Science.gov

Sample records for 20-year retrievable storage

  1. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  2. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9-track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to 'shrink' the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  3. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1991-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9 track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to shrink the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  4. Increased Neural Activation during Picture Encoding and Retrieval in 60-Year-Olds Compared to 20-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Evers, E. A. T.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity.…

  5. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  6. Making Space: Automated Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanis, Norman; Ventuleth, Cindy

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot project in automated storage and retrieval of library materials which uses miniload cranes to retrieve bins of materials, and an interface with an online catalog that patrons use to request materials. Savings in space and money and potential problems with the system are discussed. (CLB)

  7. Holographic Information Storage and Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, J. R.

    A four-month investigation was made of holographic information storage and retrieval. After an extensive review of the state of the art of various holographic systems, it was concluded that digital holographic storage techniques hold the greatest promise for commercial development, especially since they are particularly well suited to computer…

  8. Achievements in optical data storage and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. H.; Shuman, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with the current achievements in two technology efforts, one of which is a wideband holographic recorder which uses multichannel recording of data in the form of holograms on roll film for storage and retrieval of large unit records at hundreds of megabit per second. The second effort involves a system (termed DIGIMEN) which uses binary spot recording on photographic film in the form of microfiche to provide a mass storage capability with automatic computer-controlled random access to stored records. Some potential design improvements are noted.

  9. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  10. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  11. Robots in the Library: Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kountz, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes automated storage and retrieval (AS/R) techniques and discusses benefits, conservation considerations, and costs of the AS/R approach to the storage of library books. Thirteen annotated references are listed. (MES)

  12. Storage-Retrieval Analysis of Paired-Associate Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chechile, Richard A.; Gordon, Tracey

    A study was performed to investigate the storage and retrieval dynamics that occur during paired-associate acquisition by means of the storage-retrieval separation technique discussed recently by Chechile & Meyer (1976). Thirty subjects learned an 18-item paired-associate list to a criterion of three perfect trials. In the test phase of each…

  13. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  14. Some Mathematics of Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammon, John W., Jr.

    This report explains the following mathematical techniques which may be used for relating search requests to documents contained in a library: (1) Boolean Algebraic Retrieval, (2) Linear Statistical Retrieval, (3) Statistical Association Techniques for expanding a query and/or for expanding the set of retrieval documents, (4) Vector Space…

  15. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  16. Structured Storage and Retrieval of SGML Documents Using Grove.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hak-Gyoon; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2000-01-01

    Discusses traditional information retrieval through indexing terms and describes a document storage and retrieval system based on structured information, where the SGML document is transformed into Grove (Graph Representation of Property Values) and stored at an element level by an object-oriented database management system. Also discusses query…

  17. Content-aware network storage system supporting metadata retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Qin, Leihua; Zhou, Jingli; Nie, Xuejun

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays, content-based network storage has become the hot research spot of academy and corporation[1]. In order to solve the problem of hit rate decline causing by migration and achieve the content-based query, we exploit a new content-aware storage system which supports metadata retrieval to improve the query performance. Firstly, we extend the SCSI command descriptor block to enable system understand those self-defined query requests. Secondly, the extracted metadata is encoded by extensible markup language to improve the universality. Thirdly, according to the demand of information lifecycle management (ILM), we store those data in different storage level and use corresponding query strategy to retrieval them. Fourthly, as the file content identifier plays an important role in locating data and calculating block correlation, we use it to fetch files and sort query results through friendly user interface. Finally, the experiments indicate that the retrieval strategy and sort algorithm have enhanced the retrieval efficiency and precision.

  18. Storage or Retrieval Deficit: The Yin and Yang of Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Oliver; Wang, Szu-Han; Nader, Karim

    2009-01-01

    To this day, it remains unresolved whether experimental amnesia reflects failed memory storage or the inability to retrieve otherwise intact memory. Methodological as well as conceptual reasons prevented deciding between these two alternatives: The absence of recovery from amnesia is typically taken as supporting storage impairment…

  19. WATSTORE: NATIONAL WATER DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) consists of several files in which water data are grouped and stored by common characteristics and data-collection frequencies. Files are maintained for the storage of (1) surface-water, q...

  20. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Michael; Molidor, Robert; Sturn, Alexander; Hartler, Juergen; Hackl, Hubert; Stocker, Gernot; Prokesch, Andreas; Scheideler, Marcel; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System) provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS), a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at . PMID:15836795

  1. Storage and retrieval of nuclear test data

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report is a part of the Test Information Program (TIP) at Sandia National Laboratories. It is an interim report, written primarily as an instruction document to aid in current work on the project. It addresses some found in storing and retrieving data from nuclear field tests conducted over the past five decades, primarily instrumentation data recorded from tests at the Nevada Test Site. First, the TIP data unit for storing and transporting TIP data is described. The data in the TIP data unit is typically recorded in a universal medium such as the portable optical or magnetic disk, or the tape cassette. Each TIP data unit is portable, and is also self-contained in the sense that it includes a set of related test data files, along with complete instructions and software for retrieval of the data by an unknown user, possibly on an unknown platform. Secondly, we describe the use of current software for compressing and waveform data, for authenticating and checking for errors in data processing files to be used on foreign platforms.

  2. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  3. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T.sub.ij (x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T.sub.ij (x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval.

  4. The public response to Monitored Retrievable Storage: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-22

    This report describes public opinion concerning the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility to be located in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The majority of individuals who did express an opinion opposed the facility due to transport/safety concerns and environmental/health concerns. (CBS)

  5. STAIRS: A Storage and Retrieval System Applied in Online Cataloging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poor, William

    1982-01-01

    Describes the use of IBM's Storage and Information Retrieval System (STAIRS) in the development of an online catalog for the Business and Technical Library of the Cummins Engine Company. The functions, advantages, and disadvantages of the system are outlined. A reference list and three sample searches are attached. (JL)

  6. Optical Disk for Digital Storage and Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Denis A.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of low-cost digital optical disks will revolutionize storage and retrieval systems over next decade. Three major factors will effect this change: availability of disks and controllers at low-cost and in plentiful supply; availability of low-cost and better output means for system users; and more flexible, less expensive communication…

  7. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  8. Information Storage and Retrieval. Reports on Analysis, Search, and Iterative Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    As the fourteenth report in a series describing research in automatic information storage and retrieval, this document covers work carried out on the SMART project for approximately one year (summer 1967 to summer 1968). The document is divided into four main parts: (1) SMART systems design, (2) analysis and search experiments, (3) user feedback…

  9. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  10. Data storage and retrieval system abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheson, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    The STX mass storage system design is intended for environments requiring high speed access to large volumes of data (terabyte and greater). Prior to commitment to a product design plan, STX conducted an exhaustive study of the commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software. STX also conducted research into the area of emerging technologies in networks and storage media so that the design could easily accommodate new interfaces and peripherals as they came on the market. All the selected system elements were brought together in a demo suite sponsored jointly by STX and ALLIANT where the system elements were evaluated based on actual operation using a client-server mirror image configuration. Testing was conducted to assess the various component overheads and results were compared against vendor data claims. The resultant system, while adequate to meet our capacity requirements, fell short of transfer speed expectations. A product team lead by STX was assembled and chartered with solving the bottleneck issues. Optimization efforts yielded a 60 percent improvement in throughput performance. The ALLIANT computer platform provided the I/O flexibility needed to accommodate a multitude of peripheral interfaces including the following: up to twelve 25MB/s VME I/O channels; up to five HiPPI I/O full duplex channels; IPI-s, SCSI, SMD, and RAID disk array support; standard networking software support for TCP/IP, NFS, and FTP; open architecture based on standard RISC processors; and V.4/POSIX-based operating system (Concentrix). All components including the software are modular in design and can be reconfigured as needs and system uses change. Users can begin with a small system and add modules as needed in the field. Most add-ons can be accomplished seamlessly without revision, recompilation or re-linking of software.

  11. Recommendations on the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Following the Department of Energy's announcement in April 1985 that three Tennessee sites were to be considered for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, Governor Lamar Alexander initiated a review of the proposal to be coordinated by his Safe Growth Team. Roane County and the City of Oak Ridge, the local governments sharing jurisdiction over DOE's primary and secondary sites, were invited to participate in the state's review of the MRS proposal. Many issues related to the proposed MRS are being considered by the Governor's Safe Growth Team. The primary objective of the Clinch River MRS Task Force has been to determine whether the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage facility should be accepted by the local governments, and if so, under what conditions. The Clinch River MRS Task Force is organized into an Executive Committee cochaired by the Roane County Executive and Mayor of Oak Ridge and three Study Groups focusing on environmental (including health and safety), socioeconomic, and transportation issues.

  12. Technology Successes in Hanford Tank Waste Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, E. J.

    2002-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP), which is responsible for dispositioning approximately 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that has accumulated in 177 large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. The RPP is comprised of five major elements: storage of the waste, retrieval of the waste from the tanks, treatment of the waste, disposal of treated waste, and closure of the tank facilities. Approximately 3785 cubic meters (1 million gallons) of waste have leaked from the older ''single-shell tanks.'' Sixty-seven of the 147 single shell tanks are known or assumed ''leakers.'' These leaks have resulted in contaminant plumes that extend from the tank to the groundwater in a number of tank farms. Retrieval and closure of the leaking tanks complicates the ORP technical challenge because cleanup decisions must consider the impacts of past leaks along with a strategy for retrieving the waste in the tanks. Completing the RPP mission as currently planned and with currently available technologies will take several decades and tens of billions of dollars. RPP continue to pursue the benefits from deploying technologies that reduce risk to human health and the environment, as well as, the cost of cleanup. This paper discusses some of the recent technology partnering activities with the DOE Office of Science and Technology activities in tank waste retrieval and storage.

  13. Collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of water-resources data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, C. R., (compiler)

    1978-01-01

    This publication represents a series of papers devoted to the subject of collection, storage, retrieval, and publication of hydrologic data. The papers were presented by members of the U.S. Geological Survey at the International Seminar on Organization and Operation of Hydrologic Services, Ottawa, Canada, July 15-16, 1976, sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization. The first paper, ' Standardization of Hydrologic Measurements, ' by George F. Smoot discusses the need for standardization of the methods and instruments used in measuring hydrologic data. The second paper, ' Use of Earth Satellites for Automation of Hydrologic Data Collection, ' by Richard W. Paulson discusses the use of inexpensive battery-operated radios to transmit realtime hydrologic data to earth satellites and back to ground receiving stations for computer processing. The third paper, ' Operation Hydrometeorological Data-Collection System for the Columbia River, ' by Nicholas A. Kallio discusses the operation of a complex water-management system for a large river basin utilizing the latest automatic telemetry and processing devices. The fourth paper, ' Storage and Retrieval of Water-Resources Data, ' by Charles R. Showen discusses the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) and its use in processing water resources data. The final paper, ' Publication of Water Resources Data, ' by S. M. Lang and C. B. Ham discusses the requirement for publication of water-resources data to meet the needs of a widespread audience and for archival purposes. (See W78-09324 thru W78-09328) (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Throw-away digits fast retrieval engines: New concepts in data storage and retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnai, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Although a great deal has been written about emerging optical technologies, the resultant cheap, fast, and large-scale data storage and retrieval techniques are becoming apparent only with increased use. Two of these - throw-away digits and fast retrieval engines - can be a boost to microcomputer mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Only quasi-instant access (minutes if not seconds) of a very generous medium (less than 1.5 Gb, 1,500 Mb) will allow corporate vendor, and government data banks to be used effectively by a growing and increasingly sophisticated user base of professionals and technicians. The ability to put digits on optical media, however, dwarfs the number of applications that effectively retrieve needles from gigabyte haystacks.

  15. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  16. Re-evaluation of monitored retrievable storage concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.F.; Smith, R.I.

    1989-04-01

    In 1983, as a prelude to the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility conceptual design, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an evaluation for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that examined alternative concepts for storing spent LWR fuel and high- level wastes from fuel reprocessing. The evaluation was made considering nine concepts for dry away-from-reactor storage. The nine concepts evaluated were: concrete storage cask, tunnel drywell, concrete cask-in-trench, open-cycle vault, metal casks (transportable and stationary), closed-cycle vault, field drywell, and tunnel-rack vault. The purpose and scope of the re-evaluation did not require a repetition of the expert-based examinations used earlier. Instead, it was based on more detailed technical review by a small group, focusing on changes that had occurred since the initial evaluation was made. Two additional storage concepts--the water pool and the horizontal modular storage vault (NUHOMS system)--were ranked along with the original nine. The original nine concepts and the added two conceptual designs were modified as appropriate for a scenario with storage capacity for 15,000 MTU of spent fuel. Costs, area requirements, and technical and historical data pertaining to MRS storage were updated for each concept.

  17. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  18. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared. Part 1. General Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; Hofstede, Marten

    1991-01-01

    Five categories of microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval (ISR) are distinguished and characterized: classical retrieval systems; end-user software; indexing programs; full-text retrieval programs; and personal information managers. In addition, the special retrieval techniques of hypertext and best-matched searching are…

  19. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-09-01

    In April 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Clinch River site as its preferred site for the construction and operation of the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility (USDOE, 1985). In support of the DOE MRS conceptual design activity, available data describing the site have been gathered and analyzed. A composite geotechnical description of the Clinch River site has been developed and is presented herein. This report presents Clinch River site description data in the following sections: general site description, surface hydrologic characteristics, groundwater characteristics, geologic characteristics, vibratory ground motion, surface faulting, stability of subsurface materials, slope stability, and references. 48 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Compact approach to monitored retrievable storage of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    Recent federal waste-management legislation has raised national interest in monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of unprocessed spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants. We have reviewed the current MRS design approaches, and we have examined an alternative concept that is extremely compact in terms of total land use. This approach may offer substantial advantages in the areas of monitoring and in safeguards against theft, as well as in reducing the chances of groundwater contamination. Total facility costs are roughly estimated and found to be generally competitive with other MRS concepts. 4 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Prototype For An Electronic Document Storage And Retrieval Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, B. E.

    1983-05-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) serves as both a national archive for medical literature and a national resource for current health science information. To fulfill this congressionally chartered mission NLM receives over 18 million pages of new literature annually into its 3 million item collection of print and nonprint material. The size of this continually increasing collection and its progressive deterioration due to the acid content of paper has encouraged NLM, along with others in the information field, to seek alternatives to conventional means for information storage. The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, the research and development division of NLM, is developing an engineering prototype of an Electronic Document Storage and Retrieval system. Presently the system stores material on magnetic disc storage media, employs image capture stations using CCD array scanners, and image displays in both hard and soft copy high resolution forms. The next stages in design activities are being pursued to expand the system to include a mass storage optical disc-based archival system. This paper examines the design goals and organizational objectives leading to the development of the engineering prototype system.

  2. Study report on laser storage and retrieval of image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical foundation is presented for a system of real-time nonphotographic and nonmagnetic digital laser storage and retrieval of image data. The system utilizes diffraction-limited laser focusing upon thin metal films, melting elementary holes in the metal films in laser focus. The metal films are encapsulated in rotating flexible mylar discs which act as the permanent storage carries. Equal sized holes encompass two dimensional digital ensembles of information bits which are time-sequentially (bit by bit) stored and retrieved. The bits possess the smallest possible size, defined by the Rayleigh criterion of coherent physical optics. Space and time invariant reflective read-out of laser discs with a small laser, provides access to the stored digital information. By eliminating photographic and magnetic data processing, which characterize the previous state of the art, photographic grain, diffusion, and gamma-distortion do not exist. Similarly, magnetic domain structures, magnetic gaps, and magnetic read-out are absent with a digital laser disc system.

  3. Recommendations on the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    Following the Department of Energy`s announcement in April 1985 that three Tennessee sites were to be considered for the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility, Governor Lamar Alexander initiated a review of the proposal to be coordinated by his Safe Growth Team. Roane County and the City of Oak Ridge, the local governments sharing jurisdiction over DOE`s primary and secondary sites, were invited to participate in the state`s review of the MRS proposal. Many issues related to the proposed MRS are being considered by the Governor`s Safe Growth Team. The primary objective of the Clinch River MRS Task Force has been to determine whether the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage facility should be accepted by the local governments, and if so, under what conditions. The Clinch River MRS Task Force is organized into an Executive Committee cochaired by the Roane County Executive and Mayor of Oak Ridge and three Study Groups focusing on environmental (including health and safety), socioeconomic, and transportation issues.

  4. Remote Handled Transuranic Sludge Retrieval Transfer And Storage System At Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Rick E.; Frederickson, James R.; Criddle, James; Hamilton, Dennis; Johnson, Mike W.

    2012-10-18

    This paper describes the systems developed for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU). An experienced, integrated CH2M HILL/AFS team was formed to design and build systems to retrieve, interim store, and treat for disposal the K West Basin sludge, namely the Sludge Treatment Project (STP). A system has been designed and is being constructed for retrieval and interim storage, namely the Engineered Container Retrieval, Transfer and Storage System (ECRTS).

  5. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 3, Monitored retrievable storage program plan. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-01

    This document presents the current DOE program objectives and the strategy for implementing the proposed program for the integral MRS facility. If the MRS proposal is approved by Congress, any needed revisions to the Program Plan will be made available to the Congress, the State of Tennessee, affected Indian tribes, local governments, other federal agencies, and the public. The proposal for constructing an MRS facility must include: the establishment of a federal program for the siting, development, construction, and operation of MRS facilities; a plan for funding the construction and operation of MRS facilities; site-specific designs, specifications, and cost estimates for the first such facility; a plan for integrating MRS facilities with other storage and disposal facilities authorized by the NWPA. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  7. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) to transportation system interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Row, T.H.; Croff, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    In March 1987, the US Department of Energy presented to Congress the proposal to construct and operate a facility for the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portions of Oak Ridge. In discussing the MRS to Transportation System Interfaces, the authors provide a blending of the technical and institutional issues, for they do not believe the solutions to success of this enterprise lie wholly in one area. The authors cover: early chronology of the MRS; comparison of total-system life cycle cost estimates of the authorized system and improved-performance system (i.e., the system that includes a facility for MRS); transportation costs resulting from shipping, security and cask; assumptions for dedicated rail transport from MRS to repository; and significant results from the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) analysis of the improved performance system. (AT)

  8. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.

  9. Storage and retrieval of light pulse in coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jibing; Liu, Na; Shan, Chuanjia; Li, Hong; Liu, Tangkun; Zheng, Anshou

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an effective scheme to create a frequency entangled states based on bound-to-bound inter-subband transitions in an asymmetric three-coupled quantum well structure. A four-subband cascade configuration quantum well structure is illuminated with a pulsed probe field and two continuous wave control laser fields to generate a mixing field. By properly adjusting the frequency detunings and the intensity of coupling fields, the conversion efficiency can reach 100%. A maximum entangled state can be achieved by selecting a proper length of the sample. We also numerically investigate the propagation dynamics of the probe pulse and mixing pulse, the results show that two frequency components are able to exchange energy through a four-wave mixing process. Moreover, by considering special coupling fields, the storage and retrieval of the probe pulse is also numerically simulated.

  10. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  11. Nosql for Storage and Retrieval of Large LIDAR Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.

    2015-08-01

    Developments in LiDAR technology over the past decades have made LiDAR to become a mature and widely accepted source of geospatial information. This in turn has led to an enormous growth in data volume. The central idea for a file-centric storage of LiDAR point clouds is the observation that large collections of LiDAR data are typically delivered as large collections of files, rather than single files of terabyte size. This split of the dataset, commonly referred to as tiling, was usually done to accommodate a specific processing pipeline. It makes therefore sense to preserve this split. A document oriented NoSQL database can easily emulate this data partitioning, by representing each tile (file) in a separate document. The document stores the metadata of the tile. The actual files are stored in a distributed file system emulated by the NoSQL database. We demonstrate the use of MongoDB a highly scalable document oriented NoSQL database for storing large LiDAR files. MongoDB like any NoSQL database allows for queries on the attributes of the document. As a specialty MongoDB also allows spatial queries. Hence we can perform spatial queries on the bounding boxes of the LiDAR tiles. Inserting and retrieving files on a cloud-based database is compared to native file system and cloud storage transfer speed.

  12. 21 CFR 58.190 - Storage and retrieval of records and data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Storage and retrieval of records and data. 58.190 Section 58.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Records and Reports § 58.190 Storage and retrieval of records and data. (a)...

  13. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs.

  14. Environmental assessment: Solid waste retrieval complex, enhanced radioactive and mixed waste storage facility, infrastructure upgrades, and central waste support complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action to: retrieve transuranic (TRU) waste because interim storage waste containers have exceeded their 20-year design life and could fail causing a radioactive release to the environment provide storage capacity for retrieved and newly generated TRU, Greater-than-Category 3 (GTC3), and mixed waste before treatment and/or shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP); and upgrade the infrastructure network in the 200 West Area to enhance operational efficiencies and reduce the cost of operating the Solid Waste Operations Complex. This proposed action would initiate the retrieval activities (Retrieval) from Trench 4C-T04 in the 200 West Area including the construction of support facilities necessary to carry out the retrieval operations. In addition, the proposed action includes the construction and operation of a facility (Enhanced Radioactive Mixed Waste Storage Facility) in the 200 West Area to store newly generated and the retrieved waste while it awaits shipment to a final disposal site. Also, Infrastructure Upgrades and a Central Waste Support Complex are necessary to support the Hanford Site`s centralized waste management area in the 200 West Area. The proposed action also includes mitigation for the loss of priority shrub-steppe habitat resulting from construction. The estimated total cost of the proposed action is $66 million.

  15. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  16. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  17. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  18. Performance assessment of the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Winter, C.

    1986-02-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) has completed a performance evaluation of the proposed monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study was undertaken as part of the Department of Energy MRS Program at PNL. The objective of the performance evaluation was to determine whether the conceptual MRS facility would be able to process spent fuel at the specified design rate of 3600 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year. The performance of the proposed facility was assessed using the computer model COMPACT (Computer Optimization of Processing and Cask Transport) to simulate facility operations. The COMPACT model consisted of three application models each of which addressed a different aspect of the facility's operation: MRS/waste transportation interface; cask handling capability; and disassembly/consolidation (hot cell) operations. Our conclusions, based on the assessment of design criteria for the proposed facility, are as follows: Facilities and equipment throughout the facility have capability beyond the 3600 MTU/y design requirement. This added capability provides a reserve to compensate for unexpected perturbations in shipping or handling of the spent fuel. Calculations indicate that the facility's maximum maintainable processing capability is approximately 4800 MTU/y.

  19. Monitored Retrievable Storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs {hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report, all site evaluations (sections 13 through 16) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This is Volume 3 of a three volume document. References are also included in this volume.

  20. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed sites and facility designs{hor ellipsis}'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluate potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the Task Force presented in this report include: site evaluations (sections 10 through 12) where the rationale for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force. This in Volume 2 of a three volume document.

  1. Monitored retrievable storage facility site screening and evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy to complete a detailed study of the need for and feasibility of, and to submit to the Congress a proposal for, the construction of one or more monitored retrievable storage facilities for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.'' The Act directs that the proposal includes site specific designs. Further, the proposal is to include, for the first such facility, at least three alternative sites and at least five alternative combinations of such proposed site and facility designs...'' as well as a recommendation of the combination among the alternatives that the Secretary deems preferable.'' An MRS Site Screening Task Force has been formed to help identify and evaluated potential MRS facility sites within a preferred region and with the application of a siting process and criteria developed by the DOE. The activities of the task force presented in this report includes: site screening (Sections 3, 4, and 5), the MRS facilities which are to be sited are described; the criteria, process and outcome of the screening process is presented; and descriptions of the candidate MRS facility sites are given, and site evaluations (Sections 6 through 9) where the rational for the site evaluations are presented, along with each evaluation and findings of the Task Force.

  2. Hazards associated with retrieval and storage of legacy waste at the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pannell, M.A.; Grogin, P.W.; Langford, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    Approximately 17,000 containers of solid transuranic and hazardous waste have been stored beneath earthen cover for nearly twenty years at Technical Area 4 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) is to retrieve, vent, and place these containers into an inspectable storage configuration in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, prior to final disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant hazards currently identified with TWISP activities include: (1) the pressurization of drums; (2) volatilization of organic compounds (VOCs) within the drums; and (3) the generation of elevated hydrogen levels by certain waste streams. Based on the retrieval of 15% of the waste containers, the following preliminary conclusions are presented to better protect personnel and the environment: (1) the likelihood of unvented drums becoming pressurized increases when environmental conditions change; (2) pressurized drums must be vented before they become bulging drums; (3) vented drums present the potential for VOC emissions and personnel exposure; (4) the vapor pressure and boiling points of waste stream constituents may be an indication of the likelihood of VOC emissions from stored hazardous waste containers; (5) large numbers of co-located vented drums may present the potential of increased hydrogen and VOC concentrations within unventilated storage domes; (6) monitoring and sampling vented drum storage domes is necessary to ensure that the levels of risk to drum handlers and inspection personnel are acceptable; (7) identifying, tagging, and segregating special case drums is necessary to prevent personnel overexposures and preclude environmental contamination; (8) applying rust inhibitor prolongs the useful life of waste containers stored under earthen cover; (9) acoustic drum pressure detection may be a viable tool in assessing elevated drum pressures.

  3. Evaluation of retrieval activities and equipment for removal of containers from the transuranic storage area retrieval enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.; Rhoden, G.; Davies, G.B.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1970, the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has accepted over 55,000 cubic meters of Transuranic contaminated hazardous waste for interim storage. The waste has been neatly stored in ``cell`` configurations on adjoining, above ground asphalt pads at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). A number of reports have been supplied for review and comment describing the methodology and equipment proposed for retrieval of drums and boxes from a storage facility at the INEL site. The contract for this review requires two main issues to be addressed. First, the adequacy of equipment and methodology for the retrieval of containers which have been breached, lost structural integrity, or are otherwise damaged, Second, to review the strategies and equipment for retrieval of intact waste containers. These issues are presented in the following report along with additional detail in the methodology to complete the description of the operations required for retrieval under most operational scenarios. The documentation reviewed is considered to be at an interim stage and is therefore expected to be subject to the development of the methodology from the existing level of detail with input from the facility operators. This review aims to anticipate some of this development by providing suggested detailed methods of retrieval and equipment for both normal and abnormal operations.

  4. Image selection system. [computerized data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, M. A.; Hurd, D.; Hubble, L.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An image selection (ISS) was developed for the NASA-Ames Research Center Earth Resources Aircraft Project. The ISS is an interactive, graphics oriented, computer retrieval system for aerial imagery. An analysis of user coverage requests and retrieval strategies is presented, followed by a complete system description. Data base structure, retrieval processors, command language, interactive display options, file structures, and the system's capability to manage sets of selected imagery are described. A detailed example of an area coverage request is graphically presented.

  5. Measuring the Storage and Retrieval of Knowledge Units: An Empirical Study Using MES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, Selwyn; Iyakutti, K.

    Computer applications are smart that they require efficient storage and retrieval of data. Object-relational data models are the opted and the widely appreciable approach because of their power in object representation and relational retrieval. Two OR models were designed for representing knowledge units in the Music Expert System and three metrics were proposed to study the storage and retrieval of the knowledge units from the OR schemas. Experiments conducted to asses the storage efficiency and relational retrieval of the objects indicated significant results. The metrics were used to keep in check the size of the objects created during runtime and their relational coupling helped in the retrieval of objects, with minimal disk reads. The empirical results and interpretations concludes the work, focusing on the efficient design of OR schema models which commend the functioning of the system’s performance.

  6. An Automated Storage and Retrieval System for Clinical Pharmaceutical Research Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara N.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The Clinical Documentation Section of Schering Corporation's Medical Information Center has developed an automated document storage and retrieval system capable of generating indexes to all documents in the system, summaries, and reports for management by computer. (MF)

  7. A computer system for the storage and retrieval of gravity data, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godson, Richard H.; Andreasen, Gordon H.

    1974-01-01

    A computer system has been developed for the systematic storage and retrieval of gravity data. All pertinent facts relating to gravity station measurements and computed Bouguer values may be retrieved either by project name or by geographical coordinates. Features of the system include visual display in the form of printer listings of gravity data and printer plots of station locations. The retrieved data format interfaces with the format of GEOPAC, a system of computer programs designed for the analysis of geophysical data.

  8. A Technique for the Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval of System Safety Information - With Attached Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumma, George B.; Lebel, Thomas J.

    A description is given of the RAIDS (Rapid Availability of Information and Data for Safety) method of information storage and retrieval. Acquired data are stored in the library in its original printed form. RAIDS provides three approaches to the identification and retrieval of data. The first approach is to organize the information into logical…

  9. Test OSIRIS (On Line Search Information Retrieval Information Storage).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalther, A. Kenneth

    The OSIRIS system is a prototype information retrieval system having the following components: an automated microfiche file having a capacity of 5000 punch card sized microfiche with a remote control 21 inch TV console for retrieving, magnifying (0-250X), and displaying any of the images on the microfiche; and a remote computer terminal for the…

  10. Perspectives in CD-ROM for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F., Ed.; Schipma, Peter B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    A series of six articles discusses the technology of optical data disks, current and possible future applications of this technology, their potential impact on information retrieval systems, and the potential problems as they apply to information science. (CLB)

  11. Eastern Michigan University's Automated Storage and Retrieval System: 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Rita; Wrosch, Jackie

    2009-01-01

    Automated storage/retrieval systems (ASRSs) are playing an integral part in today's library operations and collections management. Eastern Michigan University installed an ASRS as part of the new Halle Library, which opened in May 1998, to provide "storage" for up to 800,000 items. Over the past 10 years our policies and procedures have been…

  12. Down Syndrome and Short-Term Memory Impairment: A Storage or Retrieval Deficit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Sol; McDade, Hiram L.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of eight Ss (Down's syndrome, CA control, and MA control) received a battery of tests to assess recall and recognition memory using either auditory or visual input with verbal and nonverbal responses. Results indicated that the Down's syndrome group possessed deficits in both storage and retrieval abilities, with storage of visually…

  13. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  14. Legacy Waste Retrieval from Cladding Hulls and Fuel Hardware Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wattecamps, J.B.; Hubert, N.; Zanife, T.

    2007-07-01

    Waste generated during nuclear fuel shearing and dissolution operations from 1976 to 1998 at the UP2-400 plant at La Hague, has been stored in bulk in a silo and in metal canisters. The waste has to be retrieved and conditioned before the implementation of the shutdown program. This paper gives a general presentation of the project to retrieve and condition this waste stored in the High Activity Oxide (HAO) facility. The topics discussed include a presentation of scenarios and technical solutions as well as a presentation of AREVA NC's approach to meet schedule commitment and to minimize overall project cost. (authors)

  15. Information Storage and Retrieval Scientific Report No. ISR-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    The twenty-second in a series, this report describes research in information organization and retrieval conducted by the Department of Computer Science at Cornell University. The report covers work carried out during the period summer 1972 through summer 1974 and is divided into four parts: indexing theory, automatic content analysis, feedback…

  16. Information Storage and Retrieval, Scientific Report No. ISR-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    Several algorithms were investigated which would allow a user to interact with an automatic document retrieval system by requesting relevance judgments on selected sets of documents. Two viewpoints were taken in evaluation. One measured the movement of queries toward the optimum query as defined by Rocchio; the other measured the retrieval…

  17. Network Strength Theory of Storage and Retrieval Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickelgren, Wayne A.

    1976-01-01

    The notion of strength is defined in several alternative ways for chains of associations connected in series and in parallel. Network strength theory is extended to handle retrieval dynamics for a network of associations, in a manner that permits various degrees of serial versus parallel manner that permits various degrees of serial versus…

  18. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-09-15

    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network.

  19. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  20. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  1. Technologies for Text: Storage and Retrieval of Linguistic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Edward A.

    This learning module, one in a series developed in a project on "Technology and the Liberal Arts," is an introduction to emerging technological developments for information storage. A historical sketch is provided of text technologies leading up to widespread use of the typewriter toward the end of the 19th century. This is followed by an analysis…

  2. INFOL for the CDC 6400 Information Storage and Retrieval System. Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittman, B.; And Others

    INFOL for the CDC 6400 is a rewrite in FORTRAN IV of the CDC 3600/3800 INFOL (Information Oriented Language), a generalized information storage and retrieval system developed by the Control Data Corporation for the CDC 3600/3800 computer. With INFOL, selected pieces of information are extracted from a file and presented to the user quickly and…

  3. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  4. Transportation impacts on the Tennessee highway system proposed monitored retrievable storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cobble, C.

    1985-12-12

    The issue of the transport of spent fuels to the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility in Tennessee is discussed. Relevant issues include the ability of the roads and bridges on the transport routes to handle the weight of the trucks. (CBS)

  5. The Classification, Storage and Retrieval of Electronic Mail-Two Exploratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Maureen L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on manager behavior within a business environment related to the classification, storage and retrieval of electronic mail messages. Discusses bibliographic control and classification theory; characteristics of managers and personal constructs; the user-system context; and the use of technology to categorize and filter e-mail messages. The…

  6. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  7. Computer-Based Storage and Retrieval of Geoscience Information: Bibliography 1970-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, C. F., Jr.

    The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…

  8. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Donald F.

    A project is being conducted to test the feasibility of an information storage and retrieval system for museum specimen data, particularly for natural history museums. A pilot data processing system has been developed, with the specimen records from the national collections of birds, marine crustaceans, and rocks used as sample data. The research…

  9. Information storage and retrieval in a single levitating colloidal particle.

    PubMed

    Myers, Christopher J; Celebrano, Michele; Krishnan, Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    The binary switch is a basic component of digital information. From phase-change alloys to nanomechanical beams, molecules and atoms, new strategies for controlled bistability hold great interest for emerging technologies. We present a generic methodology for precise and parallel spatiotemporal control of nanometre-scale matter in a fluid, and demonstrate the ability to attain digital functionalities such as switching, gating and data storage in a single colloid, with further implications for signal amplification and logic operations. This fluid-phase bit can be arrayed at high densities, manipulated by either electrical or optical fields, supports low-energy, high-speed operation and marks a first step toward 'colloidal information'. The principle generalizes to any system where spatial perturbation of a particle elicits a differential response amenable to readout. PMID:26280408

  10. Information storage and retrieval in a single levitating colloidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Christopher J.; Celebrano, Michele; Krishnan, Madhavi

    2015-10-01

    The binary switch is a basic component of digital information. From phase-change alloys to nanomechanical beams, molecules and atoms, new strategies for controlled bistability hold great interest for emerging technologies. We present a generic methodology for precise and parallel spatiotemporal control of nanometre-scale matter in a fluid, and demonstrate the ability to attain digital functionalities such as switching, gating and data storage in a single colloid, with further implications for signal amplification and logic operations. This fluid-phase bit can be arrayed at high densities, manipulated by either electrical or optical fields, supports low-energy, high-speed operation and marks a first step toward ‘colloidal information’. The principle generalizes to any system where spatial perturbation of a particle elicits a differential response amenable to readout.

  11. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1993-10-01

    Hanford`s underground storage tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report. The IRG`s Preliminary Report assessed retrieval systems for underground storage tank wastes at Hanford in 1992. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) concurred with the report`s recommendation that a tool should be developed for evaluating retrieval concepts. The report recommended that this tool include (1) important considerations identified previously by the IRG, (2) a means of documenting important decisions concerning retrieval systems, and (3) a focus on evaluations and assessments for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) and the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  12. Storage, retrieval, and edit of digital video using Motion JPEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsanan, Subramania I.; Lee, D. H.

    1994-04-01

    In a companion paper we describe a Micro Channel adapter card that can perform real-time JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) compression of a 640 by 480 24-bit image within 1/30th of a second. Since this corresponds to NTSC video rates at considerably good perceptual quality, this system can be used for real-time capture and manipulation of continuously fed video. To facilitate capturing the compressed video in a storage medium, an IBM Bus master SCSI adapter with cache is utilized. Efficacy of the data transfer mechanism is considerably improved using the System Control Block architecture, an extension to Micro Channel bus masters. We show experimental results that the overall system can perform at compressed data rates of about 1.5 MBytes/second sustained and with sporadic peaks to about 1.8 MBytes/second depending on the image sequence content. We also describe mechanisms to access the compressed data very efficiently through special file formats. This in turn permits creation of simpler sequence editors. Another advantage of the special file format is easy control of forward, backward and slow motion playback. The proposed method can be extended for design of a video compression subsystem for a variety of personal computing systems.

  13. Armstrong Retrieves Equipment From Apollo 11 Storage Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong is removing scientific equipment from a storage bay of the LM. The brilliant sunlight emphasizes the U. S. Flag to the left. The object near the flag is the Solar Wind Composition Experiment deployed by Aldrin earlier.

  14. Preconceptual design for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) transfer facility

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K. Co., Pasadena, CA ); Smith, R.I. )

    1990-09-01

    The contract between the DOE and the utilities specifies that the DOE will receive spent fuel from the nuclear utilities in 1998. This study investigates the feasibility of employing a simple Transfer Facility which can be constructed quickly, and operate while the full-scale MRS facilities are being constructed. The Transfer Facility is a hot cell designed only for the purpose of transferring spent fuel assemblies from the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transport casks (shipped from the utility sites) into onsite concrete storage casks. No operational functions other than spent fuel assembly transfers and the associated cask handling, opening, and closing would be performed in this facility. Radioactive waste collected in the Transfer Facility during operations would be stored until the treatment facilities in the full-scale MRS facility became operational, approximately 2 years after the Transfer Facility started operation. An alternate wherein the Transfer Facility was the only waste handling building on the MRS site was also examined and evaluated. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  16. Conversations: 20 Years in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn

    Eleven influential individuals who have brought breadth of vision to their work in education answer questions and give comments on the next 20 years of education by looking back on the past 20 years. The panelists are: Alonzo Crim, superintendent of schools in Atlanta, Georgia; Russell Edgerton, president of the American Association for Higher…

  17. Evaluation of storage/transportation options to support criteria development for the Phase I MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, K.B.; Brown, N.N.; Bennett, P.C. ); Lake, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) plans to develop an interim storage facility to enable acceptance of spent fuel in 1998. It is estimated that this interim storage facility would be needed for about two years. A Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility is anticipated in 2000 and a repository in 2010. Acceptance and transport of spent fuel by DOE/OCRWM in 1998 will require an operating transportation system. Because this interim storage facility is not yet defined, development of an optimally compatible transportation system is not a certainty. In order to assure a transport capability for 1998 acceptance of spent fuel, it was decided that the OCRWM transportation program had to identify likely options for an interim storage facility, including identification of the components needed for compatibility between likely interim storage facility options and transportation. Primary attention was given to existing hardware, although conceptual designs were also considered. A systems-based probabilistic decision model was suggested by Sandia National Laboratories and accepted by DOE/OCRWM's transportation program. Performance of the evaluation task involved several elements of the transportation program. This paper describes the decision model developed to accomplish this task, along with some of the results and conclusions. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. Information storage medium and method of recording and retrieving information thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D. D.; Begej, Stefan

    1986-01-01

    Information storage medium comprising a semiconductor doped with first and second impurities or dopants. Preferably, one of the impurities is introduced by ion implantation. Conductive electrodes are photolithographically formed on the surface of the medium. Information is recorded on the medium by selectively applying a focused laser beam to discrete regions of the medium surface so as to anneal discrete regions of the medium containing lattice defects introduced by the ion-implanted impurity. Information is retrieved from the storage medium by applying a focused laser beam to annealed and non-annealed regions so as to produce a photovoltaic signal at each region.

  19. Monitored Retrievable Storage/Multi-Purpose Canister analysis: Simulation and economics of automation

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Stringer, J.B.

    1994-03-01

    Robotic automation is examined as a possible alternative to manual spent nuclear fuel, transport cask and Multi-Purpose canister (MPC) handling at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Automation of key operational aspects for the MRS/MPC system are analyzed to determine equipment requirements, through-put times and equipment costs is described. The economic and radiation dose impacts resulting from this automation are compared to manual handling methods.

  20. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system using…

  1. COBRA-SFS thermal analysis of a sealed storage cask for the Monitored Retrievable Storage of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code was used to predict temperature distributions in a concrete Sealed Storage Cask (SSC). This cask was designed for the Department of Energy in the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) program for storage of spent fuel from commercial power operations. Analytical results were obtained for nominal operation of the SSC with spent fuel from 36 PWR fuel assemblies consolidated in 12 cylindrical canisters. Each canister generates 1650 W of thermal power. A parametric study was performed to assess the effects on cask thermal performance of thermal conductivity of the concrete, the fin material, and the amount of radial reinforcing steel bars (rebar). Seven different cases were modeled. The results of the COBRA-SFS analysis of the current cask design predict that the peak fuel cladding temperature in the SSC will not exceed the 37/sup 0/C design limit for the maximum spent fuel load of 19.8 kW and a maximum expected ambient temperature of 37.8/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F). The results of the parametric analyses illustrate the importance of material selection and design optimization with regard to the SSC thermal performance.

  2. Cryograb: A Novel Approach to the Retrieval of Waste from Underground Storage Tanks - 13501

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Luke; Baker, Stephen; Bowen, Bob; Mallick, Pramod; Smith, Gary; King, Bill; Judd, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is investigating the use of cryogenic technology for the recovery of nuclear waste. Cryograb, freezing the waste on a 'cryo-head' and then retrieves it as a single mass which can then be treated or stabilized as necessary. The technology has a number of benefits over other retrieval approaches in that it minimizes sludge disturbance thereby reducing effluent arising and it can be used to de-water, and thereby reduce the volume of waste. The technology has been successfully deployed for a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear waste recovery operations. The application of Cryograb for the recovery of waste from US underground storage tanks is being explored through a US DOE International Technology Transfer and Demonstration programme. A sample deployment being considered involves the recovery of residual mounds of sludge material from waste storage tanks at Savannah River. Operational constraints and success criteria were agreed prior to the completion of a process down selection exercise which specified the preferred configuration of the cryo-head and supporting plant. Subsequent process modeling identified retrieval rates and temperature gradients through the waste and tank infrastructure. The work, which has been delivered in partnership with US DOE, SRNL, NuVision Engineering and Frigeo AB has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the approach (to TRL 2) and has resulted in the allocation of additional funding from DOE to take the programme to bench and cold pilot-scale trials. (authors)

  3. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Babcock and Wilcox, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1994-02-14

    This report characterizes, as far as possible, the solid radioactive wastes generated by Babcock and Wilcox`s Park Township Plutonium Facility near Leechburg, Pennsylvania that were sent to retrievable storage at the Hanford Site. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. The objective is a description of characteristics of solid wastes that are or will be managed by the Restoration and Upgrades Program; gaseous or liquid effluents are discussed only at a summary level This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, because Babcock and Wilcox generated greater than 2.5 percent of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  4. Smart Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Nanofibers with Thermal Energy Storage and Retrieval Functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, De'Andre James

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are generally substances with a high heat of fusion in the process of solid to liquid phase change. The nature of PCMs make them efficient materials to store and retrieve large amounts of thermal energy. Presently, high efficiency thermal energy storage/retrieval in applications where flexibility and space saving are required, such as smart textiles, still remains as a challenge. In this study, lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA) were combined to prepare a specific binary fatty acid eutectic (LA-MA) with a melting point near the operating body temperature of a human being and then encapsulated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers through the electrospinning technique. Functionalized PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers containing LA-MA at 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% of the weight of the PAN were successfully synthesized. The morphological structures and thermal energy storage capacity of the PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers were characterized by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The novel PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers maintained their cylindrical fiber morphology after multiple heating-cooling cycles and retained their latent heat storage functionality. Thus, it is envisioned that the prepared PCM-enhanced PAN nanofibers will find use in applications such as smart textiles where temperature regulation functionality is required.

  5. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  6. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  7. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  8. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel...

  9. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) license. 51.61 Section 51.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS...

  10. Placing Manuscript and Archival Collections into an Automated Storage and Retrieval System at the University of Nevada, Reno

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundstrand, Jacquelyn K.

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning to automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) as a long-term cost effective means of gaining additional space in their open stacks areas by removing lesser used books and other materials for storage and placement into ASRS bins. The new library building under construction at the University of Nevada-Reno will…

  11. Multivariate Analysis, Retrieval, and Storage System (MARS). Volume 1: MARS System and Analysis Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Vanderberg, J. D.; Woodbury, N. W.

    1974-01-01

    A method for rapidly examining the probable applicability of weight estimating formulae to a specific aerospace vehicle design is presented. The Multivariate Analysis Retrieval and Storage System (MARS) is comprised of three computer programs which sequentially operate on the weight and geometry characteristics of past aerospace vehicles designs. Weight and geometric characteristics are stored in a set of data bases which are fully computerized. Additional data bases are readily added to the MARS system and/or the existing data bases may be easily expanded to include additional vehicles or vehicle characteristics.

  12. Transportable, university-level educational programs in interactive information storage and retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D.; Roquemore, Leroy

    1984-01-01

    Pursuant to the specifications of a research contract entered into in December, 1983 with NASA, the Computer Science Departments of the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University will be working jointly to address a variety of research and educational issues relating to the use, by non-computer professionals, of some of the largest and most sophiticated interactive information storage and retrieval systems available. Over the projected 6 to 8 year life of the project, in addition to NASA/RECON, the following systems will be examined: Lockheed DIALOG, DOE/RECON, DOD/DTIC, EPA/CSIN, and LLNL/TIS.

  13. Medicaid after 20 Years: Promise, Problems, Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of Medicaid, a joint federal-state program to fund medical services for disabled and indigent persons, over the last 20 years is reviewed with emphasis on evolving policies and practices in Massachusetts. Stressed is the trend toward integration of Medicaid clients into the medical care mainstream. (DB)

  14. German Support Program for Retrieval and Safe Storage of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Ukraine - 13194

    SciTech Connect

    Pretzsch, Gunter; Salewski, Peter; Sogalla, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) on behalf of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany supports the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine (SNRIU) in enhancement of nuclear safety and radiation protection and strengthening of the physical protection. One of the main objectives of the agreement concluded by these parties in 2008 was the retrieval and safe interim storage of disused orphan high radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. At present, the Ukrainian National Registry does not account all high active radiation sources but only for about 70 - 80 %. GRS in charge of BMU to execute the program since 2008 concluded subcontracts with the waste management and interim storage facilities RADON at different regions in Ukraine as well with the waste management and interim storage facility IZOTOP at Kiev. Below selected examples of removal of high active Co-60 and Cs-137 sources from irradiation facilities at research institutes are described. By end of 2012 removal and safe interim storage of 12.000 disused radioactive sealed sources with a total activity of more than 5,7.10{sup 14} Bq was achieved within the frame of this program. The German support program will be continued up to the end of 2013 with the aim to remove and safely store almost all disused radioactive sealed sources in Ukraine. (authors)

  15. Information Storage and Retrieval...Reports on Analysis, Dictionary Construction, User Feedback, Clustering, and On-Line Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Part One, Automatic Content Analysis contains: "Content Analysis in Information Retrieval;""The 'Generality' Effect and the Retrieval Evaluation for Large Collections;""Automatic Indexing Using Bibliographic Citations" and "Automatic Resolution of Ambiguities from Natural Language Text." Part Two, Automatic Dictionary Construction, includes: "The…

  16. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  17. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford Retrievable Storage from the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Vejvoda, E.J.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 3.8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated at the General Electric (GE) Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) in Pleasanton, California and shipped to the Hanford Site for storage. The purpose of this report is to characterize these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The waste was generated almost exclusively from the activities, of the Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory and the Plutonium Analytical Laboratory. Section 2.0 provides further details of the VNC physical plant, facility operations, facility history, and current status. The solid radioactive wastes were associated with two US Atomic Energy Commission/US Department of Energy reactor programs -- the Fast Ceramic Reactor (FCR) program, and the Fast Flux Test Reactor (FFTR) program. These programs involved the fabrication and testing of fuel assemblies that utilized plutonium in an oxide form. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these programs are discussed in detail in Section 3.0. A detailed discussion of the packaging and handling procedures used for the VNC radioactive wastes shipped to the Hanford Site is provided in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an in-depth look at this waste including the following: weight and volume of the waste, container types and numbers, physical description of the waste, radiological components, hazardous constituents, and current storage/disposal locations.

  18. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) Systems Study Task 1 report: Waste management system reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.L.; Myers, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study evaluates the relative reliabilities of systems with and without an MRS facility using current facility design bases. The principal finding of this report is that the MRS system has several operational advantages that enhance system reliability. These are: (1) the MRS system is likely to encounter fewer technical issues, (2) the MRS would assure adequate system surface storage capacity to accommodate repository construction and startup delays of up to five years or longer if the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) were amended, (3) the system with an MRS has two federal acceptance facilities with parallel transportation routing and surface storage capacity, and (4) the MRS system would allow continued waste acceptance for up to a year after a major disruption of emplacement operations at the repository.

  19. HDF5-FastQuery: An API for Simplifying Access to Data Storage,Retrieval, Indexing and Querying

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Gosink, Luke; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu,Kesheng

    2006-06-15

    This work focuses on research and development activities that bridge a gap between fundamental data management technology index, query, storage and retrieval and use of such technology in computational and computer science algorithms and applications. The work has resulted in a streamlined applications programming interface (API) that simplifies data storage and retrieval using the HDF5 data I/O library, and eases use of the FastBit compressed bitmap indexing software for data indexing/querying. The API, which we call HDF5-FastQuery, will have broad applications in domain sciences as well as associated data analysis and visualization applications.

  20. The potential pyrophoricity of BMI-SPEC and aluminum plate spent fuels retrieved from underwater storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ebner, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Physical/chemical factors in U metal and hydride combustion, particularly pyrophoricity in ambient environment, were evaluated for BMI-SPEC and UAl{sub x} plate fuels. Some metal fuels may be highly reactive (spontaneously igniting in air) due to high specific surface area, high decay heat, or a high U hydride content from corrosion during underwater storage. However, for the BMI-SPEC and the aluminum plate fuels, this reactivity is too low to present a realistic threat of uncontrolled spontaneous combustion at ambient conditions. While residual U hydride is expected in these corroded fuels, the hydride levels are expected to be too low and the configuration too unfavorable to ignite the fuel meat when the fuels are retrieved from the basin and dried. Furthermore the composition and microstructure of the UAl{sub x} fuels further mitigate that risk.

  1. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval administrative report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, R. I.; Obrien, J. F., Jr.; Lueg, R. E.; Cox, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The 1972 Systems Engineering program at Marshall Space Flight Center where 15 participants representing 15 U.S. universities, 1 NASA/MSFC employee, and another specially assigned faculty member, participated in an 11-week program is discussed. The Fellows became acquainted with the philosophy of systems engineering, and as a training exercise, used this approach to produce a conceptional design for an Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval System. The program was conducted in three phases; approximately 3 weeks were devoted to seminars, tours, and other presentations to subject the participants to technical and other aspects of the information management problem. The second phase, 5 weeks in length, consisted of evaluating alternative solutions to problems, effecting initial trade-offs and performing preliminary design studies and analyses. The last 3 weeks were occupied with final trade-off sessions, final design analyses and preparation of a final report and oral presentation.

  2. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee. Final report and appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  3. An economic analysis of a monitored retrievable storage site for Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, W.F.; Mayo, J.W.; Hansen, L.T.; Quindry, K.E.

    1985-12-17

    The United States Department of Energy is charged with the task of identifying potential sites for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and reporting the results of its analysis to Congress by January 1986. DOE chose three finalist sites from 11 sites DOE analysts evaluated earlier. All three are in Tennessee, including two in Oak Ridge and one in Trousdale/Smith Counties. This paper is a summary of research undertaken on the economic effects of establishing the MRS facility in Tennessee. All three locations were considered in the analysis, but on some occasions attention is focused on the site preferred by DOE. The research was undertaken by the Center for Business and Economic Research (CBER), College of Business Administration, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, under contract with the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development.

  4. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  5. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  6. Coherent-state storage and retrieval between superconducting cavities using parametric frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirois, A. J.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; DeFeo, M. P.; Ranzani, L.; Lecocq, F.; Simmonds, R. W.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.

    2015-04-01

    In superconducting quantum information, machined aluminum superconducting cavities have proven to be a well-controlled, low-dissipation electromagnetic environment for quantum circuits such as qubits. They can possess large internal quality factors, Qint > 108, and present the possibility of storing quantum information for times far exceeding those of microfabricated circuits. However, in order to be useful as a storage element, these cavities require a fast "read/write" mechanism—in other words, they require tunable coupling between other systems of interest such as other cavity modes and qubits, as well as any associated readout hardware. In this work, we demonstrate these qualities in a simple dual cavity architecture in which a low-Q "readout" mode is parametrically coupled to a high-Q "storage" mode, allowing us to store and retrieve classical information. Specifically, we employ a flux-driven Josephson junction-based coupling scheme to controllably swap coherent states between two cavities, demonstrating full, sequenced control over the coupling rates between modes.

  7. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  8. Information Storage and Retrieval...Reports on Text Analysis, Dynamic Indexing, Feedback Searches, Dictionary Construction and File Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald; And Others

    The present report is the twenty-first in a series describing research in information storage and retrieval conducted by the Department of Computer Science at Cornell University. The report covering work carried out by the SMART project for approximately two years (summer 1970 to summer 1972) is separated into five parts: automatic content…

  9. Morphological approach to scene change detection and digital video storage and retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woonkyung M.; Song, Samuel M.; Kim, Hyeokman; Song, Cheeyang; Kwon, Byung W.; Kim, Sun G.

    1998-12-01

    With the abstraction of digital video, as the corresponding binary video, a process which, upon subjective experimentation seems to preserve the intelligibility of video content, we can pursue a precise and analytic approach to digital video storage and retrieval algorithm design based upon geometrical and morphological intuition. The foremost and tangible general benefit of such abstraction, however, is the immediate reduction of both data and computational complexities, involved in implementing various algorithms and databases. The general paradigm presented may be utilized to address all issues pertaining to video library construction, including visualization, optimum feedback query generation, and object recognition. However, the primary focus of attention in this paper pertains to detection of fast and gradual scene changes, such as dissolves, fades, and various special effects, such as wipes. Upon simulation, we observed that we can achieve performances comparable to those of others with drastic reductions in both storage and computational complexities. The conversion from grayscale to binary videos can be performed directly (with minimal additional computation) in the compressed domain by thresholding on the DCT DC coefficients themselves, or by using the contour information attached to MPEG4 formats. The algorithms presented herein are ideally suited for performing fast (on-the-fly) determinations of scene change, object recognition, and/or tracking, as well as other, more intelligent, tasks, traditionally requiring heavy demand of computational and/or storage complexities. The fast determinations may then be used on their own merit , or can be used in conjunction/complement with other higher-layer information in the future.

  10. Issues associated with manipulator-based waste retrieval from Hanford underground storage tanks with a preliminary review of commercial concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-09-17

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is exploring commercial methods for retrieving waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in south central Washington state. WHC needs data on commercial retrieval systems equipment in order to make programmatic decisions for waste retrieval. Full system testing of retrieval processes is to be demonstrated in phases through September 1997 in support of programs aimed to Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) and at the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI). One of the important parts of the integrated testing will be the deployment of retrieval tools using manipulator-based systems. WHC requires an assessment of a number of commercial deployment systems that have been identified by the ACTR program as good candidates to be included in an integrated testing effort. Included in this assessment should be an independent evaluation of manipulator tests performed to date, so that WHC can construct an integrated test based on these systems. The objectives of this document are to provide a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for a manipulator-based retrieval system; to evaluate manipulator-based concepts and testing performed to date by a number of commercial organizations; and to identify issues to be resolved through testing and/or analysis for each concept.

  11. Soliton Solutions for High-Bandwidth Optical Pulse Storage and Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Elizabeth

    Quantum-optical information processing in material systems requires on-demand manipulation and precision control techniques. Previous implementations of optical pulse control have mostly been limited to weak, narrowband probe fields, often using a modified form of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). We propose optical pulse control in a contrasting regime with high-bandwidth optical pulses, enabling higher clock-rates and on-demand fast pulse switching. Our novel solutions exploit the coherent interaction between short, strong pulses and resonant media (such as a cloud of ultra-cold atoms) to store, manipulate, and retrieve high-bandwidth optical pulse information. The evolution equations that model such short pulse propagation are inherently nonlinear and they govern both amplitudes and phases of the propagating field and the dielectric medium. They cannot be modeled by population rate equations or simplified with steady-state assumptions. Nonlinear evolution equations do not yield solutions easily and using them to characterize the physics at hand typically requires complementary analytical and numerical approaches. We take both approaches here, using analytical methods and our own numerical integration code. For uniform and infinitely extended media we generate novel three-pulse soliton solutions: robust, nonlinear waves with the unique property of preserving their shape under interaction (or "collision"). This important property enables one high-bandwidth soliton to push another from one location in an atomic cloud to another, predictably and nondestructively. We then also probe the practical utility of our specialized infinite-extent solutions by numerically solving the same nonlinear evolution equations for a variety of initial pulse shapes and strengths. Our numerical simulations confirm that our novel soliton solutions provide appropriate control parameters, including pulse storage locations and pulse sequencing, even in finite media under non

  12. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years, or any renewal thereof, or which issued in exchange for a 20-year lease prior to August 8, 1946, may...

  13. The Forties field: 20 years young

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, P.J.; Clyne, P.A.; Kirkwood, F.G.; Williams, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    In Oct. 1970, BP`s semisubmersible drilling rig SeaQuest struck oil in Upper Paleocene (Tertiary) sandstones of U.K. Continental Shelf Block 21/10. Four appraisal wells drilled in 1970 and 1971 delineated a large oil reservoir at a depth of 7,000 ft., covering an area of 36 sq miles. The maximum thickness of the oil-bearing sandstone was estimated at 614 ft. Reserves were calculated to be 1,800 MMSTB from an oil in place (OIP) of 4,600 MMSTB, and production was projected to continue until Year 2000. In 1971, Shell/Esso drilled a successful well, Well 22/6-1, that demonstrated the southeastern extension of the field into Block 22/6. The field is a four-way-dip-closed anticline that overlies the Forties-Montrose Ridge and is close to the junction of the Central, South Viking, and Witch Ground grabens. The reservoir occurs in thick Upper Paleocene sandstones deposited as a sand-rich submarine fan sequence. This paper describes how the development of the Forties field has evolved over the past 20 years, the current issues and activities, and the direction for the future.

  14. Asia's demographic future: the next 20 years.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1990-09-01

    Even with the decline of fertility rates in most of Asia, the problem of population growth is still very serious. It is important to stress to Asian leaders and Western researchers that the problem is by no means solved just because fertility rates have declined. In many countries the number of young people is quite substantial and when they increase their numbers, certain problems will develop. Over the next 20 years, urban areas will see a marked increase in population and the resultant problems. Unemployment, increased pollution, and overcrowding will greatly decrease the quality of life for millions of people. This will happen because of natural increases and from the migration of the rural communities. In the rural areas, because of high fertility rates, population will continue to grow in spite of the large numbers of peoples moving to the city. Asia has some of the most densely populated agricultural communities and as their numbers increase, poverty and its associated problem will follow. The solutions to these problems include continued efforts in family planning, maternal and child health, and the improvement of the status of women. PMID:12316744

  15. Retrieval Success from a 1950's UK Fuel Storage Pond: Blazing a Trail for Early Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, S.

    2006-07-01

    Work has begun to tackle one of the biggest challenges in the UK nuclear cleanup program: the retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond at Sellafield. The UK Government regulatory body, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) considers this pond to be the country's highest priority in terms of Hazard Reduction, a view supported by the facility owner, UK Government's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Remotely operated submersible vehicles (ROV's) were used by British Nuclear Group to assess the condition of stored fuel in First Generation Magnox Storage Ponds (1945-60's build). The ROV survey showed fuel condition was better than expected, and engineers were able to prototype retrieval on a selected skip (container) of fuel. The retrieval and subsequent export to the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) was executed in November 2005 and was completely successful. The next stage is to reprocess the fuel using the Magnox Reprocessing Plant. If this is successful the prototype retrieval will have demonstrated that: - British Nuclear Group can safely retrieve fuel from its legacy ponds; - British Nuclear Group can safely transport retrieved legacy fuel between facilities; - British Nuclear Group can eliminate the hazard presented by this legacy fuel by use of existing on-site reprocessing facilities. This in turn enables the option to commence larger-scale fuel retrievals from these legacy ponds years ahead of the current plan which assumes new plants to be available to handle all arisings from the legacy ponds in 2015. This hazard reduction could commence as early as 2008. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Big Data Containers for Popular Storage, Retrieval, and Computation Primitives in Earth Science Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, K.; Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Huang, T.; Duffy, D.; Yang, C. P.; Habermann, T.

    2015-12-01

    Data containers are infrastructures that facilitate storage, retrieval, and analysis of data sets. Big data applications in Earth Science require a mix of processing techniques, data sources and storage formats that are supported by different data containers. Some of the most popular data containers used in Earth Science studies are Hadoop, Spark, SciDB, AsterixDB, and RasDaMan. These containers optimize different aspects of the data processing pipeline and are, therefore, suitable for different types of applications. These containers are expected to undergo rapid evolution and the ability to re-test, as they evolve, is very important to ensure the containers are up to date and ready to be deployed to handle large volumes of observational data and model output. Our goal is to develop an evaluation plan for these containers to assess their suitability for Earth Science data processing needs. We have identified a selection of test cases that are relevant to most data processing exercises in Earth Science applications and we aim to evaluate these systems for optimal performance against each of these test cases. The use cases identified as part of this study are (i) data fetching, (ii) data preparation for multivariate analysis, (iii) data normalization, (iv) distance (kernel) computation, and (v) optimization. In this study we develop a set of metrics for performance evaluation, define the specifics of governance, and test the plan on current versions of the data containers. The test plan and the design mechanism are expandable to allow repeated testing with both new containers and upgraded versions of the ones mentioned above, so that we can gauge their utility as they evolve.

  17. Mescalero Apache Tribe Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS). Phase 1 feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect

    Peso, F.

    1992-03-13

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation`s nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe`s comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings.

  18. Poultry science: the next 20 years?

    PubMed

    Morris, T R

    1996-03-01

    1. The theme of the lecture is that research in poultry science has moved too far in the direction of molecular biology and away from studies with whole animals. This has happened partly because exciting prospects are opening up in the field of gene manipulation but mainly because of the use of inappropriate referees to evaluate research proposals. 2. Agricultural research is defined as work intended to benefit agriculture and directed towards those problems which seem capable of solution. Science research is something else. Too much of the money allocated for agricultural and biotechnology research is being spent on science research. The system of rewarding agricultural scientists needs to be adjusted away from counting papers published. 3. Some examples are given of problems in poultry science which seem likely to be soluble by gene manipulation. These include "essential" amino acid synthesis within the chicken, improvement of shell strength, the prevention of many diseases, but probably not the improvement of quantitative traits or of behavioural adaptation to intensive husbandry. 4. Examples are also given of problems likely to require empirical solutions, such as the benefits of acclimatisation or the long-term response to a lighting programme. Here the need is to develop better theories to guide modelling activities. 5. The author concludes that there is much research that can and should be done in poultry science in the next 20 years but calls for a recognition that some problems cannot be solved by a "fundamental" approach but will need experiments with whole animals coupled with model-building activities. PMID:8833522

  19. Calcium-sensing receptor 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Tariq I.; Saleh, Ahmad M. A.; Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has played an important role as a target in the treatment of a variety of disease states over the past 20 plus years. In this review, we give an overview of the receptor at the cellular level and then provide details as to how this receptor has been targeted to modulate cellular ion transport mechanisms. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, it has a high degree of homology with a variety of other members in this class, which could explain why this receptor has been identified in so many different tissues throughout the body. This diversity of locations sets it apart from other members of the family and may explain how the receptor interacts with so many different organ systems in the body to modulate the physiology and pathophysiology. The receptor is unique in that it has two large exofacial lobes that sit in the extracellular environment and sense changes in a wide variety of environmental cues including salinity, pH, amino acid concentration, and polyamines to name just a few. It is for this reason that there has been a great deal of research associated with normal receptor physiology over the past 20 years. With the ongoing research, in more recent years a focus on the pathophysiology has emerged and the effects of receptor mutations on cellular and organ physiology have been identified. We hope that this review will enhance and update the knowledge about the importance of this receptor and stimulate future potential investigations focused around this receptor in cellular, organ, and systemic physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24871857

  20. INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, REPORTS ON EVALUATION PROCEDURES AND RESULTS 1965-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SALTON, GERALD

    A DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE RETRIEVAL EVALUATION RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE AUTOMATIC SMART DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS IN THE FIELDS OF AERODYNAMICS, COMPUTER SCIENCE, AND DOCUMENTATION IS GIVEN IN THIS REPORT. THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF FULLY AUTOMATIC DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED IN DETAIL, INCLUDING THE FORMS OF…

  1. Coherent-state storage and retrieval between superconducting cavities using parametric frequency conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, A. J.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; DeFeo, M. P.; Ranzani, L.; Lecocq, F.; Simmonds, R. W.; Teufel, J. D.; Aumentado, J.

    2015-04-27

    In superconducting quantum information, machined aluminum superconducting cavities have proven to be a well-controlled, low-dissipation electromagnetic environment for quantum circuits such as qubits. They can possess large internal quality factors, Q{sub int} > 10{sup 8}, and present the possibility of storing quantum information for times far exceeding those of microfabricated circuits. However, in order to be useful as a storage element, these cavities require a fast “read/write” mechanism—in other words, they require tunable coupling between other systems of interest such as other cavity modes and qubits, as well as any associated readout hardware. In this work, we demonstrate these qualities in a simple dual cavity architecture in which a low-Q “readout” mode is parametrically coupled to a high-Q “storage” mode, allowing us to store and retrieve classical information. Specifically, we employ a flux-driven Josephson junction-based coupling scheme to controllably swap coherent states between two cavities, demonstrating full, sequenced control over the coupling rates between modes.

  2. Storage and retrieval of THz-bandwidth single photons using a room-temperature diamond quantum memory.

    PubMed

    England, Duncan G; Fisher, Kent A G; MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; Resch, Kevin J; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2015-02-01

    We report the storage and retrieval of single photons, via a quantum memory, in the optical phonons of a room-temperature bulk diamond. The THz-bandwidth heralded photons are generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and mapped to phonons via a Raman transition, stored for a variable delay, and released on demand. The second-order correlation of the memory output is g((2))(0)=0.65±0.07, demonstrating a preservation of nonclassical photon statistics throughout storage and retrieval. The memory is low noise, high speed and broadly tunable; it therefore promises to be a versatile light-matter interface for local quantum processing applications. PMID:25699439

  3. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  4. Time-dependent phase shift of a retrieved pulse in off-resonant electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based light storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, M.-A.; Bouchez, R.; Lugani, J.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.; Brion, E.

    2015-11-01

    We report measurements of the time-dependent phases of the leak and retrieved pulses obtained in electromagnetically-induced-transparency storage experiments with metastable helium vapor at room temperature. In particular, we investigate the influence of the optical detuning at two-photon resonance and provide numerical simulations of the full dynamical Maxwell-Bloch equations, which allow us to account for the experimental results.

  5. Screening and identification of sites for a proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1985-04-01

    The Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE), has identified the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Hartsville Nuclear Plant site as preferred and alternative sites, respectively, for development of site-specific designs as part of the proposal for construction of an integrated Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The proposal, developed pursuant to Section 141 (b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, will be submitted to Congress in January 1986. The Director expects to propose to Congress that an MRS be constructed at the perferred site. His judgment could change based on information to be developed between now and January 1986. The decision to construct an MRS facility and final site selection are reserved by Congress for itself. The Director's judgment is based on the results of a rigorous site screening and evaluation process described in this report. The three sites were selected from among eleven sites evaluated in detail. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor site, owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority, was identified as the preferred site. It has several particularly desirable features including: (1) federal ownership and control by the Department of Energy; (2) particularly good transportation access (five miles to the nearest interstate highway and direct rail access); (3) site characteristics and current data base judged by the NRC in 1983 as sufficient for granting a limited work authorization for the now cancelled breeder reactor; and (4) a technical community in the vicinity of site which can provide experienced nuclear facility support functions. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  7. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  8. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  9. Technological Convergence: A Brief Review of Some of the Developments in the Integrated Storage and Retrieval of Text, Data, Sound and Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Reviews technological developments centered around microcomputers that have led to the design of integrated workstations. Topics discussed include methods of information storage, information retrieval, telecommunications networks, word processing, data management, graphics, interactive video, sound, interfaces, artificial intelligence, hypermedia,…

  10. Proceedings of the Symposium on Information Storage and Retrieval...April 1-2, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minker, Jack, Ed.; Rosenfeld, Sam, Ed.

    The symposium focused on advances in techniques in the computer oriented technology of information retrieval. Early developments and the status of recent efforts in document retrieval, question answering and data management systems are briefly reviewed. Unless fundamental processing techniques are developed and made available to workers,…

  11. Automatic Dictionary Construction; Part II of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Part Two of the eighteenth report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project is composed of three papers: The first: "The Effect of Common Words and Synonyms on Retrieval Performance" by D. Bergmark discloses that removal of common words from the query and document vectors significantly increases precision and that synonyms…

  12. A data storage, retrieval and analysis system for endocrine research. [for Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, L. E.; Johnston, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    This retrieval system builds, updates, retrieves, and performs basic statistical analyses on blood, urine, and diet parameters for the M071 and M073 Skylab and Apollo experiments. This system permits data entry from cards to build an indexed sequential file. Programs are easily modified for specialized analyses.

  13. An innovative, multidisciplinary educational program in interactive information storage and retrieval. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Gallagher, Mary C.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-12. The project objectives are to develop a set of transportable, hands-on, data base management courses for science and engineering students to facilitate their utilization of information storage and retrieval programs.

  14. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  15. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity (in metric tons of uranium (MTU)) required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Prospects for storage and retrieval of a quantum-dot single photon in an ultracold 87Rb ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakher, Matthew T.; Warburton, Richard J.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs) are promising sources of nonclassical states of light such as single photons and entangled photons. However, in order for them to be used as a resource for long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum computation, or linear optics quantum computing, these photons must be coupled efficiently to long-lived quantum memories as part of a quantum repeater network. Here, we theoretically examine the prospects for efficient storage and retrieval of a QD-generated single photon with a 1-ns lifetime in a multilevel atomic system. We calculate using an experimentally demonstrated optical depth of 150 that the storage (total) efficiency can exceed 46% (28%) in a dense, ultracold ensemble of 87Rb atoms. Furthermore, we find that the optimal control pulse required for storage and retrieval can be obtained using a diode laser and an electro-optic modulator rather than a mode-locked, pulsed laser source. Increasing the optical depth, for example, by using Bose-condensed ensembles or an optical cavity, can increase the efficiencies to near unity. Aside from enabling a high-speed quantum network based on QDs, such an efficient optical interface between an atomic ensemble and a QD can also lead to entanglement between collective spin-wave excitations of atoms and the spin of an electron or hole confined in the QD.

  17. Navy Medical Information Storage and Retrieval System: Navy MEDISTARS. TR-1-71-Part 2, Manual of Indexing Terms; First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klee, Diane M.

    A computer-based information storage and retrieval system was designed and implemented for processing Navy neuropsychiatric case history reports. The system design objectives were to produce a dynamic and flexible medical information processing tool. The system that was designed has been given the name NAVY MEDical Information STorage and…

  18. Experimental study of the dependences of retrieval efficiencies on time delay between magneto-optical-trap being turned off and optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Rong, Chen; Zhong-Xiao, Xu; Ping, Li; Ya-Fei, Wen; Wei-Qing, Zeng; Yue-Long, Wu; Long, Tian; Shu-Jing, Li; Hai, Wang

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-based light storage in a cloud of cold atoms loaded into a magneto-optical-trap (MOT). After the MOT is turned off, the retrieval efficiencies of right- and left-circularly polarized signal light fields each as a function of storage time are measured for different time delays between MOT off and the storage event, respectively. The results show that in the delay ranging from 0.015 ms to 3.5 ms, the retrieval efficiency for a zero-storage time (0.2 μs) and the storage lifetime can exceed 15% and 1.4 ms, respectively. The measured results will provide important help for optimizing the storage of the polarized entanglement photons in cold atomic ensembles. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB923103) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475109, 11274211, and 60821004).

  19. A new storage and retrieval method to support editing operations in a multi-disk-based video server

    SciTech Connect

    Chien-I Lee; Wei-Pang Yang; Ye-In Chang

    1996-12-31

    Since the storage ordering is assumed the same as the retrieval ordering in all the previous storage placement strategies, there is a requirement of a large amount of file copying or merging operations when users insert/delete some data into/from the media data. The observation is also important for video applications because features, like video editing, require the support of random access on individual video frames. In this paper, we propose a new strategy for the insert/delete operations on continuous media that are striped into multidisks without reorganization of the whole data. From our performance analysis and simulation, the proposed algorithms for insertion/deletion may require only some additional movement cost.

  20. Referenced-site environmental document for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility: backup waste management option for handling 1800 MTU per year

    SciTech Connect

    Silviera, D.J.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cushing, C.E.; Marshall, A.; Scott, M.J.; Sewart, G.H.; Strenge, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This environmental document includes a discussion of the purpose of a monitored retrievable storage facility, a description of two facility design concepts (sealed storage cask and field drywell), a description of three reference sites (arid, warm-wet, and cold-wet), and a discussion and comparison of the impacts associated with each of the six site/concept combinations. This analysis is based on a 15,000-MTU storage capacity and a throughput rate of up to 1800 MTU per year.

  1. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A STORAGE-RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADAIR, CHARLES H.; BARBE, RICHARD H.

    GENERALIZATIONS WERE CLASSIFIED AND FIELD TESTED, AND A RETRIEVAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED DURING THIS PROJECT. THE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT INVOLVED ORGANIZING GENERALIZATIONS INTO A LOGICAL SYSTEM OF 10 CATEGORIES. THE CODING PLAN WAS TO ASSIGN A 10-DIGIT NUMERIC CODE TO EACH GENERALIZATION AND CATEGORY. TWO DECKS OF CARDS WERE CODED AND PRODUCED, AND A…

  3. A STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR DOCUMENTS IN INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES. REPORT NO. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M.; LEE, BERTA GRATTAN

    IN ORDER TO IMPROVE INSTRUCTION WITHIN TWO-YEAR LOWER DIVISION COURSES, A COMPREHENSIVE RESOURCE LIBRARY WAS DEVELOPED AND A SIMPLIFIED CATALOGING AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM WAS APPLIED TO IT. THE ROYAL MCBEE "KEYDEX" SYSTEM, CONTAINING THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS--A PUNCH MACHINE, FILE CARDS, AND A LIGHT BOX--WAS USED. CARDS WERE HEADED WITH KEY…

  4. User Feedback Procedures; Part III of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Part Three of this five part report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project contains four papers. The first: "Variations on the Query Splitting Technique with Relevance Feedback" by T. P. Baker discusses some experiments in relevance feedback performed with variations on the technique of query splitting. The results…

  5. Clustering Methods; Part IV of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Two papers are included as Part Four of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Controlled Single Pass Classification Algorithm with Application to Multilevel Clustering" by D. B. Johnson and J. M. Laferente presents a single pass clustering method which compares favorably with more…

  6. Species-level Analysis of Biological Literature for Storage and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shervis, L. J.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in entomology which could also be used for other biological literature. With the examples of coding information into the system, a user might get some idea of how to search and what kind of information might be found. No cost analysis for running the program is included. (PS)

  7. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Smithsonian Institution Information Retrieval (SIIR) System, a computerized information management system for natural history museums, as well as computer developments subsequent to SIIR, and the SELGEM system which evolved from SIIR and discusses their application to data processing and collection management in museums.…

  8. Storage and retrieval of light pulses in atomic media with 'slow' and 'fast' light

    SciTech Connect

    Lezama, A.; Akulshin, A. M.; Sidorov, A. I.; Hannaford, P.

    2006-03-15

    We report experimental evidence that light storage, understood as the controlled release of a light pulse by an atomic sample dependent on the past presence of a writing pulse, is not restricted to small-group-velocity media but can also occur in a negative-group-velocity medium. We present a numerical modeling in close agreement with our observations and a simple physical picture applicable to light storage experiments in both 'slow' and 'fast' light media.

  9. Associative Memory Storage and Retrieval: Involvement of Theta Oscillations in Hippocampal Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Theta oscillations are thought to play a critical role in neuronal information processing, especially in the hippocampal region, where their presence is particularly salient. A detailed description of theta dynamics in this region has revealed not only a consortium of layer-specific theta dipoles, but also within-layer differences in the expression of theta. This complex and articulated arrangement of current flows is reflected in the way neuronal firing is modulated in time. Several models have proposed that these different theta modulators flexibly coordinate hippocampal regions, to support associative memory formation and retrieval. Here, we summarily review different approaches related to this issue and we describe a mechanism, based on experimental and simulation results, for memory retrieval in CA3 involving theta modulation. PMID:21961072

  10. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, D.A.; Berry, D.L.; Jardine, L.J.

    1994-03-01

    Hanford`s underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report.

  11. MRS Action Plan Task B report: Analyses of alternative designs and operating approaches for a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K.; Keehn, C.H.; Gale, R.M.; Smith, R.I.

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) instituted a number of changes in the DOE commercial nuclear waste management system. After passage of the Act, the DOE initiated a number of systems studies to reevaluate the role of Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) within the federal waste management system. This report summarizes the results of a study to determine the schedules and costs of developing those MRS facilities needed under a number of scenarios, with differing functions allocated to the MRS and/or different spent fuel acceptance schedules. Nine cases were defined for the system study, seven of which included an MRS Facility. The study cases or scenarios evaluated varied relative to the specific functions to be performed at the MRS. The scenarios ranged in magnitude from storage and shipment of bare, intact spent fuel to consolidating the spent fuel into repository emplacement containers prior to storage and shipment. Each scenario required specific modifications to be made to the design developed for the MRS proposal to Congress (the Conceptual Design Report). 41 figs., 326 tabs.

  12. The MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage) task force: Economic and non-economic incentives for local public acceptance of a proposed nuclear waste packaging and storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    1987-03-01

    A joint Oak Ridge - Roane County citizen task force (TF) evaluated the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility in Tennessee in terms of environmental, transportation, and socioeconomic impacts. The case study examines how the TF used mitigation, compensation and incentives (economic and non-economic) to address the problem of distrust of DOE and to change the net local impact balance from negative to positive. Intensive group interaction during their investigations and development of trust within the TF led to consensus decisions on safety and conditional acceptance. DOE accepted most of the TF conditions after informal negotiations. The siting process was stopped by extensive state-wide opposition resulting in legal challenge by the state and vetoes by the governor and state legislature.

  13. Storage and retrieval of quantum information with a hybrid optomechanics-spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Yang, Wan-Li; Feng, Mang

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring the quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and an electron spin of diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. Assisted by a mechanical resonator, quantum information can be controllably stored (retrieved) into (from) the electron spin by adjusting the external field-induced detuning or coupling. Our scheme connects effectively the cavity photon and the electron spin and transfers quantum states between two regimes with large frequency difference. The experimental feasibility of our protocol is justified with accessible laboratory parameters.

  14. Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Parigi, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Arnold, Christophe; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Laurat, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The full structuration of light in the transverse plane, including intensity, phase and polarization, holds the promise of unprecedented capabilities for applications in classical optics as well as in quantum optics and information sciences. Harnessing special topologies can lead to enhanced focusing, data multiplexing or advanced sensing and metrology. Here we experimentally demonstrate the storage of such spatio-polarization-patterned beams into an optical memory. A set of vectorial vortex modes is generated via liquid crystal cell with topological charge in the optic axis distribution, and preservation of the phase and polarization singularities is demonstrated after retrieval, at the single-photon level. The realized multiple-degree-of-freedom memory can find applications in classical data processing but also in quantum network scenarios where structured states have been shown to provide promising attributes, such as rotational invariance. PMID:26166257

  15. Storage and retrieval of vector beams of light in a multiple-degree-of-freedom quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Parigi, Valentina; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Arnold, Christophe; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Laurat, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The full structuration of light in the transverse plane, including intensity, phase and polarization, holds the promise of unprecedented capabilities for applications in classical optics as well as in quantum optics and information sciences. Harnessing special topologies can lead to enhanced focusing, data multiplexing or advanced sensing and metrology. Here we experimentally demonstrate the storage of such spatio-polarization-patterned beams into an optical memory. A set of vectorial vortex modes is generated via liquid crystal cell with topological charge in the optic axis distribution, and preservation of the phase and polarization singularities is demonstrated after retrieval, at the single-photon level. The realized multiple-degree-of-freedom memory can find applications in classical data processing but also in quantum network scenarios where structured states have been shown to provide promising attributes, such as rotational invariance. PMID:26166257

  16. Standard format and content for the safety analysis report for an independent spent fuel storage installation or monitored retrievable storage installation (dry storage): Revision 1, Task CE 406-4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations specifies the information to be supplied in applications for licenses to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation. However, Part 72 does not specify the format for presentation of the safety analysis report (SAR). Guidance on the content of the SAR will vary, depending on the type of installation that is planned. This guide represents a Standard Format that is acceptable to the NRC staff for the SAR required for the license application. Conformance with this Standard Format, however, is not mandatory. License applications with differing SAF formats will be acceptable to the staff if they provide an adequate basis for the findings required for the issuance of a license.

  17. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    SciTech Connect

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  18. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  19. A SHORT HISTORY CSISRS - AT THE CUTTING EDGE OF NUCLEAR DATA INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CINDA, EXFOR AND ENDF.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-12-01

    A short history of CSISRS, pronounced ''scissors'' and standing for the Cross Section Information Storage and Retrieval System, is given. The relationship of CSISRS to CINDA, to the neutron nuclear data four-centers, to EXFOR and to ENDF, the evaluated neutron nuclear data file, is briefly explained.

  20. Design of a Mission Data Storage and Retrieval System for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack

    2007-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.

  1. Submergible barge retrievable storage and permanent disposal system for radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.; Cawley, William E.

    1981-01-01

    A submergible barge and process for submerging and storing radioactive waste material along a seabed. A submergible barge receives individual packages of radwaste within segregated cells. The cells are formed integrally within the barge, preferably surrounded by reinforced concrete. The cells are individually sealed by a concrete decking and by concrete hatch covers. Seawater may be vented into the cells for cooling, through an integral vent arrangement. The vent ducts may be attached to pumps when the barge is bouyant. The ducts are also arranged to promote passive ventilation of the cells when the barge is submerged. Packages of the radwaste are loaded into individual cells within the barge. The cells are then sealed and the barge is towed to the designated disposal-storage site. There, the individual cells are flooded and the barge will begin descent controlled by a powered submarine control device to the seabed storage site. The submerged barge will rest on the seabed permanently or until recovered by a submarine control device.

  2. Long-term storage and safe retrieval of human papillomavirus DNA using FTA elute cards.

    PubMed

    Barth, Heidi; Morel, Adrien; Mougin, Christiane; Averous, Gerlinde; Legrain, Michèle; Fender, Muriel; Risch, Simone; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Velten, Michel; Oudet, Pierre; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; Stoll-Keller, Françoise

    2016-03-01

    Biobanking or collection and storage of specimens for future research purposes have become an essential tool in many fields of biomedical research and aims to provide a better understanding of disease mechanisms as well as the identification of disease-specific biomarkers that can navigate in complex diseases. In this study, we assessed the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards as a long-term storage device for cervical specimens with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. HPV detection and genotyping results in liquid-based transport media were compared to HPV results from FTA cards. The overall agreement for the presence of any HPV infection between liquid-based medium and FTA cards stored for 1 year at ambient temperature was 100%. Reproducibility analysis of HPV detection and genotyping from FTA cards demonstrated that FTA cards are a reliable medium to store and preserve viral nucleic acids. Biobanking of cervical cells on FTA cards may provide a key resource for epidemiological and retrospective HPV studies. PMID:26721377

  3. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  4. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability (ID) over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of…

  5. Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Lavoisier showed that water was formed by chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. In Lavoisier's "Traite Elementaire" of 1789, he states that the reaction to form water requires exactly two volumes of hydrogen gas to react completely with one volume of oxygen gas. This was 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied the reactions between different…

  6. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  7. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question…

  8. Reflections on 20 Years of Research on Violence and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue reflecting on what people have learned about violence and trauma over the past 20 years and where we need to go in the next 10 years. The author emphasizes the importance of learning to communicate in order to form effective community partnerships. Evidence-based research is noted as a methodological…

  9. Building-Based Budgeting and Decentralization: A 20 Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Timothy J.; Raisch, C. Daniel

    This paper examines the effects of site-based budgeting in education. It describes and presents a school-based budgetary decision-making model that was designed originally to shift the balance of power from the central office to the building level. The model has been refined and successfully utilized in one school district for 20 years, and its…

  10. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  11. The rates of solar energy storage and retrieval in a zeolite-water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, R.; Hollebone, B. R.; Langford, C. H.; Shigeishi, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The salient features that determine the possible use of a water vapour-zeolite 13X system as a method of energy storage were investigated. Cycling studies over two months revealed no decrease in water capacity nor any structural deterioration. The rate at which water could be desorbed in a static situation was determined at various temperatures from 110 to 250 C. The adsorption isotherm and the heats of adsorption as a function of amount of adsorbed water were determined. The saturation capacity was 0.33 g H2O/g zeolite while the heat of adsorption declined from 90 to 50 kJ kJ/mol. The rate of heat development was found to be very high so that heat extraction from the store would not be a problem in any practical utilization of this system.

  12. Use of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Retrievals to Evaluate Model Estimates by the Australian Water Resources Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Renzullo, L. J.; Rodell, M.

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) estimates retrievals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were compared to TWS modeled by the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system. The aim was to test whether differences could be attributed and used to identify model deficiencies. Data for 2003 2010 were decomposed into the seasonal cycle, linear trends and the remaining de-trended anomalies before comparing. AWRA tended to have smaller seasonal amplitude than GRACE. GRACE showed a strong (greater than 15 millimeter per year) drying trend in northwest Australia that was associated with a preceding period of unusually wet conditions, whereas weaker drying trends in the southern Murray Basin and southwest Western Australia were associated with relatively dry conditions. AWRA estimated trends were less negative for these regions, while a more positive trend was estimated for areas affected by cyclone Charlotte in 2009. For 2003-2009, a decrease of 7-8 millimeter per year (50-60 cubic kilometers per year) was estimated from GRACE, enough to explain 6-7% of the contemporary rate of global sea level rise. This trend was not reproduced by the model. Agreement between model and data suggested that the GRACE retrieval error estimates are biased high. A scaling coefficient applied to GRACE TWS to reduce the effect of signal leakage appeared to degrade quantitative agreement for some regions. Model aspects identified for improvement included a need for better estimation of rainfall in northwest Australia, and more sophisticated treatment of diffuse groundwater discharge processes and surface-groundwater connectivity for some regions.

  13. TWRS retrieval and disposal mission, immobilized high-level waste storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1998-01-07

    This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan`s dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  14. A new efficient data structure for storage and retrieval of multiple biosequences.

    PubMed

    Steinbiss, Sascha; Kurtz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Today's genome analysis applications require sequence representations allowing for fast access to their contents while also being memory-efficient enough to facilitate analyses of large-scale data. While a wide variety of sequence representations exist, lack of a generic implementation of efficient sequence storage has led to a plethora of poorly reusable or programming language-specific implementations. We present a novel, space-efficient data structure (GtEncseq) for storing multiple biological sequences of variable alphabet size, with customizable character transformations, wildcard support and an assortment of internal representations optimized for different distributions of wildcards and sequence lengths. For the human genome (3.1 gigabases, including 237 million wildcard characters) our representation requires only 2 + 8 × 10^-6bits per character. Implemented in C, our portable software implementation provides a variety of methods for random and sequential access to characters and substrings (including different reading directions) using an object-oriented interface. In addition, it includes access to metadata like sequence descriptions or character distributions. The library is extensible to be used from various scripting languages. GtEncseq is much more versatile than previous solutions, adding features that were previously unavailable. Benchmarks show that it is competitive with respect to space and time requirements. PMID:22084150

  15. Database application of digital medical X-rays and labs: computerization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and distribution.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Myron; Tabriziani, Hossein; Heetebry, Irene

    2005-08-01

    Stenter lets the health care worker order an X-ray that is produced as a computer image rather than on flat film. The health care provider can be in any location with the correct equipment, and view the digital image. The dimensions of this discussion are extensive. The cost savings because of reduced media and storage cost is substantial. Health care quality can be improved because of the ability to obtain consultation via telemedicine and the enhanced ability to track medical problems over time via trends. The major downside is the limited cost imbursement system to pay for technology. Unfortunately, this may impact on the improved quality of care. In simple terms someone needs to pay for the technology and the quality of health care needs to be maintained or improved. The real cost to the health care systems needs to be correctly calculated and inappropriate charging kept to a minimum. Specific costs need to be kept in mind and the first is the cost for new staff or staff training. The number of health care providers that are able to read the X-ray can be enlarged remembering that only American Board Certified Radiologists are allowed to give the final recommendation. How do we view the cost of missing something? It could be argued that this risk will be reduced because of improved technology for obtaining the digital X-ray and improved enhancement software. One way to view this situation is to include technology, management, and organization. The cost and benefits occur through the interplay of all three dimensions. The development of digital imaging hardware and artificial intelligence software will demand change in the management and organization. The organization will require changes in its design to accommodate the technology as to support and resources. Management will evolve to include methods for control and monitoring this technology. Business processes and standard operating procedures will change to integrate the technology into the organization in

  16. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND RE

    2011-12-27

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is

  17. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  18. Formalizing structured file services for the data storage and retrieval subsystem of the data management system for Spacestation Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamsek, Damir A.

    1993-01-01

    A brief example of the use of formal methods techniques in the specification of a software system is presented. The report is part of a larger effort targeted at defining a formal methods pilot project for NASA. One possible application domain that may be used to demonstrate the effective use of formal methods techniques within the NASA environment is presented. It is not intended to provide a tutorial on either formal methods techniques or the application being addressed. It should, however, provide an indication that the application being considered is suitable for a formal methods by showing how such a task may be started. The particular system being addressed is the Structured File Services (SFS), which is a part of the Data Storage and Retrieval Subsystem (DSAR), which in turn is part of the Data Management System (DMS) onboard Spacestation Freedom. This is a software system that is currently under development for NASA. An informal mathematical development is presented. Section 3 contains the same development using Penelope (23), an Ada specification and verification system. The complete text of the English version Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is reproduced in Appendix A.

  19. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  20. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  1. An Innovative, Multidisciplinary Educational Program in Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Gallagher, Mary C.

    1985-01-01

    There exists a large number of large-scale bibliographic Information Storage and Retrieval Systems containing large amounts of valuable data of interest in a wide variety of research applications. These systems are not used to capacity because the end users, i.e., the researchers, have not been trained in the techniques of accessing such systems. This thesis describes the development of a transportable, university-level course in methods of querying on-line interactive Information Storage and Retrieval systems as a solution to this problem. This course was designed to instruct upper division science and engineering students to enable these end users to directly access such systems. The course is designed to be taught by instructors who are not specialists in either computer science or research skills. It is independent of any particular IS and R system or computer hardware. The project is sponsored by NASA and conducted by the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University.

  2. Successful Deployment of System for the Storage and Retrieval of Spent/Used Nuclear Fuel from Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin-13051

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero, Roger; Smith, Sahid; Blackford, Leonard Ty; Johnson, Mike W.; Raymond, Richard; Sullivan, Neal; Sloughter, Jim

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, a system was deployed to remove, transport, and interim store chemically reactive and highly radioactive sludge material from the Hanford Site's 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin that will be managed as spent/used nuclear fuel. The Knockout Pot (KOP) sludge in the 105-K West Basin was a legacy issue resulting from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) washing process applied to 2200 metric tons of highly degraded fuel elements following long-term underwater storage. The washing process removed uranium metal and other non-uranium constituents that could pass through a screen with 0.25-inch openings; larger pieces are, by definition, SNF or fuel scrap. When originally retrieved, KOP sludge contained pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging from 600 microns (μm) to 6350 μm mixed with inert material such as aluminum hydroxide, aluminum wire, and graphite in the same size range. In 2011, a system was developed, tested, successfully deployed and operated to pre-treat KOP sludge as part of 105-K West Basin cleanup. The pretreatment process successfully removed the vast majority of inert material from the KOP sludge stream and reduced the remaining volume of material by approximately 65 percent, down to approximately 50 liters of material requiring management as used fuel. The removal of inert material resulted in significant waste minimization and project cost savings because of the reduced number of transportation/storage containers and improvement in worker safety. The improvement in worker safety is a result of shorter operating times and reduced number of remote handled shipments to the site fuel storage facility. Additionally in 2011, technology development, final design, and cold testing was completed on the system to be used in processing and packaging the remaining KOP material for removal from the basin in much the same manner spent fuel was removed. This system was deployed and successfully operated from June through September 2012, to remove and package the last

  3. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  4. Review: R28 retinal precursor cells: The first 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The R28 retinal precursor cell line was established 20 years ago, originating from a postnatal day 6 rat retinal culture immortalized with the 12S E1A (NP-040507) gene of the adenovirus in a replication-incompetent viral vector. Since that time, R28 cells have been characterized and used for a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies of retinal cell behavior, including differentiation, neuroprotection, cytotoxicity, and light stimulation, as well as retinal gene expression and neuronal function. While no cell culture is equivalent to the intact eye, R28 cells continue to provide an important experimental system for the study of many retinal processes. PMID:24644404

  5. CANADARM: 20 Years of Mission Success Through Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltz, Michael; Rice, Craig; Boyle, Keith; Allison, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Transportation System, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System has played a vital role in the success of 60 space missions. This paper concludes that the robustness and success of the Canadarm over its 20 year life can be attributed to the adaptations that have been made to it to meet the increased demands that have been placed on the system. Enhancements that have been made to the arm to improve its operational capabilities, reduce risk and extend its life are examined in this paper. Potential future enhancements based on operational trends are also discussed.

  6. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  7. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  8. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2003-08-01

    An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:12924679

  9. The Challenges in Metadata Management: 20+ Years of ESO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Da Rocha, C.; Dobrzycki, A.; Micol, A.; Vuong, M.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility has been in operations for more than 20 years. It contains data produced by ESO telescopes as well as the metadata needed for characterizing and distributing those data. This metadata is used to build the different archive services provided by the Archive. Over these years, services have been added, modified or even decommissioned creating a cocktail of new, evolved and legacy data systems. The challenge for the Archive is to harmonize the differences of those data systems to provide the community with a homogeneous experience when using ESO data. In this paper, we present ESO experience in three particular challenging areas. First discussion is dedicated to the problem of metadata quality over the time, second discusses how to integrate obsolete data models on the current services and finally we will present the challenges of ever growing databases. We describe our experience dealing with those issues and the solutions adopted to mitigate them.

  10. Elf's 20-year experience confirms effectiveness of smart pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, M.; Samaran, J.P. )

    1992-11-30

    Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine has acquired more than 20 years' experience with in-line inspection of pipelines, using tools from seven service companies. The first in-line inspection operation carried out by one of the companies affiliated with Elf Aquitaine occurred in 1971 and used a Linalog tool. This inspection was to evaluate the extent of external corrosion attacks at the bottom of a 24-in. OD, 69-km uncoated pipeline laid directly on the ground in a desert area. Later periodic inspections, performed in 1980 and 1987 on the main pipeline, detected important external corrosions in some salty areas. These attacks occurred beneath disbondments of the over the ditch-applied bituminous enamel coating. Inspections also detected internal corrosion produced by accumulation of water at low points as a result of intermittent reductions of flow velocity and even to some flow stoppages. This paper reports on service inspection in the use of pigs.

  11. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  12. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  13. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  14. Matricides in South Australia - a 20-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-04-01

    A 20-year retrospective review of files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia was undertaken for cases of matricide occurring between the years 1985 and 2004. A total of 11 cases were identified: 10 males and 1 female. The victims were aged between 42 and 83 years (mean=61 years) and the perpetrators were aged between 15 and 53 years (mean=28.7 years). In all 11 cases weapons such as blunt objects (N=5), knives (N=5), firearms (N=3), or ligatures (N=1) were involved in the assaults, with injuries inflicted by the weapons causing death in 10 cases. In five cases trauma was caused by more than one injurious agent/action; e.g. there was evidence of immersion and burning in two cases. In four cases there were multiple (>10) significant injuries inflicted by perpetrators suffering from schizophrenia (N=2), 'mental impairment' (N=1) and a 'combination of psychiatric disorders' (N=1). One perpetrator committed suicide after killing his mother. Six of the ten surviving perpetrators were found not guilty of murder on the grounds of mental illness or impairment, and one perpetrator had the charge reduced from murder to manslaughter due to underlying mental conditions that included previous brain injury. Matricides are uncommon forms of homicide that have similar features in most communities studied. Intra-familial tensions with underlying psychiatric illness in the perpetrator are common findings. PMID:18313012

  15. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  16. Cumulative Risk, Cumulative Outcome: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  17. Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chitnavis, J P; Gibbons, C L; Hirigoyen, M; Lloyd Parry, J; Simpson, A H

    1996-03-01

    Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971-1972, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess the effects of these measures on the pattern of injuries resulting from contact with horses. Patient and injury details were recorded prospectively for all those presenting to the Accident Service at Oxford during the whole of 1991. Total admissions fell by 46 per cent on average. Most of the decrease was due to a near fivefold fall in those admitted with head injuries (P < 0.001). A reduction in the severity of such injuries was associated with an increased use of riding helmets. However, the most commonly injured group remained amateur young female riders suggesting the need for increasing awareness and training of this group. In seven cases, severe digital injuries were caused by the habit of entwining reins around the fingers. This practice should be discouraged. Up to 12 per cent of all injuries might have been prevented if adequate footwear had been worn. PMID:8730383

  18. 20 years of microplasma research: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Becker, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The field of microplasmas gained recognition as a well-defined area of research and application within the larger field of plasma science and technology about 20 years ago. Since then, the activity in microplasma research and applications has continuously increased. A survey of peer reviewed papers on microplasmas published annually shows a steady increase from fewer than 20 papers in 1995 to about 75 in 2005 and more than 150 in 2014. This count excludes papers that deal exclusively with technological applications where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. This topical review aims to provide a snap shot of the current state of microplasma research and applications. Given the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications, the topical review will focus primarily on the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation. Where appropriate, we will also address microplasma applications, however, we will limit the discussion of microplasma applications to examples where the application is closely tied to the plasma science. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive and in-depth review of the diverse range of all microplasma applications, except for the inclusion of a few key references to recent reviews of microplasma applications.

  19. COMPLIANCE FOR HANFORD WASTE RETRIEVAL RADIOACTIVE AIR EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    FM SIMMONS

    2009-06-30

    {sm_bullet} Since 1970, approximately 38,000 suspect transuranic (TRU) and TRU waste cont{approx}iners have been placed in retrievable storage on the Hanford Site in the 200Area's burial grounds. {sm_bullet} TRU waste is defined as waste containing greater than 100 nanocuries/gram of alpha emitting transuranic isotopes with half lives greater than 20 years. {sm_bullet} The United States currentl{approx}permanently disposes of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  20. Chemical analyses of ground water for saline-water resources studies in Texas Coastal Plain stored in National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses of 4,269 water samples from wells in 66 counties in Texas have been processed into the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System by the Gulf Coast Hydrogeology Project of the U. S. Geological Survey. More than 65,000 chemical analyses of saline waters produced by oil test and production wells have been contributed to the project by major oil companies. The computerized tabulation and the computer-drawn map of the locations of sampling sites are the initial release of oil company, State, and Federal data in Texas Coastal Plain from the data bank.

  1. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  2. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  3. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  4. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    JA Bamberger

    2000-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, bu t not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval.

  5. Evaluation of the TORE(R)Lance for Radioactive Waste Mobilization and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Bates, Cameron J.; Bates, James M.; White, M.

    2002-09-25

    The TORE? Lance is a hand-held hydro transportation device with the ability to convey solids at pre-determined slurry concentrations over great distances. The TORE? Lance head generates a precessing vortex core to mobilize solids. Solids retrieval is accomplished using an eductor. The device contains no parts and requires pressurized fluid to operate the eductor and produce mobilization. Three configurations of TORE? Lance operation were evaluated for mobilization and eduction during these tests: compressed air, water, and an air and water mixture. These tests have shown that the TORE? Lance is a tool that can be used at Hanford for mobilization and retrieval of wastes. The system is versatile and can be configured for many types of applications. These studies showed that the diverse applications require unique solutions so care is recommended for TORE? Lance equipment selection for each application. The two components of the TORE? Lance are the precessing vortex for mobilizing and the eductor for retrieval. The precessing vortex is sensitive to fluid flow rate and pressure. In the hand-held unit these parameters are controlled both internally, by changing shim spacing, and externally by controlling the flow split between the eductor and the head. For in-tank applications out-of-tank control of both these parameters are recommended.

  6. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    SciTech Connect

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB{sub 66} crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing.

  7. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  8. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  9. Cryogenic Storage of Cereal Grains: Results from a 20 Year Experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper compares the viability of small grains stored under conventional (-18oC) or cryogenic conditions (vapor above liquid nitrogen(LN)) for 22 to 25 years at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation. Several accessions of different small grains crops were split in 1984-1987, stor...

  10. Optical laser technology, specifically CD-ROM (Compact Disc - Read Only Memory) and its application to the storage and retrieval of information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, David J.

    1987-06-01

    One of the significant problems of this information age is the production of vast amounts of information in a form that is neither convenient nor cost effective. A possible solution to this, is the new optical laser technology and its use in the storage and retrieval of large amounts of information. In many areas of DOD, the greatest benefit would be the regained space and weight associated with the distribution of the manuals and other typically paper products on a Compact Disc - Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). One CD-ROM weighs less than an ounce and is capable of storing over 270,000 pages of text. The saved shipping and handling costs alone would be astronomically reduced not to mention the end user who would have a more effective and efficient product. The CD-ROM is designed to work as a peripheral device to a microcomputer and can therefore be made available to any user within an IBM compatible microcomputer. The application/demonstration portion of this thesis took over 2 million database records, from the Transaction Ledger on Disc (TLOD), at the Naval Supply Center (NSC) in Oakland and pressed them to a single CD-ROM. The menu driven retrieval software with indexing on 3 criteria was also provided.

  11. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  12. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones. Transuranic storage area-retrieval enclosure program

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, H.M.; Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station.

  13. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  14. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    found that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  15. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  16. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-05-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  17. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm for matching problem in the modified miniload automated storage and retrieval system of e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenrui; Wu, Yaohua; Wu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    E-commerce, as an emerging marketing mode, has attracted more and more attention and gradually changed the way of our life. However, the existing layout of distribution centers can't fulfill the storage and picking demands of e-commerce sufficiently. In this paper, a modified miniload automated storage/retrieval system is designed to fit these new characteristics of e-commerce in logistics. Meanwhile, a matching problem, concerning with the improvement of picking efficiency in new system, is studied in this paper. The problem is how to reduce the travelling distance of totes between aisles and picking stations. A multi-stage heuristic algorithm is proposed based on statement and model of this problem. The main idea of this algorithm is, with some heuristic strategies based on similarity coefficients, minimizing the transportations of items which can not arrive in the destination picking stations just through direct conveyors. The experimental results based on the cases generated by computers show that the average reduced rate of indirect transport times can reach 14.36% with the application of multi-stage heuristic algorithm. For the cases from a real e-commerce distribution center, the order processing time can be reduced from 11.20 h to 10.06 h with the help of the modified system and the proposed algorithm. In summary, this research proposed a modified system and a multi-stage heuristic algorithm that can reduce the travelling distance of totes effectively and improve the whole performance of e-commerce distribution center.

  18. Olfactory Memory Storage and/or Retrieval Requires the Presence of the Exact Tentacle Used During Memory Acquisition in the Terrestrial Slug Limax.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yurika; Matsuo, Yuko; Matsuo, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    Terrestrial pulmonates can form odor-aversion memories once a food odor is presented in combination with an aversive stimulus. Most of the olfactory information ascends via a tentacular ganglion located in the tip of the two pairs of tentacles, and is then transmitted to the higher olfactory center, the procerebrum. The procerebrum is the locus of memory storage and has been shown to be necessary for odor-aversion learning. However, it is unknown whether the procerebrum is the sole locus in which the memory engram resides. By exploiting the regenerative ability of tentacles, here we investigated whether tentacles function merely in transmitting olfactory information to the procerebrum, or constitute a part of the memory engram. We showed that after removal of the tentacles used during memory acquisition, slugs were unable to retrieve the memory, even if these tentacles were regenerated sufficiently to subserve memory function. Our results support the view that tentacles are more than conduits of odor information; they also participate in the formation of the memory engram. PMID:26853872

  19. White paper on the proposed design, development, and implementation of a monitored retrievable storage module and the siting criteria for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Villarreal, B.; Knobeloch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy (NWP) Act in 1982 as comprehensive legislation for the DOE to locate, build, and operate repositories to permanently dispose of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level wastes. In 1987, Congress amended the NWP Act and authorized the DOE to site, construct, and operate one Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS facility was planned as a means to enhance the flexibility and reliability of the overall waste management system. This white paper presents a broad prospectus of the scientific and regulatory capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory and outlines the methodology to design and implement an MRS test module. This proposed module will incorporate the flexibility to store all types of spent nuclear fuel above or below ground level and will be fully monitored for the residence time of the spent fuel in the MRS module. The purpose of this test module is to define the parameters necessary to build a simple and economical MRS system. Demonstration of the proposed MRS test module will be important because it will form the basis for an integrated MRS site model.

  20. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  1. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF XY RETRIEVER. THE XY RETRIEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF X-Y RETRIEVER. THE X-Y RETRIEVER WAS HOUSED IN MODULE K AND WAS USED TO SORT AND RETRIEVE PLUTONIUM METAL FROM A STORAGE VAULT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHER PROCESSES IN BUILDING 707. (11/29/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. The design of PC/MISI, a PC-based common user interface to remote information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-15. The paper discusses the following: problem definition; the PC solution; the goals of system design; the design description; future considerations, the research environment; conclusions.

  3. 2012 best practices for repositories collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of biological materials for research international society for biological and environmental repositories.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Third Edition [Formula: see text] [Box: see text] Printed with permission from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) © 2011 ISBER All Rights Reserved Editor-in-Chief Lori D. Campbell, PhD Associate Editors Fay Betsou, PhD Debra Leiolani Garcia, MPA Judith G. Giri, PhD Karen E. Pitt, PhD Rebecca S. Pugh, MS Katherine C. Sexton, MBA Amy P.N. Skubitz, PhD Stella B. Somiari, PhD Individual Contributors to the Third Edition Jonas Astrin, Susan Baker, Thomas J. Barr, Erica Benson, Mark Cada, Lori Campbell, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques Campos, David Carpentieri, Omoshile Clement, Domenico Coppola, Yvonne De Souza, Paul Fearn, Kelly Feil, Debra Garcia, Judith Giri, William E. Grizzle, Kathleen Groover, Keith Harding, Edward Kaercher, Joseph Kessler, Sarah Loud, Hannah Maynor, Kevin McCluskey, Kevin Meagher, Cheryl Michels, Lisa Miranda, Judy Muller-Cohn, Rolf Muller, James O'Sullivan, Karen Pitt, Rebecca Pugh, Rivka Ravid, Katherine Sexton, Ricardo Luis A. Silva, Frank Simione, Amy Skubitz, Stella Somiari, Frans van der Horst, Gavin Welch, Andy Zaayenga 2012 Best Practices for Repositories: Collection, Storage, Retrieval and Distribution of Biological Materials for Research INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPOSITORIES (ISBER) INTRODUCTION T he availability of high quality biological and environmental specimens for research purposes requires the development of standardized methods for collection, long-term storage, retrieval and distribution of specimens that will enable their future use. Sharing successful strategies for accomplishing this goal is one of the driving forces for the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). For more information about ISBER see www.isber.org . ISBER's Best Practices for Repositories (Best Practices) reflect the collective experience of its members and has received broad input from other repository professionals. Throughout this document

  4. Information Retrieval Systems and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locatis, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Discusses instructional systems and information retrieval systems and highlights the growing role of retrieval systems in learning. Topics discussed include cognitive psychology; degree of learner control; interaction with the systems; technological trends, including storage capacity, integrated media, and interlinked systems; hypermedia; and…

  5. Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of Records Management.

    Descriptions of representative nonconventional information systems in use today are given in order to provide managers, management analysts, supervisors, and others with ideas as to how they might improve the dissemination, storage, and retrieval of information in their offices. No attempt was made to evaluate the relative merits of the systems…

  6. 20 Years Ago in "TechTrends": Speak to Me--My Computer Is Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, James J.

    2006-01-01

    The personal computer--with its ability to store, sort, and retrieve large amounts of data, generate reports, and graphically present statistical information--is becoming an integral tool in the administration of the modern media center. The need to share and retrieve information beyond the immediate environment of the media center has always been…

  7. Issues and Trends in the College Student Affairs Journal: A 20 Year Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances C.; Bowman, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    To date there has been no content analysis undertaken of the "College Student Affairs Journal." Therefore, this study was conducted to answer questions regarding the journal's trends over the last 20 years. Results indicate that the journal has become more professional in appearance, the breadth and depth of topic coverage has increased, and a…

  8. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  9. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14 Section 4219.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal...

  10. Changes and Challenges in 20 Years of Research into the Development of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This review of 20 years of developmental research on Executive Functions (EF) offers a broad-brushstroke picture that touches on multiple issues including: (i) findings from typical and atypical groups, from infancy to adolescence; (ii) advances in assessment tools and in statistical analysis; (iii) the interplay between EF and other cognitive…

  11. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  12. Four Themes from 20 Years of Research on Infant Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews progress over the past 20 years in four areas of research on infant perception and cognition. Work on perception of dynamic events has identified perceptual constraints on perception of object unity and object trajectory continuity that have led to a perceptual account of early development that supplements Nativist accounts.…

  13. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  14. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  15. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  16. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  17. 20 Years after "The Ontogeny of Human Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective," Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabès, Adeline; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, Nelson published a paper describing a model of memory development during the first years of life. The current article seeks to provide an update on the original work published 20 years ago. Specifically, we review our current knowledge on the relation between the emergence of explicit memory functions throughout development and the…

  18. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  19. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  20. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  1. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  2. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  3. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  4. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  5. Developmental Cascades: Linking Academic Achievement and Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Burt, Keith B.; Obradovic, Jelena; Riley, Jennifer R.; Boelcke-Stennes, Kristen; Tellegen, Auke

    2005-01-01

    A developmental cascade model linking competence and symptoms was tested in a study of a normative, urban school sample of 205 children (initially 8 to 12 years old). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and academic competence were assessed by multiple methods at the study outset and after 7, 10, and 20 years. A series of nested cascade…

  6. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  7. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  8. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    PubMed

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  9. Enhanced Information Retrieval Using AJAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhwaha, Rajendra; Rajvanshi, Nitin

    2010-11-01

    Information Retrieval deals with the representation, storage, organization of, and access to information items. The representation and organization of information items should provide the user with easy access to the information with the rapid development of Internet, large amounts of digitally stored information is readily available on the World Wide Web. This information is so huge that it becomes increasingly difficult and time consuming for the users to find the information relevant to their needs. The explosive growth of information on the Internet has greatly increased the need for information retrieval systems. However, most of the search engines are using conventional information retrieval systems. An information system needs to implement sophisticated pattern matching tools to determine contents at a faster rate. AJAX has recently emerged as the new tool such the of information retrieval process of information retrieval can become fast and information reaches the use at a faster pace as compared to conventional retrieval systems.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger: the way to eliminate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome--a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Kol, Shahar; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger instead of human chorionic gonadotropin in the context of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) prevention has been used for >20 years. In its first decade it did not gain popularity because it cannot work in GnRHa-based ovarian stimulation protocols. The introduction of GnRH antagonists has revolutionized our ability to eliminate OHSS completely because patients at high risk for OHSS can be triggered with GnRHa. This has been documented in randomized prospective studies, in which none of the patients randomized to the agonist trigger arm developed OHSS. In other words, GnRHa proved to be a potent tool that, truly remarkably, never fails. Although there is some debate concerning the clinical outcome of these cycles, data so far indicate that aggressive luteal support can ensure a good outcome. Moreover, the large number of frozen embryos in these cycles results in excellent per-oocyte retrieval pregnancy rates. In summary, GnRHa ovulatory trigger is the ultimate tool for complete OHSS prevention. GnRH antagonist-based ovarian stimulation protocols should be considered in OHSS high-risk patients so GnRHa trigger can be used if needed. PMID:21082509

  11. Paraurethral Leiomyoma in a 20 Year-old Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Piper, Emily; Jacobs, Stephanie; Ghoniem, Gamal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 20 year-old woman with a vulvar mass, found to be a paraurethral leiomyoma. She subsequently underwent supermedial-approach paraurethral mass excision, distal urethral reconstruction and cystourethroscopy. Paraurethral leiomyoma make up approximately five percent of urethral tumors. This case depicts the presentation and treatment of a paraurethral leiomyoma in one of the youngest women reported in the literature. PMID:26793567

  12. Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Abdessalem; Neifar, Chawki; Abid, Walid; M'saad, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail. PMID:27051112

  13. New Release of DUACS Products: 20 Years of High Resolution Sea Level Time Series Reprocessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; Ssalto/Duacs Team; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    During the last 20 years, altimeter high quality near real time and delayed time Level3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level4 products (merging multiple sensors) were developed in parallel with Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) processing improvements. Directly usable and easier to manipulate, L3/4 products are vastly used and contribute to various studies in different fields, from climate and meteorological phenomena, to geophysics and biology. In early 2014, mainy changes will be implemented in the products. We present here the main changes and their impact for the users. A full reprocessing of the 20 years of altimeter data is on going, taking advantage of new missions, improved L2 processing, and a better understanding of the ocean stemming. An important improvement will be the use of a new reference period, taking into account the 20 years of altimeter data now available. This will lead to more pertinent sea level anomalies, without impact on the absolute topography. Validation results show improvements at climatic scales as well as mesoscales. The full reprocessed data sets will be available in early 2014.

  14. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  15. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  16. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  17. A Polar Specific 20-year Data Set of Cloud Fraction and Height Derived from Satellite Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Jennifer; Schweiger, Axel

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report to fulfill reporting requirements on NASA grant NASA NAG5-11800. Jennifer Francis, PI at Rutgers University is currently continuing work on this project under a no-cost extension. Work at the University of Washington portion of the project is completed and reported here. Major accomplishments and results from this portion of the project include: 1) Extension and reprocessing of TOVS Polar Pathfinder (Path-P) data set; 2) Analysis of Arctic cloud variability; 3) Validation of Southern Hemisphere ocean cloud retrievals; 4) Intercompared cloud height information from AVHRR retrievals and surface-based cloud radar information.

  18. Trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-06-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeterwave Ozone Spectrometer) performs continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland. GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (FFTS) has been added as backend to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over two years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from more than 20 years of stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis has been performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa, covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa.

  19. Kawasaki Disease in India, Lessons Learnt Over the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, Kawasaki disease is being increasingly recognized in India and it may soon replace acute rheumatic fever to become the commonest cause of acquired heart disease amongst children. However, the vast majority of children with Kawasaki disease in India are still not being diagnosed. Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on a constellation of clinical findings which have a typical temporal sequence. All pediatricians must we familiar with the nuances involved in arriving at a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the risk of coronary artery abnormalities can be significantly reduced. PMID:26897142

  20. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care). PMID:23505989

  1. [Evaluation of a 20 years' experience of colo-anal anastomoses. Indications, results and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Hautefeuille, P; Saab, M; Valleur, P

    1991-01-01

    Seventy nine anastomoses were performed over a 20 year period. Indications included 68 rectal adenocarcinomas and 11 benign lesions. There was no operative mortality. Anastomotic leak was the main cause of morbidity: 12 clinical (15%) and 4 radiological leaks. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 70%, 7 local recurrences (10%) were observed; 6 were Dukes C and 1 Dukes B. Functional results were assessed in 61 patients. They were considered to be excellent in 35 (57%), good in 24 (39%) and bad in 2 (4%). Six failures were noted: 3 technical, 1 oncologic and 2 functional. Pitfalls of coloanal anastomosis are discussed. PMID:2064292

  2. Initial retrieval sequence and blending strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Pemwell, D.L.; Grenard, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report documents the initial retrieval sequence and the methodology used to select it. Waste retrieval, storage, pretreatment and vitrification were modeled for candidate single-shell tank retrieval sequences. Performance of the sequences was measured by a set of metrics (for example,high-level waste glass volume, relative risk and schedule).Computer models were used to evaluate estimated glass volumes,process rates, retrieval dates, and blending strategy effects.The models were based on estimates of component inventories and concentrations, sludge wash factors and timing, retrieval annex limitations, etc.

  3. An empiric treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia revisited: a 20-year investigative saga.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, E; Billa, E; Kapolla, N; Pappa, A; Venaki, E; Andreou, L; Nicopoulou, S C; Adamopoulos, D A

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies aiming at introducing an effective treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia was conducted in a step-wise fashion spanning over a 20-year period. The concept was that co-administration of an accessory gland-stimulating androgen, testosterone undecanoate (40 mg t.i.d.) and the FSH raising anti-oestrogen tamoxifen citrate (10 mg b.i.d.) may improve sperm parameters. A prerequisite for such an effect was the demonstration that testosterone undecanoate had no suppressing action on pituitary-testicular axis. In this context, initial studies demonstrated no change in basal or stimulated gonadotrophin and testosterone secretion in short- or long-term protocols. Two subsequent trials with this combination showed a marked improvement of sperm parameters and pregnancy incidence, with a seasonal variation noted in response to treatment, this being higher during the cold seasons of autumn and winter. Regarding the mechanism of testosterone undecanoate's action, a recent study from our unit showed that its administration resulted in a marked rise of serum DHT levels. Because this steroid is an epididymal function promoter, it appears that its contribution in the combination is mediated mainly through its DHT raising effect. By and large, this empiric approach for the treatment of idiopathic oligozoospermia was satisfactorily documented after a 20-year investigative saga. PMID:22946848

  4. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  5. Toremifene for breast cancer: a review of 20 years of data.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Charles L; Johnston, Mary Ann; Capers, Christi; Braccia, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The discovery of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) > 40 years ago represented a revolutionary advance in the treatment of breast cancer. As a therapeutic class, SERMs have either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, depending on the target tissue and the hormonal environment. In breast tissue, SERMs are antiestrogenic, making them a major treatment option for women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Toremifene citrate was developed > 20 years ago with the goal of achieving efficacy similar to that of tamoxifen and with an improved safety profile. Although studies to date have not confirmed a clear safety advantage or disadvantage for toremifene, clinical data support the efficacy and safety of toremifene for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. Toremifene also has a pharmacokinetic profile and metabolic pathway different from that of tamoxifen, which may provide a therapeutic advantage in certain patients. In addition, because of the selective estrogenic effects of SERMs in bone and on lipid levels along with a different side effect profile compared with the aromatase inhibitors (AIs), toremifene is a viable option to the AIs for some patients. Despite a number of clinical trials and over 500,000 patient years of use, many oncologists have limited familiarity with toremifene data. This article will examine the rationale for the use of toremifene in the treatment of women with breast cancer and review data from 20 years of clinical experience with this agent. PMID:24439786

  6. Vanishing lung syndrome in one family: five cases with a 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xichun; Wang, Haiying; Gou, Kaihong; Huang, Baosheng; Xia, Dongzhou; Wu, Xiuli; Wei, Ming; Zheng, Shengxi; Ma, Shan; He, Juanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Vanishing lung syndrome, also known as idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, is a rare disease characterized by giant emphysematous bullae. The disease is diagnosed by radiological findings of giant bullae in one, or both, of the upper lobes of the lung, occupying at least one-third of the hemithorax. There have been several reports of vanishing lung syndrome, however it remains to be determined whether genetic inheritance is associated with the disease. In the present study, five patients within one family, with vanishing lung syndrome, were reported during a follow-up period of ~ 20 years. All of the patients were diagnosed by radiological findings, which showed diffuse bullae in the lungs, which were of varying size and asymmetrical distribution, and the occurrence of pneumothorax or emphysema. The Medical Ethics Committee of the People's Hospital of Zhangye Municipality (Zhangye, China) approved this study, and all subjects gave their informed consent During the follow-up period of 20 years, bullae in these patients were shown to progressively increase, and no other pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis were observed. Autosomal dominant inheritance was observed in five cases, and autosomal recessive inheritance was observed in one case. The present study suggests that vanishing lung syndrome may be associated with autosomal dominant and recessive genetic inheritance. PMID:25322795

  7. A Report to the People. 20 Years of Your National Commitment to Public Broadcasting, 1967-1987. 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This annual report for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for fiscal year 1986 also summarizes the CPB's activities over the last 20 years. The front inside cover folds out to three pages and provides a chronology of the important events in CPB history from its inception in 1967 to 1987. A narrative report on the CPB's 20 years of…

  8. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  9. Differences in bioactivity between human insulin and insulin analogues approved for therapeutic use- compilation of reports from the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive information on the differences in bioactivity between human insulin and insulin analogues, published in vitro comparisons of human insulin and the rapid acting analogues insulin lispro (Humalog®), insulin aspart ( NovoRapid®), insulin glulisine (Apidra®), and the slow acting analogues insulin glargine (Lantus®), and insulin detemir (Levemir®) were gathered from the past 20 years (except for receptor binding studies). A total of 50 reports were retrieved, with great heterogeneity among study methodology. However, various differences in bioactivity compared to human insulin were obvious (e.g. differences in effects on metabolism, mitogenesis, apoptosis, intracellular signalling, thrombocyte function, protein degradation). Whether or not these differences have clinical bearings (and among which patient populations) remains to be determined. PMID:21714872

  10. Golden Retrievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Provides a basic definition of metadata, including the usefulness of metatags for online information retrieval and documentation. Defines the elements of the Dublin Core, the next level of metadata. Discusses how librarians can take advantage of metadata. Describes the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Project whose goal is to use metadata to…

  11. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  12. The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. ThesisFinal Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of information contained in the data bases of large-scale information storage and retrieval systems is very large and growing at a rapid rate. The methods available for assessing this information have not been successful in making the information easily available to the people who have the greatest need for it. This thesis describes the design of a personal computer based system which will provide a means for these individuals to retrieve this data through one standardized interface. The thesis identifies each of the major problems associated with providing access to casual users of IS and R systems and describes the manner in which these problems are to be solved by the utilization of the local processing power of a PC. Additional capabilities, not available with standard access methods, are also provided to improve the user's ability to make use of this information. The design of PC/MISI is intended to facilitate its use as a research vehicle. Evaluation mechanisms and possible areas of future research are described. The PC/MISI development effort is part of a larger research effort directed at improving access to remote IS and R systems. This research effort, supported in part by NASA, is also reviewed.

  13. A case of fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy misdiagnosed as Becker's muscular dystrophy for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza; Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2012-03-01

    A 60-year-old man diagnosed clinically with Becker's muscular dystrophy 20 years ago by another physician presented with gradually progressive proximal muscle weakness since teenage years. Family history revealed a strong paternal familial inheritance pattern of similar distribution of weakness-face, forearm flexion, knee extension and foot dorsiflexion. Work-ups revealed B12 deficiency and allele 1 deletion in fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) DNA testing. FSHD is the third most common muscular dystrophy. Clinical diagnosis is made from the distinctive pattern of weakness, autosomal-dominant inheritance, and confirmed by genetic testing. This case strongly demonstrates the importance of a thorough and careful clinical evaluation even in a case with a long standing diagnosis. PMID:21795275

  14. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  15. From the First Stars and Galaxies to the Epoch of Reionization: 20 Years of Computational Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    2016-06-01

    I give a progress report on computational efforts to reconstruct the first billion years of cosmic evolution beginning with the formation of the first generation of stars and galaxies, culminating in the complete photoionization of the intergalactic medium. After 20 years of intense effort, the picture is falling into place through the development and application of complex multiphysics numerical simulations of increasing physical complexity and scale on the most powerful supercomputers. I describe the processes that govern the formation of the first generation of stars, the transition to the second generation of stars, the assembly of the first galaxies, and finally the reionization of the universe. I discuss how these simulations guide the interpretation of relevant observations of the high redshift (and local) universe, along with some observational predictions of these simulations which will be tested with the next generation observatories.

  16. [Recurrence of thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia 20 years after surgery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Naniwa, Taio; Kakihara, Hidetoshi; Zen-nami, Shuji; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Sato, Shigeki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2002-03-01

    We reported a case of recurrence of localized thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia (Good's syndrome) 20 years after surgery. A 74-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of mediastinal tumor and chronic pulmonary infection. He had been thymectomised at the age of 55 because of spindle cell thymoma. After that, he had been asymptomatic until January 1997, when he began to have a recurrent productive cough, and low-grade fever. Laboratory findings revealed hypogammaglobulinemia. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the mediastinal tumor revealed spindle cell thymoma. Therefore, hypogammaglobulinemia with thymoma (Good's syndrome) accompanied with a chronic lower respiratory tract infection was diagnosed. Immunologic studies revealed a marked decrease of CD 20 positive cells and decreased lymphocyte activation under the stimuli of phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The thymoma was resected in Dec 1997, but the serum immunoglobulin showed no increase at al. PMID:11974900

  17. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space. PMID:24320653

  18. The changing pattern of children's dialysis and transplantation over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Goh, D; Evans, J H; Houston, I B; Mallick, N P; Morton, M J; Johnson, R W; Postlethwaite, R J

    1994-10-01

    The changing treatment and outcome for children with chronic renal failure (CRF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) was assessed in children referred to the only paediatric unit in the North West Region of England between 1968 and 1988. There were 108 children. Referrals in consecutive 5-year time periods increased from 9 to 41 over the 20 years with the overall incidence of new referrals less than 15 years old reaching 8.5 per million childhood population in 1983-87, whilst the proportion of children under 5-years increased from 0% to 22%. The survival rate was better in those commencing RRT in the later years: 5-year survival 56% for the 1968-72 cohort vs 88% for 1978-82. The increasing number of referrals particularly among young children, coupled with improved survival rates have considerable implications when determining the provision of care for children with ESRD. PMID:7834914

  19. LISA in 2012 and Beyond: 20 Years After the First Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    After 20 years of study as a joint ESA-NASA mission, LISA had to be redesigned as an ESA-only mission in 2011/2012 to meet programmatic and budgetary constraints of the space agencies. The result is a mission concept called "eLISA" or "NGO" with two arms instead of three and one million km armlengths instead of 5, which results in smaller launch mass but still provides revolutionary science. Nevertheless, even the reduced science is expected to be revolutionary for the study of black holes and other astrophysical and cosmological questions. "eLISA"/"NGO" was not selected in ESA's call for the first ("L1") large mission in the Cosmic Vision program, but is a strong candidate for the L2 call, with possible international contributions from the US and/or China.

  20. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  1. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty. PMID:23414177

  2. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time. PMID:18253853

  3. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of ‘mechanistic territorial models’. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  4. Gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma 20 years after radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Ebru; Kala, Mehtap; Karaman, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas account for 2–3% of malignant neoplasms in adults. The lung, soft tissues and bone represent the most frequent sites of distant metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Gastric metastasis is rare. Our case was a 72-year-old man with complaints of fatigue and loss of appetite. In history, he had unergone radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma in 1993. A polypoid lesion was observed in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histopathology of gastric biopsy specimen was reported as renal cell carcinoma. In English literature, there are 50 cases diagnosed as gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. To date, there are only 4 cases with extremely late gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a rare case which underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma and found to have gastric metastasis at 20. year of his follow-up. PMID:27274897

  5. On-farm falls among youth less than 20 years old in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, K J; Goldcamp, E M; Myers, J R

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the magnitude and characteristics of fall-related injuries on U.S. farms for youth less than 20 years old for work and non-work exposures at a national level. To examine the problem, data from the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) were used. Findings indicate that falls are an important contributor to on-farm injuries, with youth appearing to be at considerable risk. Thus, a reduction of the exposure of youth to fall-related hazards on farms is needed. Strategies such as providing safe play areas for young children and continuing efforts to prevent extra riders on farm equipment will help in reducing these hazardous fall exposures. PMID:15017803

  6. Desire for sons and subsequent fertility in rural India. A 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Carol

    2012-05-01

    This paper compares the desired fertility of rural Indian women in 1987 with their actual fertility in 2007. Seventy-one respondents who stated definite fertility intentions and had fewer children than desired in 1987 were re-interviewed 20 years later, as part of a larger study. The results indicated that these women had fewer children than intended and stopped childbearing once they reached, or approximated, their desired number of sons. The majority had been sterilized, indicating broad acceptance of lower fertility among rural women and the success of India's family planning efforts, although the practice of sex determination seems also to have played a role. These findings echo those of an earlier longitudinal study of reproductive intentions and outcomes in the same community, demonstrating the persistence of son preference in determining reproductive behaviour, even in the context of low overall fertility. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy and programme implications of the study's findings. PMID:22047888

  7. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  8. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  9. Fault kinematics in the 1989 Loma Prieta rupture area during 20 years before that event

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The Loma Prieta (LP) compressional bend of the San Andreas fault zone (SAF) appears to be multi-stranded and vertically segmented; thus, faults in this segment other than the one that ruptured in 1989 may: (1) be the source of prior large events associated with this portion of the SAF and (2) be highly stressed after the 1989 LP event. The fault that ruptured in 1989 was remarkably aseismic during the preceding 20 years; seismicity occurred on some of the neighboring faults of the system, but others remained aseismic. The Lake Elsman burst of seismicity within 1.6 years of the main shock is on a set of secondary faults within the foot-wall of the rupture. The shallow ({le}5 km) portion of the SAF, morphologically and structurally characterized as steep and predominantly strike-slip, and the imbricate thrust zone to the northeast were also quiescent. These upper crustal faults may partition oblique motion accomplished by LP-like ruptures in the lower crust into fault-parallel (transcurrence) and fault-normal motion (convergence), respectively. While the overall level of seismicity in the region around LP increased over the 20 years before 1989, the level of seismicity (number of events) on the creeping portion of the SAF next to the LP segment decreased. Moreover, the level of background seismicity on this and other fault segments varied dramatically, both up and down, in conjunction with major regional earthquakes on other segments. Thus, improved models for precursory patterns of seismicity should account for mechanistically more realistic changes than simple seismicity increase or decrease everywhere around an impending rupture.

  10. How is cancer recently portrayed in Canadian newspapers compared to 20 years ago?

    PubMed

    Henry, Melissa; Trickey, Brendan; Huang, Lina Nuoxin; Cohen, S Robin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated cancer portrayals in newspapers now and 20 years ago. Six major daily newspapers from regions across Canada were studied. All articles from a 3-month period in 2008 (n = 576) and 1988 or 1989 (n = 412) focusing on cancer were analyzed. Cancer is a more prevalent topic and is depicted in a more positive light in newspapers now when compared to 20 years ago. In 2008, the most common cancer-related themes were cancer research (27%), risk factors (26%), treatment (24%), education/prevention (20%), and fundraising events (19%). Compared to 1988/1989, in 2008, there was a significant decrease in articles covering the end of life and surgery, while there was a significant increase in articles portraying the senior population, male issues, individual stories depicting people suffering from cancer, the health care system, fundraising events, and ethics and law. The percentage of articles on psychosocial aspects of the cancer experience remained the same in 1988/1989 compared with 2008, with 16% of articles covering psychological aspects (vs. 17% in 2008), 5.6% social aspects (vs. 3.9% in 2008), and 0.2% spiritual aspects (vs. 0.5% in 2008). In 2008, few cancer articles spoke in-depth about palliative care (2.8%), issues concerning death and dying (5%), or bereavement (1%). Cancer newspaper reporting mostly focuses on the physical aspects of cancer rather than presenting a more holistic approach including psychosocial issues. Implications of the shifts in tone and content of newspaper reporting are discussed. We highlight the importance of promoting coverage of distress as the sixth vital sign in newspaper press so as to inform readers about the experience of cancer and the existence of psychosocial services designed to optimize quality of life. PMID:21132331

  11. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  12. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  13. Epidemiological aspects of melanoma at a university hospital dermatology center over a period of 20 years*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Flavia Vieira; Pereira, Ana Francisca Junqueira Ribeiro; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of melanoma has been steadily rising in past decades. Although it accounts for only 3% of all skin cancers, it is responsible for 75% of deaths. OBJECTIVE to describe the epidemiological aspects of melanoma in a university hospital setting over a period of 20 years. METHODS A total of 166 patients were analyzed between January 1990 and January 2010 for clinical and histological variables and correlations between them. A 5% level of significance was adopted. RESULTS The majority of patients were Caucasians (74%), females (61%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 55. The predominant histological type was lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma (35.7%) and the head and neck was the most affected site (30.7%). Among non-Caucasians, the acral region was the most affected. Most tumors were in situ (41.1%). Growth of the lesion was the most frequent complaint (58.1%) and bleeding was most frequently associated with melanomas with a depth > 4mm. There were seven deaths (4.2%), with a high risk among men, non-Caucasians and those under 20 years of age, with a Breslow's depth > 2mm, with lentiginous acral melanoma and with a history of growth and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Our sample differs from most of the studies in the predominant location (head and neck), histological type (lentigo maligna/ lentigo maligna melanoma) and a major risk of death under the age of 20, which could be with a reflex of regional variation. Broader studies are necessary for validation of the results. PMID:23793193

  14. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  15. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  16. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  17. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  18. An Introduction to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, NY. Data Processing Div.

    The ways in which digital computers can be used in information storage and retrieval are presented in the language of the nonspecialist. Indexing methods, file organization, and search strategies are discussed and a brief bibliography containing 30 IBM publications is given. The manual is intended as a first reader for those interested in the…

  19. Optical Storage Developments--Write-Once Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ian C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the user benefits of write-once optical storage devices; describes typical applications in archival storage, one-off complex instruction sets, and information storage and retrieval systems; and identifies current trends toward standardization of equipment. (CLB)

  20. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-10-10

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In general

  1. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  2. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  3. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  4. Bibliometric profile of neurogenic bladder in the literature: a 20-year bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Qu, Bo; Shen, Yan; Su, Xiao-jing; Dong, Xiao-yan; Chen, Xue-mei; Zhou, Yu-hong; Pi, Hong-ying

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic bladder is a dysfunction of the lower urinary tract caused by nervous system disorder. We investigated the trends in publication of articles under the topic “neurogenic bladder” using bibliometric analysis. Articles on neurogenic bladder, published between 1995 and 2014, were retrieved from the ISI Web of Science citation database. We analyzed the search results for authors, countries, institutions, journals, and top-cited papers. A total of 1,904 articles were retrieved. There was a small increase in the number of articles on neurogenic bladder from 1995 (n = 43) to 2014 (n = 117). The USA was the leading country in the total number of articles (n = 598). However, the number of publications from China has rapidly increased, and China was ranked second in 2014. Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler (n = 65) was the most productive author, and University of Paris VI (Paris 6) (n = 61) was the most productive institution. The Journal of Urology published the greatest number of articles on this topic (n = 285). Articles on neurogenic bladder were often published in a professional journal under the category Urology & Nephrology, Neurosciences & Neurology, or Rehabilitation. Visualization analysis based on co-citation networks was conducted using CiteSpace III. Visualization analysis revealed that the hot spots in neurogenic bladder were botulinum toxin-A, prazosin, bethanechol, and afferent pathways. These findings provide new insight into the publication trends and hot spots in neurogenic bladder. PMID:26109957

  5. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Altimetry-derived maps of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts. They are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Their calculation however is more complex than standard Eulerian diagnostics, because it requires a Lagrangian algorithms which integrates the velocity field. During the past 20 years, in parallel with the altimeter measurement Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) to Level3 and Level4 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA, and multiple sensor merged maps) processing, different applications and derivated Level4+ products were developed by AVISO+. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21-year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the Lyapunov products that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015, and some examples of applications.

  6. Optimising treatment strategies in spinal ependymoma based on 20years of experience at a single centre.

    PubMed

    Keil, Vera C; Schmitt, Anne J; Martin, Sean C; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom A D; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2016-07-01

    Spinal ependymomas are rare tumours, with total resection favoured where possible. Several case series assessing the outcome following neurosurgical treatment for spinal ependymoma advocate the usage of adjuvant radiotherapy in cases of subtotal resection, or in unencapsulated tumours. We assessed the outcome of 61 consecutive cases of spinal ependymoma in a single centre over a 20year period using a variety of outcome measures. Sex distribution was equal, with a mean age at surgery of 43.6years (range 5-76years). Overall, most tumours occurred in the lumbosacral region (70.5%), with fewer in the thoracic (27.9%) and cervical regions (18.0%). Myxopapillary features were seen in 41.0% of tumours, and were more common when occurring in the lumbar region (51.2%). Gross total resection was achieved in 52.5%, subtotal resection in 37.7% and biopsy alone in 9.8% of patients and 31.1% received adjuvant radiotherapy. Two-thirds of patients achieved an excellent post-operative neurological outcome (Frankel grade E). Tumour recurrence was rare. Gross total resection and good preoperative neurological condition were most strongly predictive of good outcome. Post-operative radiotherapy did not seem to confer survival benefit in this case series, even in cases of incomplete resection, leading us to question its utility for all cases of spinal cord ependymoma. PMID:26944215

  7. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  8. A 20-year H2O maser monitoring program with the Medicina 32-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, J.; Felli, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Palla, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-03-01

    The Arcetri/Bologna H2O maser group has been monitoring the 1.3-cm water maser emission from a sample of 43 star-forming regions (SFRs) and 22 late-type stars for about 20 years at a sampling rate of 4-5 observations each year, using the 32-m Medicina Radio Telescope (HPBW 1.‧9 at 22 GHz). For the late-type stars we observe representative samples of OH/IR-stars, Mira's, semi-regular variables, and supergiants. The SFR-sample spans a large interval in FIR luminosity of the associated Young Stellar Object (YSO), from 20 L to 1.5 × 106 L, and offers a unique data base for the study of the long-term (years) variability of the maser emission in regions of star formation. This presentation concerns only the masers in SFRs. The information obtained from single-dish monitoring is complementary to what is extracted from higher-resolution (VLA and VLBI) observations, and can better explore the velocity domain and the long-term variability therein. We characterize the variability of the sources in various ways and we study how it depends on the luminosity and other properties of the associated YSO and its environment.

  9. How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  10. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting….

    PubMed

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH's bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  11. Looking back and thinking forward: 20 years of disability and rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Jette, Alan M; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Granger, Carl V

    2012-08-01

    The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research recently celebrated its 20th Anniversary. The celebration included a symposium highlighting advances in rehabilitation science over the past 2 decades. The anniversary also reminds us of the challenges that remain in order to strengthen the foundation of disability and rehabilitation research. These challenges have been described in 3 reports published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1991, 1997, and 2007. Three areas of concern appear across the IOM reports. These include (1) the lack of a comprehensive disability monitoring program, (2) the need for better integration and coordination of federally supported disability research, and (3) funding levels that are inconsistent with the current and projected impacts of disability on individuals, families, and communities. In this commentary we examine the lack of progress in addressing the recommendations contained in the IOM reports. We conclude that renewed efforts by consumers, clinicians, educators, researchers, administrators, and policy makers are needed to achieve the promise of rehabilitation and disability science identified 20 years ago. PMID:22425964

  12. How have researchers studied multiracial populations: A content and methodological review of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    The U. S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic make-up of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied both to recognize the emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990–2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals from primarily the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  13. The surgical management of spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) ‒ 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Pezzetta, Edgardo; Kokudo, Takashi; Uldry, Emilie; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Kudo, Hiroki; Ris, Hans-Beat; Christodoulou, Michel; Vuilleumier, Henri; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-05-23

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) is an uncommon and challenging condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is indicated in the large majority of cases and different procedures have been described in this respect. We present the results of a mono-institutional evaluation of the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation over a 20-year period. The charts of 25 patients with spontaneous esophageal perforation treated at the Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Lausanne were retrospectively studied. In the 25 patients, 24 patients were surgically treated and one was managed with conservative treatment. Primary buttressed esophageal repair was performed in 23 cases. Nine postoperative complications were recorded, and the overall mortality was 32%. Despite prompt treatment postoperative morbidity and mortality are still relevant. Early diagnosis and definitive surgical management are the keys for successful outcome in the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation. Primary suture with buttressing should be considered as the procedure of choice. Conservative approach may be applied in very selected cases. PMID:27052150

  14. CT angiography after 20 years: a transformation in cardiovascular disease characterization continues to advance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Leipsic, Jonathon; Joseph Schoepf, U; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2014-06-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5-15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  15. Serum TCDD and TEQ concentrations among Seveso women, 20 years after the explosion.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Patterson, Don G; Turner, Wayman E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) is a historical cohort study of the female population residing near Seveso, Italy, on 10 July 1976, when a chemical explosion resulted in the highest known residential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Individual TCDD concentration was measured in serum collected near the time of the explosion, and in 1996, we collected adequate blood for TCDD and total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) measurement. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls were measured in 1996 serum for a sample (n=225, 23%) of the SWHS cohort and WHO 2005 TEQs were calculated. We examined characteristics that predict 1996 TCDD concentrations and estimated TCDD elimination half-life over the 20-year period since the explosion. Median lipid-adjusted TCDD and total TEQ concentrations in 1996 serum were 7.3 and 26.2 p.p.t., respectively. Initial 1976 TCDD and age at explosion were the strongest predictors of 1996 TCDD. The TCDD elimination half-life was 7.1 years for women older than 10 years in 1976, but was shorter in those who were younger. Twenty years after the explosion, TCDD concentrations in this SWHS sample, the majority of who were children in 1976, remain elevated relative to background. These data add to the limited data available on TCDD elimination half-life in children. PMID:24149975

  16. A 20-year study on 190 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a developing country: Turkey experience.

    PubMed

    Usta, Arif; Alhan, Etem; Cinel, Akif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Erem, Cihangir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 190 PHPT patients, of whom 137 were asymptomatic (72%). The mean serum calcium at the time of diagnosis was 11.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL. The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 467 ± 78 pg/mL. Ultrasonography (USG) identified all abnormal glands accurately (82.6%) and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) was used in 89.4% of the patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 61%. The common use of USG and MIBI detected 92% of the lesions. Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was performed in 12.2% of the patients and focused unilateral neck exploration (FUNE) in the remaining 87.8%. Surgical intervention was unsuccessful in 1 patient (0.5%). The conversion ratio from FUNE to BNE was 5.2%. The mean operation time and mean hospital stay decreased significantly in patients with FUNE. Pathologic examination revealed single adenoma in 93% of the patients. New imaging techniques result in the conversion of surgical treatments of PHPT. FUNE in parathyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon may provide successful treatment rates. PMID:25875546

  17. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina

    2009-01-01

    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  18. Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in 20 Years Old Female with Neglected Developmental Dysplasia of Hip

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Jain, Jitesh K; Sharma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Management of developmental dysplasia of hip in adult is challenging problem. Management protocols are not well defined in terms of operative technique. Patient may present very late. Usually they consult orthopaedic surgeons when osteoarthritic changes set in, leading to pain. Operative management is difficult because of difficult exposure, altered anatomy of soft tissue structures, hypoplastic femoral medullary canal and shallow and atypical acetabulum filled with soft tissues. Femoral head is up-ridden with contracted Abductors which resists reduction of femoral head into acetabulum. Altered anatomy of neurovascular structures also pose a risk of being injured during surgery. Case Report Here we are presenting a case of bilateral total hip arthroplasty in 20 years old female with developmental dysplasia of hip and sharing our experience of its operative management. Conclusion We concluded from this case study that total hip arthroplasty in developmental dysplasia of hip is technically demanding but gives good functional and clinical result. For getting functionally good result contracted soft tissues around joint need special attention. PMID:27298952

  19. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting. PMID:25244627

  20. Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Wood, A

    2013-11-01

    The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development. PMID:24102746

  1. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  2. Susac's Syndrome in a Patient Diagnosed with MS for 20 Years: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zeynep Batur Caglayan, Hale; Yildirim-Capraz, Irem

    2014-01-01

    Susac's syndrome is an uncommon neurologic disorder of unknown cause. It has been described as a clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and branch retinal artery occlusions. Clinically the diagnosis is difficult when the patient presents only a portion of a triad. We present a case with vision loss and sensorineural deafness and who had been diagnosed with MS for 20 years. Susac's syndrome is presumed to be an autoimmune endotheliopathy. Neurologic symptoms and signs are diffuse and multifocal, acute or subacute in onset, and progress during the active phase of the disease. In some patients the onset was stroke like and in others that of subacute dementia. Headache, often with migrainous features, was a prominent feature initially in more than one half of the patients. A high index of suspicion leading to correct diagnosis and early appropriate therapy may reduce the permanent sequel seen with this disease. Misdiagnosis is common. In patients in whom diagnosis and treatment are delayed permanent morbidity is higher in terms of visual loss, hearing loss, and neurologic debility. In patients in whom rapid diagnosis has led to early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, recovery can be almost complete. PMID:24716016

  3. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  4. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  5. [Studies on current trend of imported malaria in Japan--pediatric cases in recent 20 years].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Y; Ohtomo, H; Kimura, M; Takeuchi, T

    2000-09-01

    Imported malaria has been increasing according to the recent globalization of Japan. There are about 120 clinical cases of malaria which include a few pediatric cases (approximately 1%) every year. Generally, pediatric cases often have an atypical onset and course compared to adult cases, and also develop serious and fatal effects in a short time. In this study, we examined imported malaria cases in subjects under 15 years old from 1980 to 1999 conducted by Research group on clinical evaluation against orphan drugs in the treatment of imported tropical diseases and parasitic diseases. During the 20 years we found 44 clinical cases in children. Of these 70% were foreign cases. Among the species of parasites, there were 21 cases of Vivax malaria and 17 cases of Falciparum malaria and a few cases of Malariae and Ovale malaria were also found, which is rare even in adults. Concerning the drugs chosen in Japan for chemotherapy to treat malaria, chloroquine and primaquine seemed to be employed most frequently before 1990, however mefloquine or artesunate seemed to be more common after 1990. Also, most pediatric cases were former residents or refugees from tropical countries, however some cases were in Japanese children who had recently visited those areas with their families. There have been no fatalities in pediatric cases of malaria, however tropical diseases, including malaria, must be rule out, when examining pyretic children, considering the number of travelers going abroad has been increasing. PMID:11068361

  6. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter‐writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  7. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others. PMID:25203760

  8. [Pulmonary resection using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery--20 years experience].

    PubMed

    Baste, J-M; Orsini, B; Rinieri, P; Melki, J; Peillon, C

    2014-04-01

    Major lung resection using minimally invasive techniques - video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) - was first described 20 years ago. However, its development has been slow in many countries because the value of this approach has been questioned. Different techniques and definitions of VATS are used and this can be confusing for physicians and surgeons. The benefit of minimally invasive thoracic surgery was not always apparent, while many surgeons pointed to suboptimal operative outcomes. Recently, technological advances (radiology, full HD monitor and new stapler devices) have improved VATS outcomes. The objectives of this review are to emphasize the accepted definition of VATS resection, outline the different techniques developed and their results including morbidity and mortality compared to conventional approaches. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has not been proven to give superior survival (level one evidence) compared to thoracotomy. A slight advantage has been demonstrated for short-term outcomes. VATS is not a surgical revolution but rather an evolution of surgery. It should be considered together with the new medical environment including stereotactic radiotherapy and radiofrequency. VATS seems to be more accurate in the treatment of small lung lesions diagnosed with screening CT scan. In the academic field, VATS allows easier teaching and diffusion of techniques. PMID:24750952

  9. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting…

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  10. Transconjunctival Approach for Zygomatic Fracture: A Single Surgeon’s Experience of More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hidetaka; Masumoto, Kazuyuki; Chuman, Takahiro; Satake, Yoshiyasu; Yanai, Tetsu; Harada, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: To let experts evaluate a single surgeon’s experience with a combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in the repair of zygomatic fractures encountered in 46 East Asian patients whom he treated over the past 20 years. Methods: Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. A total of 67 conjunctival and secondary incisions were made on 46 patients for repair of zygomatic fractures. All operative procedures were performed using a combination of transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approaches to repair zygomatic fractures. Results: The infraorbital rim and/or lateral buttress and/or lateral orbit was stabilized with titanium miniplates in 28 patients and absorbable miniplates in 11 patients. Seven patients required only reduction technique with no need of plates. Four cases needed additional canthotomy besides a conjunctival approach. No ectropion or entropion developed in any of the patients. Complications included eyelid laceration during surgery (n = 1), herniation of the conjunctiva (n = 1), temporary pyogenic granuloma of the conjunctiva after surgery (n = 1), and temporary entropion in a secondary incision (n = 1). Conclusions: A combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in repairing zygomatic fractures is simple, easy, and effective, leaving no conspicuous facial scars. It is vitally important, however, that the surgeon masters the technique of transconjunctival approach well before he has good results in East Asian patients. PMID:27482496

  11. Treatment, failures and complications of ectopic pregnancy: changes over a 20 year period.

    PubMed

    Landström, G; Thorburn, J; Bryman, I

    1998-01-01

    Data from all 225 women operated on for ectopic pregnancy in 1992-1994 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital were collected and compared with three previous cross-sectional investigations from our hospital (1975-1979, 1981-1982 and 1986-1987) in order to evaluate the extent to which surgical treatment and post-operative complications have changed over a 20 year period. Laparoscopic surgery, which was not possible in the 1970s, was used in almost 85% of the ectopic pregnancies in 1992-1994. Conservative treatment was still the most frequently used technique. The complication rate was 1.2% in 1975-1979 when only laparotomies were carried out. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery (1986-1987), the complication rate rose significantly (7.3%) and continued to increase even when this procedure was established as routine (14.2% in 1992-1994). Post-operative complications were most frequent after conservative laparoscopic surgery (24.4%) while there were no complications after laparotomies. In spite of increasing complication rates the frequency of patients in pre-shock, as well as the proportion of patients with heavy intra-abdominal bleeding and tubal rupture, decreased over time. PMID:9512258

  12. 20 years of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): present state of development and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rainer H; Shegokar, Ranjita; Keck, Cornelia M

    2011-09-01

    In 1990, the lipid nanoparticles were invented in the laboratories, the first patent filings took place in 1991. The lipid nanoparticles were developed as alternative to traditional carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. After 20 years of lipid nanoparticles, the present state of development is reviewed - academic progress but also the development state of pharmaceutical products for the benefit of patients. Meanwhile many research groups are active worldwide, their results are reviewed which cover many different administration routes: dermal and mucosal, oral, intravenous/parenteral, pulmonary but also ocular. The lipid nanoparticles are also used for peptide/protein delivery, in gene therapy and various miscellaneous applications (e.g. vaccines). The questions of large scale production ability, accepted regulatory status of excipients, and - important for the public perception - lack of nanotoxicity are discussed, important pre-requisites for the use of each nanocarrier in products. Identical to the liposomes, the lipid nanoparticles entered first the cosmetic market, product examples are presented. Presently the pharmaceutical product development focuses on products for unmet needs and on niche products with lower development costs (e.g. ocular delivery), which can be realized also by smaller companies. A pharmaceutical perspective for the future is given, but also outlined the opportunities for non-pharmaceutical use, e.g. in nutraceuticals. PMID:21291409

  13. [The Italian Places of Nicholas Green 20 years after his assassination].

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Scarabelli, Andrea; Citterio, Franco; De Santo, Luca S; De Rosa, Giusy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Nicholas Green, a 7- year-old American boy was shot, while on vacation, on the Autostrada (motorway) Salerno to Reggio Calabria in Italy. His organs, with the consent of his parents, Reg and Maggie, were removed and 7 persons had their lives changed. In Italy in these last 20 years, organ donation has increased powerfully from 6.2 to 18.2 per million population with a peak at 20 in 2006. Reg and Maggie Green, after Nicholas death, started campaigning for organ donation by making full use of the media. Italian justice was efficient and the criminals were imprisoned quickly. With popular enthusiasm, a total of 103 places were dedicated to Nicholas (schools, halls, squares, streets, parks, gardens, private collections), a proof of great appreciation. Teaching organ donation to children, nurses and medical students is a powerful tool to convey the message of organ donation. To prevent opposition to organ removal when brain death occurs as Professor Francesco Casavola says signing for organ donation should be a family decision and laws for organ donation should be updated frequently in order to meet the progress of modernity. PMID:25030013

  14. Data Compression in Full-Text Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Timothy C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes compression methods for components of full-text systems such as text databases on CD-ROM. Topics discussed include storage media; structures for full-text retrieval, including indexes, inverted files, and bitmaps; compression tools; memory requirements during retrieval; and ranking and information retrieval. (Contains 53 references.)…

  15. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  16. Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Shi, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.

    2011-01-01

    As a review for the 20th anniversary of publishing the antigen retrieval (AR) technique in this journal, the authors intend briefly to summarize developments in AR-immunohistochemistry (IHC)–based research and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on current challenges and future research directions. Over the past 20 years, the efforts of many different investigators have coalesced in extending the AR approach to all areas of anatomic pathology diagnosis and research and further have led to AR-based protein extraction techniques and tissue-based proteomics. As a result, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue collections are now seen as a literal treasure of materials for clinical and translational research to an extent unimaginable just two decades ago. Further research in AR-IHC is likely to focus on tissue proteomics, developing a more efficient protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue based on the AR principle, and combining the proteomics approach with AR-IHC to establish a practical, sophisticated platform for identifying and using biomarkers in personalized medicine. PMID:21339172

  17. Computer program and user documentation medical data tape retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J.

    1971-01-01

    This volume provides several levels of documentation for the program module of the NASA medical directorate mini-computer storage and retrieval system. A biomedical information system overview describes some of the reasons for the development of the mini-computer storage and retrieval system. It briefly outlines all of the program modules which constitute the system.

  18. MOZAIC-IAGOS program : 20 years of in-situ data in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Valérie; Sauvage, Bastien; Nédélec, Philippe; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    -latitudes thanks to 5 aircraft based in Europe flying westbound and eastbound since 1994; Transects over the African continent thanks to daily Air Namibia flights between 2006 and 2013; South Atlantic area thanks to regular flights between Europe and South America; The Asian monsoon region thanks to regular flights between Europe and the Indian-South East Asia area sampling the UT under the influence of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). - Ten years of CO measurements which show an increase in concentration on moving from the Western to Eastern hemisphere. In the US, Atlantic and European sectors CO concentrations have fallen by about 2% per year. - Almost 20 years of Ozone measurements at northern mid-latitudes showing a leveling-off of the mixing ratios for the last 10-12 years over the Atlantic sector while ozone is still increasing over Asia. - Almost 20 years of relative humidity measurements showing that the upper troposphere (10 - 12 km altitude, which corresponds to the aircraft cruise level) is much wetter than reflected in the model analyses of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast).

  19. Management of the infected median sternotomy wound with muscle flaps. The Emory 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Jurkiewicz, M J; Bostwick, J; Wood, R; Bried, J T; Culbertson, J; Howell, R; Eaves, F; Carlson, G; Nahai, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to define those patient variables that contribute to morbidity and mortality of median sternotomy wound infection and the results of treatment by debridement and closure by muscle flaps. BACKGROUND: Infection of the median sternotomy wound after open heart surgery is a devastating complication associated with significant mortality. Twenty years ago, these wounds were treated with either open packing or antibiotic irrigation, with a mortality approaching 50% in some series. In 1975, the authors began treating these wounds with radical sternal debridement followed by closure using muscle or omental flaps. The mortality of sternal wound infection has dropped to < 10%. METHODS: The authors' total experience with 409 patients treated over 20 years is described in relation to flap choices, hospital days after sternal wound closure, and incidence rates of morbidity and mortality. One hundred eighty-six patients treated since January 1988 were studied to determine which patient variables had impact on rates of flap closure complications, recurrent sternal wound infection, or death. Variables included obesity, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, poststernotomy septicemia, internal mammary artery harvest, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and perioperative myocardial infarction and were analyzed using chi square tests. Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mortality rate over 20 years was 8.1% (33/49). Additional procedures for recurrent sternal wound infection were necessary in 5.1% of patients. Thirty-one patients (7.6%) required treatment for hematoma, and 11 patients (2.7%) required hernia repair. Among patients treated since 1988, variables strongly associated with mortality were septicemia (p < 0.00001), perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.006), and intra-aortic balloon pump (p = 0.0168). Factors associated with wound closure complications were intra-aortic balloon pump

  20. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  1. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J.

    2015-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. PMID:26048934

  2. Head and Neck Schwannomas: 20-Year Experience of a Single Institution Excluding Cutaneous and Acoustic Sites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Patel, Rajiv M; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    While head and neck sites comprise the most common location of schwannomas, clinicopathologic data regarding those tumors occurring in non-acoustic and non-cutaneous locations are relatively sparse. In this study, therefore, we sought to examine retrospectively the clinical and pathologic features of head and neck schwannomas excised at our institution over a 20-year period. During this period, we identified a total cohort of 85 patients, which included 36 males (42.4 %) and 49 females with average age of 41.3 years, the majority of which presented asymptomatically with a mass. Localized symptoms were, however, associated with all of the schwannomas that arose in the oral cavity and larynx, while tumors within or adjacent to bone were often associated with neurologic complaints (7 of 15 such tumors [46.7 %]). Clinical follow-up data was available in 86.4 % of all cases and demonstrated no recurrences or mortality. Pathologically, the microscopic features were characteristic of those well-described for schwannomas in other sites, including alternating Antoni A and B areas and the presence of degenerative changes. Tumor encapsulation, however, was variable and was completely absent in schwannomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. Additionally, a significant minority of the tumors (28.2 %) exhibited foci that resembled neurofibroma. Non-acoustic, non-cutaneous schwannomas of the head and neck appear to have clinicopathologic features similar to their soft tissue counterparts with some subsite variation in presentation and/or microscopic features. PMID:26747460

  3. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development. Methods We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2) locus (IGF2/H19) in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) – IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0) and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2) – were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects. Results At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference −0.017 (95% CI; −0.028, −0.005), P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups. Conclusions Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality. PMID:23840686

  4. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement. PMID:17642125

  5. MEST-Tyche will take its dark comets to impact our solar system in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-03-01

    Tyche has many dark comets like Oort cloud. It went near our solar system every 25-27 million years. It could take its dark comets to impact our earth. Tyche and its dark comet absorb light like a dark light which is a negative black-body radiation. (1) Eddν=-c1dνd^3dνe^c2dνd/Td-1. Among it, Ed: the dark energy, νd: the dark frequence, Td: the dark temperature, c1d,c2d: the constant. So when they go near us, their wave has a against Doppler redshift as 0.000165. And they will inbreak solar system at the rate of 99AU/y, from the distance of 1,500AU and in 20 years. It can cause the broken ozonosphere, the lithosphere to crack, many big activity volcanic and the continental drift. And it can darked the light and colded the climate to the Great Ice Age. Not only it will break our environment by a special ``nuclear explosion'' under low temperature, but also the dark life will change the Genetic code of our life. So it will kill many lives and will produce new life. So it could trigger the Mass Extinction. We can bulid up a new pair of nuclear reactor (include dark nuclear energy) to drive a universal craft and can change the orbit of our earth for evading the impaction. We need a new life-information technology to develop our life and consciousness.

  6. Familial transmission of schizophrenia in Palau: A 20-year genetic epidemiological study in three generations.

    PubMed

    Myles-Worsley, Marina; Tiobech, Josepha; Blailes, Francisca; Middleton, Frank A; Vinogradov, Sophia; Byerley, William; Faraone, Stephen V

    2011-04-01

    Our genetic epidemiological studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (SCZ) in the isolated population of Palau have been ongoing for 20 years. Results from the first decade showed that Palau has an elevated prevalence of SCZ and that cases cluster in extended multigenerational pedigrees interconnected via complex genetic relationships after centuries of endogamous, but not consanguineous, marriages. The aim of our second decade of research, which extended data collection into a third generation of young, high-risk (HR) Palauans, was to identify significant predictors of intergenerational transmission of illness. Our findings revealed that degree of familial loading and gender effects on reproductive fitness are important modifiers of risk for transmission of SCZ. Among 45 distinct multiplex families, we identified 10 high-density (HD) Palauan families, each with 7-29 SCZ cases, which contain half of Palau's 260 SCZ cases and 80% of the 113 SCZ cases with one or more affected first-degree relatives, indicating that familial loading is a major risk factor for SCZ in Palau. Cases that belong to multiply affected sibships are more common than cases with an affected parent. Furthermore, only 6/38 multiply affected sibships have an affected parent, strong evidence that many unaffected parents are obligate carriers of susceptibility genes. Although reproductive fitness is dramatically reduced in affected males, the 30% minority who do become fathers are twice as likely as affected mothers to transmit SCZ to an offspring. As they evolve, these HD families can help to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that predict intergenerational transmission of SCZ. PMID:21294248

  7. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  8. Prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Patras, Greece: three surveys over 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Anthracopoulos, M; Karatza, A; Liolios, E; Triga, M; Triantou, K; Priftis, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in 1978, 1991, and 1998 in Patras, Greece.
METHODS—The study populations of the three comparable cross sectional surveys comprised third and fourth grade public school children in Patras, Greece. Sample sizes in 1978, 1991, and 1998 were 3735,2952 and 3397 children and response rates were 80.4%, 81.9%, and 90.6%, respectively. Prevalence of current, non-current, and lifetime asthma or recurrent wheezing was determined by parental questionnaire. Personal communication with the parents of asthmatic children in 1991 and 1998 provided data on lost schooldays.
RESULTS—Prevalence rates of current asthma or wheezing in 1978, 1991, and 1998 were 1.5%, 4.6%, and 6.0%, respectively (1978-91: p=0.01, 1991-98: p=0.02, 1978-98: p=0.03). Lifetime prevalences of asthma or wheezing in 1991 and 1998 were 8.0% and 9.6%, respectively (p=0.03). Current diagnosed asthma increased proportionally to diagnosed wheezing during 1991-98. The number of schooldays lost in the previous 2 years because of asthma did not change (p>0.1) between 1991 (0.31 per child) and 1998 (0.34 per child).
CONCLUSIONS—Our results support a true increase in the prevalence of current and lifetime asthma in the last 20 years among pre-adolescent children in Patras, Greece.

 PMID:11413358

  9. [The agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Sapegin, L M; Daĭneko, N M; Timofeev, S F

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying on agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. There were preliminary identified 8 agroecosystems associations by Broaun-Blanquet ecologo-floristic classification: Phalacrolometum septentrionale, Agrostio tenuis Calamagrostietum epigeii, Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis, Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis, Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis, Caricetum hirtae. First three associations were attributed to Agropyretea repentis class, to Agropyretalia repentis order, Convolvulo--Agropyrion union. We consider the association Phalacrolometum septentrionale as the initial stage of agroscosystems overgrowing which is continued with increase of its demonstration in association Agrostio tenuis--Calamagrostietum epigeii and Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis. The associations Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis and Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis we attributed to class Molinio--Arrhenatheretea, to order Arrhenatheretalia and Festuncion pratensis union. The association Caricetum hirtae was attributed to class Plantaginetea majoris, to order Plantaginetalia majoris and to union Agrapyro--Rumicion crispi. For each of the allocated associations and rye sowing there was provided brief characteristic, including 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclids content in soil and air-dry herbage mass. During the period of studies there was marked stable soil and air-dry herbage mass contamination by radionuclides at absence of grass stabilization of studied agroecosystems. The limiting factor on using of meadow agroecosystems herbages is their high level of contamination by 90Sr. The herbage can be used only for obtaining of milk-raw material for processing. PMID:18666581

  10. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  11. Rationale, scope, and 20-year experience of vascular surgical training with lifelike pulsatile flow models.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Schmidli, Jürg; Schumacher, Hardy; Gürke, Lorenz; Klemm, Klaus; Duschek, Nikolaus; Meile, Toni; Assadian, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    technical skills of vascular surgical residents at national or international board examinations. This article gives an overview of our experiences of >20 years of practical training of beginners and advanced vascular surgeons using lifelike pulsatile vascular surgical training models. PMID:23601597

  12. A 20-Year Experience of Hepatic Resection for Melanoma: Is There an Expanding Role?

    PubMed Central

    Faries, Mark B; Leung, Anna; Morton, Donald L; Hari, Danielle; Lee, Ji-Hey; Sim, Myung-shin; Bilchik, Anton J

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanoma liver metastasis is most often fatal with a 4–6 month median overall survival (OS). Over the past 20 years surgical techniques have improved in parallel with more effective systemic therapies. We reviewed our institutional experience of hepatic melanoma metastases. Study Design OS and disease specific survival (DSS) were calculated from hepatic metastasis diagnosis. Potential prognostic factors including primary tumor type, depth, medical treatment response, location and surgical approach were evaluated. Results Among 1,078 patients with melanoma liver metastases treated at our institution since 1991, 58 (5.4%) were received surgical therapy (resection+/−ablation). Median and 5-year OS were 8 months and 6.6 %, respectively, for 1,016 non-surgical patients versus 24.8 months and 30%, respectively, for surgical patients (p<0.001). Median OS was similar among patients undergoing ablation (with or without resection) relative to those undergoing surgery alone. On multivariate analysis of surgical patients, completeness of surgical therapy (HR3.4, 95%CI 1.4–8.1, p=0.007) and stabilization of melanoma on therapy prior to surgery (HR 0.38, 95%CI 0.19–0.78, p=0.008) predicted OS. Conclusions In this largest single-institution experience, patients selected for surgical therapy experienced markedly improved survival relative to those receiving only medical therapy. Patients whose disease stabilized on medical therapy enjoyed particularly favorable results, regardless of the number or size of their metastases. The advent of more effective systemic therapy in melanoma may substantially increase the fraction of patients who are eligible for surgical intervention, and this combination of treatment modalities should be considered whenever it is feasible in the context of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:24952441

  13. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  14. Fruits of 20 years of highway safety legislative advocacy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA's estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990-2009. The costs were built from NHTSA's estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  15. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  16. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  17. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  18. Seroepidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in Évora (southern Portugal): 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an endemic zoonosis in the southern regions of Europe. This paper reports the trend in CanL seroprevalence in the municipality of Évora (southern Portugal), where the disease is endemic, over a period of 20 years. The work comprises three different studies that were conducted in the years of 1990 (n = 3,614), 1999 (n = 3,563) and 2010 (n = 1,485 dogs). Blood samples were collected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaigns. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected with the direct agglutination test (DAT). Findings The total percentages of DAT seropositive dogs were 3.9% (in 1990), 9.4% (in 1999) and 5.6% (in 2010). The overall seroprevalence was significantly higher in 1999 compared to 1990, but in 2010 a significant decrease was found in comparison with 1999. However, compared to 1990 the overall seroprevalence was still significantly higher in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 seroprevalence has switched from significantly lower to higher in the rural areas. Relatively few dogs showed clinical signs of overt disease (0.8% to 2.0%) with lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis and skin involvement as most frequently observed. Gender associated differences in seroprevalence were not found, and most commonly seropositive dogs were working or stray animals. The mean age of seropositive dogs was significantly higher than seronegative dogs in all three sampling rounds. Conclusions A high proportion of dogs, which are apparently healthy, yet seropositive, may remain an important factor in limiting the outcome of zoonotic leishmaniosis control efforts. PMID:23587181

  19. Demographic Analysis of Tree Colonization in a20-Year-Old Right-of-Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Charles; Brison, Jacques; Bouchard, André

    2001-12-01

    Past tree colonization dynamics of a powerline-right-of-way (ROW) corridor in the Haut-Saint-Laurent region of Quebec was studied based on the present age distribution of its tree populations. This colonization study spans 20 years, from 1977 (ROW clearance) to 1996. The sampled quadrats were classified into six vegetation types. Tree colonization dynamics were interpreted in each type, and three distinct patterns were identified. (1) Communities adapted to acidic conditions were heavily colonized by Acer rubrum, at least for the last 12 years. (2) Communities adapted to mesic or to hydric conditions were more intensely colonized in the period 1985-1987 than in the following 9 years; this past success in tree colonization may have been caused by herbicide treatments, which could have facilitated tree establishment by damaging the herbaceous and shrub vegetation. (3) Cattail, vine-raspberry, and reed-dominated communities contained few tree individuals, with almost all trees establishing between 1979 and 1990; those three vegetation types appear as the most resistant to tree invasion in the ROW studied. This study supports the need for an integrated approach in ROW vegetation management, in which the selection of vegetation treatment methods would depend on the tree colonization dynamics in each vegetation type. Minimizing disturbances inflicted on ROW herbaceous and shrub covers should be the central strategy because disturbances jeopardize natural resistance to future tree invasion, except in communities adapted to acidic conditions where the existing vegetation does not prevent invasion by A. rubrum. Many trees are surviving the successive cutting operations by producing new sprouts each time, particularly in communities adapted to mesic and hydric conditions. In these cases, mechanical cutting should be replaced by a one-time stump-killing operation, to avoid repeated and unsuccessful treatments of the same individuals over time.

  20. The evolving role of data scientist during 20 years of the British Atmospheric Data Centre (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Parton, G.; Pascoe, C.; Guillory, A.; da Costa, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    In 2014 The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), now part of the Centre of Environmental Data Archival (CEDA), will celebrate its 20th anniversary. During its lifetime, most BADC staff have defined themselves as data scientists by virtue of being scientists by background and "data workers" by practice. However, the definition of data scientist has been ill defined until recently. As the term has become popularised in the world of business and general information technology, we ask ourselves to what extent the popular definition fits our profession. We observe that data science, as practised at CEDA, encompasses several roles which overlap and compliment each other as we strive to be enablers of data exploitation. For us a data scientist's skills include elements of data curation, software engineering, data infrastructure management and data-intensive research. As data science has evolved the balance between these roles has shifted in response to changes in technology, demands of the research community and funding drivers. We have had to balance our role as enablers of data exploitation, by providing services and infrastructure to the geo-science community, with our role as pioneers of data exploitation itself. By telling the story of how these roles have evolved during the 20 year history of the BADC, we aim to explore the maturing role of data scientist as practised within the geo-sciences and contrast that role with its recently popularised usage. Looking forward we will address questions about how centres of expertise, such as CEDA, can best increase the data capabilities of geo-science research as a whole in order to facilitate the transition to data-intensive science.

  1. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  2. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  3. MEDOKADS - A 20 Year's Daily AVHRR Data Series for Analysis of Land Surface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslowsky, D.; Billing, H.; Bolle, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    To derive primary data products from raw AVHRR data, like spectral reflectances or temperatures, it is necessary to correct for sensor degradation and changing hardware specifications, to re-sample the data into a grid of equal pixel size, to perform geographical registration, cloud-screening and normalization for illumination and observation geometry. A data set which resulted from the application of these corrections is the top of the atmosphere Mediterranean Extended One-Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) which now covers a period of 20 years. To study land surface processes, the obtained spectral data have to be combined, radiometric corrections for atmospheric effects, emissivity corrections in the case of temperature measurements have to be applied, and the variable over-flight times have to be accounted for. By application of complex evaluation schemes then higher level products are generated, like vegetation indices, surface albedo, and surface energy fluxes. The ultimate goal is to provide the users community with problem-related information. This includes the quantification of changes and the determination of trends. Methods and tools to reach this goal as well as their limitations are discussed. To validate the data, extended field measurements have been performed in which the scaling between local ground measurements and large scale satellite data play a major role. A major problem remains the application of atmospheric corrections because of the not well known variable aerosol content. The supervision of the quality of the derived information leads to the concept of anchor stations at which surface and atmospheric properties should permanently be measured.

  4. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  5. Image retrieval for information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, Thorsten; Klauck, Christoph; Kreyss, Jutta; Zhang, J.

    1995-03-01

    In order to retrieve a set of intended images from a huge image archive, human beings think of special contents with respect to the searched scene, like a countryside or a technical drawing. Therefore, in general it is harder to retrieve images by using a syntactical feature- based language than a language which offers the selection of examples concerning color, texture, and contour in combination with natural language concepts. This motivation leads to a content-based image analysis and goes on to a content-based storage and retrieval of images. Furthermore, it is unreasonable for any human being to make the content description for thousands of images manually. From this point of view, the project IRIS (image retrieval for information systems) combines well-known methods and techniques in computer vision and AI in a new way to generate content descriptions of images in a textual form automatically. IRIS retrieves the images by means of text retrieval realized by the SearchManager/6000. The textual description is generated by four sub-steps: feature extraction like colors, textures, and contours, segmentation, and interpretation of part-whole relations. The system is implemented on IBM RS/6000 using AIX. It has already been tested with 350 images.

  6. Effects of Age on the Neural Correlates of Retrieval Cue Processing Are Modulated by Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duverne, Sandrine; Motamedinia, Shahab; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of retrieval orientation--the differential processing of retrieval cues according to the nature of the sought-for information--were investigated in healthy young (18-20 years old) and older (63-77 years old) adults. In one pair of study-test cycles, subjects studied either words or pictures presented in one of…

  7. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    PubMed Central

    Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F.; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  8. A tissue retrieval and postharvest processing regimen for rodent reproductive tissues compatible with long-term storage on the international space station and postflight biospecimen sharing program.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at -80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  9. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of ~6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of ~4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity

  10. Tracking log transport and deposition during a 20-year flood in a wide mountain river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Kaczka, Ryszard; Czech, Wiktoria

    2016-04-01

    Distance of large wood transport during floods and conditions for wood deposition in wide mountain rivers are still insufficiently recognised. Tracking logs tagged with radio transmitters was used to investigate differences in depositional conditions and the length of log displacement during a 20-year flood between channel reaches of different morphology in the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians. During a rising limb of the flood, logs were placed into the river at the beginning of an incised reach, close to the beginning of a channelized reach, and 1 km upstream from the beginning of a wide, multi-thread reach. The incised, channelized, and multi-thread reaches retained 12.5%, 33%, and 94% of tagged logs introduced to these reaches, and all the logs retained in the multi-thread reach were deposited in its upstream half. Significant differences in the length of displacement existed between the logs delivered to the river at the three locations, with logs placed into the river at the beginning of the incised reach moved the longest distances and those delivered just upstream from the multi-thread reach the shortest ones. One-fourth of the logs were deposited in a low-flow channel or on channel margin, one-fifth on the floodplain and more than half on gravel bars. After the flood, river cross-sections with deposited logs and a set of cross-sections without wood deposits were surveyed to collect data for one-dimensional modelling of hydraulic conditions at the flood peak. The cross-sections with deposited logs were typified by significantly greater flow width and flow area, and significantly smaller mean flow depth, mean velocity, Froude number, mean bed shear stress and unit stream power. Principal component analysis of the hydraulic parameters in the analysed cross-sections grouped the two types of cross-sections in distinct clusters, indicating that multi-thread cross-sections differed in hydraulic parameters from all the other cross-sections. The experiment

  11. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988-2008) Multisport Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-02-12

    Context : Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective : To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting : Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988-2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants : Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results : Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries ( 16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions : The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may

  12. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  13. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988–2008) Multisport Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Context: Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective: To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988–2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants: Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results: Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries (16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 3.8) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions: The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may be

  14. Insights into the dynamics of Etna volcano from 20-year time span microgravity and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fanizza, Giovanni; Greco, Filippo; Matera, Alfredo; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    A common ground deformation and microgravity array of benchmarks lies on the southern slope of Mt. Etna volcano and is routinely measured by GPS and relative gravimetry methods. The array was installed for monitoring the ground motion and underground mass changes along the southern rift of the volcano and data are usually processed and interpreted independently. The benchmarks have been installed mainly along a main road crossing the southern side of the volcano with an E-W direction and reaching 2000 m of altitude. The gravity array covers the entire path of the road, while the ground deformation one only the upper one, due to the woods at lower altitude preventing good GPS measurements. Furthermore, microgravity surveys are usually carried out more frequently with respect to the GPS ones. In this work, an integrated analysis of microgravity and ground deformation is performed over a 20-year time span (1994-2014). Gravity variations have been first corrected for the free-air effect using the GPS observed vertical deformation and the theoretical vertical gravity gradient (-308.6 μGal/m). The free-air corrected gravity changes were then reduced from the high frequency variations (noise) and the seasonal fluctuations, mainly due to water-table fluctuations. This long-term dataset constitutes a unique opportunity to examine the behavior of Etna in a period in which the volcano exhibited different styles of activity characterized by recharging phases, flank eruptions and fountaining episodes. The gravity and deformation data allow investigating the response of the volcano in a wider perspective providing insights into the definition of its dynamic behavior and posing the basis to track the unrest evolution and to forecast the style of the eruption. The joint analysis highlights common periods, in which the signals underwent contemporaneous changes occurring mainly in the central and eastern stations. On the other hand, no significant changes in the behavior of

  15. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    , via community-based treatment programmes in 125,000 communities in 33 endemic countries. This 20-year-old effort has achieved a number of notable results, including positive health impacts, economic benefits, strengthened health systems, and the empowerment of communities where the delivery and administration of Mectizan are managed. The MDP serves as a model for similar health programmes in the developing world and has also laid the foundation for the current integration efforts around 'neglected' tropical diseases. It has also taught the world many valuable lessons - about how to mobilize resources to address significant health challenges - and has demonstrated that it is possible, through public-private partnerships, to deliver healthcare to long-neglected populations, despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles including inadequate financial and human resources, lack of social, economic and health infrastructures, civil unrest and political strife, and competing, high-priority health issues. PMID:18718147

  16. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations—including morphological and behavioural traits—as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's—and our very own—evolutionary history. PMID:25487326

  17. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  18. Management and Design Tools for Document Retrieval Systems: A Method for Predicting Quantity Output.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorello, Marco R.

    The existing volume and increasing growth rate of documented information has resulted in numerous efforts to construct operational Document Storage and Retrieval Systems, as a practical solution to the demand for information storage and retrieval. Accompanying the surge to build more and better and bigger Document Retrieval Systems (DRSs), was the…

  19. Nocardia asteroides sinusitis in a pediatric patient: Case report with 20 year follow-up and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Westerberg, Brian D; Tan, Rusung; Kozak, Frederick K

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia Asteroides infection in a non-immunocompromised pediatric patient is extremely rare. We present a case of ethmoid sinusitis and orbital subperiosteal abscess caused by N. asteroides with a 20 year follow up and a review of the literature. N. asteroides was grown from intraoperative cultures for mycobacteria following surgical incision and drainage of the abscess. Postoperatively, the patient received a seven month course of trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole and had no subsequent sequelae. Nocardia infections are common in immunocompromised patients. We present what we believe to be the first case of pediatric Nocardia sinusitis with 20-year follow up. PMID:25943955

  20. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  1. 20 years of surface ozone measurements at El Tololo, Chile (2200 m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard Anet, Julien; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Globally consistent in situ-observations of high precision and known quality are one key element in understanding global climate change and effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere. The spatial coverage of available data strongly depends on the species of interest and varies highly around the globe. In case of surface ozone (O3), the observational network is particularly sparse in Africa, Asia, and South America. The southern hemispheric pristine GAW-regional station "El Tololo", located in the foothills of the Chilean Andes (30.17° S, 70.80° W, 2220 m asl), has been equipped with an ozone photometer in 1995 and has since then been measuring tropospheric ozone permanently. However, these measurements were neither entirely systematically processed nor quality-controlled until recently. This situation was drastically improved in 2015 the framework of the Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) project (www.meteoswiss.ch/catcos). Empa, in coordination with the local operator, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (DMC), and the University of Santiago, revised the entire surface ozone measurements. The unique 20-year-long ozone data-set has been made publicly available on the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, Japan) in mid-2015 and represents an exceptional piece of information on the southern hemispheric surface ozone distribution. In contrary to northern hemispheric stations, the positive trend in the measurements of tropospheric ozone at "El Tololo" did not level off in the recent past. More specifically, "El Tololo" shows a steady positive trend of 0.7 ppb/decade in agreement with other stations on the Southern hemisphere. However, the seasonal cycle differs strongly in behaviour, as maximum values in ozone do not peak in austral winter, but in austral spring - most probably due to stratospheric influence. We also find that the spring maximum has a retrograding tendency of around 5 days per decade. A combined

  2. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  3. Methane Seepage From the Arctic Shelf; 20 Years of Research on the Beaufort Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Collett, T. S.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has lead or played major roles in several efforts over the past 20 years to find geochemical evidence for gas hydrate dissociation on the Beaufort Sea shelf, a region of complex and varied geologic features that include: 1) several river deltas entering the Arctic Ocean, the largest of which is the Mackenzie River, 2) submerged continental shelf underlain by permafrost, 3) known petroleum systems of northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River Delta - Canada, 4), submerged pingo-like features (PLF's ) and, 5) pockmark fields. The results of these studies show that gas hydrate is present and that methane source can be both microbial and thermogenic. In light of our rapidly changing climate, the instability and potential methane release from Arctic gas hydrate deposits are reemerging as pivotal uncertainties. On the Alaskan Beaufort Shelf in water depths or about 10 m or less, methane concentrations in seawater are elevated relative to atmosphere. This methane likely originates from microbial degradation of organic matter deposited by rivers or coastal currents, and may be associated with organics in destabilized from recently thawed submerged shelf permafrost. In deeper water, north and west of the Prudhoe Bay area, some exceptionally high bottom water methane concentrations were measured with carbon isotopic signatures very similar (about -46 to -48‰) to gas hydrate sampled from the Mount Elbert 01 gas hydrate test well drilled in 2007 in the same area. This methane is presumably associated with the Prudhoe Bay gas hydrate and petroleum system, and likely from either gas hydrate dissociation or simple gas migration. Gas venting in and around the Mackenzie River delta is associated with offshore Pingo-like features (PLF's) and pockmarks. These PLF's resemble onshore pingos, but with an unknown origin. The region is underlain by an active petroleum system, submerged shelf permaforst, and gas hydrate. Methane concentrations are elevated in

  4. Skill in Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval Skill quantifies the ability of one retrieval from a sounder to be more accurate than the best forecast relative to another with the same of another sounder. This is summarized using a Retrieval Anomaly Skill Score (RASS) which is the cor (retrieved-background, truth-background) * sqrt(f), Where f is defined as the ratio of accepted to the possible retrievals. Charts show various features and comparisons of RASS to other methods of retrieval.

  5. 20 Years Lidar Observations of Clouds at the Edge of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Luebken, F.

    2013-12-01

    , caused by atmospheric transmission as well as system performance. We have investigated the temporal development of the lower lidar detection limit and its impact on the retrieved cloud properties. It is important to take these effects into account as they can change the tendency of long time series.

  6. Has External Quality Assurance Actually Improved Quality in Higher Education over the Course of 20 Years of the "Quality Revolution"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Bente

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the last 20 years so-called "quality revolution" it was expected from most of the established national quality agencies that internal quality systems and the development of an internal quality culture would emerge automatically in the HEI from the external quality impact. The author argues that a better balance must be found…

  7. Themes, Orientations, Synergies and a Shared Agenda: The First 20?Years of the SEDA Series of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Ruth; Brown, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Over 20?years, 25 books have been published to date in the SEDA series, and this review article aims to analyse the ways in which books within the series have contributed to thinking in higher education pedagogy over this time. We have approached the texts through three lenses, analysing them chronologically, thematically and by the orientation of…

  8. Risk Factors and Life Processes Associated with Teenage Pregnancy: Results of a Prospective Study from Birth to 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Lianne; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2001-01-01

    Data gathered during a 20-year longitudinal study of New Zealand women were used to describe the extent and timing of pregnancies within the cohort up to age 20; and to examine the extent to which the risk of early pregnancy was related to a range of social background, family, individual, and peer relationship factors measured over the course of…

  9. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  10. Pituitary stalk hemangioblastoma in a von hippel-lindau patient : clinical course follow-up over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Sung

    2013-05-01

    Supratentorial hemangioblastomas (HBs) are rare, and pituitary stalk HBs are extremely uncommon; therefore, pituitary stalk evaluation is often overlooked. Herein, we report the development of pituitary stalk HB over a 20-year period and the importance of regular long-term follow up for patients with HBs. PMID:23908704

  11. Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

  12. Back to the Future: Help! It Was 20 Years Ago, and We've Only Just Arrived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Kate

    This paper traces an educator's experiences with computers over a span of 20 years, and describes the computerization of and concomitant obstacles faced by the Humanities department at the American University in Cairo, Egypt (AUC). The computerization of AUC began in the 1980s, with workstations mainly in the science, math, engineering, and…

  13. Average and Bright Adults with Parents with Mild Cognitive Difficulties: The Huck Finn Syndrome 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Audrey Myerson

    2011-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study of 20 average and bright adults with parents with cognitive difficulties follows a study 20 years earlier of their childhood adaptation to their parents. Method: Semistructured interviews about life situation and changes and perception of family-of-origin. Results: The participants' socioeconomic status changed…

  14. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  15. At a Crossroads: First Results for the 18 to 20-Year-old Cohort of the Youth in Transition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.; McMullen, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive overview of the first results from the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) for 18-20-year-olds in Canada. These early results draw a picture of where youth stand in terms of both their educational participation and attainment and their labour market participation as of December 1999. Youth at this age are in…

  16. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  17. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  18. MUC-1 gene is associated with prostate cancer death: a 20-year follow-up of a population-based study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andrén, O; Fall, K; Andersson, S-O; Rubin, M A; Bismar, T A; Karlsson, M; Johansson, J-E; Mucci, L A

    2007-01-01

    Anti-adhesion mucins have proven to play an important part in the biology of several types of cancer. Therefore, we test the hypothesis that altered expression of MUC-1 is associated with prostate cancer progression. We retrieved archival tumour tissue from a population-based cohort of 195 men with localised prostate cancer (T1a-b, Nx, M0) that has been followed for up to 20 years with watchful waiting. Semi-automated, quantitative immunohistochemistry was undertaken to evaluate MUC-1 expression. We modelled prostate cancer-specific death as a function of MUC-1 levels accounting for age, Gleason grade and tumour extent, and calculated age-adjusted and multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Men that had tumours with an MUC-intensity lower or higher than normal tissue had a higher risk of dying in prostate cancer, independent of tumour extent and Gleason score (HR 5.1 and 4.5, respectively). Adjustment for Gleason grade and tumour stage did not alter the results. Men with a Gleason score ⩾7 and MUC-1 deviating from the normal had a 17 (RR=17.1 95% confidence interval=2.3–128) times higher risk to die in prostate cancer compared with men with Gleason score <7 and normal MUC-1 intensity. In summary, our data show that MUC-1 is an independent prognostic marker for prostate cancer death. PMID:17726465

  19. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  20. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  1. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  2. Content Platforms Meet Data Storage, Retrieval Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Earth is under a constant barrage of information from space. Whether from satellites orbiting our planet, spacecraft circling Mars, or probes streaking toward the far reaches of the Solar System, NASA collects massive amounts of data from its spacefaring missions each day. NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, for example, provide daily imagery and measurements of Earth s atmosphere, oceans, vegetation, and more. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) collects all of that science data and processes, archives, and distributes it to researchers around the globe; EOSDIS recently reached a total archive volume of 4.5 petabytes. Try to store that amount of information in your standard, four-drawer file cabinet, and you would need 90 million to get the job done. To manage the flood of information, NASA has explored technologies to efficiently collect, archive, and provide access to EOS data for scientists today and for years to come. One such technology is now providing similar capabilities to businesses and organizations worldwide.

  3. Changing trends in symptomatology, diagnostics, stage and survival of prostate cancer in Northern Finland during a period of 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in many countries. The aim of the present study was to find out how the symptoms leading to a diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and stages of the disease among prostate cancer patients have changed over a period of 20 years. Methods This retrospective chart review consisted of 421 prostate cancer patients whose treatment was started in the years 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002 at the Oulu University Hospital. Earlier prostatic disorders, specific urological symptoms, diagnostic procedures, the TNM classification and histological grade were recorded. Results The number of symptom-free prostate cancer patients increased over the 20 years, as did the number of men suffering from chronic prostatitis, although the latter increase was not statistically significant. A drop in the number of clinical T4 cases and increase of clinical T1 and clinical T2 cases was recorded but no clear change in the histological distribution occurred. The 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the 20 years. The urologist was found to be the person who was contacted first most often. Conclusions Our data indicate that the number of prostate cancer patients has increased hugely over the period from 1982 to 2002 and although the clinical T stage has moved towards earlier stages, the proportion of well differentiated cancers remains low, so that most patients have clinically significant cancer with the need of some form of therapy. Further, prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the period. PMID:24094418

  4. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  5. IRES: image retrieval expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu Sheng, Olivia R.; Wang, Hui-Chin; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.

    1990-08-01

    Image Retrieval Expert System (IRES), a knowledge-based system for automatic image retrieval, is being prototyped at the University of Arizona (U of A). IRES is to couple with the distributed database system designed for Structured PACS (S-PACS)1 to achieve the high system performance required by radiologists. IRES encompasses the "intelligence" of multiple expert radiologists. The system will predict and migrate the "old" images needed for comparison purposes during radiological exam readings from slower or remote storage devices to the local buffers of workstations. The use of IRES with the PACS Distributed Database System (DDBS) is expected to shorten the PACS system response time, save the time of radiologists in selecting films, minimize the turnaround time of the exam interpretation function, and increase diagnostic effectiveness by providing relevant images automatically. This paper presents the implementation details of this IRES prototype.

  6. Analyzing Document Retrievability in Patent Retrieval Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shariq; Rauber, Andreas

    Most information retrieval settings, such as web search, are typically precision-oriented, i.e. they focus on retrieving a small number of highly relevant documents. However, in specific domains, such as patent retrieval or law, recall becomes more relevant than precision: in these cases the goal is to find all relevant documents, requiring algorithms to be tuned more towards recall at the cost of precision. This raises important questions with respect to retrievability and search engine bias: depending on how the similarity between a query and documents is measured, certain documents may be more or less retrievable in certain systems, up to some documents not being retrievable at all within common threshold settings. Biases may be oriented towards popularity of documents (increasing weight of references), towards length of documents, favour the use of rare or common words; rely on structural information such as metadata or headings, etc. Existing accessibility measurement techniques are limited as they measure retrievability with respect to all possible queries. In this paper, we improve accessibility measurement by considering sets of relevant and irrelevant queries for each document. This simulates how recall oriented users create their queries when searching for relevant information. We evaluate retrievability scores using a corpus of patents from US Patent and Trademark Office.

  7. Modelling Subjectivity in Visual Perception of Orientation for Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, D.; Chamorro-Martinez, J.; Vila, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of multimedia libraries and the need for storage, indexing, and retrieval techniques focuses on the combination of computer vision and data mining techniques to model high-level concepts for image retrieval based on perceptual features of the human visual system. Uses fuzzy set theory to measure users' assessments and to capture users'…

  8. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  9. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  10. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  11. Selective preservation of infected prosthetic arterial grafts. Analysis of a 20-year experience with 120 extracavitary-infected grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Calligaro, K D; Veith, F J; Schwartz, M L; Goldsmith, J; Savarese, R P; Dougherty, M J; DeLaurentis, D A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report on their 20-year experience with 120 patients with infected extracavitary prosthetic arterial grafts (95 polytetraflouroethylene, 25 Dacron). Throughout this experience, an effort was made, when appropriate, to salvage all or a portion of these infected grafts. METHODS: When patients had arterial bleeding (20 cases) or systemic sepsis (6 cases), immediate graft excision was performed. When the infected graft was occluded (43 cases), subtotal graft excision was performed, leaving an oversewn 2- to 3-mm graft remnant to maintain patency of the artery. Complete graft preservation was attempted in 51 cases in which the graft was patent, the patient was not septic, and the anastomoses were intact. Aggressive operative wound debridement was repeated, as necessary, to achieve wound healing. The preferred method of revascularization, when necessary, included secondary bypasses tunneled through uninfected (often lateral) routes. Follow-up averaged 3 years (range, 1 month-20 years). RESULTS: This strategy resulted in a hospital mortality of 12% (14/120) and a hospital amputation rate in survivors of 13% (14/106 threatened limbs). Of the surviving patients treated by complete graft preservation, the hospital amputation rate was only 4% (2/45) and long-term complete graft preservation was successful in 71% (32/45) of cases. Partial graft preservation also proved successful in 85% (35/41) of surviving patients who had occluded grafts. Successful complete graft preservation was as likely when gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria were cultured from the wound, with the exception of Pseudomonas (successful graft preservation in only 40% [4/10] of cases). CONCLUSION: Based on this 20-year experience, the authors conclude that selective partial or complete graft preservation represents a simpler and better method of managing infected extracavitary prosthetic grafts than routine total graft excision. Images Figure 2. PMID:7944658

  12. Elevation-Dependent Temperature Trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: Changes over a 56- and 20-Year Record

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Chris R.; Nufio, César R.; Bowers, M. Deane; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953–2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989–2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution

  13. Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention. We report the contributions of Active Bacterial Core surveillance to every pneumococcal vaccine policy decision in the United States during the past 20 years. PMID:26291238

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate and Risk of Overweight at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Danielsen, Inge; Becher, Georg; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids are persistent compounds used in various industrial -applications. Of these compounds, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is currently detected in humans worldwide. A recent study on low-dose developmental exposure to PFOA in mice reported increased weight and elevated biomarkers of adiposity in postpubertal female offspring. Objective: We examined whether the findings of increased weight in postpubertal female mice could be replicated in humans. Methods: A prospective cohort of 665 Danish pregnant women was recruited in 1988–1989 with offspring follow-up at 20 years. PFOA was measured in serum from gestational week 30. Offspring body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were recorded at follow-up (n = 665), and biomarkers of adiposity were quantified in a subset (n = 422) of participants. Results: After adjusting for covariates, including maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, education, and birth weight, in utero exposure to PFOA was positively associated with anthropometry at 20 years in female but not male offspring. Adjusted relative risks comparing the highest with lowest quartile (median: 5.8 vs. 2.3 ng/mL) of maternal PFOA concentration were 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 6.9] for overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 6.8) for waist circumference > 88 cm among female offspring. This corresponded to estimated increases of 1.6 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.6, 2.6) and 4.3 cm (95% CI: 1.4, 7.3) in average BMI and waist circumference, respectively. In addition, maternal PFOA concentrations were positively associated with serum insulin and leptin levels and inversely associated with adiponectin levels in female offspring. Similar associations were observed for males, although point estimates were less precise because of fewer observations. Maternal perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations were not independently associated with offspring

  15. COBE: 20 Years Ago

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite rocketed into Earth orbit on Nov. 18, 1989, and quickly revolutionized our understanding of the early cosmos. This archival video was reissued by ...

  16. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  17. 20 years of toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B E

    1998-01-01

    With over 80,000 chemicals being used in commerce worldwide, it is important to identify the human health effects of these chemicals and the levels of exposure at which they are harmful to humans. In order to address this need, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978; since then, the NTP has become the world's leader in designing, conducting, and interpreting various types of toxicity assays. PMID:9755149

  18. 20 Years of RECONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

    2014-01-01

    RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  19. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  20. The 20-year history of the evolution of air pollution control legislation in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Richard H.

    Over the past 20 years, the U.S. Congress has passed four acts relating to clean air. The 1970 act set out a comprehensive plan for federal-state partnership to require all areas in the country to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In 1977, the act was amended and expanded, both to address many of the problems encountered in the 1970 act and to reorient the law to limit significantly emissions of any sort, even if there were no currently identified health-related reasons. In 1986, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act was passed, as an amendment to a solid waste law, in response to the desire to prevent chemical release tragedies. After 10 years of effort, Congress finally passed the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments which require a number of new programs aimed at curbing urban ozone, rural acid rain, stratospheric ozone, toxic air pollutant emissions and vehicle emissions, and establishing a new, uniform national permit system. This paper discusses some of the consequences of the various acts and suggests ways that others might learn from our 20 years of experience. Certain programs have worked quite well, while some alternatives could have improved other programs.

  1. Increases in the prevalence of reduced visual acuity and myopia in Chinese children in Guangzhou over the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, F; He, M; Zeng, Y; Mai, J; Rose, K A; Morgan, I G

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims To estimate the prevalence of myopia based on reduced unaided visual acuity (VA) in Chinese school children over the past 20 years. Methods Guangzhou school health authorities have measured VA on Grade 1–12 students from 1988 to 2007 annually, using a LogMAR tumbling E chart. VA is reported as Snellen categories: normal (VA≥6/6), mildly reduced (6/920 years, but has stabilized in the past few years. This increase may result from environmental changes, such as increased schooling intensity and urbanization. PMID:24008929

  2. Evidence of protection against clinical and chronic hepatitis B infection 20 years after infant vaccination in a high endemicity region.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Y; Chongsrisawat, V; Theamboonlers, A; Leroux-Roels, G; Kuriyakose, S; Leyssen, M; Jacquet, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) immediately after birth prevents neonatal infection by vertical transmission from HBV carrier mothers. There is an ongoing debate whether infant vaccination is sufficient to protect against infection when exposed to HBV later in life. We studied 222 Thai infants born to HBsAg -/+ and HBeAg -/+ mothers who were vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-12 months of age. A subset of 100 subjects received a booster dose at age 5 years. Blood samples collected yearly for 20 years were examined for anti-HBs antibodies and serological markers of hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc, HBsAg, and in selected cases HBeAg, anti-HBe, HBV DNA). During the 20-year follow-up, no subject acquired new chronic HBV infection or clinical hepatitis B disease. During the first decade, possible subclinical breakthrough HBV infection (anti-HBc seroconversion) was only observed in subjects born to HBsAg +/HBeAg + mothers (6/49 [12.2%]). During the second decade, breakthrough HBV infections were detected in all groups (18/140 [12.8%]). Increases in anti-HBs concentrations that were unrelated to additional HBV vaccination or infection were detected in approximately 10% of subjects in each decade. Primary infant vaccination with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical disease and new chronic hepatitis B infection despite confirmed hepatitis B exposure. PMID:20384962

  3. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment. PMID:26588081

  4. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented. PMID:23981516

  5. 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future. Proceedings [of the] 2013 EUROCALL Conference (Évora, Portugal, September 11-14, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Linda, Ed.; Thouësny, Sylvie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCALL 2013's theme was "20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future." The conference seeked to establish an overview of EUROCALL's twentieth anniversary. As a professional organization, EUROCALL has been aiming, along its 20 years of existence, to promote innovative research, development and practice in the…

  6. River Protection Project (RPP) Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission Technical Baseline Summary Description

    SciTech Connect

    DOVALLE, O.R.

    1999-12-29

    This document is one of the several documents prepared by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corp. to support the U. S. Department of Energy's Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission at Hanford. The Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval; waste feed, delivery, storage, and disposal of immobilized waste; and closure of the tank farms.

  7. SPIRES (Stanford Public Information Retrieval System) 1970-71 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    SPIRES (Stanford Public Information REtrieval System) is a computer information storage and retrieval system being developed at Stanford University with funding from the National Science Foundation. SPIRES has two major goals: to provide a user-oriented, interactive, on-line retrieval system for a variety of researchers at Stanford; and to support…

  8. Requirements for SPIRES II. An External Specification for the Stanford Public Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    SPIRES (Stanford Public Information Retrieval System) is a computerized information storage and retrieval system intended for use by students and faculty members who have little knowledge of computers but who need rapid and sophisticated retrieval and analysis. The functions and capabilities of the system from the user's point of view are…

  9. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics. PMID:23729055

  10. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures. PMID:11843548

  11. Recurrence of cervical myelopathy secondary to a strut graft fracture 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kida, Kazunobu; Takaya, Shogo; Tadokoro, Nobuaki; Kumon, Masashi; Kiyasu, Katsuhito; Kato, Tomonari; Takemasa, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on a 70-year-old man with recurrent cervical myelopathy 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion of C4-7 using a free vascularised strut graft. The recurrent myelopathy was secondary to a kyphotic deformity of a fractured graft and residual ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with stenosis at C3/4. Intraoperative spinal cord-evoked potentials indicated that spinal cord traction secondary to progressive kyphosis of the cervical spine after the graft fracture was the cause. The patient underwent laminoplasty at C3 and laminectomy at C4 to decompress the stenosis at C3/4 as well as posterior cervical spinal fusion at C3-7 with pedicle screws and a lateral mass screw and a bone graft to prevent further progression of the kyphosis. At postoperative 18 months, the patient's Japanese Orthopaedic Association score had improved to 14 from 8, and he could walk without support. PMID:26321562

  12. 20 Years History of Fundamental Research on Gas Cluster Ion Beams, and Current Status of the Applications to Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews the development of gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) technology, including the generation of cluster beams, fundamental characteristics of cluster ion to solid surface interactions, emerging industrial applications, and identification of some of the significant events which occurred as the technology has evolved into what it is today. More than 20 years have passed since the author first began to explore feasibility of processing by gas cluster ion beams at the Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory of Kyoto University. Processes employing ions of gaseous material clusters comprised of a few hundred to many thousand atoms are now being developed into a new field of ion beam technology. Cluster-surface collisions produce important non-linear effects which are being applied to shallow junction formation, to etching and smoothing of semiconductors, metals, and dielectrics, to assisted formation of thin films with nano-scale accuracy, and to other surface modification applications.

  13. The changes of subtypes in pediatric diabetes and their clinical and laboratory characteristics over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Lee, Hae Sang; Shim, Young Seok; Jeong, Hwal Rim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively. Results The characteristics were compared between the 2 groups of patients. The result showed an increase in percentage of type 2 diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients between the 2 groups. HbA1c and total cholesterol level had statistical significances to explain increasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among age, HbA1c, total cholesterol level, and z-scores of weight and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. R-square was 0.074. However, z-score of BMI and total cholesterol level, not HbA1c, had statistical significances in type 1 diabetic patients. R-square was 0.323. Conclusion The increase in the proportions of both type 2 diabetes and MODY in the last 10 years needed to be reminded when diagnosing the subtypes of DM, and the dyslipidemia should be attended more as a common problem of pediatric diabetic patients. PMID:27462584

  14. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  15. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  16. Multilingual information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Chan, Syin; Lai, Kok-Fung

    1996-11-01

    In this paper, we present an approach in implementing intelligent information retrieval systems. We have constructed a multilingual information system which combines both image and text retrieval. We have developed an English/Chinese text retrieval tool on the WWW, and later incorporated an image retrieval tool based on associated multilingual captions. The system allows the general public to locate and keep abreast of information about Singapore. It has a novel user interface which accepts queries that are expressed in English, Chinese and mixed text into its database. The titles, summaries, URLs and the matching scores of retrieved documents will then be returned, and a thumbnail will be displayed as well if an image document is retrieved.

  17. Biodiversity, greenhouse gas and economic trade-offs from biochar use: a 20 year model of biochar use in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is promoted for its carbon storage and soil amendment properties, but there remains a research gap into wider sustainability implications of biochar use. Without these there is a risk that biochar use could deliver negative unforeseen consequences. Key to biochar sustainability is the feedstock sustainability, which in developed nations can be novel due to the ability to process biomass locally. Using field trial data and primary biodiversity assessments we modelled different sustainability indicators (local GHG balance, global GHG balance, local biodiversity, global biodiversity and local economic return) associated with four different biochar feedstocks (woodlands, hedgerows, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and straw) over 20 years for UK arable agriculture. Global measures included Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC). Our results showed that trade-offs are inherent. Local GHG emissions are reduced by use of straw and SRC, and increased through the use of woodlands. In contrast all feedstocks reduced the global GHG emissions. Local biodiversity was increased through use of hedgerows, woodlands, SRC and low fertiliser rates. Global biodiversity was maximised through high fertiliser rates and use of all feedstocks. Critically economic return was maximised through high use of woodland and straw, and substantially reduced when hedgerows or SRC is used as feedstock. The introduction of high (£52 t-1 CO2) and low (£11.44 t-1 CO2) carbon prices were never enough to shift a system between loss and profit. This research demonstrates that the sustainability of biochar varies substantially depending on the scale (local or global) and the breadth of indicators included. Ultimately biochar is designed to have a role in solving global problems, but the decisions determining use will be made locally. Regulation to ensure biochar is used appropriately may be necessary.

  18. Working memory retrieval as a decision process

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Benjamin; Raškevičius, Julius; Bays, Paul M.; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process fundamental to human behavior, yet the mechanisms underlying it remain highly controversial. Here we provide a new framework for understanding retrieval of information from WM, conceptualizing it as a decision based on the quality of internal evidence. Recent findings have demonstrated that precision of WM decreases with memory load. If WM retrieval uses a decision process that depends on memory quality, systematic changes in response time distribution should occur as a function of WM precision. We asked participants to view sample arrays and, after a delay, report the direction of change in location or orientation of a probe. As WM precision deteriorated with increasing memory load, retrieval time increased systematically. Crucially, the shape of reaction time distributions was consistent with a linear accumulator decision process. Varying either task relevance of items or maintenance duration influenced memory precision, with corresponding shifts in retrieval time. These results provide strong support for a decision-making account of WM retrieval based on noisy storage of items. Furthermore, they show that encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in WM need not be considered as separate processes, but may instead be conceptually unified as operations on the same noise-limited, neural representation. PMID:24492597

  19. Seconds-scale Light Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Dudin, Yaroslav; Kuzmich, Alex

    2012-06-01

    We report on achieving ultra-long lifetimes for coherent light storage. An optically thick sample of 87Rb confined in a far-off-resonance optical lattice is used as the storage medium. Ground state differential Stark shift is compensated via ``magic'' magnetic field technique. The observed 1/e lifetime for storage and retrieval protocol employing the clock (0-0) transition is 5 s. After the storage protocol is augmented by a dynamic decoupling with a sequence of microwave pi-pulses, the 1/e lifetime for storage of coherent light is further increased, up to 16 s.

  20. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ∼15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ∼7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ∼7 years, characterized by

  1. Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Jack D., Jr.

    The Fort Detrick Information Retrieval System is a system of computer programs written in COBOL for a CDC 3150 to store and retrieve information about the scientific and technical reports and documents of the Fort Detrick Technical Library. The documents and reports have been abstracted and indexed. This abstract, the subject matter descriptors,…

  2. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  3. Knowledge Retrieval Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamran

    1998-01-01

    Excalibur RetrievalWare offers true knowledge retrieval solutions. Its fundamental technologies, Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing and Semantic Networks, have capabilities for knowledge discovery and knowledge management of full-text, structured and visual information. The software delivers a combination of accuracy, extensibility,…

  4. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  5. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  6. The Gulf War depleted uranium cohort at 20 years: bioassay results and novel approaches to fragment surveillance.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Breyer, Richard; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Engelhardt, Susan M; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Kane, Robert; Cernich, Alison; Kaup, Bruce; Hoover, Dennis; Gaspari, Anthony A; Liu, Juan; Harberts, Erin; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Gray, Patrick J; Xu, Hanna; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-04-01

    During the 1991 GulfWar, U.S. service members were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) through friendly-fire incidents involving DU munitions and vehicles protected by DU armor. Routes of exposure to DU involved inhalation of soluble and insoluble DU oxide particles, wound contamination, and retained embedded DU metal fragments that continue to oxidize in situ and release DU to the systemic circulation. A biennial health surveillance program established for this group of Veterans by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has shown continuously elevated urine DU concentrations in the subset of veterans with embedded fragments for over 20 years. While the 2011 assessment was comprehensive, few clinically significant U-related health effects were observed. This report is focused on health outcomes associated with two primary target organs of concern for long term effects of this combat-related exposure to DU. Renal biomarkers showed minimal DU-related effects on proximal tubule function and cytotoxicity, but significant biomarker results were observed when urine concentrations of multiple metals also found in fragments were examined together. Pulmonary tests and questionnaire results indicate that pulmonary function after 20 y remains within the clinical normal range. Imaging of DU embedded fragment-associated tissue for signs of inflammatory or proliferative reactions possibly associated with foreign body transformation or with local alpha emissions from DU was also conducted using PET-CT and ultrasound. These imaging tools may be helpful in guiding decisions regarding removal of fragments. PMID:23439138

  7. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  8. Intergenerational Transmission and Continuity of Stress and Depression: Depressed Women and their Offspring in 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of depressed mothers not only have higher risk of depression, but also may experience both elevated and continuing exposure to stressful experiences. The study tested hypotheses of the intergenerational transmission of stress and depression, and examined the role of early childhood adversity and maternal depression in the interplay between youth depression and stress over 20 years. Method In a longitudinal community study of 705 families selected for history or absence of maternal depression, mothers and youth were studied from pregnancy to age 5, and at youth ages 15 and 20. Youth and maternal depression were assessed with diagnostic interviews, acute and chronic interview-based stress assessment in the youth, and contemporaneous measures of childhood adversity obtained between pregnancy and youth age 5. Results Regression analyses indicated evidence of intergenerational transmission and continuity of depression over time, continuity of acute and chronic stress, and reciprocal predictive associations between depression and stress. Maternal depression and exposure to adversities by child’s age 5 contributed to the youth’s continuing experiences of depression and stress. An overall path model was consistent with stress continuity and intergenerational transmission, and highlighted the mediating role of age 15 youth chronic interpersonal stress. Conclusion Youth of depressed mothers are at risk not only for depression but also for continuing experiences of acute and chronic stress from childhood to age 20. The associations among depression and stress are bidirectional and portend continuing experiences of depression and further stress. PMID:22018414

  9. Tocilizumab for AA Amyloidosis after Treatment of Multicentric Castleman Disease with Steroids, Chemotherapy and Rituximab for Over 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Kawada, Masahiro; Ueno, Toshiharu; Hamanoue, Satoshi; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the long-term outcome (30 years) of a human immunodeticiency virus- and human herpesvirus 8-negative Japanese man who was diagnosed to have multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) of the plasmacytic type after investigation of generalized lymphadenopathy at 34 of age in 1983. He received chemotherapy based on lymphoma regimens (combinations of prednisolone, vincristine, vindesine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, melphalan, and ranimustine, etc.) for over 20 years. Although the systemic lymphadenopathy resolved, AA amyloidosis-related nephropathy occurred, with a serum creatinine (Cre) level of 0.9 mg/dL and urinary protein excretion (UP) of 7.5 g daily. Rituximab was started, but Cre increased to 2.6 mg/dL in 2010 and UP was unchanged. Therefore, treatment with tocilizmab was started. As a result, his hypergammaglobulinemia was well controlled, C-reactive protein became normal, UP decreased to 3.5 g daily, and Cre remained at 2.5 mg/dL in 2013. When AA amyloid nephropathy occurred after long-term chemotherapy, lituximab could not control it, but tocilizmab stopped the progression of nephropathy. This case suggests that MCD and AA amyloidosis may both have a close relationship to the overproduction of interleukin-6. PMID:26666616

  10. Middle-aged children of Alzheimer parents, a pilot study: stable neurocognitive performance at 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, Lissy F; La Rue, Asenath; Gokhman, Izabella; Harrison, Tracy; Holt, Lori; Steh, Bill; Harker, Judith; Larson, Scott; Yaralian, Pauline; Matsuyama, Steven; Rasgon, Natalie; Geschwind, Daniel; Freimer, Nelson; Jimenez, Elvira; Schaeffer, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study on a convenience sample of 25 offspring of Alzheimer patients (mean age 61.5 +/- 8.8 years; range, 50-82) was the early detection of neurocognitive decline. This preliminary report appears to be the first one dealing with 20-year follow-up of neurocognitive data of Alzheimer's disease (AD) children. Digit symbol (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) was the only of 11 neurocognitive measures with a significant decline. And that decline between first and last testing (mean = 19.98 +/- 0.30 years) was on raw scores, not scaled scores. Neither parents' age at onset of AD nor autopsy confirmation or offspring APOE-e4 status influenced neurocognitive results. More robust data than currently available are needed to confirm the findings of this first pilot study and to determine both the trajectory of neurocognitive decline in AD and the risks of developing AD faced by children whose parent had the disease. PMID:16306237

  11. Surgical treatment of macroglossia in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: a 20-year experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kadouch, D J M; Maas, S M; Dubois, L; van der Horst, C M A M

    2012-03-01

    Macroglossia is observed in the majority of paediatric patients diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and surgical treatment may be indicated. A 20-year retrospective study was performed to evaluate all patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who underwent tongue reduction surgery at the authors' institution. A literature review was performed. Surgical treatment was indicated and carried out in 23 patients with a yearly average varying from 0 to 3 subjects. The mean follow-up time was 7 years. Primary indications for surgical treatment of macroglossia included significant tongue protrusion in 30% (n=7), and a combination of clinical problems in 70% (n=16). In all cases, the procedure was performed by the same surgeon using an anterior, V-shaped, wedge resection technique. Two patients had direct postoperative complications. No recurrence of macroglossia was observed in this study. Reported clinical outcome during follow-up demonstrated a satisfactory resting tongue position in all patients. Review of the literature demonstrated variability in surgical indications and techniques, and postoperative outcome. The results of this study indicate that the anterior wedge resection is a simple, effective and safe technique in the surgical treatment of paediatric patients, diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, suffering from macroglossia. PMID:22104000

  12. Increases in Anthropogenic Gadolinium Anomalies and Rare Earth Element Concentrations in San Francisco Bay over a 20 Year Record.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Vanessa; Bruland, Kenneth W; Flegal, A Russell

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated both the spatial distribution of gadolinium (Gd) and other rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters collected in a transect of San Francisco Bay (SFB) and their temporal variations within the Bay over two decades. The REE were preconcentrated using the NOBIAS PA-1 resin prior to analysis by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Measurements revealed a temporal increase in the Gd anomaly in SFB from the early 1990s to the present. The highest Gd anomalies were observed in the southern reach of SFB, which is surrounded by several hospitals and research centers that use Gd-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Recent increases in that usage presumably contributed to the order of magnitude increase in anthropogenic Gd concentrations in SFB, from 8.27 to 112 pmol kg(-1) over the past two decades, and reach the northeast Pacific coastal waters. These measurements (i) show that "exotic" trace elements used in new high-tech applications, such as Gd, are emerging contaminants in San Francisco Bay and that anthropogenic Gd concentrations increased substantially over a 20 year period; (ii) substantiate proposals that REE may be used as tracers of wastewater discharges and hydrological processes; and (iii) suggest that new public policies and the development of more effective treatment technologies may be necessary to control sources and minimize future contamination by REE that are critical for the development of new technologies, which now overwhelm natural REE anomalies. PMID:26742888

  13. Variability of Findings in Drug-Induced Immune Haemolytic Anaemia: Experience over 20 Years in a Single Centre

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Beate; Bartolmäs, Thilo; Yürek, Salih; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia (DIHA) is difficult to diagnose, and its true incidence remains obscure. Here, we present cases of DIHA identified at our institute over the last two decades. Methods Serological tests were performed according to standard procedures. Detection of drug-dependent antibodies was performed in the presence and absence of the relevant drug and/or their ex vivo antigens. Results Over the last 20 years, 73 patients have been identified with DIHA in our institute, which was related to 15 different drugs. The most common single drugs identified were diclofenac (n = 23), piperacillin (n = 13), ceftriaxone (n = 12) and oxaliplatin (n = 10). As far as data were available, haemolysis was acute in all patients, and signs of intravascular haemolysis were present in 90% of the cases. Haemolysis resulted in death in 17 patients (23%). The remaining patients recovered, but haemolysis was complicated by transitory renal and/or liver failure or shock in 11 patients. Upon initial evaluation, the antibody screening test was positive in 36 cases. A positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) at least with anti-C3d was found in 65 cases, with anti-IgG only in 6 cases, and with anti-IgA only in 1 case. Conclusion DIHA is a rare but potentially life-threatening disorder that should be considered if a patient develops haemolysis under drug treatment. The main serological finding is a positive DAT, primarily with anti-C3d. PMID:26696803

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old) who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years) and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months). Results Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis. PMID:27525234

  15. Effects of the STCC eddies on the Kuroshio based on the 20-year JCOPE2 reanalysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Guo, Xinyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 20 years of model reanalysis data are analyzed to study the effects of the subtropical countercurrent (STCC) eddies on the upstream Kuroshio, from east of Luzon to east of Taiwan. The effects are assessed from individual events to interannual time scales. The wind-driven Kuroshio is modified by the STCC eddies, with high spatiotemporal variations. The mass balance in the composite eddy events indicates that the strengthening and weakening of the Kuroshio transport are locally caused by the mass convergence and divergence produced by the eddies. The same analogy applies to the interannual time scale. In the eddy-rich years, the upstream Kuroshio is generally stronger because of wind forcing, yet the strengthening is nonuniform because of modification by the eddies. The larger number of warm eddies to the east of Taiwan and Luzon Island further strengthen the jet, whereas the larger number of cold eddies to the east of the Luzon Strait weaken the Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait. Drifter trajectories show larger Luzon Strait intrusion during the occurrence of cold eddies. The local weakening of the Kuroshio by cold eddies leads to a weaker potential vorticity jump, producing favorable conditions for the intrusion of a water mass into the South China Sea.

  16. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P.; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. Aim To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994–2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. Results In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. Conclusions In the last decade (2004–2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced. PMID:25960811

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence. PMID:26899636

  18. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection. PMID:26852659

  19. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture. PMID:20695718

  20. Neighborhood availability of convenience stores and diet quality: findings from 20 years of follow-up in CARDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between neighborhood convenience stores and diet outcomes over 20 years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS We used dietary data from CARDIA exam years 1985–6, 1992–3, and 2005–6 (n=3,299) and geographically and temporally matched neighborhood-level food resource (Dun & Bradstreet) and US Census data. We used random-effects repeated measures regression to estimate associations between availability of neighborhood convenience stores with diet outcomes, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, greater availability of neighborhood convenience stores was associated with lower diet quality (mean score=66.3, SD=13.0) for participants with lower (versus higher) individual-level income (β, −2.40; 95% CI: −3.30, −1.51); associations at higher individual-level income were weaker. We observed similar associations with whole grain consumption across time, but no statistically significant associations with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, snacks, processed meats, fruits, or vegetables. CONCLUSIONS Convenience stores may promote lower quality diets. Furthermore, low-income individuals may be most sensitive to convenience store availability, and thus may benefit most from improvements to the food environment. PMID:25790410

  1. Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, U.

    2010-07-01

    Ultrashort lasers provide an important tool to probe the dynamics of physical systems at very short time-scales, allowing for improved understanding of the performance of many devices and phenomena used in science, technology, and medicine. In addition ultrashort pulses also provide a high peak intensity and a broad optical spectrum, which opens even more applications such as material processing, nonlinear optics, attosecond science, and metrology. There has been a long-standing, ongoing effort in the field to reduce the pulse duration and increase the power of these lasers to continue to empower existing and new applications. After 1990, new techniques such as semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and Kerr-lens mode locking (KLM) allowed for the generation of stable pulse trains from diode-pumped solid-state lasers for the first time, and enabled the performance of such lasers to improve by several orders of magnitude with regards to pulse duration, pulse energy and pulse repetition rates. This invited review article gives a broad overview and includes some personal accounts of the key events during the last 20 years, which made ultrafast solid-state lasers a success story. Ultrafast Ti:sapphire, diode-pumped solid-state, and novel semiconductor laser oscillators will be reviewed. The perspective for the near future indicates continued significant progress in the field.

  2. Origami in outer membrane mimetics: correlating the first detailed images of refolded VDAC with over 20 years of biochemical data.

    PubMed

    Summers, William A T; Court, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    Mitochondrial porin forms an aqueous pore in the outer membrane, through which selective passage of small metabolites and ions occurs, thereby regulating both mitochondrial function and cellular respiration. Investigations of the structure and function of porin have been performed with whole mitochondria, membrane vesicles, artificial membranes, and in detergent solutions, resulting in numerous models of porin structure. The mechanisms by which this protein functions are undoubtedly linked to its structure, which remained elusive until 2008, with reports of 3 high-resolution structures of this voltage-dependent, anion-selective channel (VDAC). The barrel structure is relatively simple yet unique: it is arranged as 19 anti-parallel beta-strands, with beta-strands 1 and 19 aligned parallel to each other to close the barrel. The N-terminal helical component is located within the lumen of the channel, although its precise structure and location in the lumen varies. With the basic barrel structure in hand, the data obtained in attempts to model the structure and understand porin over the past 20 years can be re-evaluated. Herein, using the mammalian VDAC structures as templates, the amassed electrophysiological and biochemical information has been reassessed with respect to the functional mechanisms of VDAC activity, with a focus on voltage-dependent gating. PMID:20555384

  3. Observation of asteroid 2013 TV135 supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    Asteroid 2013 TV135 who will impact in 2023 was newly discovered by Ukrainian astronomers in 2013. It supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/asteroid20131017.html, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.APR.S2.14. The Sun's companion-dark hole, which is made of dark matter seasonal took its dark comets belt, dark matter, dark lives, and the pressed asteroids belt to impact near our earth. These impactions and dark matter's killers caused seasonal extinctions and produced new species. By many dark comets and asteroids impacting, the dark impaction model is a high probability impaction model; the impaction would not change the orbit of the invisible dark hole, so that it could keep accurate periodicity impactions. With the space-time center, the dark hole system is a negative Einstein's model by ``mass-energy coordinate.'' Sun and Dark hole build up the balance system. Through studying the model, the rule of the impaction can be calculated. Avoid Earth Extinction Association.

  4. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  5. Water repellency in highly managed soils and turfgrass - How our understanding has changed in the past 20 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Oostindie, Klaas; Dekker, Louis; Cisar, John; Leinauer, Bernd; Fidanza, Michael; Bigelow, Cale; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, a major shift has occurred in how turfgrass managers deal with soil water repellency. Initially, water management strategies focused solely on remediating localized dry spots, the visible effects of hydrophobic soils. Nearly a decade ago at this conference, a group of turfgrass scientists participated in this session on soil water repellency interacting with a broad group of soil physicists setting in motion research, collaborations and discoveries that have resulted in not only a better understanding of the implications of this phenomenon on soil hydraulic properties and plant productivity, but also, development of new strategies, particularly surfactants, to improve water capture, reduce preferential flow, increase irrigation and water use efficiency, improve performance of soil directed pesticides, reduce leaching of nitrogen, increase mineralization of organically bound nitrogen, and enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress. It also resulted in research utilizing soil moisture measurement tools, specifically, TDR and capacitance probes, which were introduced to and accepted by soil and crop scientists working in amenity turfgrass. Within the past five years, these technologies and strategies for their effective utilization have transitioned from the research community to become accepted by turfgrass managers globally. It is the objective of this presentation to illustrate key discoveries, implications to improved water and resource utilization, and the resulting acceptance of them as new, more sustainable soil management practices.

  6. Detection of eating disorders in 16-20 year old female students--perspective from Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kayani, Ayesha

    2014-03-01

    There are no studies on eating disorders in Pakistani adolescent girls. This study was conducted to determine the opinions, and behaviours pertaining to dieting and body size among 16 to 20 year old female school and college students in Islamabad, Pakistan. This was done through a five-item questionnaire to determine the SCOFF score. The SCOFF acronym has been derived from 'S' from the word "sick" in question number 1.'C' from the word "control" in question number 2. The 'O' comes from the word 'one' in the original question number 3; this original question number 3 of the SCOFF asks about having lost more than 'one' stone weight in the past three months. This question was rephrased to read as whether more than 15 pounds or 6 kilogrammes have been lost. The two 'F's come from questions number 4 and 5 denoting words "fat" and "food", respectively. A total of 1,134 female students participated in the study and 736 (64.9%) respondents scored two or higher on the SCOFF scale; 461 (66.5%) out of 693 were aged 16 to 18, while 275 (62.4%) out of 441 were aged 19 to 20. Results indicated a need for developing clinical practice guidelines for general practitioners and paediatricians to proactively identify and treat potential eating disorders in young Pakistani women. PMID:24864611

  7. [2012 -- the year of success in the 20 year-old adult heart transplant program of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Szabolcs, Zoltán; Hartyánszky, István; Hüttl, Tivadar; Fazekas, Levente; Balogh, Orsolya; Becker, Dávid; Soós, Pál; Varga, Tamás; Paulovich, Erzsébet; Németh, Endre; Rácz, Kristóf; Horkay, Ferenc; Merkely, Béla

    2013-06-01

    The Hungarian adult heart transplant program, which started in 1992, has changed gradually in the past 20 years. After the early enthusiasm of the first cases it changed significantly and it became an organized programme. However, low donation activity and moderate referral numbers to the national transplant waiting list slowed down the process therefore, heart transplant numbers did not fulfill expectations in the early years. After a moderate increase in 2007 transplant numbers have dropped again until recently when Hungary partially joined Eurotransplant network. Excess fundamental resources allocated to cardiac transplantation by health care professionals and reorganizing transplant coordination as well as logistics forced dramatic changes in clinical management. In 2011 and 2012 major structural changes had been made at Semmelweis University. The newly established transplant intensive care unit and the initiation of mechanical circulatory support and assist device programme increased transplant numbers by 131% compared to previous years, as well as it resulted an 86.63% 30-day survival rate, hence last year was the most successful year of cardiac transplantation ever. PMID:23708987

  8. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence. PMID:2305597

  9. PREFACE: Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, David; Dowben, Peter; Inglesfield, John

    2009-11-01

    This year marks the 20th anniversary of the launch of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter in 1989. The journal was formed from the merger of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics which had separated in 1971. In the 20 years since its launch, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has more than doubled in size, while raising standards. Indeed, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has become one of the leading scientific journals for our field. This could not have occurred without great leadership at the top. No one has been more responsible for this growth in both size and quality than our Senior Publisher, Richard Palmer. Richard first started work at IOP in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with J. Phys. B After a few months, he transferred to J. Phys.C The following year, the Assistant Editor of J. Phys. C, Malcolm Haines, left suddenly in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of J. Phys. C, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. Since J. Phys. C and J. Phys. F re-merged to form Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Richard gradually shed his other journal responsibilities, except for Reports on Progress in Physics, to build up Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. He has worked closely with four Editors-in-Chief of J. Phys. C and five of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. When Richard announced his retirement this past winter, we met it with a great deal of both happiness and sadness. Of course, we are happy that he is going to be allowed to enjoy his retirement, but we remain very sad to lose such a valuable member of our team, especially the one who had provided the heart and soul of the journal over its 20 years. We will be able to rely upon the team which Richard ably trained as

  10. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  11. Requirement of the Combination of Mushroom Body ? Lobe and a/ß Lobes for the Retrieval of Both Aversive and Appetitive Early Memories in "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Cheng; Ci, Bo; Lianzhang, Wang; Zhong, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies of "Drosophila" mushroom body in formation and retrieval of olfactory memories allow us to delineate the functional logic for memory storage and retrieval. Currently, there is a questionable disassociation of circuits for memory storage and retrieval during "Drosophila" olfactory memory processing. Formation…

  12. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  13. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  14. Understory response to varying fire frequencies after 20 years of prescribed burning in an upland oak forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, J.A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems in the eastern United States that were shaped by fire over thousands of years of anthropogenic burning recently have been subjected to fire suppression resulting in significant changes in vegetation composition and structure and encroachment by invasive species. Renewed interest in use of fire to manage such ecosystems will require knowledge of effects of fire regime on vegetation. We studied the effects of one aspect of the fire regime, fire frequency, on biomass, cover and diversity of understory vegetation in upland oak forests prescribe-burned for 20 years at different frequencies ranging from zero to five fires per decade. Overstory canopy closure ranged from 88 to 96% and was not affected by fire frequency indicating high tolerance of large trees for even the most frequent burning. Understory species richness and cover was dominated by woody reproduction followed in descending order by forbs, C3 graminoids, C4 grasses, and legumes. Woody plant understory cover did not change with fire frequency and increased 30% from one to three years after a burn. Both forbs and C3 graminoids showed a linear increase in species richness and cover as fire frequency increased. In contrast, C4 grasses and legumes did not show a response to fire frequency. The reduction of litter by fire may have encouraged regeneration of herbaceous plants and helped explain the positive response of forbs and C3 graminoids to increasing fire frequency. Our results showed that herbaceous biomass, cover, and diversity can be managed with long-term prescribed fire under the closed canopy of upland oak forests. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the "dance habit"; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  16. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the “dance habit”; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  17. Long-lived mesoscale eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of 20 years of AVISO geostrophic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhinini, Nadia; Coimbra, Andre Louis Santi; Stegner, Alexandre; Arsouze, Thomas; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Béranger, Karine

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 20 years of AVISO data set to detect and characterize long-lived eddies, which stay coherent more than 6 months, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In order to process the coarse gridded (1/8°) AVISO geostrophic velocity fields, we optimized a geometrical eddy detection algorithm. Our main contribution was to implement a new procedure based on the computation of the Local and Normalized Angular Momentum (LNAM) to identify the positions of the eddy centers and to follow their Lagrangian trajectories. We verify on two mesoscale anticyclones, sampled during the EGYPT campaign in 2006, that our methodology provides a correct estimation of the eddy centers and their characteristic radius corresponding to the maximal tangential velocity. Our analysis reveals the dominance of anticyclones among the long-lived eddies. This cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry appears to be much more pronounced in eastern Mediterranean Sea than in the global ocean. Then we focus our study on the formation areas of long-lived eddies. We confirm that the generations of the Ierapetra and the Pelops anticyclones are recurrent and correlated to the Etesian wind forcing. We also provide some evidence that the smaller cyclonic eddies formed at the southwest of Crete may also be induced by the same wind forcing. On the other hand, the generation of long-lived eddies along the Libyo-Egyptian coast are not correlated to the local wind-stress curl but surprisingly, their initial formation points follow the Herodotus Trough bathymetry. Moreover, we identify a new formation area, not discussed before, along the curved shelf off Benghazi.

  18. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  19. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  20. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449