration are unknown, although this fraction of soil organic matter affects many processes in such ecosystems. We addressed this lack of knowledge by investigating a peatland in south-west Germany that was partly rewetted 20 years ago. A successfully restored site and a moderately drained site were compared, where the mean groundwater levels were close to the soil surface and around 30 cm below surface, respectively. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at 4 depths were measured over one year. The specific absorbance was measured at 280 nm and the fluorescence spectra were used to describe the aromaticity and complexity of DOM. The investigations showed that 20 years of peatland restoration was able to create typical peatland conditions. The rewetted site had significantly lower DOC concentrations at different depths compared to the drained site. The specific UV absorbance showed that the rewetted site had a lower level of aromatic DOM structures. The decreasing specific UV absorbance might indicate an increasing contribution of small organic molecules to DOM. It was hypothesized that the decreasing DOC concentrations and the relative enrichment of small, readily degradable organic molecules, reflect the slower decomposition of organic matter after the re-establishment of the water table. Seasonal trends provided substantial evidence for our hypothesis that reduced DOC concentrations were caused by reduced peat decomposition. During summer, the elevated DOC values were accompanied by an increase in DOM aromaticity and complexity. Our results demonstrated a close link between C mineralization and DOC production. We concluded that long-term peatland restoration in the form of the successful re-establishment of the water table might result in reduced peat decomposition and lower DOC concentrations. The restoration of peatlands seems to have a

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Trends of Mercury Speciation in the Mediterranean Sea - 20 years of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, M.; Kotnik, J.; Fajon, V.; Zivkovic, I.; Begu, E.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the geological mercury anomaly in the Mediterranean Basin, the concentrations of Hg Hg and its compounds are generally lower than those found in the Atlantic and Pacific waters. Temporal and spatial trends of total mercury and its species in surface and deep waters (dissolved gaseous mercury - DGM, mono and di-methylmercuy - MMHg, and DMHg) obtained during last 20 years will be presented. Total mercury Hg levels in open waters are generally very low (0.81-2.33 pM, av. 1.46 pM) and remain constant over the years. Hg speciation data showed that DGM accounts for up to 50% while MMHg accounted to up to 15% of total Hg in water. Significant spatial and temporal differences were observed for mercury speciation. The relatively high concentrations and fractions of DGM and MMHg indicate the high reactivity of Hg in open marine waters. DGM was present in surface waters mainly as Hg0 as no DMHg was detected at the surface, while towards the bottom a noticeable, but relatively small fraction of DMHg was present. It was found that DGM species were lower in surface with an increasing trend towards the bottom, especially in the tectonically active areas, indicating its geotectonic origin. In surface waters, DGM exhibited higher values in summer. MMHg profiles are mostly related to Chl-a and oxygen concentrations. This underlines the role of planktonic production and regeneration in methylation/ demethylation processes. The low MMHg concentrations found in shelf edge or coastal sediments and water over sediment indicate that coastal or shelf sediments are not a significant MMHg source for adjacent open sea waters. Anthropogenic and natural point sources show local enrichments, while natural diffusive sources influence Hg speciation over larger areas. The results allowed estimation of temporal mass balances to be evaluated for the Mediterranean Sea. Comparability of the measured results was secured by strict quality control measures over the 20 years.

  15. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  16. Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have investigated the ecology and behaviour of malaria vectors and Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Substantial progress has been made to control vector populations and reduce high malaria prevalence and severe disease. The goal of this paper was to examine trends over the past 20 years in Anopheles species composition, density, blood-feeding behaviour, and P. falciparum sporozoite transmission along the coast of Kenya. Methods Using data collected from 1990 to 2010, vector density, species composition, blood-feeding patterns, and malaria transmission intensity was examined along the Kenyan coast. Mosquitoes were identified to species, based on morphological characteristics and DNA extracted from Anopheles gambiae for amplification. Using negative binomial generalized estimating equations, mosquito abundance over the period were modelled while adjusting for season. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyse the sporozoite rates. Results Results show that in some areas along the Kenyan coast, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles merus have replaced An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus as the major mosquito species. Further, there has been a shift from human to animal feeding for both An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (99% to 16%) and An. funestus (100% to 3%), and P. falciparum sporozoite rates have significantly declined over the last 20 years, with the lowest sporozoite rates being observed in 2007 (0.19%) and 2008 (0.34%). There has been, on average, a significant reduction in the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. over the years (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98), with the density standing at low levels of an average 0.006 mosquitoes/house in the year 2010. Conclusion Reductions in the densities of the major malaria vectors and a shift from human to animal feeding have contributed to the decreased burden of malaria along the Kenyan coast. Vector species

  17. Enrichment of natural (15)N abundance during soil N losses under 20years of continuous cereal cropping.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew R; Dalal, Ram C

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the enrichment of natural (15)N abundance in soil over time is reflective of historic N cycling and loss, but this process in cropping soils is not yet clear. In this study, we identified an enrichment gradient of natural (15)N abundance during 20-year chronosequence of cereal cropping on Alfisols in southwest Queensland, Australia, that have no history of fertilisation. We demonstrate that the increase in soil (15)N abundance is explained by isotopic fractionation of (15)N during organic N mineralisation and nitrification, which lead to isotopically heavier ammonium retained in the soil and isotopically lighter soil nitrate taken up and removed by seasonal crops during harvest. Here we present a framework for natural (15)N isotopic fractionation co-occurring with N losses during long-term cultivation.

  18. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures.

  19. Retrospective and prospective data collection compared in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc; Gutschow, Giselka; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term care settings. The observational Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (DEOLD; 2007 to 2011) used both prospective data collection (28 facilities; 17 nursing home organizations/physician teams; questionnaires between January 2007 and July 2010, survival until July 2011) and retrospective data collection (exclusively after death; 6 facilities; 2 teams, questionnaires between November 2007 and March 2010). Prospective collection extended from the time of admission to the time after death or conclusion of the study. Prospectively, we recruited 372 families: 218 residents died (59%) and 184 (49%) had complete physician and family after-death assessments. Retrospectively, 119 decedents were enrolled, with 64 (54%) complete assessments. Cumulative data collection over all homes lasted 80 and 8 years, respectively. Per complete after-death assessments in a year, the prospective data collection involved 37.9 beds, whereas this was 7.9 for the retrospective data collection. Although age at death, sex, and survival curves were similar, prospectively, decedents' length of stay was shorter (10.3 vs. 31.4 mo), and fewer residents had advanced dementia (39% vs. 54%). Regarding feasibility, we conclude that prospective data collection is many fold more intensive and complex per complete after-death assessment. Regarding sampling, if not all are followed until death, it results in right censoring and in different, nonrepresentative samples of decedents compared with retrospective data collection. Future work may adjust or stratify for dementia severity and length of stay as key issues to promote comparability between studies.

  20. Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia and bronchiolitis. A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed Central

    Friis, B; Andersen, P; Brenøe, E; Hornsleth, A; Jensen, A; Knudsen, F U; Krasilnikoff, P A; Mordhorst, C H; Nielsen, S; Uldall, P

    1984-01-01

    Routine administration of antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and small children was evaluated in an open randomised prospective trial. From 1979-82 136 children between the age of 1 month and 6 years were allocated to one of two treatment groups shortly after their admission to a paediatric ward. Group A patients were to be given antibiotics but those in group B were not. None of the children had received antibiotics before hospital admission. A viral infection was diagnosed in 38 of the 72 patients from group A and in 34 of the 64 patients from group B. Respiratory syncytial virus was detected in 84% of these patients. Samples of tracheal secretions showed no differences between the groups in respect of cytology and bacterial flora. Nor were there any significant differences in the course of acute disease, the frequency of fever relapse and pulmonary complications. Fifteen patients from group B were subsequently treated with antibiotics: two of these developed secondary purulent infections of the middle ear and one showed a slight pleural effusion. These results do not support the routine use of antibiotics in infants and small children admitted to hospital with pneumonia and bronchiolitis. PMID:6391389

  1. Bronchial colonisation in patients with lung cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laroumagne, Sophie; Lepage, Benoît; Hermant, Christophe; Plat, Gavin; Phelippeau, Michael; Bigay-Game, Laurence; Lozano, Stéphanie; Guibert, Nicolas; Segonds, Christine; Mallard, Valérie; Augustin, Nathalie; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien

    2013-07-01

    Bronchial colonisation is frequently reported in patients with lung cancer, and has a potential impact on therapeutic management and prognosis. We aimed to prospectively define the prevalence and nature of bronchial colonisation in patients at the time of diagnosing lung cancer. 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent a flexible bronchoscopy for lung cancer. The type and frequency of bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal colonisation were analysed and correlated with the patients' and tumours' characteristics. Potential pathogens were found in 48.1% of samples: mainly the Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli (8.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.3%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.4%); Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus spp. (12.9%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.3%); atypical mycobacteria (2.9%); Candida albicans (42.9%); and Aspergillus fumigatus (6.2%). Aged patients (p=0.02) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.008) were significantly more frequently colonised; however, tumour stage, atelectasis, bronchial stenosis and abnormalities of chest radiography were not associated with a higher rate of colonisation. Squamous cell carcinoma tended to be more frequently colonised than other histological subtypes. Airway colonisation was reported in almost half of patients presenting with lung cancer, mainly in fragile patients, and was significantly associated with worse survival (p=0.005). Analysing colonisation status of patients at the time of diagnosis may help improve the management of lung cancer.

  2. Diagnosing epilepsy in neurology clinics: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Angus-Leppan, Heather

    2008-07-01

    The certainty of the initial diagnosis of epilepsy was assessed prospectively by one neurologist in outpatients. One hundred and fifty-eight consecutive referrals with loss of consciousness or possible epilepsy were seen. The relative contributions to the initial diagnosis from the referral letter, history taking in clinic, physical examination, and investigation were compared. There was a referring diagnosis in 28.5%. The neurologist reached a diagnosis in 87% of the 158 cases: in 43% epilepsy, 25% syncope, 12% non-epileptic seizures and in 7% other diagnoses. There was a low correlation between referral and specialist diagnosis. Physical examination did not change the diagnosis in any patient. Investigations changed the diagnosis in one patient. Neuro-imaging revealed a relevant abnormality in 12/43 (27.9%) scanned. The yield from EEG was 7/25 (28%), but the EEG changed the diagnosis in only one case. Cardiac testing confirmed the type of syncope in 2/47 (4.3%) of patients. Blood tests did not contribute to the diagnosis in any patient. The neurology consultation significantly increased diagnostic certainty. The diagnosis of epilepsy remains largely clinical. It is important that patients are aware of this prior to investigation.

  3. In vitro conservation of oil palm somatic embryos for 20 years on a hormone-free culture medium: characteristics of the embryogenic cultures, derived plantlets and adult palms.

    PubMed

    Konan, K Eugene; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Kouadio, Y Justin; Flori, Albert; Rival, Alain; Duval, Yves; Pannetier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted over a period of 20 years, to assess the problems involved in developing subcultures over a very long period, of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos which were maintained in vitro on a Murashige and Skoog mineral-based culture medium, without growth regulators. Analysis of the proliferation rate of the embryogenic cultures, along with the survivability of the regenerated plantlets after their transfer into soil and of the flowering of the derived adult palms has been conducted for cultures maintained in vitro during 1 to 20 years. From the ninth year of maintenance, the tissue quality of the somatic embryos gradually began to decline. However, after more than 20 years, 30% of the 20 clones tested still continued to proliferate satisfactorily on the same maintenance medium, keeping their multiplication potential intact. Even though a depressive effect of the age of the lines has been observed on the survival capacity of plants under natural conditions, it is noteworthy that among the clones originating from 20-year-old cultures only eight of them (40%) have exhibited the "mantled" floral abnormality. Different hypotheses concerning the origin of the disruptions observed on the in vitro cultures, plantlets and adult palms that occur over a very long period of in vitro conservation are discussed.

  4. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia.

  5. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  6. The changes of subtypes in pediatric diabetes and their clinical and laboratory characteristics over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Lee, Hae Sang; Shim, Young Seok; Jeong, Hwal Rim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively. Results The characteristics were compared between the 2 groups of patients. The result showed an increase in percentage of type 2 diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients between the 2 groups. HbA1c and total cholesterol level had statistical significances to explain increasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among age, HbA1c, total cholesterol level, and z-scores of weight and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. R-square was 0.074. However, z-score of BMI and total cholesterol level, not HbA1c, had statistical significances in type 1 diabetic patients. R-square was 0.323. Conclusion The increase in the proportions of both type 2 diabetes and MODY in the last 10 years needed to be reminded when diagnosing the subtypes of DM, and the dyslipidemia should be attended more as a common problem of pediatric diabetic patients. PMID:27462584

  7. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-02-17

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors.

  8. Adverse Consequences of School Mobility for Children in Foster Care: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Buchanan, Rohanna; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined school mobility in children in foster care. This study described the school moves of 86 such children and 55 community comparison children (primarily Caucasian), living in a medium-sized metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest who were approximately 3 to 6 years old at the study start. Additionally, the…

  9. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  10. Seizures in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Mutlu Uysal; Ayar, Ganime; Karalok, Zeynep Selen; Arhan, Ebru Petek

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the research is to determine the etiology and clinical features of seizures in critically ill children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: A total of 203 children were admitted from June 2013 to November 2013; 45 patients were eligible. Age ranged from 2 months to 19 years. Seizures were organized as epileptic or acute symptomatic. Pediatric risk of mortality score III, Glasgow coma scale, risk factors, coexistent diagnosis, medications administered before admission, type and duration of seizures, drugs used, requirement and duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay and neuroimaging findings were collected as demographic data prospectively. Results: The male–female ratio was 0.8. Mean age was 5.4. The most common causes of seizures were acute symptomatic. Most frequent coexistent diagnosis was infectious diseases, and 53.3% had recurrent seizures. Medications were administered to 51.1% of the patients before admission. Seizures were focal in 21 (46.7%), generalized in 11 (24.4%) and 13 (28.9%) had status epilepticus. Intravenous midazolam was first-line therapy in 48.9%. Acute symptomatic seizures were usually new-onset, and duration was shorter. Epileptic seizures tended to be recurrent and were likely to progress to status epilepticus. However, type of seizures did not change severity of the disease. Also, laboratory test results, medications administered before admission, requirement and duration of ventilation, mortality and length of stay were not significant between epileptic/acute symptomatic patients. Conclusion: Seizures in critically ill children, which may evolve into status epilepticus, is an important condition that requires attention regardless of cause. Intensified educational programs for PICU physicians and international guidelines are necessary for a more efficient approach to children with seizures. PMID:26892503

  11. [1986-2006: 20 years of failed international policy to control AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2007-10-01

    Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for

  12. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  13. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  14. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity.

  15. Development of Visual Motion Perception for Prospective Control: Brain and Behavioral Studies in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Agyei, Seth B.; van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2016-01-01

    During infancy, smart perceptual mechanisms develop allowing infants to judge time-space motion dynamics more efficiently with age and locomotor experience. This emerging capacity may be vital to enable preparedness for upcoming events and to be able to navigate in a changing environment. Little is known about brain changes that support the development of prospective control and about processes, such as preterm birth, that may compromise it. As a function of perception of visual motion, this paper will describe behavioral and brain studies with young infants investigating the development of visual perception for prospective control. By means of the three visual motion paradigms of occlusion, looming, and optic flow, our research shows the importance of including behavioral data when studying the neural correlates of prospective control. PMID:26903908

  16. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  17. A Study on Teaching Gases to Prospective Primary Science Teachers through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senocak, Erdal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of prospective primary science teachers in a problem-based curriculum with those in a conventional primary science teacher preparation program with regard to success in learning about gases and developing positive attitudes towards chemistry. The subjects of the study were 101 first year…

  18. Sustained Effects of Ecstasy on the Human Brain: A Prospective Neuroimaging Study in Novel Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schilt, Thelma; Lavini, Christina; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested toxic effects of recreational ecstasy use on the serotonin system of the brain. However, it cannot be excluded that observed differences between users and non-users are the cause rather than the consequence of ecstasy use. As part of the Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study, we prospectively assessed sustained…

  19. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Prodromal Patterns for Bipolar Disorder among Amish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Egeland, Janice A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prospective study of well children at risk of bipolarity to identify the frequency and pattern of potentially prodromal symptoms/behaviors for bipolar disorder type I (BPI) disorder. Method: A total of 110 at-risk children with a BPI parent and 112 children with well parents were studied. Ten-year data collection used structured and…

  20. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  1. Prediction of Participation and Sensory Modulation of Late Preterm Infants at 12 Months: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, O.; Shayevits, S.; Gabis, L. V.; Morag, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the differences in participation and sensory modulation between late preterm infants (LPI) and term babies, and to predict it by LPI characteristics. The study population includes 124 late preterm infants at gestational age between 34 and 35 6/7 weeks who were born at the same medical center. The…

  2. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  3. A Pilot Study of the Challenges and Prospects of Continuous Assessment Implementation in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Henry O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained basic information from teachers and students on the challenges and prospects of implementing continuous assessment (CA) in the Nigerian school system. Secondary Schools in Ilorin, the capital city of Kwara State, located in the central region of Nigeria were sampled for use in the study. It employed survey research design…

  4. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  5. Behavior Problems and Placement Change in a National Child Welfare Sample: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Gregory A.; James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R.; Raghavan, Ramesh; Wells, Rebecca S.; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is ongoing debate regarding the impact of youth behavior problems on placement change in child welfare compared to the impact of placement change on behavior problems. Existing studies provide support for both perspectives. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the relations of behavior problems and placement…

  6. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  7. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  8. Recurrence Risk after a First Remote Symptomatic Unprovoked Seizure in Childhood: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos-Lizana, J.; Aguirre-Rodriguez, J.; Aguilera-Lopez, P.; Cassinello-Garcia, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess recurrence risk after a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure in childhood. All consecutive patients younger than 14 years with a first remote symptomatic unprovoked seizure who were seen at our hospital between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study and prospectively followed. Only two patients received…

  9. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  10. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  11. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  12. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  13. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting…

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  14. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  15. A 20-Year-Old Retained Surgical Gauze Mimicking a Spinal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Jung Soo

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of lower back and left leg radiating pain that began 1 month prior to his presentation. He underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation 20 years ago at another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed left-sided foraminal stenosis at L4-5. In addition, a paraspinal mass occupying the L4 spinous process and left lamina was observed. We subsequently performed an L4-5 decompression and fusion. During the operation, retained surgical gauze with granulation tissue was found. The term gossypiboma is used to define a mass lesion consisting of retained surgical gauzes and an adjacent foreign body reaction. Gossypibomas are uncommon in the paraspinal area and are mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases. Because there are no specific clinical or radiological signs, they can be confused with other tumorous conditions. Gossypibomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal soft-tissue masses detected in patients with a history of prior spinal surgery. PMID:27799998

  16. Sport and infectious risk: a systematic review of the literature over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Grosset-Janin, A; Nicolas, X; Saraux, A

    2012-11-01

    The development of sports activities promoted as a health factor should not hide the increased risk for diseases, more particularly infections. A review of articles made over the last 20 years was made with a descriptive epidemiological purpose. The most marked risk is skin infection with methicillin-resistant community acquired Staphylococcus aureus (27.4% of the articles), followed by Tinea corporis and capitis (13.7%), and leptospirosis (11.7%). The risk of blood-borne infection seems low, and articles are rare (3.9%). The risk of disease with respiratory transmission (measles, meningococcal meningitis) must be taken into account. The effect of physical activity on the immune system depends on the type and duration of the work out: it seems to be beneficial for a workout of a moderate intensity, and deleterious for a sustained acute work out, or a period of intensive training. These periods of protection or susceptibility to infections are described as "open window" and "J curve". The only recommendations for prevention of sport-related infections arise from the frequency of skin infections and the severity of blood-borne infections. These recommendations are published by American and international sports authorities. The specificity of athletes' management is due to imperatives of competitiveness (maintaining physical performance) and the necessity of temporary eviction from sports, in case of contagiousness. The athletes must make sure their recommended vaccinations are up-to-date.

  17. Optimising treatment strategies in spinal ependymoma based on 20years of experience at a single centre.

    PubMed

    Keil, Vera C; Schmitt, Anne J; Martin, Sean C; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom A D; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2016-07-01

    Spinal ependymomas are rare tumours, with total resection favoured where possible. Several case series assessing the outcome following neurosurgical treatment for spinal ependymoma advocate the usage of adjuvant radiotherapy in cases of subtotal resection, or in unencapsulated tumours. We assessed the outcome of 61 consecutive cases of spinal ependymoma in a single centre over a 20year period using a variety of outcome measures. Sex distribution was equal, with a mean age at surgery of 43.6years (range 5-76years). Overall, most tumours occurred in the lumbosacral region (70.5%), with fewer in the thoracic (27.9%) and cervical regions (18.0%). Myxopapillary features were seen in 41.0% of tumours, and were more common when occurring in the lumbar region (51.2%). Gross total resection was achieved in 52.5%, subtotal resection in 37.7% and biopsy alone in 9.8% of patients and 31.1% received adjuvant radiotherapy. Two-thirds of patients achieved an excellent post-operative neurological outcome (Frankel grade E). Tumour recurrence was rare. Gross total resection and good preoperative neurological condition were most strongly predictive of good outcome. Post-operative radiotherapy did not seem to confer survival benefit in this case series, even in cases of incomplete resection, leading us to question its utility for all cases of spinal cord ependymoma.

  18. Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Wood, A

    2013-11-01

    The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development.

  19. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: what have we learned in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, major advances have clarified how ecological patterns inform theory, and how in turn theory informs applied ecology. Also, there has been an increased recognition that the problem of scale at which ecological processes should be considered is critical if we are to produce general predictions. Ecological dynamics is always stochastic at small scales, but variability is conditional on the scale of description. The radical changes in the scope and aims of ecology over the past decades reflect in part the need to address pressing societal issues of environmental change. Technological advances in molecular biology, global positioning, sensing instrumentation and computational power should not be overlooked as an explanation for these radical changes. However, I argue that conceptual unification across ecology, genetics, evolution and physiology has fostered even more fertile questions. We are moving away from the view that evolution is played in a fixed ecological theatre: the theatre is being rapidly and relentlessly redesigned by the players themselves. The maintenance of ecosystem functions depends on shifts in species assemblages and on cellular metabolism, not only on flows of energy and matter. These findings have far reaching implications for our understanding of how ecosystem function and biodiversity will withstand (or not) environmental changes in the 21st century.

  20. Wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: 20 years measurement in Shenzhen City, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yilong; Lu, XiXi; Chen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    We presented measurements of wet deposition of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N from 1986 to 2006 in Shenzhen City, China. Over the past 20 years, NO(3)(-)-N concentration had significantly increased, but a reverse trend was found for NH(4)(+)-N. The main form of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) was NH(4)(+)-N and the average NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratio was 1.57 in this area. The contribution of NO(3)(-)-N to TIN increased from 28-42% in the period of 1986-2000 to 50-63% during 2001-2006. The increased deposition flux of NO(3)(-)-N resulted in the increasing trend of TIN, although NH(4)(+)-N showed a decreasing trend over time. Average deposition flux of TIN during 1986-2006 was 13.24 kg/ha/year, with a minimum value of 6.03kg/ha/year in 1988 and a maximum value of 20.52 kg/ha/year in 1997. Wet deposition fluxes of N appeared to vary with season, 81% occurred in the warm season (from April to September). The wet deposition of TIN to the Shenzhen Reservoir reached 8,902 kg in 2006, which contributed 9.95% of the total nonpoint pollution to the reservoir and will be increased in the future.

  1. CT angiography after 20 years: a transformation in cardiovascular disease characterization continues to advance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Leipsic, Jonathon; Joseph Schoepf, U; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2014-06-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5-15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography.

  2. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Francesco; Vittori, Matteo; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2016-09-26

    Our aim was to review the literature and discuss about penile curvature in order to have an update for management after 20 years experience in the field.Penile curvature may be congenital or acquired. Congenital penile curvature is a relatively uncommon condition that may present in late adolescent or early adult life. The incidence is estimated to be 0.6 %. On the other side, acquired penile curvature has an overall prevalence of 0.5-13%. Three main factors seem to increase the risk of developing an acquired penile curvature, often related to Peyronie's disease: penile traumatism, genetic and familiar conditions and a history of diseases of the genital tract. In treating Peyronie's disease, no medical therapy is fully effective, and surgery remains the gold standard in cases of severe deformity and/or erectile disfunction. Peyronie's disease is associated with significant psychological stress for patients and their partners. Appropriate treatment should be individualized and tailored to the patient's goals and expectations. There is not the 'best' surgical technique and outcomes are satisfactory when proper treatment decisions are made.

  3. Successfully breaking a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations with recovery-oriented cognitive therapy for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul M; Reisweber, Jarrod; Luther, Lauren; Brinen, Aaron P; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with severe and persistent schizophrenia can present challenges (e.g., difficulties sustaining motivation and conducting information processing tasks) to the implementation of recovery-oriented care. We present a successful application of recovery-oriented cognitive therapy (CT-R), a fusion of the spirit and principles of the recovery movement with the evidence base and know-how of cognitive therapy, that helped an individual with schizophrenia move along her recovery path by overcoming specific obstacles, including a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations (five per year), daily phone calls to local authorities, threatening and berating "voices," the belief that she would be killed at any moment, and social isolation. Building on strengths, treatment included collaboratively identifying meaningful personal goals that were broken down into successfully accomplishable tasks (e.g., making coffee) that disconfirmed negative beliefs and replaced the phone calling. At the end of treatment and at a 6-month follow-up, the phone calls had ceased, psychosocial functioning and neurocognitive performance had increased, and avolition and positive symptoms had decreased. She was not hospitalized once in 24 months. Results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have untapped potential for recovery that can be mobilized through individualized, goal-focused psychosocial interventions.

  4. [The Italian Places of Nicholas Green 20 years after his assassination].

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Scarabelli, Andrea; Citterio, Franco; De Santo, Luca S; De Rosa, Giusy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Nicholas Green, a 7- year-old American boy was shot, while on vacation, on the Autostrada (motorway) Salerno to Reggio Calabria in Italy. His organs, with the consent of his parents, Reg and Maggie, were removed and 7 persons had their lives changed. In Italy in these last 20 years, organ donation has increased powerfully from 6.2 to 18.2 per million population with a peak at 20 in 2006. Reg and Maggie Green, after Nicholas death, started campaigning for organ donation by making full use of the media. Italian justice was efficient and the criminals were imprisoned quickly. With popular enthusiasm, a total of 103 places were dedicated to Nicholas (schools, halls, squares, streets, parks, gardens, private collections), a proof of great appreciation. Teaching organ donation to children, nurses and medical students is a powerful tool to convey the message of organ donation. To prevent opposition to organ removal when brain death occurs as Professor Francesco Casavola says signing for organ donation should be a family decision and laws for organ donation should be updated frequently in order to meet the progress of modernity.

  5. Implant survival and radiographic outcome of total hip replacement in patients less than 20 years old

    PubMed Central

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Halvorsen, Vera; Nordsletten, Lars; EngesæTer, Ingvild Ø; EngesæTer, Lars B; Marie Fenstad, Anne; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is not recommended for children and very young teenagers because early and repetitive revisions are likely. We investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of THR performed in children and teenage patients. Patients and methods We included 111 patients (132 hips) who underwent THR before 20 years of age. They were identified in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, together with information on the primary diagnosis, types of implants, and any revisions that required implant change. Radiographs and Harris hip score (HHS) were also evaluated. Results The mean age at primary THR was 17 (11–19) years and the mean follow-up time was 14 (3–26) years. The 10-year survival rate after primary THR (with the endpoint being any revision) was 70%. 39 patients had at least 1 revision and 16 patients had 2 or more revisions. In the latest radiographs, osteolysis and atrophy were observed in 19% and 27% of the acetabulae and 21% and 62% of the femurs, respectively. The mean HHS at the final follow-up was 83 (15–100). Interpretation The clinical score after THR in these young patients was acceptable, but many revisions had been performed. However, young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip had lower implant survival. Moreover, the bone stock in these patients was poor, which could complicate future revisions. PMID:27435903

  6. A prospective study of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in China: The Kailuan study.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anand; Cui, Liufu; Sun, Lixia; Lu, Bing; Chen, Shuohua; Liu, Xing; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Xiurong; Xie, Xiaobing; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study.A prospective cohort included 100,279 Chinese participants, aged 18 years or more, who had available information on fasting blood glucose concentrations at the start of the study (2006). Examination surveys were conducted every 2 years in 2008 and 2010. For the analyses of incident diabetes, we included 76,869 participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline and participants in the 2008 and/or 2010 follow-up. Diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7 mmol/L, self-reported history, or active treatment with insulin or any oral hypoglycemic agent. IFG was defined by a fasting blood glucose concentration between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L.During the 4-year study, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG rose from 6.6% to 7.7%, and 17.3% to 22.6%, respectively. There were 17,811 incident cases of IFG and 4867 incident cases of diabetes. The age-standardized incident rate of IFG and diabetes were 62.6/1000 person-years (51.2/1000 person-years in women and 73.8/1000 person-years in men) and 10.0/1000 person-years (7.8/1000 person-years in women and 12.1/1000 person-years in men), respectively. We observed steady increases in fasting blood glucose with body anthropometrics and in every defined category of body mass index, including in those traditionally considered to be well within the "normal" range.In this large longitudinal study of Chinese adults, we observed a high prevalence and incidence of IFG

  7. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  8. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  9. Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Ndjaboué, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Vézina, Michel

    2012-10-01

    The models most commonly used, to study the effects of psychosocial work factors on workers' health, are the demand-control-support (DCS) model and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model. An emerging body of research has identified Organisational Justice as another model that can help to explain deleterious health effects. This review aimed: (1) to identify prospective studies of the associations between organisational justice and mental health in industrialised countries from 1990 to 2010; (2) to evaluate the extent to which organisational justice has an effect on mental health independently of the DCS and ERI models; and (3) to discuss theoretical and empirical overlap and differences with previous models. The studies had to present associations between organisational justice and a mental health outcome, be prospective, and be entirely available in English or in French. Duplicated papers were excluded. Eleven prospective studies were selected for this review. They provide evidence that procedural justice and relational justice are associated with mental health. These associations remained significant even after controlling for the DCS and ERI models. There is a lack of prospective studies on distributive and informational justice. In conclusion, procedural and relational justice can be considered a different and complementary model to the DCS and ERI models. Future studies should evaluate the effect of change in exposure to organisational justice on employees' mental health over time.

  10. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Martica H.; Casement, Melynda D.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Matthews, Karen A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Krafty, Robert T.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Four sites across the United States. Participants: 330 women (46–57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Conclusions: Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. Citation: Hall MH, Casement MD, Troxel WM, Matthews KA, Bromberger JT, Kravitz HM, Krafty RT, Buysse DJ. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep in midlife women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1645–1654. PMID:26039965

  11. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:28111622

  12. MEST-Tyche will take its dark comets to impact our solar system in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-03-01

    Tyche has many dark comets like Oort cloud. It went near our solar system every 25-27 million years. It could take its dark comets to impact our earth. Tyche and its dark comet absorb light like a dark light which is a negative black-body radiation. (1) Eddν=-c1dνd^3dνe^c2dνd/Td-1. Among it, Ed: the dark energy, νd: the dark frequence, Td: the dark temperature, c1d,c2d: the constant. So when they go near us, their wave has a against Doppler redshift as 0.000165. And they will inbreak solar system at the rate of 99AU/y, from the distance of 1,500AU and in 20 years. It can cause the broken ozonosphere, the lithosphere to crack, many big activity volcanic and the continental drift. And it can darked the light and colded the climate to the Great Ice Age. Not only it will break our environment by a special ``nuclear explosion'' under low temperature, but also the dark life will change the Genetic code of our life. So it will kill many lives and will produce new life. So it could trigger the Mass Extinction. We can bulid up a new pair of nuclear reactor (include dark nuclear energy) to drive a universal craft and can change the orbit of our earth for evading the impaction. We need a new life-information technology to develop our life and consciousness.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection in marrow transplant recipients: a 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Slavin, M A; Meyers, J D; Remington, J S; Hackman, R C

    1994-05-01

    Twelve of 3803 consecutive marrow allograft patients treated at this center over the past 20 years have had a post-transplant tissue diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: 10 at autopsy and 2 by brain biopsy. This infection was identified in none of 509 autologous marrow recipients. Occurrence of toxoplasmosis was 0.31 cases per 100 allogeneic transplants and 1.0 per 100 autopsies. An estimated 15% of allogeneic transplant recipients were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii and 2% of seropositive patients developed toxoplasmosis. Pre-transplant serology was positive by both dye and agglutination tests in 11 infected patients tested. Sequential IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE antibody titers to T. gondii and the differential agglutination ratio were not helpful in diagnosing toxoplasmosis. Median day of clinical presentation was day 59 post-transplant (35-97 days) and of diagnosis, day 62 after transplant (37-143 days). Eleven patients had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of grades II-IV. All 12 patients died. Infection was diagnosed prior to death in only 16% of patients and contributed to death in at least 40%. Histopathology revealed tachyzoites of T. gondii most prevalent in brain (100%), heart (67%) and lungs (33%), and toxoplasma cysts alone in heart (33%) and lungs (22%). Toxoplasma infection was diagnosed in two patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis suggesting this was insufficient prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis appeared to occur by reactivation within the first 6 months after marrow transplant. Infection developed in patients who were seropositive for T. gondii pre-transplant, had received allogeneic marrow and had severe GVHD.

  14. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  15. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates.

  16. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed.

  17. High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hong, Borah; Patterson, Lance; Petit, Christopher J; Ham, J Nina

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P < 0.01). Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

  18. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  19. Vegetation responses to the first 20 years of cattle grazing in an Australian desert.

    PubMed

    Fensham, R J; Fairfax, R J; Dwyer, J M

    2010-03-01

    Existing theoretical frameworks suggest three predictions relevant to grazing effects in Australian aridlands: grazing has a negative but moderate effect on plant species richness; a separate "state" resulting from degradation caused by extreme grazing will be evident; some plant species will have a strong association with grazing relief refuges that have only ever been subject to light grazing. These predictions were examined in the dune swales of an Australian desert, with data on herbaceous species collected along transects up to 14 km from artificial water points between four and 33 years old. A cumulative grazing index was constructed utilizing both the spatial occupation patterns of cattle and the length of exposure. Despite restricting sampling to a narrow habitat, silt/clay content and soil pH influence floristic patterns independent of grazing. The analysis of quadrat data in relation to grazing revealed almost no patterns in plant cover, species richness (at two different scales), or abundance across plant life-form groups. Five species had an increasing response, and seven a decreasing response, while the only species restricted to areas of extremely low grazing pressure was sufficiently rare that it could have occurred there by chance. The dominant annual grass, the most common shrub, and a perennial tussock-forming sedge all decrease with high levels of grazing. Most species exhibit an ephemeral life strategy in response to unreliable rainfall, and this boom and bust strategy effectively doubles as an adaptation to grazing. After 20 years of exposure to managed grazing with domestic stock in Australian dune swales, patterns in species richness have not emerged in response to grazing pressure, the ecosystem has not been transformed to another degradation "state," and there is no evidence that grazing relief refuges provide havens for species highly sensitive to grazing.

  20. The evolving role of data scientist during 20 years of the British Atmospheric Data Centre (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Parton, G.; Pascoe, C.; Guillory, A.; da Costa, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    In 2014 The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), now part of the Centre of Environmental Data Archival (CEDA), will celebrate its 20th anniversary. During its lifetime, most BADC staff have defined themselves as data scientists by virtue of being scientists by background and "data workers" by practice. However, the definition of data scientist has been ill defined until recently. As the term has become popularised in the world of business and general information technology, we ask ourselves to what extent the popular definition fits our profession. We observe that data science, as practised at CEDA, encompasses several roles which overlap and compliment each other as we strive to be enablers of data exploitation. For us a data scientist's skills include elements of data curation, software engineering, data infrastructure management and data-intensive research. As data science has evolved the balance between these roles has shifted in response to changes in technology, demands of the research community and funding drivers. We have had to balance our role as enablers of data exploitation, by providing services and infrastructure to the geo-science community, with our role as pioneers of data exploitation itself. By telling the story of how these roles have evolved during the 20 year history of the BADC, we aim to explore the maturing role of data scientist as practised within the geo-sciences and contrast that role with its recently popularised usage. Looking forward we will address questions about how centres of expertise, such as CEDA, can best increase the data capabilities of geo-science research as a whole in order to facilitate the transition to data-intensive science.

  1. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  2. Modelling 20 years of synchrotron flaring in the jet of 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türler, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Paltani, S.

    2000-09-01

    We present a phenomenological jet model which is able to reproduce well the observed variations of the submillimetre-to-radio emission of the bright quasar 3C 273 during the last 20 years. It is a generalization of the original shock model of Marscher & Gear (1985), which is now able to describe an accelerating or decelerating shock wave, in a curved, non-conical and non-adiabatic jet. The model defines the properties of a synchrotron outburst which is expected to be emitted by the jet material in a small region just behind the shock front. By a proper parameterization of the average outburst's evolution and of the peculiarities of individual outbursts, we are able to decompose simultaneously thirteen long-term light-curves of 3C 273 in a series of seventeen distinct outbursts. It is the first time that a model is so closely confronted to the long-term multi-wavelength variability properties of a quasar. The ability of the model to reproduce the very different shapes of the submillimetre-to-radio light curves of 3C 273 gives strong support to the shock model of Marscher & Gear (1985). Indirectly, it also reinforces the idea that the outbursts seen in the light-curves are physically linked to the distinct features observed to move along the jet with apparently superluminal velocities. The more than 5000 submillimetre-to-radio observations in the different light-curves are able to constrain the physical properties of the jet. The results suggest, for instance, that the magnetic field behind the shock front is rather turbulent. There is also some evidence that the jet radius does not increase linearly with distance down the jet or, alternatively, that the synchrotron emitting material decelerates with distance and/or bends away from the line-of-sight.

  3. 20 Years of sea-levels, accretion, and vegetation on two Long ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The long-term 1939-2013 rate of RSLR (Relative Sea-Level Rise) at the New London, CT tide gauge is ~2.6 mm/yr, near the maximum rate of salt marsh accretion reported in eastern Long Island Sound salt marshes. Consistent with recent literature RSLR at New London has accelerated since the 1980s; inter-annual variability can be high, but over the last three decades rates have averaged ~4.5 mm/yr, more than double the first 40 years of the New London record. Marsh surface elevation has been followed for 10 years with a SET array at the Barn Island system on Little Narragansett Bay and 20 years using an accretion pin array at Mamacoke Marsh on the Thames River. From 2003 – 2013 accretion averaged 2.3 mm/yr on the Barn Island marshes while RSLR increased 5.4 mm/yr. The increased hydroperiod is driving vegetation change at Barn Island, particularly in areas that started with lower “elevation capital”. Over two decades Mamacoke accretion closely matched RSLR: 4.7 vs 4.9 mm/yr, with no significant shifts in vegetation. For the 1st 12 years at Mamacoke, accretion was slower than RSLR: 3.2 vs 8.1 mm/yr. From 2006 to 2014, however elevation increase averaged 7.0 mm/yr while sea level rose just 7 mm. By 2014 accretion rates across the marsh ranged from 1.3 to 16.1 mm /yr. Preliminary core analysis confirms highly organic peat, but reveals sand concentrations at 2–4 cm in some areas, suggesting that Hurricanes Irene (2011) and Sandy (2012) may have contributed to Mama

  4. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  5. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000–370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aimed to determine the relative human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides to improve the effectiveness of regulatory policy. Methods and Findings We examined the case fatality of different agricultural pesticides in a prospective cohort of patients presenting with pesticide self-poisoning to two clinical trial centers from April 2002 to November 2008. Identification of the pesticide ingested was based on history or positive identification of the container. A single pesticide was ingested by 9,302 patients. A specific pesticide was identified in 7,461 patients; 1,841 ingested an unknown pesticide. In a subset of 808 patients, the history of ingestion was confirmed by laboratory analysis in 95% of patients. There was a large variation in case fatality between pesticides—from 0% to 42%. This marked variation in lethality was observed for compounds within the same chemical and/or WHO toxicity classification of pesticides and for those used for similar agricultural indications. Conclusion The human data provided toxicity rankings for some pesticides that contrasted strongly with the WHO toxicity classification based on rat toxicity. Basing regulation on human toxicity will make pesticide poisoning less hazardous, preventing hundreds of thousands of deaths globally without compromising agricultural needs. Ongoing monitoring of patterns of use and clinical toxicity for new pesticides is needed to identify highly toxic pesticides in a timely manner. Please see later in the

  6. The Short-Term Impact of Involuntary Migration in China's Three Gorges: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Cao, Yue; Xi, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the short-term impact of involuntary migration resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam project on the 1.3 million persons being displaced. We focus on the social, economic, and mental and physical health impact using three sets of indicators. Using a prospective research design, we gathered information about…

  7. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  8. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  9. What They Notice in Video: A Study of Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Most teacher preparation programs have embraced the use of video as an effective methodology for developing teachers' noticing skills. This study focused on learning about what secondary mathematics prospective teachers (PSTs) were able to notice when viewing video of their own co-teaching, particularly in a microteaching setting that consisted of…

  10. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  11. How Can Perceived Autonomy Support Influence Enrollment in Elective Physical Education? A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the influence of high students' perceived teacher autonomy support in mandatory physical education on their intention and actual enrollment in elective physical education. Participants included 545 ninth-grade students enrolled in three suburban high schools in a major midwestern metropolitan…

  12. A prospective study of marine phytoplankton and reported illness among recreational beachgoers in Puerto Rico, 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Blooms of marine phytoplankton may adversely affect human health. The potential public health impact of low-level exposures is not well established, and few prospective cohort studies of recreational exposures to marine phytoplankton have been conducted.OBJECTIVE: We ...

  13. A Case Study of Two Groups of Elementary Prospective Teachers' Experiences in Distinct Mathematics Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auslander, Susan Swars; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.; Hart, Lynn C.; Carothers, Jody

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study examined two groups of elementary prospective teachers (n=12) completing distinct mathematics content courses. Data were collected via two belief surveys, one content knowledge assessment, and individual interviews. The findings revealed differences in specialized content knowledge and mathematical beliefs between the two…

  14. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Division of Fractions Understanding: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed methods study explored 34 prospective elementary teachers understanding of division of fractions at the beginning and end of their final mathematics methods course. Participants' beliefs on the teaching and learning of division with fractions were also explored. At the beginning of the course, the participants had…

  15. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  16. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  17. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  18. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  19. Do Specific Types of Networking Predict Specific Mobility Outcomes? A Two-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established a general relation between networking and career outcomes, as postulated by theories on protean careers and career self management. We suggest that specific facets of networking behavior differentially affect specific career mobility outcomes over time. In a 2-year prospective study, we examined the impact of six…

  20. Clinical Observed Performance Evaluation: A Prospective Study in Final Year Students of Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, G. C.; Browne, K.; Hunter, K.; Hill, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a prospective study of clinical observed performance evaluation (COPE) for 197 medical students in the pre-qualification year of clinical education. Psychometric quality was the main endpoint. Students were assessed in groups of 5 in 40-min patient encounters, with each student the focus of evaluation for 8 min. Each student had a series…

  1. Father Locus of Control and Child Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tone, Erin B.; Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study the authors examined the associations between parent locus of control of reinforcement (LOCR), measured before the birth of a child, and behavioral-emotional outcomes in that child at age 7 years. A total of 307 couples completed questionnaires regarding their emotional status and LOCR at their first prenatal…

  2. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  3. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  4. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents' Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability,…

  5. How Can We Get the Information about Democracy? The Example of Social Studies Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the information about democracy, which social studies prospective teachers have, and interpretation of the information sources are aimed. The research was planned as a survey research methodology and the participants were determined with criterion sampling method. The data were collected through developed open-ended questions…

  6. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  7. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  8. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  9. Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance…

  10. The "Prospects" Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.

    This paper examines results from the Prospects study--a research agenda that explored the federal Title I program's impact on the academic and socio-emotional development of disadvantaged children. The document focuses on the program's strengths and limitations, offering a brief review of educational research and highlighting what may or may not…

  11. Cognitive Coping Strategies and Stress in Parents of Children with Down Syndrome: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-sectional and prospective relationships between cognitive coping strategies and parental stress in parents of children with Down syndrome. A total of 621 participants filled out questionnaires, including the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire to measure cognitive coping and the Nijmeegse…

  12. Prediction of Women's Utilization of Resistance Strategies in a Sexual Assault Situation: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Van Wynsberghe, Amy; Edwards, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study prospectively explored the predictors of resistance strategies to a sexual assault situation. Participants were assessed at the beginning of an academic quarter on a number of variables, including past history of sexual victimization, perceived risk of sexual victimization, and intentions to use specific types of resistance…

  13. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  14. A Prospective Study on Changes of Cognitions, Interpersonal Influences, and Physical Activity in Taiwanese Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Jwo, Jun-Ling

    2005-01-01

    The decline of physical activity during adolescence is not well understood. This prospective study followed 969 Taiwanese students from eighth to ninth grade and examined their physical activity-related cognitions, interpersonal influences, and behavior of physical activity across the grade transition. Gender differences were found in the effects…

  15. Risk and Protective Factors Predictive of Adolescent Pregnancy: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Khoo, Siek Toon; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred twenty-eight Latina and African American girls from high-risk environments (e.g., poverty, family history of teen parenting, etc.) were studied from age 13 through age 19 to prospectively identify the protective factors that might guard against teenage pregnancy. Results indicated that involved and strict parenting during early…

  16. A Case Study: Employment Prospects for Female Technology Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Dewayne L.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a three-year study to determine the ratio of male and female graduates employed in industrial-related jobs after completing industrial technology programs at Black Hawk College, Moline, Illinois, show no significant difference in the employability rate. Several factors may limit the study validity. (MF)

  17. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Trained interviewers collected extensive data on demographics and other study variables during in person interviews. Waist circumference was...controls, prostate cancer cases were more likely to be slightly younger, to have higher values of waist circumference and BMI and to be Afro...control comparison showed significant differences exclusively for waist circumference , which did not represent outcome variables in the present study

  18. Procedures for assessing psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: a pilot prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on psychological risk factors for injury has focused on stable traits. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a prospective longitudinal study designed to examine labile psychological states as risk factors of injury. Methods We measured psychological traits at baseline (mood, ways of coping and anxiety), and psychological states every day (1-item questions on anxiety, sleep, fatigue, soreness, self-confidence) before performances in Cirque du Soleil artists of the show “O”. Additional questions were added once per week to better assess anxiety (20-item) and mood. Questionnaires were provided in English, French, Russian and Japanese. Injury and exposure data were extracted from electronic records that are kept as part of routine business practices. Results The 43.9% (36/82) recruitment rate was more than expected. Most artists completed the baseline questionnaires in 15 min, a weekly questionnaire in <2 min and a daily questionnaire in <1 min. We improved the formatting of some questions during the study, and adapted the wording of other questions to improve clarity. There were no dropouts during the entire study, suggesting the questionnaires were appropriate in content and length. Results for sample size calculations depend on the number of artists followed and the minimal important difference in injury rates, but in general, preclude a purely prospective study with daily data collection because of the long follow-up required. However, a prospective nested case-crossover design with data collection bi-weekly and at the time of injury appears feasible. Conclusion A prospective study collecting psychological state data from subjects who train and work regularly together is feasible, but sample size calculations suggest that the optimal study design would use prospective nested case-crossover methodology. PMID:24920527

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence.

  20. Reduced work ability in middle-aged men with asthma from youth--a 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Irmeli; Pallasaho, Paula; Luukkonen, Ritva; Suojalehto, Hille; Karjalainen, Jouko; Lauerma, Antti; Karjalainen, Antti

    2011-06-01

    We studied, whether asthma diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood affects work ability 20 years later. We used Finnish Defence Force registers, 1986-1990, to select: (1) conscripts with asthma to represent a mild/moderate asthma group (n=485), (2) asthmatics who were exempted from military service to represent a relatively severe asthma group (n=393) and (3) a control group (n 1500) without asthma. A questionnaire consisting of validated questions on asthma and work ability was sent out in 2009. A total of 54% of the men in the first study group, 44% of those in the second study group and 44% of the controls answered. The mean age of the participants was 41 (range 37-51). Self-assessed current work ability compared with lifetime best had decreased in 28.9% of the first asthma group, in 31.1% of the second asthma group, and in 19.7% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Current smoking (OR 2.5), only basic education (OR 2.6), being a manual worker (OR 2.7) and current severe asthma (OR 3.8) associated most strongly with decreased work ability among the asthmatics. Both mild and more severe asthma at the age of around 20 seems to be associated with reduced work ability in 40-year-old males.

  1. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  2. Quasi-Prospective Study of Breast Cancer and Diet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    This study aims to refine estimates of the effect of diet on breast cancer. Besides diet we will measure adult weight history and physical activity ...through the clinical systems is on-going. Study results will increase our understanding of the effects of diet, adult weight gain, and physical activity on...fruits, vegetables, and grains that may be protective. High weight gain and physical inactivity, both potentially related to increased risk, also will

  3. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study.

  4. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  5. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  6. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective.

    PubMed

    Miraj, Sepide; Rafieian-Kopaei; Kiani, Sara

    2016-09-11

    Melissa officinalis is a plant cultivated in some parts of Iran. The leaves of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae), are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review article was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L," "antioxidant properties," oxidative stress," "oxidative damage", "ROS." Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable.

  7. Prospects for the study of evolution in the deep biosphere.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Jennifer F; Sylvan, Jason B; Brazelton, William J; Tully, Benjamin J; Edwards, Katrina J; Moyer, Craig L; Heidelberg, John F; Nelson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).

  8. Prospects for the Study of Evolution in the Deep Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Jennifer F.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Brazelton, William J.; Tully, Benjamin J.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Moyer, Craig L.; Heidelberg, John F.; Nelson, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the days of Darwin, scientists have used the framework of the theory of evolution to explore the interconnectedness of life on Earth and adaptation of organisms to the ever-changing environment. The advent of molecular biology has advanced and accelerated the study of evolution by allowing direct examination of the genetic material that ultimately determines the phenotypes upon which selection acts. The study of evolution has been furthered through examination of microbial evolution, with large population numbers, short generation times, and easily extractable DNA. Such work has spawned the study of microbial biogeography, with the realization that concepts developed in population genetics may be applicable to microbial genomes (Martiny et al., 2006; Manhes and Velicer, 2011). Microbial biogeography and adaptation has been examined in many different environments. Here we argue that the deep biosphere is a unique environment for the study of evolution and list specific factors that can be considered and where the studies may be performed. This publication is the result of the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) theme team on Evolution (www.darkenergybiosphere.org). PMID:22319515

  9. Prospects for HERMES-spin structure studies at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    HERMES (HERA Measurement of Spin), is a second generation experiment to study the spin structure of the nucleon by using polarized internal gas targets in the HERA 35-GeV electron storage ring. Scattered electrons and coincident hadrons will be detected in an open geometry spectrometer which will include particle identification. Measurements are planned for each of the inclusive structure functions, g{sub 1},(x), g{sub 2}(x), b{sub 1}(x) and A(x), as well as the study of semi-inclusive pion and kaon asymmetries. Targets of hydrogen, deuterium and {sup 3}He will be studied. The accuracy of data for the inclusive structure functions will equal or exceed that of current experiments. The semi-inclusive asymmetries will provide a unique and sensitive probe of the flavor dependence of quark helicity distributions and properties of the quark sea. Monte Carlo simulations of HERMES data for experiment asymmetries and polarized structure functions are discussed.

  10. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  11. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  12. Attempts to Prevent Falls and Injury: A Prospective Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsch, Sibylle; And Others

    1992-01-01

    At 16 senior centers, studied effectiveness of exercise and cognitive-behavioral programs, compared to discussion control program, in reducing falls and injuries among 230 older adults. After one year of programs, observed no significant difference in time to first fall among groups. Secondary outcome measures such as strength, balance, fear of…

  13. Preschool Predictors of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often present at preschool age. Research on older children and studies contrasting preschoolers with high versus low behavioral inhibition (BI) highlight several risk factors, but these have not been investigated in community samples of young children. Child, parent, and peer factors at age 4 were therefore…

  14. Type A Behavior, Life Change, and Illness: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodewalt, Frederick; And Others

    The Type A disease association may be obscured by the failure of epidemiological studies to take into account the person by situation nature of the Type A construct. Past research suggests that it is not coping with demand that is stressful for Type As, but rather the perception that the job or life event is less than completely controllable that…

  15. Baseline Factors Predictive of SLT Response: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Robin; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the response to Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) according to baseline medical treatment, angle pigmentation, age, diagnosis (open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension), and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods. 74 eyes of 74 patients were enrolled in this study. Baseline characteristics were recorded for each patient. IOP in the treated and fellow eyes was measured at baseline, and 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months following SLT. IOP changes in the different groups were compared using two-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results. The mean age of our cohort was 71 ± 10 years. The mean baseline IOP was 21.5 ± 5 mmHg, and the mean change in IOP from baseline in the treated eye at one year was -4.67 ± 3.40 mmHg. Higher baseline IOP was highly correlated with greater absolute IOP decrease. Prostaglandin analogue use at baseline was shown to be associated with a statistically decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT when corrected for baseline IOP. No significant differences in IOP response were found when comparing groups stratified for age, angle pigmentation, phakic status, gender, or diagnosis. Discussion. The results of this study confirm the finding that higher baseline IOP is a predictor of greater IOP response following SLT, and that pretreatment with prostaglandin analogue therapy is associated with a decreased IOP-lowering response following SLT. The study is limited by the small number of eyes with data available for complete case analysis.

  16. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL); emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI); disease self-management (PAM); and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC). 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing. PMID:22216947

  17. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  18. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  19. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection.

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old) who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years) and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months). Results Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis. PMID:27525234