Science.gov

Sample records for 20-year time frame

  1. Framing the social in biomedical HIV prevention trials: a 20-year retrospective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research is critical to identifying effective and safe interventions, such as vaccines, microbicides, male circumcision and antiretrovirals, for prevention. Funding for clinical prevention trials is highly competitive and the benchmarks of success ultimately reduce to quickly enrolling a select group of people at risk, keeping them enrolled, and inducing them to be compliant with trial requirements - all at the lowest cost possible. Juxtaposed with this reality is the fact that HIV is situated with poverty, exploitation, assaults on human dignity, and human rights abuses. The result is a complex web of ethical challenges that are socially constructed along lines of wealth and power. While social science research methods are commonly employed to examine such topics, they have played a marginal role in biomedical HIV prevention research. Why? To answer this question, a core set of persistent interlocking social, behavioural and ethical challenges to biomedical HIV prevention research are described. A critique is offered on how the social has been framed relative to the behavioural, ethical and biomedical components. Examples of how this framing has devalued social knowledge are provided, including the conflation of qualitative research with anecdotal reporting, a bias toward brevity and accuracy over external validity, and difficulties in distinguishing between a moral understanding of social norms and achieving a moral outcome when confronted with ethical challenges in research. Lastly, opportunities are identified for enhancing the success of biomedical HIV prevention research through development of a coherent programme of social science research. Recommendations are offered for reframing the social as a valid domain of scientific inquiry in this highly applied and interdisciplinary context. PMID:21968079

  2. New Release of DUACS Products: 20 Years of High Resolution Sea Level Time Series Reprocessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; Ssalto/Duacs Team; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    During the last 20 years, altimeter high quality near real time and delayed time Level3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level4 products (merging multiple sensors) were developed in parallel with Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) processing improvements. Directly usable and easier to manipulate, L3/4 products are vastly used and contribute to various studies in different fields, from climate and meteorological phenomena, to geophysics and biology. In early 2014, mainy changes will be implemented in the products. We present here the main changes and their impact for the users. A full reprocessing of the 20 years of altimeter data is on going, taking advantage of new missions, improved L2 processing, and a better understanding of the ocean stemming. An important improvement will be the use of a new reference period, taking into account the 20 years of altimeter data now available. This will lead to more pertinent sea level anomalies, without impact on the absolute topography. Validation results show improvements at climatic scales as well as mesoscales. The full reprocessed data sets will be available in early 2014.

  3. Insights into the dynamics of Etna volcano from 20-year time span microgravity and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fanizza, Giovanni; Greco, Filippo; Matera, Alfredo; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    A common ground deformation and microgravity array of benchmarks lies on the southern slope of Mt. Etna volcano and is routinely measured by GPS and relative gravimetry methods. The array was installed for monitoring the ground motion and underground mass changes along the southern rift of the volcano and data are usually processed and interpreted independently. The benchmarks have been installed mainly along a main road crossing the southern side of the volcano with an E-W direction and reaching 2000 m of altitude. The gravity array covers the entire path of the road, while the ground deformation one only the upper one, due to the woods at lower altitude preventing good GPS measurements. Furthermore, microgravity surveys are usually carried out more frequently with respect to the GPS ones. In this work, an integrated analysis of microgravity and ground deformation is performed over a 20-year time span (1994-2014). Gravity variations have been first corrected for the free-air effect using the GPS observed vertical deformation and the theoretical vertical gravity gradient (-308.6 μGal/m). The free-air corrected gravity changes were then reduced from the high frequency variations (noise) and the seasonal fluctuations, mainly due to water-table fluctuations. This long-term dataset constitutes a unique opportunity to examine the behavior of Etna in a period in which the volcano exhibited different styles of activity characterized by recharging phases, flank eruptions and fountaining episodes. The gravity and deformation data allow investigating the response of the volcano in a wider perspective providing insights into the definition of its dynamic behavior and posing the basis to track the unrest evolution and to forecast the style of the eruption. The joint analysis highlights common periods, in which the signals underwent contemporaneous changes occurring mainly in the central and eastern stations. On the other hand, no significant changes in the behavior of

  4. Solid-state framing camera with multiple time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K. L.; Stewart, R. E.; Steele, P. T.; Vernon, S. P.; Hsing, W. W.; Remington, B. A.

    2013-10-07

    A high speed solid-state framing camera has been developed which can operate over a wide range of photon energies. This camera measures the two-dimensional spatial profile of the flux incident on a cadmium selenide semiconductor at multiple times. This multi-frame camera has been tested at 3.1 eV and 4.5 keV. The framing camera currently records two frames with a temporal separation between the frames of 5 ps but this separation can be varied between hundreds of femtoseconds up to nanoseconds and the number of frames can be increased by angularly multiplexing the probe beam onto the cadmium selenide semiconductor.

  5. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  6. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  7. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  8. 10 CFR 710.35 - Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time frames. 710.35 Section 710.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Matter or Special Nuclear Material Miscellaneous § 710.35 Time frames. Statements of time established for processing aspects of a case under this subpart are the agency's desired time frames in implementing...

  9. Trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-06-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeterwave Ozone Spectrometer) performs continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland. GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (FFTS) has been added as backend to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over two years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from more than 20 years of stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis has been performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa, covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa.

  10. Detecting land cover change over a 20 year time period in the Niagara Escarpment Plan using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Holly

    The Niagara Escarpment is one of Southern Ontario's most important landscapes. Due to the nature of the landform and its location, the Escarpment is subject to various development pressures including urban expansion, mineral resource extraction, agricultural practices and recreation. In 1985, Canada's first large scale environmentally based land use plan was put in place to ensure that only development that is compatible with the Escarpment occurred within the Niagara Escarpment Plan (NEP). The southern extent of the NEP is of particular interest in this study, since a portion of the Plan is located within the rapidly expanding Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The Plan area located in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton represent both urban and rural geographical areas respectively, and are both experiencing development pressures and subsequent changes in land cover. Monitoring initiatives on the NEP have been established, but have done little to identify consistent techniques for monitoring land cover on the Niagara Escarpment. Land cover information is an important part of planning and environmental monitoring initiatives. Remote sensing has the potential to provide frequent and accurate land cover information over various spatial scales. The goal of this research was to examine land cover change in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton portions of the NEP. This was achieved through the creation of land cover maps for each region using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data. These maps aided in determining the qualitative and quantitative changes that had occurred in the Plan area over a 20 year time period from 1986 to 2006. Change was also examined based on the NEP's land use designations, to determine if the Plan policy has been effective in protecting the Escarpment. To obtain land cover maps, five different supervised classification methods were explored: Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Object

  11. The Role of Time-varying Meridional Flow Pattern During Past 20 Years In Influencing Upcoming Solar Cycle Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, M.; de Toma, G.; Gilman, P. A.; Corbard, T.; Rhodes, E. J.; Haber, D. A.; Bogart, R. S.; Rose, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    Given the success of a recently built flux-transport dynamo-based scheme (ApJ, 2004, 601, 1136) in reproducing observed polar field features in cycle 23 including a) why polar reversal as well as polar field build-up after reversal were unusually slow, and b) why S-pole reversed a year after N-pole did, we apply this scheme to predict some features of solar cycle 24. It has been demonstrated (ApJ, 2000, 543, 1027) that the duration of the Sun's memory of its own magnetic field is governed primarily by the meridional flow speed in flux-transport dynamos, and is no less than two solar cycles. Therefore, observations of the Sun's magnetic field patterns over at least the past two cycles, and dynamical changes in the Sun's large-scale mass-flow in which the solar magnetic fields are partially frozen, should play important roles in determining certain features in the upcoming solar cycle. We first demonstrate theoretically how a N-S asymmetry in meridional flow pattern can produce asymmetry in sunspot maxima in N & S hemispheres, hence causing double peaks, as observed in cycles 22 and 23. We also show how deceleration in meridional flow, during the rising phase of cycle 23 produced a slower rise in this cycle compared to cycles 21 and 22. We then discuss the team-effort for extracting observed changes in meridional flow over the past 20 years, using helioseismic archive of MWO. By incorporating this long-term dynamical variation in flow-pattern in our prediction model, if we can tune the model to successfully reproduce various "anomalies" in solar cycle 23, we can comment further that cycle 23 is going to be a longer cycle if meridional flow does not accelerate during its declining phase, hence causing onset of cycle 24 around 2007. This work is supported by NASA grants W-10107 and W-10175. National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by National Science Foundation.

  12. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    SciTech Connect

    Masot-Conde, Fátima

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  13. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  14. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  15. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  16. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  17. 28 CFR 570.21 - Time-frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time-frames. 570.21 Section 570.21... PROGRAMS Pre-Release Community Confinement § 570.21 Time-frames. (a) Community confinement. Inmates may be... inmate's term of imprisonment or six months. (c) Exceeding time-frames. These time-frames may be...

  18. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  19. Trend analysis of the 20-year time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-10-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has been performing continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E, 577 m). GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) was added as a back end to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over 2 years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis was performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa (37.76 km), covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa (59 km).

  20. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  1. Reducing video frame rate increases remote optimal focus time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve observers made best optical focus adjustments to a microscope whose high-resolution pattern was video monitored and displayed first on a National Television System Committee (NTSC) analog color monitor and second on a digitally compressed computer monitor screen at frame rates ranging (in six steps) from 1.5 to 30 frames per second (fps). This was done to determine whether reducing the frame rate affects the image focus. Reducing frame rate has been shown to be an effective and acceptable means of reducing transmission bandwidth of dynamic video imagery sent from Space Station Freedom (SSF) to ground scientists. Three responses were recorded per trial: time to complete the focus adjustment, number of changes of focus direction, and subjective rating of final image quality. It was found that: the average time to complete the focus setting increases from 4.5 sec at 30 fps to 7.9 sec at 1.5 fps (statistical probability = 1.2 x 10(exp -7)); there is no significant difference in the number of changes in the direction of focus adjustment across these frame rates; and there is no significant change in subjectively determined final image quality across these frame rates. These data can be used to help pre-plan future remote optical-focus operations on SSF.

  2. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 17: Ocean color in the 21st century. A strategy for a 20-year time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.; Carder, Kendall L.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning with the upcoming launch of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), there should be almost continuous measurements of ocean color for nearly 20 years if all of the presently planned national and international missions are implemented. This data set will present a unique opportunity to understand the coupling of physical and biological processes in the world ocean. The presence of multiple ocean color sensors will allow the eventual development of an ocean color observing system that is both cost effective and scientifically based. This report discusses the issues involved and makes recommendations intended to ensure the maximum scientific return from this unique set of planned ocean color missions. An executive summary is included with this document which briefly discusses the primary issues and suggested actions to be considered.

  3. Time pressure increases cooperation in competitively framed social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Cone, Jeremy; Rand, David G

    2014-01-01

    What makes people willing to pay costs to benefit others? Does such cooperation require effortful self-control, or do automatic, intuitive processes favor cooperation? Time pressure has been shown to increase cooperative behavior in Public Goods Games, implying a predisposition towards cooperation. Consistent with the hypothesis that this predisposition results from the fact that cooperation is typically advantageous outside the lab, it has further been shown that the time pressure effect is undermined by prior experience playing lab games (where selfishness is the more advantageous strategy). Furthermore, a recent study found that time pressure increases cooperation even in a game framed as a competition, suggesting that the time pressure effect is not the result of social norm compliance. Here, we successfully replicate these findings, again observing a positive effect of time pressure on cooperation in a competitively framed game, but not when using the standard cooperative framing. These results suggest that participants' intuitions favor cooperation rather than norm compliance, and also that simply changing the framing of the Public Goods Game is enough to make it appear novel to participants and thus to restore the time pressure effect. PMID:25551386

  4. 40 CFR 35.110 - Time frame for EPA action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frame for EPA action. 35.110 Section 35.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Epa Action on Application § 35.110...

  5. Framing health messages based on anomalies in time preference.

    PubMed

    Ortendahl, Monica; Fries, James F

    2005-08-01

    Time discounting processes and their effects are increasingly taken into account in health-related decisions. Because these effects have a potentially large impact the characteristics of discounting should also be taken into consideration when framing health messages. Research on the relationship between time and health is discussed with a special focus on discounting biases. The criteria for selection of articles were potential practical application when formulating health messages. Time discounting processes vary with individuals and contexts. Therefore, no single model is expected to describe discounting processes completely. Discounting biases appear more prevalent in health decisions than in economic decisions, even when health and monetary outcomes are matched for utility. Research on decision-making under conditions of uncertainty has documented numerous anomalies of expected utility. Analysis on the anomalies related to intertemporal choice and discounted utility (DU) include the magnitude effect, dynamic inconsistency effect, instant endowment, status quo bias, and sequence effect. Discounting biases in the formulation of preventive health messages are important. The desire for behavioral change in these programs would benefit from considering the psychological factor of discounting. Framing health messages in terms of large, important outcomes or long delays should induce lower implicit discount rates. Framing health messages as losses rather than gains, or as involving a series of outcomes rather than individual outcomes, might similarly lower the implicit discount rate used. PMID:16049392

  6. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  7. Change in predominance of Bovine viral diarrhea virus subgenotypes among samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory over a 20-year time span.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F; Lovell, Gayla; Neill, John D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Velayudhan, Binu; Mock, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Although the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea was initially categorized as 1 species, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses belong to 2 different species, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2, with 2-11 subgenotypes within each species. Distribution of species and subgenotypes has been shown to vary with geographic region. Whether distribution shifts over time is not known. Surveys conducted between 1994 and 2008 reported 3 subgenotypes circulating among cattle in the United States: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The average percent prevalence of BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a strains reported in surveys before 2001 were 21%, 43%, and 36%, respectively. Surveys conducted on viruses isolated after 2001 reported decreasing percentages of BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a strains, with BVDV-1b strains accounting for 75-100% of samples. Comparison of these surveys is confounded by differences in geographic location, collection methods, and sample type used in the survey. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the prevalence of BVDV subgenotypes shifted in samples collected from the same geographic region and by the same laboratory over time. BVDV strains isolated in years 1988, 1998, and 2008, at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Amarillo, Texas, were genotyped, and the prevalence of BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a strains were determined. Typing, on the basis of phylogenetic analysis, was done on 148 samples. The strongest trend detected among these samples was a pronounced decrease in the number of BVDV-1a strains over time. PMID:21398436

  8. [Vaccination against hepatitis B. Impact of vaccination programmes after 20 years of use in Spain. Is it time for a change?].

    PubMed

    Arístegui Fernández, Javier; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Marés Bermúdez, Josep; Martinón Torres, Federico

    2015-02-01

    The highest incidence rate of hepatitis B (HB) in Spain is detected in adults between 20 and 54 years old, whereas the incidence in children under 1 year old is almost nil. The low prevalence of HB in children under 1 year is mainly due to the success of gestational screening strategies for the detection of HBsAg(+) in pregnant women, and vaccination campaigns during childhood. Currently, in Spain, the last dose of the HB included in the national childhood immunization program is administered at 6 months of age, although some studies show that delaying the age of the administration of the last dose of HB vaccine and increasing the time between doses, may improve immune memory by offering greater protection against this virus in the adulthood. In this article, the impact of HB vaccination in Spain is reviewed, and other potential vaccination strategies in our environment are discussed, such as extending the interval between doses, and administering the last dose in the second year of life, adapting the valid strategy in Spain to the current epidemiological context in order to reduce the prevalence of HB in adulthood. PMID:25620127

  9. Stability of Gabor Frames Under Small Time Hamiltonian Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.; Gröchenig, Karlheinz; Romero, José Luis

    2016-05-01

    We consider Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor systems, where the window evolves according to the action of a Schrödinger propagator and the phase-space nodes evolve according to the corresponding Hamiltonian flow. We prove the stability of the frame property for small times and Hamiltonians consisting of a quadratic polynomial plus a potential in the Sjöstrand class with bounded second-order derivatives. This answers a question raised in de Gosson (Appl Comput Harmonic Anal 38(2):196-221, 2015)

  10. Stability of Gabor Frames Under Small Time Hamiltonian Evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.; Gröchenig, Karlheinz; Romero, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    We consider Hamiltonian deformations of Gabor systems, where the window evolves according to the action of a Schrödinger propagator and the phase-space nodes evolve according to the corresponding Hamiltonian flow. We prove the stability of the frame property for small times and Hamiltonians consisting of a quadratic polynomial plus a potential in the Sjöstrand class with bounded second-order derivatives. This answers a question raised in de Gosson (Appl Comput Harmonic Anal 38(2):196-221, 2015)

  11. Realization of fertility intentions by different time frames.

    PubMed

    Dommermuth, Lars; Klobas, Jane; Lappegård, Trude

    2015-06-01

    This paper focuses on the realization of positive fertility intentions with different time frames. The analyses are based on a unique combination of survey data and information from Norwegian administrative registers on childbearing in the years following the complete selected sample. Guided by the theoretical and empirical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the results suggest that a fertility intention's time frame is relevant for childbearing behaviour, but the patterns are somewhat different for respondents who were childless at the time of the interview compared to those who already had children. Overall, childless were less likely to realize their fertility intentions than parents. Following the TPB, childless may underestimate the difficulty of acting on their intentions and therefore have more difficulty realizing their intentions, versus parents who take into account their ability to manage another child. The results also show that childless with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to succeed than those with a longer-term intention. Likewise, parents with an immediate fertility intention are more likely to realize their intention during the two first years after the interview, but after four years the childbearing rate was higher among those with longer-term fertility intentions. PMID:26047988

  12. Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

  13. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination. 405.950... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14...

  14. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  15. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  16. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  17. 42 CFR 405.950 - Time frame for making a redetermination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... decision-making time frame begins on the date the contractor receives the late-filed request for... filed, the contractor's 60 calendar day decision-making time frame is extended for up to 14 calendar... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time frame for making a redetermination....

  18. Investigating Two Different Training Time Frames during Ramadan Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Memari, Amir-Hossein; Najafabadi, Mahboubeh Ghayour

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Muslim athletes may continue training and competing while they are fasting. There is a concern about negative effects of fasting on sports performance. This study aimed to investigate the influence of two training time frames on athletes’ body composition and performance during Ramadan fasting. Methods An observational study was conducted and thirty four male volunteer athletes from different sports including volleyball, karate, taekwondo and football were assigned in two groups. The first group included 14 elite athletes who during Ramadan voluntarily participated in training sessions at 1 hour before Iftar (BI) and the second group of 20 elite athletes who during Ramadan participated in training sessions at 3 hours after Iftar (AI). Testing was performed one week before; in the first and fourth weeks of Ramadan and one week after Ramadan. Weights, heights and skinfold thickness were assessed at each time point and body mass index was calculated. Each player was assessed for agility and explosive strength as well. Results The mean weight and body mass index of both groups decreased significantly during Ramadan (P<0.001). Performance variables were not negatively affected by fasting in BI or AI group athletes. Conclusions Weight reduction might come with either BI or AI training schedules in Ramadan. Daytime or evening training did not inversely affect the agility and power performances in a group of elite athletes during Ramadan fasting. PMID:22375240

  19. Conversations: 20 Years in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joslyn

    Eleven influential individuals who have brought breadth of vision to their work in education answer questions and give comments on the next 20 years of education by looking back on the past 20 years. The panelists are: Alonzo Crim, superintendent of schools in Atlanta, Georgia; Russell Edgerton, president of the American Association for Higher…

  20. Data rate management and real time operation: recursive adaptive frame integration of limited data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-08-01

    Recursive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed to support conventional frame integration. The technique uses two thresholds -one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate, and places integration process between those thresholds. This configuration allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single-frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Limited Frame Integration was proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single-frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration. Adding the third threshold may help in managing real time operations. In the paper the Recursive Frame Integration is presented in form of multiple parallel recursive integration. Such an approach can help not only in data rate management but in mitigation of low single frame SNR issue for Recursive Integration as well as in real time operations with frame integration.

  1. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  2. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  3. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  4. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  5. 39 CFR 775.12 - Time frames for environmental impact statement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time frames for environmental impact statement... NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.12 Time frames for environmental impact statement... environmental impact statements received in that office during the preceding week. The minimum time periods...

  6. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames for reviewing a PMA. Within 180 days after receipt of an application that is accepted for filing and to...

  7. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames for reviewing a PMA. Within 180 days after receipt of an application that is accepted for filing and to...

  8. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  9. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  10. 21 CFR 814.40 - Time frames for reviewing a PMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time frames for reviewing a PMA. 814.40 Section 814.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES FDA Action on a PMA § 814.40 Time frames...

  11. Medicaid after 20 Years: Promise, Problems, Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of Medicaid, a joint federal-state program to fund medical services for disabled and indigent persons, over the last 20 years is reviewed with emphasis on evolving policies and practices in Massachusetts. Stressed is the trend toward integration of Medicaid clients into the medical care mainstream. (DB)

  12. Ray-casting time-varying volume data sets with frame-to-frame coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, Dani; Grau, Sergi; Ferre, Maria; Puig, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the proposal and evaluation of a ray-casting strategy that takes advantage of the spatial and temporal coherence in image-space as well as in object-space in order to speed up rendering. It is based on a double structure: in image-space, a temporal buffer that stores for each pixel the next instant of time in which the pixel must be recomputed, and in object-space a Temporal Run-Length Encoding of the voxel values through time. The algorithm skips empty and unchanged pixels through three different space-leaping strategies. It can compute the images sequentially in time or generate them simultaneously in batch. In addition, it can handle simultaneously several data modalities. Finally, an on-purpose out-of-core strategy is used to handle large datasets. The tests performed on two medical datasets and various phantom datasets show that the proposed strategy significantly speeds-up rendering.

  13. Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

  14. Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.; Eid, Michael; Cacioppo, John T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances). PMID:23420604

  15. Transformation from proper time on earth to coordinate time in solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, T. D.

    1976-01-01

    An expression was derived for the time transformation t - tau, where t is coordinate time in the solar system barycentric space-time frame of reference and tau is proper time obtained from a fixed atomic clock on earth. This transformation is suitable for use in the computation of high-precision earth-based range and Doppler observables of a spacecraft or celestial body located anywhere in the solar system; it can also be used in obtaining computed values of very long baseline interferometry data types. The formulation for computing range and Doppler observables, which is an explicit function of the transformation t - tau, is described briefly.

  16. Resolving Intralocus Sexual Conflict: Genetic Mechanisms and Time Frame

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, Alison; Rice, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict occurs due to the expression of sexually antagonistic alleles: those that increase fitness when expressed in one sex but decrease fitness when expressed in the other sex. This genetic conflict is expected whenever the sexes are selected toward differing phenotypic optima for a trait that has a positive genetic correlation between the sexes. Here we synthesize recent developments in the areas of genomics, microarray analysis, and developmental and molecular genetics to establish feasible mechanisms by which the intersexual genetic correlation can be reduced, as well as the time course over which conflict resolution is expected to evolve. PMID:20421329

  17. Grooming in mandrills and the time frame of reciprocal partner choice.

    PubMed

    Schino, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we examined the time frame of reciprocal partner choice in the grooming interactions of captive mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in order to test the hypothesis that the cognitive limitations of primates constrain the occurrence of reciprocation to short time intervals. In contrast to this hypothesis, mandrills groomed preferentially those individuals that groomed them more even when cases of immediate reciprocation were excluded from the analysis. These results show that mandrills were not limited to reciprocating grooming over short time intervals. It is proposed that a system of emotional bookkeeping may support the ability of primates to reciprocate over long time frames. PMID:19492309

  18. A Possible Approach to Inclusion of Space and Time in Frame Fields of Quantum Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benioff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Tmore » his work is based on the field of reference frames based on quantum representations of real and complex numbers described in other work. Here frame domains are expanded to include space and time lattices. Strings of qukits are described as hybrid systems as they are both mathematical and physical systems. As mathematical systems they represent numbers. As physical systems in each frame the strings have a discrete Schrodinger dynamics on the lattices.he frame field has an iterative structure such that the contents of a stage j frame have images in a stage j - 1 (parent) frame. A discussion of parent frame images includes the proposal that points of stage j frame lattices have images as hybrid systems in parent frames.he resulting association of energy with images of lattice point locations, as hybrid systems states, is discussed. Representations and images of other physical systems in the different frames are also described.« less

  19. Network news coverage of obesity in two time periods: an analysis of issues, sources, and frames.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, Sherice; Craig, Clay; Steed, Chaille

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic plaguing American society. The current study adds to a growing body of framing research as it examines the portrayal of obesity on television network news in two 5-year time periods, 1995-1999 and 2005-2009. Through content analysis of TV news transcripts from three networks (ABC, NBC, and CBS), this study analyzed episodic-thematic frames, issues, and sources. Results revealed the amount of obesity-related news coverage increased along with thematically framed stories. The use of politicians, affected others, supporters, and others as sources increased, but experts and those struggling with obesity remained primary sources. Changes in the proportion of issues discussed revealed significant decreases in the discussion of genetic causes and personal stories. Results reflect the societal impact of obesity and indicate the ways in which obesity is perceived by the public through network news. Findings provide insight for media advocacy opportunities and contribute to research on framing and obesity. PMID:22236324

  20. A new x-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Yongsheng; Bai, Yonglin; Liu, Baiyu; Bai, Xiaohong; Qin, Junjun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Bingli; Peng, Xu; Cao, Weiwei

    2015-10-01

    A new method to get a X-ray framing camera with picoseconds time resolution was proposed based on time amplification. Its principle comes from that we use high voltage electrical pulse to get speed dispersion of the photoelectrons pulse first, and then the photoelectrons pulse will be stretched in axial direction by drift area, at the end the photoelectrons pulse after stretched will be framing imaged by a traditional MCP microchannel plate gated framing camera. A model of the camera was built according to this method. Time amplification of the system is about 30, and image magnification of the system is about 0.4. Parameters for designing the camera system were presented after theoretical deriving and model simulation. At last, theoretical time resolution and spatial resolution of the camera were given.

  1. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years, or any renewal thereof, or which issued in exchange for a 20-year lease prior to August 8, 1946, may...

  2. The Forties field: 20 years young

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, P.J.; Clyne, P.A.; Kirkwood, F.G.; Williams, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    In Oct. 1970, BP`s semisubmersible drilling rig SeaQuest struck oil in Upper Paleocene (Tertiary) sandstones of U.K. Continental Shelf Block 21/10. Four appraisal wells drilled in 1970 and 1971 delineated a large oil reservoir at a depth of 7,000 ft., covering an area of 36 sq miles. The maximum thickness of the oil-bearing sandstone was estimated at 614 ft. Reserves were calculated to be 1,800 MMSTB from an oil in place (OIP) of 4,600 MMSTB, and production was projected to continue until Year 2000. In 1971, Shell/Esso drilled a successful well, Well 22/6-1, that demonstrated the southeastern extension of the field into Block 22/6. The field is a four-way-dip-closed anticline that overlies the Forties-Montrose Ridge and is close to the junction of the Central, South Viking, and Witch Ground grabens. The reservoir occurs in thick Upper Paleocene sandstones deposited as a sand-rich submarine fan sequence. This paper describes how the development of the Forties field has evolved over the past 20 years, the current issues and activities, and the direction for the future.

  3. Asia's demographic future: the next 20 years.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1990-09-01

    Even with the decline of fertility rates in most of Asia, the problem of population growth is still very serious. It is important to stress to Asian leaders and Western researchers that the problem is by no means solved just because fertility rates have declined. In many countries the number of young people is quite substantial and when they increase their numbers, certain problems will develop. Over the next 20 years, urban areas will see a marked increase in population and the resultant problems. Unemployment, increased pollution, and overcrowding will greatly decrease the quality of life for millions of people. This will happen because of natural increases and from the migration of the rural communities. In the rural areas, because of high fertility rates, population will continue to grow in spite of the large numbers of peoples moving to the city. Asia has some of the most densely populated agricultural communities and as their numbers increase, poverty and its associated problem will follow. The solutions to these problems include continued efforts in family planning, maternal and child health, and the improvement of the status of women. PMID:12316744

  4. Poultry science: the next 20 years?

    PubMed

    Morris, T R

    1996-03-01

    1. The theme of the lecture is that research in poultry science has moved too far in the direction of molecular biology and away from studies with whole animals. This has happened partly because exciting prospects are opening up in the field of gene manipulation but mainly because of the use of inappropriate referees to evaluate research proposals. 2. Agricultural research is defined as work intended to benefit agriculture and directed towards those problems which seem capable of solution. Science research is something else. Too much of the money allocated for agricultural and biotechnology research is being spent on science research. The system of rewarding agricultural scientists needs to be adjusted away from counting papers published. 3. Some examples are given of problems in poultry science which seem likely to be soluble by gene manipulation. These include "essential" amino acid synthesis within the chicken, improvement of shell strength, the prevention of many diseases, but probably not the improvement of quantitative traits or of behavioural adaptation to intensive husbandry. 4. Examples are also given of problems likely to require empirical solutions, such as the benefits of acclimatisation or the long-term response to a lighting programme. Here the need is to develop better theories to guide modelling activities. 5. The author concludes that there is much research that can and should be done in poultry science in the next 20 years but calls for a recognition that some problems cannot be solved by a "fundamental" approach but will need experiments with whole animals coupled with model-building activities. PMID:8833522

  5. Calcium-sensing receptor 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Tariq I.; Saleh, Ahmad M. A.; Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has played an important role as a target in the treatment of a variety of disease states over the past 20 plus years. In this review, we give an overview of the receptor at the cellular level and then provide details as to how this receptor has been targeted to modulate cellular ion transport mechanisms. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, it has a high degree of homology with a variety of other members in this class, which could explain why this receptor has been identified in so many different tissues throughout the body. This diversity of locations sets it apart from other members of the family and may explain how the receptor interacts with so many different organ systems in the body to modulate the physiology and pathophysiology. The receptor is unique in that it has two large exofacial lobes that sit in the extracellular environment and sense changes in a wide variety of environmental cues including salinity, pH, amino acid concentration, and polyamines to name just a few. It is for this reason that there has been a great deal of research associated with normal receptor physiology over the past 20 years. With the ongoing research, in more recent years a focus on the pathophysiology has emerged and the effects of receptor mutations on cellular and organ physiology have been identified. We hope that this review will enhance and update the knowledge about the importance of this receptor and stimulate future potential investigations focused around this receptor in cellular, organ, and systemic physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24871857

  6. An LCD driver with on-chip frame buffer and 3 times image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Star; Baudia, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    An LCD Driver with on-chip frame buffer and 3 times image compression codec reaching visually lossless image quality is presented. The frame buffer compression codec can encode and decode up to eight pixels in one clock cycle. Integrating a whole frame buffer with RGB=888 bits into the display driver sharply reduces power dissipated between the IO pad and PCB board at a cost of 50% IC die area increase. The existing working chip (STE2102, a ram-less LCD Driver with die size of 170mm x 12mm) is manufactured by ST Micro 0.18μm high voltage CMOS process. A new chip design with on-chip frame buffer SRAM and 3 times compression codec supporting QVGA (320x240) is completed which reduces the frame buffer SRAM density and area by a factor of ~3.0 times and cuts the power consumption of the on-chip SRAM frame buffer by ~9.0 times of which 3 times is contributed by less capacitive bit line load and another 3 times from data rate reduction from image compression. The compression codec having 25K gates in encoder and 10K in decoder accepts both YUV and RGB color formats. An on-chip color-space-conversion unit converts the decompressed YUV components with 420, 422 and 444 formats to be RGB format before driving out to be displayed. The high image quality is achieved by applying some patented proprietary compression algorithms including accurate prediction in DPCM, a Golomb-Rice like VLC coding with accurate predictive divider and an intelligent bit rate distribution control.

  7. KALREF—A Kalman filter and time series approach to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Abbondanza, Claudio; Altamimi, Zuheir; Chin, T. Mike; Collilieux, Xavier; Gross, Richard S.; Heflin, Michael B.; Jiang, Yan; Parker, Jay W.

    2015-05-01

    The current International Terrestrial Reference Frame is based on a piecewise linear site motion model and realized by reference epoch coordinates and velocities for a global set of stations. Although linear motions due to tectonic plates and glacial isostatic adjustment dominate geodetic signals, at today's millimeter precisions, nonlinear motions due to earthquakes, volcanic activities, ice mass losses, sea level rise, hydrological changes, and other processes become significant. Monitoring these (sometimes rapid) changes desires consistent and precise realization of the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) quasi-instantaneously. Here, we use a Kalman filter and smoother approach to combine time series from four space geodetic techniques to realize an experimental TRF through weekly time series of geocentric coordinates. In addition to secular, periodic, and stochastic components for station coordinates, the Kalman filter state variables also include daily Earth orientation parameters and transformation parameters from input data frames to the combined TRF. Local tie measurements among colocated stations are used at their known or nominal epochs of observation, with comotion constraints applied to almost all colocated stations. The filter/smoother approach unifies different geodetic time series in a single geocentric frame. Fragmented and multitechnique tracking records at colocation sites are bridged together to form longer and coherent motion time series. While the time series approach to TRF reflects the reality of a changing Earth more closely than the linear approximation model, the filter/smoother is computationally powerful and flexible to facilitate incorporation of other data types and more advanced characterization of stochastic behavior of geodetic time series.

  8. 42 CFR 405.1016 - Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time frames for deciding an appeal before an ALJ. 405.1016 Section 405.1016 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... § 405.1037 against another party to the hearing, the adjudication periods discussed in paragraphs...

  9. 40 CFR 35.105 - Time frame for submitting an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time frame for submitting an application. 35.105 Section 35.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application §...

  10. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  11. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  12. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  13. 42 CFR 457.1160 - Program specific review process: Time frames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO... life or health or ability to attain, maintain or regain maximum function. If the enrollee has access to... extend the 72-hour time frame by up to 14 calendar days, if the enrollee requests an extension....

  14. Review: R28 retinal precursor cells: The first 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The R28 retinal precursor cell line was established 20 years ago, originating from a postnatal day 6 rat retinal culture immortalized with the 12S E1A (NP-040507) gene of the adenovirus in a replication-incompetent viral vector. Since that time, R28 cells have been characterized and used for a variety of in vitro and in vivo studies of retinal cell behavior, including differentiation, neuroprotection, cytotoxicity, and light stimulation, as well as retinal gene expression and neuronal function. While no cell culture is equivalent to the intact eye, R28 cells continue to provide an important experimental system for the study of many retinal processes. PMID:24644404

  15. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  16. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  17. 43 CFR 3107.7 - Exchange leases: 20-year term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exchange leases: 20-year term. 3107.7... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.7 Exchange leases: 20-year term. Any lease which issued for a term of 20 years,...

  18. LCFM - LIVING COLOR FRAME MAKER: PC GRAPHICS GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.

    1994-01-01

    Computer graphics are often applied for better understanding and interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when animation is required during "run-time", as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame Maker is a solution to many of these real-time graphics problems. Living Color Frame Maker (LCFM) is a graphics generation and management tool for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers. To eliminate graphics programming, the graphic designer can use LCFM to generate computer graphics frames. The graphical frames are then saved as text files, in a readable and disclosed format, which can be easily accessed and manipulated by user programs for a wide range of "real-time" visual information applications. For example, LCFM can be implemented in a frame-based expert system for visual aids in management of systems. For monitoring, diagnosis, and/or controlling purposes, circuit or systems diagrams can be brought to "life" by using designated video colors and intensities to symbolize the status of hardware components (via real-time feedback from sensors). Thus status of the system itself can be displayed. The Living Color Frame Maker is user friendly with graphical interfaces, and provides on-line help instructions. All options are executed using mouse commands and are displayed on a single menu for fast and easy operation. LCFM is written in C++ using the Borland C++ 2.0 compiler for IBM PC series computers and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires a mouse and an EGA/VGA display. A minimum of 77K of RAM is also required for execution. The documentation is provided in electronic form on the distribution medium in WordPerfect format. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools

  19. Efficient Time Frame Building for Online Data Reconstruction in ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalchenko, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Winckler, N.

    2015-12-01

    After the Long Shutdown 2 period, the upgraded ALICE detector at the LHC will produce more than a terabyte of data per second. The data, constituted from a continuous un-triggered stream data, have to be distributed from about 250 First Level Processor nodes (FLPs) to about 1500 Event Processing Nodes (EPNs). Each FLP receives a small subset of the detector data that is chopped in sub-time frames. One EPN needs all the fragments from the 250 FLPs to build a full time frame. An algorithm has been implemented on the FLPs with the aim of optimizing the usage of the network connecting the FLPs and EPNs. The algorithm minimizes contention when several FLPs are sending to the same EPN. An adequate traffic shaping is implemented by delaying the sending time of each FLP by a unique offset. The payloads are stored in a buffer large enough to accommodate the delay provoked by the maximum number of FLPs. As the buffers are queued for sending, the FLPs can operate with the highest efficiency. Using the time information embedded in the data any further FLP synchronization can be avoided. Moreover, zero-copy and multipart messages of ZeroMQ are used to create full time frames on the EPNs without the overhead of copying the payloads. The concept and the performance measurement of the implementation on a reference computing cluster are presented.

  20. Reflections on 20+ Years of ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Charles

    2012-01-01

    As one of 12 members of the drafting committee of Agenda 21's Chapter 36, "Education, Public Awareness and Training", Charles Hopkins reflects on the process of working on the now-famous document. Although it was noncontroversial at the time, Chapter 36 spawned education for sustainable development when it was given to UNESCO to administer within…

  1. Czech Republic 20 years after Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rosina, Jozef; Kvasnák, Eugen; Suta, Daniel; Kostrhun, Tomás; Drábová, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic was contaminated as a result of the breakdown in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The Czech population received low doses of ionising radiation which, though it could not cause a deterministic impact, could have had stochastic effects expressed in the years following the accident. Twenty years after the accident is a long enough time to assess its stochastic effects, primarily tumours and genetic impairment. The moderate amount of radioactive fallout received by the Czech population in 1986 increased thyroid cancer in the following years; on the other hand, no obvious genetic impact was found. PMID:18375464

  2. Analysis of data systems requirements for global crop production forecasting in the 1985 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W.; Larsen, P. A.; Gerstner, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Data systems concepts that would be needed to implement the objective of the global crop production forecasting in an orderly transition from experimental to operational status in the 1985 time frame were examined. Information needs of users were converted into data system requirements, and the influence of these requirements on the formulation of a conceptual data system was analyzed. Any potential problem areas in meeting these data system requirements were identified in an iterative process.

  3. Quantum frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  4. Global satellite composites - 20 years of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard A.; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Robaidek, Jerrold O.; Santek, David A.; Knuth, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    For two decades, the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) and the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) have been creating global, regional and hemispheric satellite composites. These composites have proven useful in research, operational forecasting, commercial applications and educational outreach. Using the Man computer Interactive Data System (McIDAS) software developed at SSEC, infrared window composites were created by combining Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and polar orbiting data from the SSEC Data Center and polar data acquired at McMurdo and Palmer stations, Antarctica. Increased computer processing speed has allowed for more advanced algorithms to address the decision making process for co-located pixels. The algorithms have evolved from a simplistic maximum brightness temperature to those that account for distance from the sub-satellite point, parallax displacement, pixel time and resolution. The composites are the state-of-the-art means for merging/mosaicking satellite imagery.

  5. 20 Years of Improvements to GEOSAT Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillibridge, J.; Smith, W. H. F.; Sandwell, D.; Scharroo, R.; Lemoine, F.; Zelensky, N.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. N avy GEO SAT mission provided the first long-term altimetr ic record for studies of ocean circu lation , mar ine grav ity /bathymetry and continen tal ice. The Geodetic Mission (G M) data were declassified by the Navy in 1995 and released by NOAA togeth er with the Ex act Rep eat Mission data in the 1997 JG M-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDRs). We have now comp leted a major upgrade of the G M data by reprocessing the origin al Sensor D ata Records (SDRs) and Wav eform Data Records (WD Rs) . Th is has allowed us to retrack all the over-ocean waveforms from the G M to improve measuremen ts of sea surface heigh t and its slope and th ereby produce better models of marin e gravity and bathymetry . A unique two-pass retracking algorithm is used to r educe th e noise in along-track sea surface slope, and to reduce th e correlation in errors betw een r ange and SWH from th e waveform f itting. The precise orbit deter min ation uses the full set of 45 Doppler TRAN ET tracking stations and is b ased on a GRA CE grav ity model. W ith improved corrections and retracking mar ine gr avity and bathymetry reso lution ar e improved, while the new pr ecise orbits y ield better estimates of sea lev el r ise from th e GEOSA T time period.

  6. Radium in man - 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1940, there was a need to set a standard for internal exposure to radium for the instrument industry that required luminous characters painted with radium paint. A committee was convened to review the existing information on the health effects of internal radium. Twenty-seven persons had been studied, seven with burdens of 0.5 {mu}g or less with no health effects and twenty with burdens of 1.2 {mu}g or more with health effects. The radium burden dividing the two groups was assumed at 1 {mu}g (an implied threshold), a safety factor of 10 was applied, and the internal radium standard was set at 0.1 {mu}g, a value that still stands today. Over the next five or six decades, about 2000 subjects were investigated, including many measurements on almost all the subjects. In the intervening years, several analyses of the data, available at each particular time, have been made with radical differences in interpretation.

  7. Probe microphone measurements: 20 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H G

    2001-06-01

    Probe-microphone testing was conducted in the laboratory as early as the 1940s (e.g., the classic work of Wiener and Ross, reported in 1946), however, it was not until the late 1970s that a "dispenser friendly" system was available for testing hearing aids in the real ear. In this case, the term "dispenser friendly," is used somewhat loosely. The 1970s equipment that I'm referring to was first described in a paper that was presented by Earl Harford, Ph.D. in September of 1979 at the International Ear Clinics' Symposium in Minneapolis. At this meeting, Earl reported on his clinical experiences of testing hearing aids in the real ear using a miniature (by 1979 standards) Knowles microphone. The microphone was coupled to an interfacing impedance matching system (developed by David Preves, Ph.D., who at the time worked at Starkey Laboratories) which could be used with existing hearing aid analyzer systems (see Harford, 1980 for review of this early work). Unlike today's probe tube microphone systems, this early method of clinical real-ear measurement involved putting the entire microphone (about 4mm by 5mm by 2mm) in the ear canal down by the eardrum of the patient. If you think cerumen is a problem with probe-mic measurements today, you should have seen the condition of this microphone after a day's work! While this early instrumentation was a bit cumbersome, we quickly learned the advantages that probe-microphone measures provided in the fitting of hearing aids. We frequently ran into calibration and equalization problems, not to mention a yelp or two from the patient, but the resulting information was worth the trouble. Help soon arrived. In the early 1980s, the first computerized probe-tube microphone system, the Rastronics CCI-10 (developed in Denmark by Steen Rasmussen), entered the U.S. market (Nielsen and Rasmussen, 1984). This system had a silicone tube attached to the microphone (the transmission of sound through this tube was part of the calibration process

  8. Crosstalk in x-ray framing cameras: Effect on voltage, gain, and timing (invited).

    PubMed

    Benedetti, L R; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Brown, C G; Glenn, S M; Heeter, R; Holder, J P; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Lacaille, G; Simanovskaia, N; Smalyuk, V A; Thomas, R

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence that electromagnetic crosstalk between independent strips in gated x-ray framing cameras can affect relative gains by up to an order of magnitude and gate arrival times up to tens of picoseconds when strip separation times are less then ∼1 ns. Crosstalk is observed by multiple methods, and it is confirmed by direct measurements of voltage on the active surface of the detector and also by indirect voltage monitors in routine operation. The voltage measurements confirm that crosstalk is produced not only in the active regions of the microchannel plate, but also along the entire input path of the voltage pulses. PMID:23126956

  9. Longitudinal rotating frame relaxation time measurements in infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Haja-Sherief N; Dragneva, Galina; Lottonen, Line; Merentie, Mari; Petrov, Lyubomir; Heikura, Tommi; Ylä-Herttuala, Elias; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Gröhn, Olli; Liimatainen, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Longitudinal relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1ρ) was measured using continuous wave irradiation in normal and infarcted mouse myocardium in vivo. Significant increase in T1ρ was found after 7 days of infarction when compared with reference myocardium or in myocardium before infarction. Cine MRI and histology were performed to verify the severity of infarction. The time course of T1ρ in the infarct fits better with granulation and scar tissue formation than necrosis and edema. The results of the study show that T1ρ could potentially be a noninvasive quantitative marker for tissue remodeling after ischemic damage. PMID:22736543

  10. The Challenges in Metadata Management: 20+ Years of ESO Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, I.; Da Rocha, C.; Dobrzycki, A.; Micol, A.; Vuong, M.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory Science Archive Facility has been in operations for more than 20 years. It contains data produced by ESO telescopes as well as the metadata needed for characterizing and distributing those data. This metadata is used to build the different archive services provided by the Archive. Over these years, services have been added, modified or even decommissioned creating a cocktail of new, evolved and legacy data systems. The challenge for the Archive is to harmonize the differences of those data systems to provide the community with a homogeneous experience when using ESO data. In this paper, we present ESO experience in three particular challenging areas. First discussion is dedicated to the problem of metadata quality over the time, second discusses how to integrate obsolete data models on the current services and finally we will present the challenges of ever growing databases. We describe our experience dealing with those issues and the solutions adopted to mitigate them.

  11. Co-Seismic Deformations Impact on Geodetic Time Series and Reference Frame Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, L.; Collilieux, X.; Lercier, D.; Altamimi, Z.; Beauducel, F.

    2014-12-01

    One of the major sources of error in reference frame determination comes from the undetected discontinuities in station position time series, particularly in GNSS data. Until now, discontinuities in station position time series due to large earthquakes were usually detected visually. Based on a geophysical modeling, we develop a method to predict the effect of co-seismic deformations on position series. Investigating a global network of GPS stations, we demonstrate that a systematic global modeling of co-seismic deformations helps greatly to detect discontinuities in GPS coordinate time series. We show that numerous discontinuities induced by earthquakes are too small to be visually detected because of seasonal variations and GPS noise that disturb their identification. However, not taking these discontinuities into account has a large impact on the station velocity estimation, considering today's precision requirements. Beyond time series discontinuities, we also investigate GPS station displacements induced by two decades of accumulated seismicity. We show here that the accumulation of very small co-seismic deformations may explain non-linear behaviors of GPS station position. It raises the unexpected question of the treatment of such station non-linear motions in reference frame elaboration.

  12. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  13. SLR Station Recovery, Center of Frame Motion, and Time Varying Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Wiser Beall, Jennifer; Larson, Jordan D.

    2012-01-01

    Weekly station position estimates, beginning with 1993, are derived from the ITRF2008-based SLR processing of up to four satellites: Lageos 1, Lageos2, Starlette, and Stella. Helmert parameters obtained from c omparison of weekly SLR station positions and the a-priori SLRF2008 station complement are evaluated for geocenter motion and scale. Two me thods for modeling time varying gravity are employed in the SLR satel lite POD processing, with GGM03S serving as the static gravity field. Both methods forward model atmosphere gravity derived from 6-hour ECM WF pressure data. The standard approach applies an annual 20x20 field estimated from 4 years of GRACE data, and the IERS2003 recommended linear rates for C20, C30, C40, C21, and S21. The alternate approach us es a new set of low-order/degree 4x4 coefficients estimated weekly fr om SLR & DORIS processing to 10 satellites from 1993-2012. This exper imental tvg4x4 model has been shown to improve the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 altimeter satellite orbits,. In this paper we apply the more detailed time-variable gravity modeling to the SLR satellite POD pro cessing and subsequent reference frame analyses. For this study we will evaluate the orbit differences (periodic and secular) for the satel lites concerned, characterize the impact on the station coordinate solutions, and the impact on reference frame parameters (geocenter and s cale).

  14. Quantum-optical Space-time Wave Frames: When light coordinates itself coherently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Mitchell, Justin

    2006-05-01

    Careful re-examination of details of quantum and classical optical wave interference leads to a more precise and elegant logic for two of the foundations of modern physics, special relativity and quantum theory. This provides a transparent unified development of both subjects together in a few simple logical steps with improved intuition and fewer ``mysteries.'' The first step is an Occam razor reduction of Einstein's axiom to a spectral form based on linear dispersion or, ``All colors go c.'' Then wave nodal planes of interfering CW beams or optical cavity modes provide their own space-time coordinate frames with a reciprocal per-space-time lattice.[1] These clearly display Lorentz-Poincare symmetry and hyperbolic dispersion characteristic of quantum matter with very simple Compton recoil analyses. Accelerated coordinate frames made by cavity chirping are used to relate Compton effects to the relativistic shifts and horizons that are present in an Einstein elevator and shows them to be an elegant result of wave interference. [1] W. G. Harter, J. Mol. Spect. 210, 166 (2001)

  15. Evaluating the Human Damage of Tsunami at Each Time Frame in Aggregate Units Based on GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Akiyama, Y.; Kanasugi, H.; Shibasaki, R.; Kaneda, H.

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of the human damage caused by the tsunami are required in order to consider disaster prevention at such a regional level. Hence, there is an increasing need for the assessments of human damage caused by earthquakes. However, damage assessments in japan currently usually rely on static population distribution data, such as statistical night time population data obtained from national census surveys. Therefore, human damage estimation that take into consideration time frames have not been assessed yet. With these backgrounds, the objectives of this study are: to develop a method for estimating the population distribution of the for each time frame, based on location positioning data observed with mass GPS loggers of mobile phones, to use a evacuation and casualties models for evaluating human damage due to the tsunami, and evaluate each time frame by using the data developed in the first objective, and 3) to discuss the factors which cause the differences in human damage for each time frame. By visualizing the results, we clarified the differences in damage depending on time frame, day and area. As this study enables us to assess damage for any time frame in and high resolution, it will be useful to consider provision for various situations when an earthquake may hit, such as during commuting hours or working hours and week day or holiday.

  16. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    PubMed Central

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  17. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real–time multi–frame imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J.; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A.; Masser, Kevin A.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding high–velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post–mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real–time multi–frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700–900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high–velocity impact.

  18. Dynamics of supersonic microparticle impact on elastomers revealed by real-time multi-frame imaging.

    PubMed

    Veysset, David; Hsieh, Alex J; Kooi, Steven; Maznev, Alexei A; Masser, Kevin A; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding high-velocity microparticle impact is essential for many fields, from space exploration to medicine and biology. Investigations of microscale impact have hitherto been limited to post-mortem analysis of impacted specimens, which does not provide direct information on the impact dynamics. Here we report real-time multi-frame imaging studies of the impact of 7 μm diameter glass spheres traveling at 700-900 m/s on elastomer polymers. With a poly(urethane urea) (PUU) sample, we observe a hyperelastic impact phenomenon not seen on the macroscale: a microsphere undergoes a full conformal penetration into the specimen followed by a rebound which leaves the specimen unscathed. The results challenge the established interpretation of the behaviour of elastomers under high-velocity impact. PMID:27156501

  19. Cumulative Risk, Cumulative Outcome: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  20. Dynamics of high-speed micro-drop impact: numerical simulations and experiments at frame-to-frame times below 100 ns.

    PubMed

    Visser, Claas Willem; Frommhold, Philipp Erhard; Wildeman, Sander; Mettin, Robert; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Technologies including (3D-) (bio-)printing, diesel engines, laser-induced forward transfer, and spray cleaning require optimization and therefore understanding of micrometer-sized droplets impacting at velocities beyond 10 m s(-1). However, as yet, this regime has hardly been addressed. Here we present the first time-resolved experimental investigation of microdroplet impact at velocities up to V0 = 50 m s(-1), on hydrophilic and -phobic surfaces at frame rates exceeding 10(7) frames per second. A novel method to determine the 3D-droplet profile at sub-micron resolution at the same frame rates is presented, using the fringe pattern observed from a bottom view. A numerical model, which is validated by the side- and bottom-view measurements, is employed to study the viscous boundary layer inside the droplet and the development of the rim. The spreading dynamics, the maximal spreading diameter, the boundary layer thickness, the rim formation, and the air bubble entrainment are compared to theory and previous experiments. In general, the impact dynamics are equal to millimeter-sized droplet impact for equal Reynolds-, Weber- and Stokes numbers (Re, We, and St, respectively). Using our numerical model, effective scaling laws for the progression of the boundary layer thickness and the rim diameter are provided. The dimensionless boundary layer thickness develops in time (t) according to δBL ~ D0/√Re(t/τ)0.45, and the diameter of the rim develops as DRim ~ D0/√We(t/τ)0.68, with drop diameter D0 and inertial time scale τ = D0/V0. These scalings differ from previously assumed, but never validated, values. Finally, no splash is observed, at variance with many predictions but in agreement with models including the influence of the surrounding gas. This confirms that the ambient gas properties are key ingredients for splash threshold predictions. PMID:25607820

  1. Full-Field Spectroscopy at Megahertz-frame-rates: Application of Coherent Time-Stretch Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda

    Outliers or rogue events are found extensively in our world and have incredible effects. Also called rare events, they arise in the distribution of wealth (e.g., Pareto index), finance, network traffic, ocean waves, and e-commerce (selling less of more). Interest in rare optical events exploded after the sighting of optical rogue waves in laboratory experiments at UCLA. Detecting such tail events in fast streams of information necessitates real-time measurements. The Coherent Time-Stretch Transform chirps a pulsed source of radiation so that its temporal envelope matches its spectral profile (analogous to the far field regime of spatial diffraction), and the mapped spectral electric field is slow enough to be captured by a real-time digitizer. Combining this technique with spectral encoding, the time stretch technique has enabled a new class of ultra-high performance spectrometers and cameras (30+ MHz), and analog-to-digital converters that have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves and detection of cancer cells in blood with one in a million sensitivity. Conventionally, the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform maps the spectrum into the temporal electric field, but the time-dilation process along with inherent fiber losses results in reduction of peak power and loss of sensitivity, a problem exacerbated by extremely narrow molecular linewidths. The loss issue notwithstanding, in many cases the requisite dispersive optical device is not available. By extending the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform to the temporal near field, I have demonstrated, for the first time, phase-sensitive absorption spectroscopy of a gaseous sample at millions of frames per second. As the Coherent Time-Stretch Transform may capture both near and far field optical waves, it is a complete spectro-temporal optical characterization tool. This is manifested as an amplitude-dependent chirp, which implies the ability to measure the complex refractive index dispersion at megahertz frame rates. This

  2. Time-resolved measurement technique for pulsed electron beam envelope basing on framing and streaking principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The time-resolved electron beam envelope parameters, including cross sectional distribution and beam centroid position, are very important for the study of beam transmission characteristics in a magnetic field and for verifying the rationality of the magnetic field parameters employed. One kind of high time-resolved beam envelope measurement system has recently been developed, constituted of a high-speed framing camera and a streak camera. It can obtain three panoramic images of the beam and time continuous information along the given beam profile simultaneously. Recently obtained data has proved that several fast vibrations of the beam envelope along the diameter direction occur during the front and the tail parts of the electron beam. The vibration period is several nanoseconds. The effect of magnetic field on the electron beam is also observed and verified. Beam debugging experiments have proved that the existing beam transmission design is reasonable and viable. This beam envelope measurement system will establish a good foundation for beam physics research. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10675104, 11375162)

  3. Possible overlapping time frames of acquisition and consolidation phases in object memory processes: a pharmacological approach.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, Sven; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are able to improve object memory by enhancing acquisition processes. On the other hand, only PDE-Is improve consolidation processes. Here we show that the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil also improves memory performance when administered within 2 min after the acquisition trial. Likewise, both PDE5-I and PDE4-I reversed the scopolamine deficit model when administered within 2 min after the learning trial. PDE5-I was effective up to 45 min after the acquisition trial and PDE4-I was effective when administered between 3 and 5.5 h after the acquisition trial. Taken together, our study suggests that acetylcholine, cGMP, and cAMP are all involved in acquisition processes and that cGMP and cAMP are also involved in early and late consolidation processes, respectively. Most important, these pharmacological studies suggest that acquisition processes continue for some time after the learning trial where they share a short common time frame with early consolidation processes. Additional brain concentration measurements of the drugs suggest that these acquisition processes can continue up to 4-6 min after learning. PMID:26670184

  4. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  5. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  6. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability (ID) over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of…

  7. Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Lavoisier showed that water was formed by chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. In Lavoisier's "Traite Elementaire" of 1789, he states that the reaction to form water requires exactly two volumes of hydrogen gas to react completely with one volume of oxygen gas. This was 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied the reactions between different…

  8. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  9. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question…

  10. Reflections on 20 Years of Research on Violence and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue reflecting on what people have learned about violence and trauma over the past 20 years and where we need to go in the next 10 years. The author emphasizes the importance of learning to communicate in order to form effective community partnerships. Evidence-based research is noted as a methodological…

  11. Building-Based Budgeting and Decentralization: A 20 Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilg, Timothy J.; Raisch, C. Daniel

    This paper examines the effects of site-based budgeting in education. It describes and presents a school-based budgetary decision-making model that was designed originally to shift the balance of power from the central office to the building level. The model has been refined and successfully utilized in one school district for 20 years, and its…

  12. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  13. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  14. The IAU2000 Standards: The Newly Adopted Time, Coordinates, and Reference Frames.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standish, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past dozen years or so, the IAU has been deluged with resolutions from Division I (Fundamental Astronomy) regarding dynamics, reference frames, fundamental time-scales, earth orientation, etc. Some of the resolutions are merely cosmetic in nature, detailing the basic foundations which have been used by serious researchers for many years. Some of the other resolutions, however, will have a direct affect upon a number of different fields of study. Sooner or later, these changes will actually be implemented, and they will affect anyone doing precision-type work in astronomy, geophysics, and related fields. As with most changes, there are pros and cons; these will be discussed. On a more practical level, the following questions will be addressed: What major areas of astrometry will be affected? What specific items will change? What does one need to know in order to survive the changes? What does one have to do in order to not be adversely affected? The research described in this publication was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Estimated SLR station position and network frame sensitivity to time-varying gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Beckley, Brian D.; Beall, Jennifer Wiser; Bordyugov, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates the sensitivity of ITRF2008-based satellite laser ranging (SLR) station positions estimated weekly using LAGEOS-1/2 data from 1993 to 2012 to non-tidal time-varying gravity (TVG). Two primary methods for modeling TVG from degree-2 are employed. The operational approach applies an annual GRACE-derived field, and IERS recommended linear rates for five coefficients. The experimental approach uses low-order/degree coefficients estimated weekly from SLR and DORIS processing of up to 11 satellites (tvg4x4). This study shows that the LAGEOS-1/2 orbits and the weekly station solutions are sensitive to more detailed modeling of TVG than prescribed in the current IERS standards. Over 1993-2012 tvg4x4 improves SLR residuals by 18 % and shows 10 % RMS improvement in station stability. Tests suggest that the improved stability of the tvg4x4 POD solution frame may help clarify geophysical signals present in the estimated station position time series. The signals include linear and seasonal station motion, and motion of the TRF origin, particularly in Z. The effect on both POD and the station solutions becomes increasingly evident starting in 2006. Over 2008-2012, the tvg4x4 series improves SLR residuals by 29 %. Use of the GRGS RL02 series shows similar improvement in POD. Using tvg4x4, secular changes in the TRF origin Z component double over the last decade and although not conclusive, it is consistent with increased geocenter rate expected due to continental ice melt. The test results indicate that accurate modeling of TVG is necessary for improvement of station position estimation using SLR data.

  16. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  17. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  18. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  19. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  20. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  1. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another.

  2. Optical cell tracking analysis using a straight-forward approach to minimize processing time for high frame rate data.

    PubMed

    Seeto, Wen Jun; Lipke, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-03-01

    Tracking of rolling cells via in vitro experiment is now commonly performed using customized computer programs. In most cases, two critical challenges continue to limit analysis of cell rolling data: long computation times due to the complexity of tracking algorithms and difficulty in accurately correlating a given cell with itself from one frame to the next, which is typically due to errors caused by cells that either come close in proximity to each other or come in contact with each other. In this paper, we have developed a sophisticated, yet simple and highly effective, rolling cell tracking system to address these two critical problems. This optical cell tracking analysis (OCTA) system first employs ImageJ for cell identification in each frame of a cell rolling video. A custom MATLAB code was written to use the geometric and positional information of all cells as the primary parameters for matching each individual cell with itself between consecutive frames and to avoid errors when tracking cells that come within close proximity to one another. Once the cells are matched, rolling velocity can be obtained for further analysis. The use of ImageJ for cell identification eliminates the need for high level MATLAB image processing knowledge. As a result, only fundamental MATLAB syntax is necessary for cell matching. OCTA has been implemented in the tracking of endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) rolling under shear. The processing time needed to obtain tracked cell data from a 2 min ECFC rolling video recorded at 70 frames per second with a total of over 8000 frames is less than 6 min using a computer with an Intel® Core™ i7 CPU 2.80 GHz (8 CPUs). This cell tracking system benefits cell rolling analysis by substantially reducing the time required for post-acquisition data processing of high frame rate video recordings and preventing tracking errors when individual cells come in close proximity to one another. PMID:27036782

  3. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  4. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  5. Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klink, W. H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2013-09-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics.

  6. Quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames: Time-dependent rotations and loop prolongations

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2013-09-15

    This is the fourth in a series of papers on developing a formulation of quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames. This formulation is grounded in a class of unitary cocycle representations of what we have called the Galilean line group, the generalization of the Galilei group to include transformations amongst non-inertial reference frames. These representations show that in quantum mechanics, just as the case in classical mechanics, the transformations to accelerating reference frames give rise to fictitious forces. In previous work, we have shown that there exist representations of the Galilean line group that uphold the non-relativistic equivalence principle as well as representations that violate the equivalence principle. In these previous studies, the focus was on linear accelerations. In this paper, we undertake an extension of the formulation to include rotational accelerations. We show that the incorporation of rotational accelerations requires a class of loop prolongations of the Galilean line group and their unitary cocycle representations. We recover the centrifugal and Coriolis force effects from these loop representations. Loops are more general than groups in that their multiplication law need not be associative. Hence, our broad theoretical claim is that a Galilean quantum theory that holds in arbitrary non-inertial reference frames requires going beyond groups and group representations, the well-established framework for implementing symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: •A formulation of Galilean quantum mechanics in non-inertial reference frames is presented. •The Galilei group is generalized to infinite dimensional Galilean line group. •Loop prolongations of Galilean line group contain central extensions of Galilei group. •Unitary representations of the loops are constructed. •These representations lead to terms in the Hamiltonian corresponding to fictitious forces, including centrifugal and Coriolis

  7. Time frame generator for x-ray detectors and data acquisition systems for synchrotron radiation applications in molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Khazaie, J.B.; Boulin, C.

    1996-02-01

    The authors present a fully programmable controller module designed to generate the synchronization and control signals required to conduct time-resolved synchrotron radiation experiments to study biological macromolecules. This module is organized around an 8K (24-bit world) fast SRAM that contains the description of up to 4,096 pairs of wait and active time frames to gate the data collection. Most of the control logic is integrated into an Xilinx XC4000 family logic cell array.

  8. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  9. CANADARM: 20 Years of Mission Success Through Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltz, Michael; Rice, Craig; Boyle, Keith; Allison, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle Transportation System, the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System has played a vital role in the success of 60 space missions. This paper concludes that the robustness and success of the Canadarm over its 20 year life can be attributed to the adaptations that have been made to it to meet the increased demands that have been placed on the system. Enhancements that have been made to the arm to improve its operational capabilities, reduce risk and extend its life are examined in this paper. Potential future enhancements based on operational trends are also discussed.

  10. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  11. MOSFET solid state switching circuit improves the 0 to 99% rise time for framing camera deflection electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, A.T.; Thomas, S.

    1996-09-01

    We have improved the 0 to 99% rise time voltage on our 2 frame deflection plates from 160 to 65 nS with the addition of a peaking circuit that works in conjunction with our primary 2 frame deflection circuitry. Our peaking technique has applications to other HV pulsers including those which must drive 51 ohm loads. Generally, rise time voltages are measured between 10 and 90%. To minimize the camera image blur resulting from the dynamic influence of deflection plate potentials acting on photocathode electrons, it was necessary to design a circuit that would rise from 0 to the 99% voltage level in under 100nS. Once this voltage was reached, it was necessary to stay within 1% of the attained voltage level for a duration of 1 uS. This was accomplished with the use of MOSFET solid state switching.

  12. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2003-08-01

    An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:12924679

  13. Elf's 20-year experience confirms effectiveness of smart pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Roche, M.; Samaran, J.P. )

    1992-11-30

    Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine has acquired more than 20 years' experience with in-line inspection of pipelines, using tools from seven service companies. The first in-line inspection operation carried out by one of the companies affiliated with Elf Aquitaine occurred in 1971 and used a Linalog tool. This inspection was to evaluate the extent of external corrosion attacks at the bottom of a 24-in. OD, 69-km uncoated pipeline laid directly on the ground in a desert area. Later periodic inspections, performed in 1980 and 1987 on the main pipeline, detected important external corrosions in some salty areas. These attacks occurred beneath disbondments of the over the ditch-applied bituminous enamel coating. Inspections also detected internal corrosion produced by accumulation of water at low points as a result of intermittent reductions of flow velocity and even to some flow stoppages. This paper reports on service inspection in the use of pigs.

  14. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  15. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  16. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  17. Matricides in South Australia - a 20-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Wick, Regula; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Gilbert, John D; Byard, Roger W

    2008-04-01

    A 20-year retrospective review of files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia was undertaken for cases of matricide occurring between the years 1985 and 2004. A total of 11 cases were identified: 10 males and 1 female. The victims were aged between 42 and 83 years (mean=61 years) and the perpetrators were aged between 15 and 53 years (mean=28.7 years). In all 11 cases weapons such as blunt objects (N=5), knives (N=5), firearms (N=3), or ligatures (N=1) were involved in the assaults, with injuries inflicted by the weapons causing death in 10 cases. In five cases trauma was caused by more than one injurious agent/action; e.g. there was evidence of immersion and burning in two cases. In four cases there were multiple (>10) significant injuries inflicted by perpetrators suffering from schizophrenia (N=2), 'mental impairment' (N=1) and a 'combination of psychiatric disorders' (N=1). One perpetrator committed suicide after killing his mother. Six of the ten surviving perpetrators were found not guilty of murder on the grounds of mental illness or impairment, and one perpetrator had the charge reduced from murder to manslaughter due to underlying mental conditions that included previous brain injury. Matricides are uncommon forms of homicide that have similar features in most communities studied. Intra-familial tensions with underlying psychiatric illness in the perpetrator are common findings. PMID:18313012

  18. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  19. Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chitnavis, J P; Gibbons, C L; Hirigoyen, M; Lloyd Parry, J; Simpson, A H

    1996-03-01

    Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971-1972, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess the effects of these measures on the pattern of injuries resulting from contact with horses. Patient and injury details were recorded prospectively for all those presenting to the Accident Service at Oxford during the whole of 1991. Total admissions fell by 46 per cent on average. Most of the decrease was due to a near fivefold fall in those admitted with head injuries (P < 0.001). A reduction in the severity of such injuries was associated with an increased use of riding helmets. However, the most commonly injured group remained amateur young female riders suggesting the need for increasing awareness and training of this group. In seven cases, severe digital injuries were caused by the habit of entwining reins around the fingers. This practice should be discouraged. Up to 12 per cent of all injuries might have been prevented if adequate footwear had been worn. PMID:8730383

  20. 20 years of microplasma research: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Becker, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The field of microplasmas gained recognition as a well-defined area of research and application within the larger field of plasma science and technology about 20 years ago. Since then, the activity in microplasma research and applications has continuously increased. A survey of peer reviewed papers on microplasmas published annually shows a steady increase from fewer than 20 papers in 1995 to about 75 in 2005 and more than 150 in 2014. This count excludes papers that deal exclusively with technological applications where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. This topical review aims to provide a snap shot of the current state of microplasma research and applications. Given the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications, the topical review will focus primarily on the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation. Where appropriate, we will also address microplasma applications, however, we will limit the discussion of microplasma applications to examples where the application is closely tied to the plasma science. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive and in-depth review of the diverse range of all microplasma applications, except for the inclusion of a few key references to recent reviews of microplasma applications.

  1. Automating Frame Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Franklin, Lyndsey; Tratz, Stephen C.; Danielson, Gary R.; Mileson, Nicholas D.; Riensche, Roderick M.; McGrath, Liam

    2008-04-01

    Frame Analysis has come to play an increasingly stronger role in the study of social movements in Sociology and Political Science. While significant steps have been made in providing a theory of frames and framing, a systematic characterization of the frame concept is still largely lacking and there are no rec-ognized criteria and methods that can be used to identify and marshal frame evi-dence reliably and in a time and cost effective manner. Consequently, current Frame Analysis work is still too reliant on manual annotation and subjective inter-pretation. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to the representation, acquisition and analysis of frame evidence which leverages Content Analysis, In-formation Extraction and Semantic Search methods to provide a systematic treat-ment of a Frame Analysis and automate frame annotation.

  2. Visually Lossless Data Compression for Real-Time Frame/Pushbroom Space Science Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu; Venbrux, Jack; Bhatia, Prakash; Miller, Warner H.

    2000-01-01

    A visually lossless data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed push-broom scanning. The technique is also applicable to frame based imaging and is error-resilient in that error propagation is contained within a few scan lines. The algorithm is based on a block transform of a hybrid of modulated lapped transform (MLT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT), or a 2-dimensional lapped transform, followed by bit-plane encoding; this combination results in an embedded bit string with exactly the desirable compression rate as desired by the user. The approach requires no unique table to maximize its performance. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images typical of images from spacecraft instruments. Flight qualified hardware implementations are in development; a functional chip set is expected by the end of 2001. The chip set is being designed to compress data in excess of 20 Msamples/sec and support quantizations from 2 to 16 bits.

  3. Demonstration of 11-ps exposure time of a framing camera using pulse-dilation technology and a magnetic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yanli; Long, Jinghua; Liu, Jinyuan; Cai, Houzhi; Niu, Lihong; Zhang, Dongfang; Ma, Xue; Liu, Dan; Yang, Qinlao; Niu, Hanben

    2015-12-01

    A framing camera with high temporal and spatial resolution is demonstrated using pulse-dilation technology and a magnetic lens. The magnetic field of the magnetic lens is simulated using LORENTZ-3EM software, and the magnetic field distribution on-axis is similar to a Gaussian function. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the instrument are measured using light at the wavelength of 266 nm from a frequency tripled femtosecond laser. The measured exposure time of this camera is ˜11 ps, and the spatial resolution is better than 100 μm.

  4. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Iverson, Samuel A; Lewis, Tyler L; Rizzolo, Daniel J; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Miles, A Keith; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed. PMID:20821550

  5. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics I. Cw Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. * We first ask, "What is the simplest molecule?" Hydrogen H2 is the simplest, stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-)-pair. An even simpler "molecule" or "radical" is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-)-pair. * To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. * Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c=299,792,458m/s by proving "Evenson's Axiom" named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision-renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology. * The following Talk II applies this approach to relativistic quantum mechanics.

  6. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  7. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  8. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    The results of government study of long range liquid hydrogen (LH2) requirements for the time period of 1995 through the year 2005 are presented. To assure an adequate supply of LH2 is available in support of various programs, it is imperative a long range projection of LH2 requirements be developed and maintained. This information is vital in planning for necessary procurement actions and assuring adequate industry lead time to acquiring the necessary production and distribution capabilities. The Advanced Launch System and High-Altitude Long-Endurance programs may represent the predominant government needs for LH2 in the long range. The assembled data clearly indicates a need for KSC (Kennedy Space Center) constant program/project surveillance. Also clear is the need for KSC to monitor industry's plans for LH2 plant production and distribution expansion.

  9. Time-Dependent Selection of an Optimal Set of Sources to Define a Stable Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Bail, Karine; Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Temporal statistical position stability is required for VLBI sources to define a stable Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) and has been studied in many recent papers. This study analyzes the sources from the latest realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) with the Allan variance, in addition to taking into account the apparent linear motions of the sources. Focusing on the 295 defining sources shows how they are a good compromise of different criteria, such as statistical stability and sky distribution, as well as having a sufficient number of sources, despite the fact that the most stable sources of the entire ICRF2 are mostly in the Northern Hemisphere. Nevertheless, the selection of a stable set is not unique: studying different solutions (GSF005a and AUG24 from GSFC and OPA from the Paris Observatory) over different time periods (1989.5 to 2009.5 and 1999.5 to 2009.5) leads to selections that can differ in up to 20% of the sources. Observing, recording, and network improvement are some of the causes, showing better stability for the CRF over the last decade than the last twenty years. But this may also be explained by the assumption of stationarity that is not necessarily right for some sources.

  10. Aquarium test evaluation of a pyrotechnic's ability to perform work in microsecond time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. W.; Glancy, B. C.; Liddiard, T. P.; Wilson, W. H.

    1998-07-01

    Pyrotechnic materials can release tremendous thermal energy upon reaction. A pyrotechnic's ability to do work, when mixed with other materials to produce a working fluid at high pressure and temperature, is studied in this work. An experimental technique is used to measure underwater expansion of cylinders containing porous pyrotechnic materials shock compressed by a surrounding annular explosive charge. Expansion velocity enhancement due to reaction in the pyrotechnic core is detected as an increase in outer wall velocity over that obtained with a solid inert core. The outer wall expansion is measured for 180 μs after wall motion begins, so that relatively late-time energy release from the core may be detected.

  11. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  12. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  13. Children's Rights and Youth Justice: 20 Years of No Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 and its ratification by the UK government two years later came at a time of considerable progress in youth justice. The Convention itself set clear standards of treatment, in terms of both processes and disposals, which appeared at the time to provide positive…

  14. The 2-MEV model: Constancy of adolescent environmental values within an 8-year time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-08-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose of the present study therefore was to validate the 2-MEV scale based on a large data basis of 10,676 children collected over an eight-year period. Cohorts of three different US states contributed to the sample by responding to a paper-and-pencil questionnaire within their pre-test initiatives in the context of field center programs. Since we used only the pre-program 2-MEV scale results (which is before participation in education programs), the data were clearly unspoiled by any follow-up interventions. The purpose of analysis was fourfold: First, to test and confirm the hypothesized factorized structure for the large data set and for the subsample of each of the three states. Second, to analyze the scoring pattern across the eight years' time range for both preservation and utilitarian preferences. Third, to investigate any age effects in the extracted factors. Finally, to extract suitable recommendations for educational implementation efforts.

  15. Nonlinear finite element model updating of an infilled frame based on identified time-varying modal parameters during an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgarieh, Eliyar; Moaveni, Babak; Stavridis, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A model updating methodology is proposed for calibration of nonlinear finite element (FE) models simulating the behavior of real-world complex civil structures subjected to seismic excitations. In the proposed methodology, parameters of hysteretic material models assigned to elements (or substructures) of a nonlinear FE model are updated by minimizing an objective function. The objective function used in this study is the misfit between the experimentally identified time-varying modal parameters of the structure and those of the FE model at selected time instances along the response time history. The time-varying modal parameters are estimated using the deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method which is an input-output system identification approach. The performance of the proposed updating method is evaluated through numerical and experimental applications on a large-scale three-story reinforced concrete frame with masonry infills. The test structure was subjected to seismic base excitations of increasing amplitude at a large outdoor shake-table. A nonlinear FE model of the test structure has been calibrated to match the time-varying modal parameters of the test structure identified from measured data during a seismic base excitation. The accuracy of the proposed nonlinear FE model updating procedure is quantified in numerical and experimental applications using different error metrics. The calibrated models predict the exact simulated response very accurately in the numerical application, while the updated models match the measured response reasonably well in the experimental application.

  16. A magnetostratigraphic time frame for Plio-Pleistocene transgressions in the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, C. G. C.; Vasiliev, I.; Stoica, M.; Kuiper, K. F.; Forte, A. M.; Aliyeva, E.; Krijgsman, W.

    2013-04-01

    The isolation of the Caspian Sea took place in the latest Miocene coinciding with a significant lowering of sea level and the deposition of a massive lowstand deltaic system. This so-called Productive Series is the main reservoir unit of the South Caspian oil-province. The Productive Series is overlain by marine clays from the Akchagylian and Apsheronian regional stages. During the Plio-Pleistocene, the Caspian basin experienced several short periods of intermittent connectivity with other marine basins. This work aims to create integrated, high-resolution, bio-magnetostratigraphic dating of these regional transgressions in key sections of the South Caspian Basin in Azerbaijan. We sample two long sections, the Lokbatan section in the Palaeo-Volga delta and the Xocashen section in the Kura Basin. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are derived from characteristic ostracod species. Rock magnetic analyses combined with thermal demagnetisation data indicate that the magnetic signal is carried dominantly by the iron oxide magnetite in the Productive Series of Lokbatan section and in the Xocashen section. The marine Akchagylian and Apsheronian of Lokbatan are characterised by the iron sulphide greigite, which appears to be of (near-) primary origin. The most logical correlation of the magnetic polarity patterns to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale dates the Akchagylian transgression at ~ 3.2 Ma, a major transgression during the Apsheronian at ~ 2.0 Ma and the Bakunian transgression at 0.85-0.89 Ma. Ostracod assemblages indicate increasing salinities during these transgressions, from fresh water lacustrine to brackish-marine species. This implies that marine connections have been created with an adjacent basin that has a higher salinity, most likely the Black Sea.

  17. 20 Years Later: Dynamics of the School-College Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, Revital

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the dynamics of partnership over time between a training school and a college of education. Its purpose was to provide a deeper understanding of the dynamics of collaboration within the context of the partnership between the school and the college. The dynamics of the changes occurring in this collaboration over a…

  18. Higher Education in the South in the Next 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Gordon W.

    It is difficult to perceive what the South will be like in 1988, but one may generally expect increased urbanization, industrialization, a more complex society, and more leisure time. Trends already indicate a decreasing proportion of labor employed in goods-producing industries and a greater demand for workers in professional, technical and…

  19. Pulmonary gas transfer 20 years after pneumonectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, F; Kraan, J K; Orie, N G; Peset, R

    1977-01-01

    The changes in pulmonary function after pneumonectomy in 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have been studied. The data at the time of two follow-up studies are compared with those obtained before the pneumonectomy. The first follow-up was carried out between 5 and 30 months postoperatively and the second between 20 and 24 years later. The results of this second follow-up show a relatively normal arterial oxygen saturation and gas transfer factor but an increased residual volume which cannot be explained by increasing age alone. PMID:841538

  20. Renal registry in Hong Kong—the first 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Chi Bon; Cheung, Wai Lun; Li, Philip Kam Tao

    2015-01-01

    Renal Registry was started by the Hospital Authority (HA) in Hong Kong in 1995. It is an online system developed by HA. It collects all patients under care in HA, which is about 90–95 % of all requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Hong Kong. The total number of patients treated increased from 3312 in 1996 to 8510 in 2013. In 2013, there were 3501 renal transplant, 1192 hemodialysis (HD) and 3817 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In 2013, 1147 new patients joined the RRT program, 49.6% of them suffered from diabetic nephropathy. Glomerulonephritis and hypertension are the 2nd and 3rd most common causes of RRT in Hong Kong. The median age was 59.1 years with male to female ratio of 1.54 to 1. Hong Kong practices ‘PD first' policy and the majority of the patients are on CAPD treatment. The ratio of PD to HD was 76.2% to 23.8%. Eighty-six percent of all PD patients are on CAPD; the remaining 14% are on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). Sixty-five percent of all dialysis patients are on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment. The Hong Kong Renal Registry with online real-time data input and access can provide timely data and information to facilitate patient care and management and also provides invaluable data to help in development and planning of renal services in Hong Kong. PMID:26097783

  1. National study of jail suicide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lindsay M

    2012-07-01

    Findings from a national study of jail suicide are provided, including the extent and distribution of suicides in holding and detention facilities, and descriptive data on demographic characteristics of each victim, incident, and facility. Among significant findings are that suicides were evenly distributed from first few days of confinement to over several months of confinement, many suicides occurred during waking hours, most inmates were not under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol at the time of death, and many suicides occurred in close proximity to a court hearing. Suicide prevention programming was found to be uneven in most facilities that experienced suicides. There has been a significant decrease in the rate of suicide in detention facilities. PMID:22569904

  2. Themes, Orientations, Synergies and a Shared Agenda: The First 20?Years of the SEDA Series of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Ruth; Brown, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Over 20?years, 25 books have been published to date in the SEDA series, and this review article aims to analyse the ways in which books within the series have contributed to thinking in higher education pedagogy over this time. We have approached the texts through three lenses, analysing them chronologically, thematically and by the orientation of…

  3. Risk Factors and Life Processes Associated with Teenage Pregnancy: Results of a Prospective Study from Birth to 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Lianne; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2001-01-01

    Data gathered during a 20-year longitudinal study of New Zealand women were used to describe the extent and timing of pregnancies within the cohort up to age 20; and to examine the extent to which the risk of early pregnancy was related to a range of social background, family, individual, and peer relationship factors measured over the course of…

  4. Leprosy Reaction in Thai Population: A 20-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Suchonwanit, Poonkiat; Triamchaisri, Siripich; Wittayakornrerk, Sanchawan; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that presents with varying dermatological and neurological symptoms. The leprosy reactions occur over the chronic course of the disease and lead to extensive disability and morbidity. Objective. To analyze and identify the risk factors which contribute to leprosy reactions. Methods. In a retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of leprosy patients registered at the leprosy clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand, between March 1995 and April 2015. One hundred and eight patients were included; descriptive analysis was used for baseline characteristics and a binary logistic regression model was applied for identifying risk factors correlated with leprosy reactions. Results. Of the 108 cases analyzed, 51 were male and 57 were female. The mean age of presentation was 45 years. The borderline tuberculoid type was the most common clinical form. Leprosy reactions were documented in 61 cases (56.5%). The average time to reaction was 8.9 months. From multivariate analysis, risk factors for leprosy reactions were being female, positive bacillary index status, and MB treatment regimen. Conclusions. Leprosy reactions are common complications in leprosy patients. Being female, positive bacillary index status, and multibacillary treatment regimen are significantly associated with the reactions. Early detection in cases with risk factors followed by appropriate treatment could prevent the morbidity of leprosy patients. PMID:26508912

  5. The Sydney System for classification of gastritis 20 years ago.

    PubMed

    Sipponen, Pentti; Price, Ashley B

    2011-01-01

    The roots of research into gastritis go back into the early decades of the 20th century. Modern aspects of its classification and knowledge of its biological course and consequences were relatively well known even at the time that Helicobcter pylori was discovered by Robin Warren and Barry Marshall in 1982. This discovery, however, significantly changed the field, establishing that the commonest form of gastritis is simply an infectious disease, a finding that raised enormous interest in the subject amongst gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pathologists and basic researchers. However, many of these "new" players in the field often had a limited knowledge of the morphological aspects of gastric inflammations and chronic gastritis. As a consequence in the late 1980's a Working Party was set up to review the biology and natural course of chronic gastritis, to propose a new classification for gastritis, and to provide simple guidelines for reporting the pathology of gastritis in endoscopic biopsies in an attempt to bring uniformity to the subject and facilitate comparative studies in what was to be an era of high research activity. These guidelines, The Sydney System: A New Classification of Gastritis was presented to the World Congress of Gastroenterology in Sydney in 1990, and was later published as six papers in the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Now, twenty years on, this review looks back on the birth of Sydney System and why it is still important and successful. PMID:21199511

  6. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  7. Hemifacial spasm: 20-year surgical experience, lesson learned

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Arvizu-Saldana, Emiliano; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio; Revuelta-Gutierrez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral, paroxysmal, and involuntary contractions. It is more common in women on the left side. Its evolution is progressive, and it rarely improves without treatment. Methods: Microvascular decompressions (N = 226) were performed in 194 Hispanic patients (May 1992–May 2011). Outcomes were evaluated on a 4-point scale: Excellent (complete remission); good (1–2 spasms/day); bad (>2 spasms/day); and recurrence (relapse after initial excellent/good response). Results: Most patients were female (n = 123); 71 were male. Mean (±SD) age was 49.4 (±11.7) years; age at onset, 43.9 (±11.9) years; time to surgery, 5.7 (±4.7) years. The left side was affected in 114 patients. Typical syndrome occurred in 177 (91.2%); atypical in 17 (8.8%). Findings were primarily vascular compression (n = 185 patients): Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 147), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 12), basilar artery (n = 10), superior cerebellar artery (n = 8), and 2 vessels (n = 8); 9 had no compression. Postsurgical results were primarily excellent (79.9% [n = 155]; good, 4.6% [n = 9]; bad, 15.5% [n = 30]), with recurrence in 21 (10.8%) at mean 51-month (range, 1–133 months) follow-up. Complications included transient hearing loss and facial palsy. Conclusions: The anterior inferior cerebellar artery is involved in most cases of hemifacial spasm. Failure to improve postsurgically after 1 week warrants reoperation. Sex, side, and onset are unrelated to treatment response. Microvascular decompression is the preferred treatment. It is minimally invasive, nondestructive, and achieves the best long-term results, with minor morbidity. To our knowledge, this series is the largest to date on a Hispanic population. PMID:26015871

  8. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jun, Se-Ran; Nookaew, Intawat; Leuze, Michael R; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lund, Ole; Kora, Guruprased; Wassenaar, Trudy; Poudel, Suresh; Ussery, David W

    2015-03-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  9. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time. PMID:18253853

  10. Using expert knowledge and modeling to define mangrove composition, functioning, and threats and estimate time frame for recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: “What is a mangrove ecosystem” and “How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts”? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors). PMID:25360265

  11. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  12. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  13. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space. PMID:24320653

  14. The changing pattern of children's dialysis and transplantation over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Goh, D; Evans, J H; Houston, I B; Mallick, N P; Morton, M J; Johnson, R W; Postlethwaite, R J

    1994-10-01

    The changing treatment and outcome for children with chronic renal failure (CRF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) was assessed in children referred to the only paediatric unit in the North West Region of England between 1968 and 1988. There were 108 children. Referrals in consecutive 5-year time periods increased from 9 to 41 over the 20 years with the overall incidence of new referrals less than 15 years old reaching 8.5 per million childhood population in 1983-87, whilst the proportion of children under 5-years increased from 0% to 22%. The survival rate was better in those commencing RRT in the later years: 5-year survival 56% for the 1968-72 cohort vs 88% for 1978-82. The increasing number of referrals particularly among young children, coupled with improved survival rates have considerable implications when determining the provision of care for children with ESRD. PMID:7834914

  15. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-01

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty. PMID:23414177

  16. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Lewis, Tyler L.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miles, A. Keith; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Henderson, John D.; Wilson, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  17. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  18. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  19. Physical evaluation of a high-frame-rate extended dynamic range flat panel detector for real-time cone beam computed tomography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Chawla, Amarpreet; Samei, Ehsan

    2005-04-01

    The use of flat panel detectors in computed tomography (CT) systems can improve resolution, reduce system cost, and add operational flexibility by combining fluoroscopy and radiography applications within CT systems. However, some prior studies have suggested that flat panel detectors would not perform well in CT applications due to their lack of high dynamic range, lag artifacts, and inadequate frame rate. The purpose of this study was to perform a physical evaluation of a prototype flat panel detector capable of high frame rates and extended dynamic range. The flat panel detector used had a pixel size of 194 microns and a matrix size of 2048x1536. The detector could be configured for several combinations of frame rate and matrix size up to 750 frames per second for a 512x16 matrix size with 4x4 binning. The evaluation was performed in terms of the MTF and DQE as a function of frame rate and exposure at the IEC RQA5 (~75 kVp, 21 mm Al) beam quality. The image lag was evaluated in terms of temporal-frequency dependent transfer function. Offset shift were also evaluated. Preliminary results indicate 0.1 MTF at 0.92 cycles/mm and DQE(0) of approximately 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, and 0.22 at 0.144, 0.065, 0.035, and 0.008 mR per frame exposures. The temporal MTF exhibited a low-frequency drop and a value of 0.5 at the Nyquist frequency. Offset shift was negligible. Considering high frame rate capabilities of the new detector, the results suggest that the detector has potential for use in real-time CT applications including CT angiography.

  20. Using the Advanced Progressive Matrices (Set I) to Assess Fluid Ability in a Short Time Frame: An Item Response Theory-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Ciancaleoni, Matteo; Galli, Silvia; Primi, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at evaluating the possibility that Set I of the Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-Set I) can be employed to assess fluid ability in a short time frame. The APM-Set I was administered to a sample of 1,389 primary and secondary school students. Confirmatory factor analysis attested to the unidimensionality of the scale. Item…

  1. Effect of frame size and time-on-pasture on steer performance, longissimus muscle fatty acid composition and tenderness in a forage-finishing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96; BW = 309 + 34 kg; 13.5 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and time-on-pasture (TOP) on meat composition and palatability in a two-year study. Finishing steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover; April start) a...

  2. Real-time look-up table-based color correction for still image stabilization of digital cameras without using frame memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lin-Bo; An, Sang-Woo; Wang, Chang-Shuai; Li, Ying-Chun; Chong, Jong-Wha

    2012-09-01

    Digital cameras usually decrease exposure time to capture motion-blur-free images. However, this operation will generate an under-exposed image with a low-budget complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor (CIS). Conventional color correction algorithms can efficiently correct under-exposed images; however, they are generally not performed in real time and need at least one frame memory if they are implemented by hardware. The authors propose a real-time look-up table-based color correction method that corrects under-exposed images with hardware without using frame memory. The method utilizes histogram matching of two preview images, which are exposed for a long and short time, respectively, to construct an improved look-up table (ILUT) and then corrects the captured under-exposed image in real time. Because the ILUT is calculated in real time before processing the captured image, this method does not require frame memory to buffer image data, and therefore can greatly save the cost of CIS. This method not only supports single image capture, but also bracketing to capture three images at a time. The proposed method was implemented by hardware description language and verified by a field-programmable gate array with a 5 M CIS. Simulations show that the system can perform in real time with a low cost and can correct the color of under-exposed images well.

  3. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  4. A 20-year study on 190 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a developing country: Turkey experience.

    PubMed

    Usta, Arif; Alhan, Etem; Cinel, Akif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Erem, Cihangir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 190 PHPT patients, of whom 137 were asymptomatic (72%). The mean serum calcium at the time of diagnosis was 11.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL. The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 467 ± 78 pg/mL. Ultrasonography (USG) identified all abnormal glands accurately (82.6%) and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) was used in 89.4% of the patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 61%. The common use of USG and MIBI detected 92% of the lesions. Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was performed in 12.2% of the patients and focused unilateral neck exploration (FUNE) in the remaining 87.8%. Surgical intervention was unsuccessful in 1 patient (0.5%). The conversion ratio from FUNE to BNE was 5.2%. The mean operation time and mean hospital stay decreased significantly in patients with FUNE. Pathologic examination revealed single adenoma in 93% of the patients. New imaging techniques result in the conversion of surgical treatments of PHPT. FUNE in parathyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon may provide successful treatment rates. PMID:25875546

  5. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time

  6. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-10-10

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In general

  7. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  8. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  9. Quadruple primary malignancy patient with survival time more than 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Feng; Hu, Hai; Wang, Li-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple primary carcinoma (MPC) is defined as two or more carcinomas without subordinate relationship detected in the same or other organs of an individual patient. The diagnosis of MPC must comply with the following standards: each of the tumors must present a definite picture of malignancy, each tumor must be histologically distinct, and the probability of one being a metastasis of the other must be excluded. MPC often occurs in the digestive system, but its pathogenesis remains unclear involving genetic susceptibility, tumor immunity and iatrogenic factors, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Most MPC patients are double primary malignancy; the occurrence of quadruple primary malignancy is below 0.1%. Here we present a rare case of quadruple primary malignancy involving the small intestine, descending colon, renal pelvis and pancreas. Due to its rarity, the relevant literature is also reviewed. In general, the incidence of MPC is rising, so prevention, early diagnosis and treatment will become necessary and important. Therefore, further research should focus on the etiology and mechanism of MPC. PMID:23538731

  10. 20 Years On: Is It Time to Redefine the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Cardiothoracic Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Landis, R. Clive

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The “systemic inflammatory response” has never been defined from a cardiothoracic surgery perspective, but borrowed its definition from the critical care field at a landmark 1992 definition conference on sepsis. It is unclear why the diagnostic criteria for the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were adopted in isolation, ignoring other potentially more useful definitions for Severe Septic Shock or Secondary Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. The 1992 SIRS definition for sepsis has since been updated at a conference in 2001 advocating PIRO (Predisposition, Infection, host Response, Organ dysfunction) as a hypothetical model to better link sepsis with clinical outcome. PIRO is readily adaptable to cardiothoracic surgery and provides the precedent and road map for how to update a definition. The need is obvious since the current definition of SIRS is widely disregarded in heart surgery: a dwindling proportion (14%) of articles on the systemic inflammatory response even mention SIRS and 0% monitored SIRS criteria in the past decade in an evidence-based review of anti-inflammatory interventions. The name “inflammatory response” is also problematic; it is too narrow and might be replaced with host response (the R in PIRO) to better convey the wide spectrum of host defensive pathways activated during heart surgery (i.e., complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinins, cytokines, proteases, hemolysis, oxidative stress). A variant on PIRO could allow these elements of the host Response (R) to be anchored within the context of Premorbid conditions (P) and the inevitable Insult (I) from surgery, to better link risk exposures to Organ dysfunction (O) in heart surgery. The precedent of PIRO suggests the following steps will be required to redefine the systemic inflammatory response: 1) buy-in from the leading societies for cardiothoracic surgery, anesthesia, and perfusion on the need for a re-definition conference, 2) assigning relative risk scores to different premorbid exposures, operative insults, and host response factors on clinical outcome, 3) validation of the risk model in a prospective cohort, and 4) development of algorithms or “apps” to facilitate rapid diagnosis and staging of care at bedside. PMID:26390673

  11. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Altimetry-derived maps of Lyapunov exponents (LEs) provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts. They are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Their calculation however is more complex than standard Eulerian diagnostics, because it requires a Lagrangian algorithms which integrates the velocity field. During the past 20 years, in parallel with the altimeter measurement Level2 (a.k.a [O/I]GDR) to Level3 and Level4 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA, and multiple sensor merged maps) processing, different applications and derivated Level4+ products were developed by AVISO+. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21-year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the Lyapunov products that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015, and some examples of applications.

  12. Serum TCDD and TEQ concentrations among Seveso women, 20 years after the explosion.

    PubMed

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Patterson, Don G; Turner, Wayman E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) is a historical cohort study of the female population residing near Seveso, Italy, on 10 July 1976, when a chemical explosion resulted in the highest known residential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Individual TCDD concentration was measured in serum collected near the time of the explosion, and in 1996, we collected adequate blood for TCDD and total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) measurement. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls were measured in 1996 serum for a sample (n=225, 23%) of the SWHS cohort and WHO 2005 TEQs were calculated. We examined characteristics that predict 1996 TCDD concentrations and estimated TCDD elimination half-life over the 20-year period since the explosion. Median lipid-adjusted TCDD and total TEQ concentrations in 1996 serum were 7.3 and 26.2 p.p.t., respectively. Initial 1976 TCDD and age at explosion were the strongest predictors of 1996 TCDD. The TCDD elimination half-life was 7.1 years for women older than 10 years in 1976, but was shorter in those who were younger. Twenty years after the explosion, TCDD concentrations in this SWHS sample, the majority of who were children in 1976, remain elevated relative to background. These data add to the limited data available on TCDD elimination half-life in children. PMID:24149975

  13. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting. PMID:25244627

  14. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  15. [Studies on current trend of imported malaria in Japan--pediatric cases in recent 20 years].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Y; Ohtomo, H; Kimura, M; Takeuchi, T

    2000-09-01

    Imported malaria has been increasing according to the recent globalization of Japan. There are about 120 clinical cases of malaria which include a few pediatric cases (approximately 1%) every year. Generally, pediatric cases often have an atypical onset and course compared to adult cases, and also develop serious and fatal effects in a short time. In this study, we examined imported malaria cases in subjects under 15 years old from 1980 to 1999 conducted by Research group on clinical evaluation against orphan drugs in the treatment of imported tropical diseases and parasitic diseases. During the 20 years we found 44 clinical cases in children. Of these 70% were foreign cases. Among the species of parasites, there were 21 cases of Vivax malaria and 17 cases of Falciparum malaria and a few cases of Malariae and Ovale malaria were also found, which is rare even in adults. Concerning the drugs chosen in Japan for chemotherapy to treat malaria, chloroquine and primaquine seemed to be employed most frequently before 1990, however mefloquine or artesunate seemed to be more common after 1990. Also, most pediatric cases were former residents or refugees from tropical countries, however some cases were in Japanese children who had recently visited those areas with their families. There have been no fatalities in pediatric cases of malaria, however tropical diseases, including malaria, must be rule out, when examining pyretic children, considering the number of travelers going abroad has been increasing. PMID:11068361

  16. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter‐writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  17. Treatment, failures and complications of ectopic pregnancy: changes over a 20 year period.

    PubMed

    Landström, G; Thorburn, J; Bryman, I

    1998-01-01

    Data from all 225 women operated on for ectopic pregnancy in 1992-1994 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital were collected and compared with three previous cross-sectional investigations from our hospital (1975-1979, 1981-1982 and 1986-1987) in order to evaluate the extent to which surgical treatment and post-operative complications have changed over a 20 year period. Laparoscopic surgery, which was not possible in the 1970s, was used in almost 85% of the ectopic pregnancies in 1992-1994. Conservative treatment was still the most frequently used technique. The complication rate was 1.2% in 1975-1979 when only laparotomies were carried out. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery (1986-1987), the complication rate rose significantly (7.3%) and continued to increase even when this procedure was established as routine (14.2% in 1992-1994). Post-operative complications were most frequent after conservative laparoscopic surgery (24.4%) while there were no complications after laparotomies. In spite of increasing complication rates the frequency of patients in pre-shock, as well as the proportion of patients with heavy intra-abdominal bleeding and tubal rupture, decreased over time. PMID:9512258

  18. Demographic Analysis of Tree Colonization in a20-Year-Old Right-of-Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Charles; Brison, Jacques; Bouchard, André

    2001-12-01

    Past tree colonization dynamics of a powerline-right-of-way (ROW) corridor in the Haut-Saint-Laurent region of Quebec was studied based on the present age distribution of its tree populations. This colonization study spans 20 years, from 1977 (ROW clearance) to 1996. The sampled quadrats were classified into six vegetation types. Tree colonization dynamics were interpreted in each type, and three distinct patterns were identified. (1) Communities adapted to acidic conditions were heavily colonized by Acer rubrum, at least for the last 12 years. (2) Communities adapted to mesic or to hydric conditions were more intensely colonized in the period 1985-1987 than in the following 9 years; this past success in tree colonization may have been caused by herbicide treatments, which could have facilitated tree establishment by damaging the herbaceous and shrub vegetation. (3) Cattail, vine-raspberry, and reed-dominated communities contained few tree individuals, with almost all trees establishing between 1979 and 1990; those three vegetation types appear as the most resistant to tree invasion in the ROW studied. This study supports the need for an integrated approach in ROW vegetation management, in which the selection of vegetation treatment methods would depend on the tree colonization dynamics in each vegetation type. Minimizing disturbances inflicted on ROW herbaceous and shrub covers should be the central strategy because disturbances jeopardize natural resistance to future tree invasion, except in communities adapted to acidic conditions where the existing vegetation does not prevent invasion by A. rubrum. Many trees are surviving the successive cutting operations by producing new sprouts each time, particularly in communities adapted to mesic and hydric conditions. In these cases, mechanical cutting should be replaced by a one-time stump-killing operation, to avoid repeated and unsuccessful treatments of the same individuals over time.

  19. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J.

    2015-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. PMID:26048934

  20. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement. PMID:17642125

  1. Musk fragrances, DEHP and heavy metals in a 20 years old sludge treatment reed bed system.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Arias, Carlos A; Nielsen, Steen; Laugen, Maria Mølmer; Brix, Hans

    2012-08-01

    The Sludge Treatment Reed Bed (STRB) technology is a cost-efficient and environmentally friendly technology to dewater and mineralize surplus sludge from conventional wastewater treatment systems. Primary and secondary liquid sludge is loaded onto the surface of the bed over several years, where it is dewatered, mineralized and turned into a biosolid with a high dry matter content for use as an organic fertilizer on agricultural land. We analysed the concentrations of five organic micropollutants (galaxolide, tonalide, cashmeran, celestolide and DEHP) and six heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr) in the accumulated sludge in a 20-year old STRB in Denmark in order to assess the degradation and fate of these contaminants in a STRB and the relation to sludge composition. The results showed that the deposited sludge was dewatered to reach a dry matter content of 29%, and that up to a third of the organic content of the sludge was mineralized. The concentrations of heavy metals generally increased with depth in the vertical sludge profile due to the dewatering and mineralization of organic matter, but in all cases the concentrations were below the European Union legal limits for agricultural land disposal. The concentrations of fragrances and DEHP ranged from 10 to 9000 ng g(-1) dry mass. The attenuation of hydrophobic micropollutants from the top to the bottom layer of the reed bed ranged from 40 to 98%, except for tonalide which increased significantly with sludge depth, and consequently showed an unusual depth distribution of the galaxolide/tonalide ratio. This unexpected pattern may reflect changes imposed by a long storage time and/or different composition of the fresh sludge in the past. The lack of a significant decreasing DEHP concentration with sludge age might indicate that this compound is very persistent in STRBs. In conclusion the STRB was a feasible technology for sludge treatment before its land disposal. PMID:22608611

  2. Rationale, scope, and 20-year experience of vascular surgical training with lifelike pulsatile flow models.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Schmidli, Jürg; Schumacher, Hardy; Gürke, Lorenz; Klemm, Klaus; Duschek, Nikolaus; Meile, Toni; Assadian, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    technical skills of vascular surgical residents at national or international board examinations. This article gives an overview of our experiences of >20 years of practical training of beginners and advanced vascular surgeons using lifelike pulsatile vascular surgical training models. PMID:23601597

  3. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  4. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  5. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  6. MEDOKADS - A 20 Year's Daily AVHRR Data Series for Analysis of Land Surface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslowsky, D.; Billing, H.; Bolle, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    To derive primary data products from raw AVHRR data, like spectral reflectances or temperatures, it is necessary to correct for sensor degradation and changing hardware specifications, to re-sample the data into a grid of equal pixel size, to perform geographical registration, cloud-screening and normalization for illumination and observation geometry. A data set which resulted from the application of these corrections is the top of the atmosphere Mediterranean Extended One-Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) which now covers a period of 20 years. To study land surface processes, the obtained spectral data have to be combined, radiometric corrections for atmospheric effects, emissivity corrections in the case of temperature measurements have to be applied, and the variable over-flight times have to be accounted for. By application of complex evaluation schemes then higher level products are generated, like vegetation indices, surface albedo, and surface energy fluxes. The ultimate goal is to provide the users community with problem-related information. This includes the quantification of changes and the determination of trends. Methods and tools to reach this goal as well as their limitations are discussed. To validate the data, extended field measurements have been performed in which the scaling between local ground measurements and large scale satellite data play a major role. A major problem remains the application of atmospheric corrections because of the not well known variable aerosol content. The supervision of the quality of the derived information leads to the concept of anchor stations at which surface and atmospheric properties should permanently be measured.

  7. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  8. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented. PMID:23981516

  9. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988-2008) Multisport Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-02-12

    Context : Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective : To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting : Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988-2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants : Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results : Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries ( 16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions : The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may

  10. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988–2008) Multisport Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Context: Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective: To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988–2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants: Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results: Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries (16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 3.8) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions: The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may be

  11. Issues and Trends in the College Student Affairs Journal: A 20 Year Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frances C.; Bowman, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    To date there has been no content analysis undertaken of the "College Student Affairs Journal." Therefore, this study was conducted to answer questions regarding the journal's trends over the last 20 years. Results indicate that the journal has become more professional in appearance, the breadth and depth of topic coverage has increased, and a…

  12. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  13. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts. 4219.14 Section 4219.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination of Withdrawal...

  14. Changes and Challenges in 20 Years of Research into the Development of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This review of 20 years of developmental research on Executive Functions (EF) offers a broad-brushstroke picture that touches on multiple issues including: (i) findings from typical and atypical groups, from infancy to adolescence; (ii) advances in assessment tools and in statistical analysis; (iii) the interplay between EF and other cognitive…

  15. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  16. Four Themes from 20 Years of Research on Infant Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews progress over the past 20 years in four areas of research on infant perception and cognition. Work on perception of dynamic events has identified perceptual constraints on perception of object unity and object trajectory continuity that have led to a perceptual account of early development that supplements Nativist accounts.…

  17. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  18. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  19. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  20. 20 Years after "The Ontogeny of Human Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective," Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabès, Adeline; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, Nelson published a paper describing a model of memory development during the first years of life. The current article seeks to provide an update on the original work published 20 years ago. Specifically, we review our current knowledge on the relation between the emergence of explicit memory functions throughout development and the…

  1. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  2. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  3. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  4. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  5. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  6. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  7. Developmental Cascades: Linking Academic Achievement and Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Over 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Burt, Keith B.; Obradovic, Jelena; Riley, Jennifer R.; Boelcke-Stennes, Kristen; Tellegen, Auke

    2005-01-01

    A developmental cascade model linking competence and symptoms was tested in a study of a normative, urban school sample of 205 children (initially 8 to 12 years old). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and academic competence were assessed by multiple methods at the study outset and after 7, 10, and 20 years. A series of nested cascade…

  8. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  9. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  10. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    PubMed

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  11. MOZAIC-IAGOS program : 20 years of in-situ data in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Valérie; Sauvage, Bastien; Nédélec, Philippe; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    -latitudes thanks to 5 aircraft based in Europe flying westbound and eastbound since 1994; Transects over the African continent thanks to daily Air Namibia flights between 2006 and 2013; South Atlantic area thanks to regular flights between Europe and South America; The Asian monsoon region thanks to regular flights between Europe and the Indian-South East Asia area sampling the UT under the influence of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). - Ten years of CO measurements which show an increase in concentration on moving from the Western to Eastern hemisphere. In the US, Atlantic and European sectors CO concentrations have fallen by about 2% per year. - Almost 20 years of Ozone measurements at northern mid-latitudes showing a leveling-off of the mixing ratios for the last 10-12 years over the Atlantic sector while ozone is still increasing over Asia. - Almost 20 years of relative humidity measurements showing that the upper troposphere (10 - 12 km altitude, which corresponds to the aircraft cruise level) is much wetter than reflected in the model analyses of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast).

  12. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of ~6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of ~4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity

  13. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  14. Elevation-Dependent Temperature Trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: Changes over a 56- and 20-Year Record

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Chris R.; Nufio, César R.; Bowers, M. Deane; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953–2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989–2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution

  15. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151keV (1s2-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181keV Mn 1s2-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1ns gate time

  16. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. R.; Smith, I. C.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Robertson, G.; Atherton, B. W.; Jones, M. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2008-10-15

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s{sup 2}-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing 'two-frame' imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s{sup 2}-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast

  17. 2-20 ns interframe time 2-frame 6.151 keV x-ray imaging on the recently upgraded Z Accelerator: a progress report.

    PubMed

    Bennett, G R; Smith, I C; Shores, J E; Sinars, D B; Robertson, G; Atherton, B W; Jones, M C; Porter, J L

    2008-10-01

    When used for the production of an x-ray imaging backlighter source on Sandia National Laboratories' recently upgraded 26 MA Z Accelerator, the terawatt-class, multikilojoule, 526.57 nm Z-Beamlet laser (ZBL) [P. K. Rambo et al., Appl. Opt. 44, 2421 (2005)], in conjunction with the 6.151 keV (1s(2)-1s2p triplet line of He-like Mn) curved-crystal imager [D. B. Sinars et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3672 (2004); G. R. Bennett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E322 (2006)], is capable of providing a high quality x radiograph per Z shot for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), complex hydrodynamics, and other high-energy-density physics experiments. For example, this diagnostic has recently afforded microgram-scale mass perturbation measurements on an imploding ignition-scale 1 mg ICF capsule [G. R. Bennett et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 205003 (2007)], where the perturbation was initiated by a surrogate deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel fill tube. Using an angle-time multiplexing technique, ZBL now has the capability to provide two spatially and temporally separated foci in the Z chamber, allowing "two-frame" imaging to be performed, with an interframe time range of 2-20 ns. This multiplexing technique allows the full area of the four-pass amplifiers to be used for the two pulses, rather than split the amplifiers effectively into two rectangular sections, with one leg delayed with respect to the other, which would otherwise double the power imposed onto the various optics thereby halving the damage threshold, for the same irradiance on target. The 6.151 keV two frame technique has recently been used to image imploding wire arrays, using a 7.3 ns interframe time. The diagnostic will soon be converted to operate with p-rather than s-polarized laser light for enhanced laser absorption in the Mn foil, plus other changes (e.g., operation at the possibly brighter 6.181 keV Mn 1s(2)-1s2p singlet line), to increase x-ray yields. Also, a highly sensitive inline multiframe ultrafast (1 ns

  18. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  19. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    found that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  20. Paraurethral Leiomyoma in a 20 Year-old Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Piper, Emily; Jacobs, Stephanie; Ghoniem, Gamal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 20 year-old woman with a vulvar mass, found to be a paraurethral leiomyoma. She subsequently underwent supermedial-approach paraurethral mass excision, distal urethral reconstruction and cystourethroscopy. Paraurethral leiomyoma make up approximately five percent of urethral tumors. This case depicts the presentation and treatment of a paraurethral leiomyoma in one of the youngest women reported in the literature. PMID:26793567

  1. Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hentati, Abdessalem; Neifar, Chawki; Abid, Walid; M'saad, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail. PMID:27051112

  2. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  3. Rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time imaging by radio-frequency field gradients: visualization of strained crosslinked natural rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, H.; Grandclaude, D.; Canet, D.

    2003-08-01

    NMR imaging by radio-frequency field gradients ( B1 gradients) is especially convenient for heterogeneous samples and/or in the case of relatively short transverse relaxation times. The method has been combined with the application of two spin-lock periods of different duration so as to produce rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time ( T1 ρ) images. In the case of natural rubber samples with different crosslink densities, such images are not only characteristic of the crosslink density but also reveal the way in which the material has been stressed. The strained parts can be visualized either directly or through histograms showing the T1 ρ distribution over the whole sample.

  4. Athletic Classmates, Physical Self-Concept, and Free-Time Physical Activity: A Longitudinal Study of Frame of Reference Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Gerlach, Erin; Ludtke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The systematic analysis of factors that promote or impede physical activity in children is an urgent task for educational researchers. The present study investigated the reciprocal relationship between physical self-concept, teacher-assigned grades in physical education classes, and free-time physical activity, and analyzed positive and negative…

  5. Ultra-fast-framing schlieren system for studies of the time evolution of jets in supersonic crossflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Yakar, A.; Hanson, R. K.

    2002-06-01

    A new ultra-fast camera system is used to study the time evolution of jets in supersonic crossflows via schlieren imaging. The commercial high-speed camera includes eight independent intensified charged couple devices (ICCDs) and is capable of acquiring images at rates up to 100 MHz. A long-duration (up to 200 µs) xenon flashlamp is used as the continuous light source. The exposure times of the ICCDs and the interframing times were designed to achieve schlieren images with high spatial and temporal resolution. Example data are presented for a hydrogen jet injected into a high total enthalpy supersonic crossflow, generated using a short-duration impulse facility (expansion tube). The large-eddy convection characteristics of the jet, its penetration and the unsteady nature of the shock wave around it are analyzed. Temporal correlations, such as the movement of organized (coherent) structures and fluctuations in the bow-shock, are readily perceived by assembling the eight consecutive images as a movie (http://navier.stanford.edu/hanson/propulsion/scramjet/movies/t1179.html).

  6. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Volume 1: Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 - 2000 time frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J. D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy were studied. The hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems was compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match was noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are reviewed. Recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  7. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 to 2000 time frame. Volume I. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J.D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a study of opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy are presented in two volumes. A compendium of monographs by specialists in the fields of solar energy conversion technologies, hydrogen production technologies and related technology descriptions from the general literature comprise Volume II. This data base was used to support an evaluation and selection process that identified four candidate solar/hydrogen systems best suited to commercialization within the next two decades. Volume I first reviews the background of the work and the methods used. Then an evaluation of the hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems (photovoltaic/water electrolysis, thermal-heat engine/water electrolysis, wind energy/water electrolysis, small hydrogen/water electrolysis) is compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match is noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are then reviewed. Finally, recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  8. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  9. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  10. Kawasaki Disease in India, Lessons Learnt Over the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, Kawasaki disease is being increasingly recognized in India and it may soon replace acute rheumatic fever to become the commonest cause of acquired heart disease amongst children. However, the vast majority of children with Kawasaki disease in India are still not being diagnosed. Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on a constellation of clinical findings which have a typical temporal sequence. All pediatricians must we familiar with the nuances involved in arriving at a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the risk of coronary artery abnormalities can be significantly reduced. PMID:26897142

  11. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care). PMID:23505989

  12. [Evaluation of a 20 years' experience of colo-anal anastomoses. Indications, results and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Hautefeuille, P; Saab, M; Valleur, P

    1991-01-01

    Seventy nine anastomoses were performed over a 20 year period. Indications included 68 rectal adenocarcinomas and 11 benign lesions. There was no operative mortality. Anastomotic leak was the main cause of morbidity: 12 clinical (15%) and 4 radiological leaks. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 70%, 7 local recurrences (10%) were observed; 6 were Dukes C and 1 Dukes B. Functional results were assessed in 61 patients. They were considered to be excellent in 35 (57%), good in 24 (39%) and bad in 2 (4%). Six failures were noted: 3 technical, 1 oncologic and 2 functional. Pitfalls of coloanal anastomosis are discussed. PMID:2064292

  13. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  14. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics. PMID:23729055

  15. An empiric treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia revisited: a 20-year investigative saga.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, E; Billa, E; Kapolla, N; Pappa, A; Venaki, E; Andreou, L; Nicopoulou, S C; Adamopoulos, D A

    2012-10-01

    A series of studies aiming at introducing an effective treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia was conducted in a step-wise fashion spanning over a 20-year period. The concept was that co-administration of an accessory gland-stimulating androgen, testosterone undecanoate (40 mg t.i.d.) and the FSH raising anti-oestrogen tamoxifen citrate (10 mg b.i.d.) may improve sperm parameters. A prerequisite for such an effect was the demonstration that testosterone undecanoate had no suppressing action on pituitary-testicular axis. In this context, initial studies demonstrated no change in basal or stimulated gonadotrophin and testosterone secretion in short- or long-term protocols. Two subsequent trials with this combination showed a marked improvement of sperm parameters and pregnancy incidence, with a seasonal variation noted in response to treatment, this being higher during the cold seasons of autumn and winter. Regarding the mechanism of testosterone undecanoate's action, a recent study from our unit showed that its administration resulted in a marked rise of serum DHT levels. Because this steroid is an epididymal function promoter, it appears that its contribution in the combination is mediated mainly through its DHT raising effect. By and large, this empiric approach for the treatment of idiopathic oligozoospermia was satisfactorily documented after a 20-year investigative saga. PMID:22946848

  16. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  17. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  18. Toremifene for breast cancer: a review of 20 years of data.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Charles L; Johnston, Mary Ann; Capers, Christi; Braccia, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Endocrine therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The discovery of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) > 40 years ago represented a revolutionary advance in the treatment of breast cancer. As a therapeutic class, SERMs have either estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, depending on the target tissue and the hormonal environment. In breast tissue, SERMs are antiestrogenic, making them a major treatment option for women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Toremifene citrate was developed > 20 years ago with the goal of achieving efficacy similar to that of tamoxifen and with an improved safety profile. Although studies to date have not confirmed a clear safety advantage or disadvantage for toremifene, clinical data support the efficacy and safety of toremifene for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. Toremifene also has a pharmacokinetic profile and metabolic pathway different from that of tamoxifen, which may provide a therapeutic advantage in certain patients. In addition, because of the selective estrogenic effects of SERMs in bone and on lipid levels along with a different side effect profile compared with the aromatase inhibitors (AIs), toremifene is a viable option to the AIs for some patients. Despite a number of clinical trials and over 500,000 patient years of use, many oncologists have limited familiarity with toremifene data. This article will examine the rationale for the use of toremifene in the treatment of women with breast cancer and review data from 20 years of clinical experience with this agent. PMID:24439786

  19. Vanishing lung syndrome in one family: five cases with a 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xichun; Wang, Haiying; Gou, Kaihong; Huang, Baosheng; Xia, Dongzhou; Wu, Xiuli; Wei, Ming; Zheng, Shengxi; Ma, Shan; He, Juanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Vanishing lung syndrome, also known as idiopathic giant bullous emphysema, is a rare disease characterized by giant emphysematous bullae. The disease is diagnosed by radiological findings of giant bullae in one, or both, of the upper lobes of the lung, occupying at least one-third of the hemithorax. There have been several reports of vanishing lung syndrome, however it remains to be determined whether genetic inheritance is associated with the disease. In the present study, five patients within one family, with vanishing lung syndrome, were reported during a follow-up period of ~ 20 years. All of the patients were diagnosed by radiological findings, which showed diffuse bullae in the lungs, which were of varying size and asymmetrical distribution, and the occurrence of pneumothorax or emphysema. The Medical Ethics Committee of the People's Hospital of Zhangye Municipality (Zhangye, China) approved this study, and all subjects gave their informed consent During the follow-up period of 20 years, bullae in these patients were shown to progressively increase, and no other pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis were observed. Autosomal dominant inheritance was observed in five cases, and autosomal recessive inheritance was observed in one case. The present study suggests that vanishing lung syndrome may be associated with autosomal dominant and recessive genetic inheritance. PMID:25322795

  20. A Report to the People. 20 Years of Your National Commitment to Public Broadcasting, 1967-1987. 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This annual report for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for fiscal year 1986 also summarizes the CPB's activities over the last 20 years. The front inside cover folds out to three pages and provides a chronology of the important events in CPB history from its inception in 1967 to 1987. A narrative report on the CPB's 20 years of…

  1. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  2. The changes of subtypes in pediatric diabetes and their clinical and laboratory characteristics over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Lee, Hae Sang; Shim, Young Seok; Jeong, Hwal Rim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively. Results The characteristics were compared between the 2 groups of patients. The result showed an increase in percentage of type 2 diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients between the 2 groups. HbA1c and total cholesterol level had statistical significances to explain increasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among age, HbA1c, total cholesterol level, and z-scores of weight and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. R-square was 0.074. However, z-score of BMI and total cholesterol level, not HbA1c, had statistical significances in type 1 diabetic patients. R-square was 0.323. Conclusion The increase in the proportions of both type 2 diabetes and MODY in the last 10 years needed to be reminded when diagnosing the subtypes of DM, and the dyslipidemia should be attended more as a common problem of pediatric diabetic patients. PMID:27462584

  3. Thirty Frames per Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing real motion with frame-by-frame precision can be conducted using modestly priced digital-video camcorders. Although well below the 1,000 frames-per-second threshold of high-speed cameras, commercially available camcorders grab 30 frames per second. A replay dissected at this lower frequency is fun to watch, challenges students'…

  4. Classroom Discourse Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    An analysis of classroom discourse proposes four frames, modeled as concentric circles. The inner most circle is the lesson frame, removed or sheltered from outside influences and most likely, in a language class, to maintain second-language usage. The next frame from the center is the lesson-support frame, an intermediate layer of classroom…

  5. A case of fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy misdiagnosed as Becker's muscular dystrophy for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie Llaneza; Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2012-03-01

    A 60-year-old man diagnosed clinically with Becker's muscular dystrophy 20 years ago by another physician presented with gradually progressive proximal muscle weakness since teenage years. Family history revealed a strong paternal familial inheritance pattern of similar distribution of weakness-face, forearm flexion, knee extension and foot dorsiflexion. Work-ups revealed B12 deficiency and allele 1 deletion in fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) DNA testing. FSHD is the third most common muscular dystrophy. Clinical diagnosis is made from the distinctive pattern of weakness, autosomal-dominant inheritance, and confirmed by genetic testing. This case strongly demonstrates the importance of a thorough and careful clinical evaluation even in a case with a long standing diagnosis. PMID:21795275

  6. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  7. From the First Stars and Galaxies to the Epoch of Reionization: 20 Years of Computational Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Michael L.

    2016-06-01

    I give a progress report on computational efforts to reconstruct the first billion years of cosmic evolution beginning with the formation of the first generation of stars and galaxies, culminating in the complete photoionization of the intergalactic medium. After 20 years of intense effort, the picture is falling into place through the development and application of complex multiphysics numerical simulations of increasing physical complexity and scale on the most powerful supercomputers. I describe the processes that govern the formation of the first generation of stars, the transition to the second generation of stars, the assembly of the first galaxies, and finally the reionization of the universe. I discuss how these simulations guide the interpretation of relevant observations of the high redshift (and local) universe, along with some observational predictions of these simulations which will be tested with the next generation observatories.

  8. [Recurrence of thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia 20 years after surgery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Naniwa, Taio; Kakihara, Hidetoshi; Zen-nami, Shuji; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Sato, Shigeki; Ueda, Ryuzo

    2002-03-01

    We reported a case of recurrence of localized thymoma accompanied with hypogammaglobulinemia (Good's syndrome) 20 years after surgery. A 74-year-old man was admitted to this hospital because of mediastinal tumor and chronic pulmonary infection. He had been thymectomised at the age of 55 because of spindle cell thymoma. After that, he had been asymptomatic until January 1997, when he began to have a recurrent productive cough, and low-grade fever. Laboratory findings revealed hypogammaglobulinemia. Percutaneous needle biopsy of the mediastinal tumor revealed spindle cell thymoma. Therefore, hypogammaglobulinemia with thymoma (Good's syndrome) accompanied with a chronic lower respiratory tract infection was diagnosed. Immunologic studies revealed a marked decrease of CD 20 positive cells and decreased lymphocyte activation under the stimuli of phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. The thymoma was resected in Dec 1997, but the serum immunoglobulin showed no increase at al. PMID:11974900

  9. LISA in 2012 and Beyond: 20 Years After the First Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    After 20 years of study as a joint ESA-NASA mission, LISA had to be redesigned as an ESA-only mission in 2011/2012 to meet programmatic and budgetary constraints of the space agencies. The result is a mission concept called "eLISA" or "NGO" with two arms instead of three and one million km armlengths instead of 5, which results in smaller launch mass but still provides revolutionary science. Nevertheless, even the reduced science is expected to be revolutionary for the study of black holes and other astrophysical and cosmological questions. "eLISA"/"NGO" was not selected in ESA's call for the first ("L1") large mission in the Cosmic Vision program, but is a strong candidate for the L2 call, with possible international contributions from the US and/or China.

  10. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of ‘mechanistic territorial models’. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  11. Gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma 20 years after radical nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Ebru; Kala, Mehtap; Karaman, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinomas account for 2–3% of malignant neoplasms in adults. The lung, soft tissues and bone represent the most frequent sites of distant metastasis in renal cell carcinoma. Gastric metastasis is rare. Our case was a 72-year-old man with complaints of fatigue and loss of appetite. In history, he had unergone radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma in 1993. A polypoid lesion was observed in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Histopathology of gastric biopsy specimen was reported as renal cell carcinoma. In English literature, there are 50 cases diagnosed as gastric metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. To date, there are only 4 cases with extremely late gastric metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a rare case which underwent radical nephrectomy due to renal cell carcinoma and found to have gastric metastasis at 20. year of his follow-up. PMID:27274897

  12. On-farm falls among youth less than 20 years old in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, K J; Goldcamp, E M; Myers, J R

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the magnitude and characteristics of fall-related injuries on U.S. farms for youth less than 20 years old for work and non-work exposures at a national level. To examine the problem, data from the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) were used. Findings indicate that falls are an important contributor to on-farm injuries, with youth appearing to be at considerable risk. Thus, a reduction of the exposure of youth to fall-related hazards on farms is needed. Strategies such as providing safe play areas for young children and continuing efforts to prevent extra riders on farm equipment will help in reducing these hazardous fall exposures. PMID:15017803

  13. Desire for sons and subsequent fertility in rural India. A 20-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Carol

    2012-05-01

    This paper compares the desired fertility of rural Indian women in 1987 with their actual fertility in 2007. Seventy-one respondents who stated definite fertility intentions and had fewer children than desired in 1987 were re-interviewed 20 years later, as part of a larger study. The results indicated that these women had fewer children than intended and stopped childbearing once they reached, or approximated, their desired number of sons. The majority had been sterilized, indicating broad acceptance of lower fertility among rural women and the success of India's family planning efforts, although the practice of sex determination seems also to have played a role. These findings echo those of an earlier longitudinal study of reproductive intentions and outcomes in the same community, demonstrating the persistence of son preference in determining reproductive behaviour, even in the context of low overall fertility. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy and programme implications of the study's findings. PMID:22047888

  14. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  15. Fault kinematics in the 1989 Loma Prieta rupture area during 20 years before that event

    SciTech Connect

    Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G. )

    1990-08-01

    The Loma Prieta (LP) compressional bend of the San Andreas fault zone (SAF) appears to be multi-stranded and vertically segmented; thus, faults in this segment other than the one that ruptured in 1989 may: (1) be the source of prior large events associated with this portion of the SAF and (2) be highly stressed after the 1989 LP event. The fault that ruptured in 1989 was remarkably aseismic during the preceding 20 years; seismicity occurred on some of the neighboring faults of the system, but others remained aseismic. The Lake Elsman burst of seismicity within 1.6 years of the main shock is on a set of secondary faults within the foot-wall of the rupture. The shallow ({le}5 km) portion of the SAF, morphologically and structurally characterized as steep and predominantly strike-slip, and the imbricate thrust zone to the northeast were also quiescent. These upper crustal faults may partition oblique motion accomplished by LP-like ruptures in the lower crust into fault-parallel (transcurrence) and fault-normal motion (convergence), respectively. While the overall level of seismicity in the region around LP increased over the 20 years before 1989, the level of seismicity (number of events) on the creeping portion of the SAF next to the LP segment decreased. Moreover, the level of background seismicity on this and other fault segments varied dramatically, both up and down, in conjunction with major regional earthquakes on other segments. Thus, improved models for precursory patterns of seismicity should account for mechanistically more realistic changes than simple seismicity increase or decrease everywhere around an impending rupture.

  16. How is cancer recently portrayed in Canadian newspapers compared to 20 years ago?

    PubMed

    Henry, Melissa; Trickey, Brendan; Huang, Lina Nuoxin; Cohen, S Robin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated cancer portrayals in newspapers now and 20 years ago. Six major daily newspapers from regions across Canada were studied. All articles from a 3-month period in 2008 (n = 576) and 1988 or 1989 (n = 412) focusing on cancer were analyzed. Cancer is a more prevalent topic and is depicted in a more positive light in newspapers now when compared to 20 years ago. In 2008, the most common cancer-related themes were cancer research (27%), risk factors (26%), treatment (24%), education/prevention (20%), and fundraising events (19%). Compared to 1988/1989, in 2008, there was a significant decrease in articles covering the end of life and surgery, while there was a significant increase in articles portraying the senior population, male issues, individual stories depicting people suffering from cancer, the health care system, fundraising events, and ethics and law. The percentage of articles on psychosocial aspects of the cancer experience remained the same in 1988/1989 compared with 2008, with 16% of articles covering psychological aspects (vs. 17% in 2008), 5.6% social aspects (vs. 3.9% in 2008), and 0.2% spiritual aspects (vs. 0.5% in 2008). In 2008, few cancer articles spoke in-depth about palliative care (2.8%), issues concerning death and dying (5%), or bereavement (1%). Cancer newspaper reporting mostly focuses on the physical aspects of cancer rather than presenting a more holistic approach including psychosocial issues. Implications of the shifts in tone and content of newspaper reporting are discussed. We highlight the importance of promoting coverage of distress as the sixth vital sign in newspaper press so as to inform readers about the experience of cancer and the existence of psychosocial services designed to optimize quality of life. PMID:21132331

  17. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  18. Epidemiological aspects of melanoma at a university hospital dermatology center over a period of 20 years*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Flavia Vieira; Pereira, Ana Francisca Junqueira Ribeiro; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of melanoma has been steadily rising in past decades. Although it accounts for only 3% of all skin cancers, it is responsible for 75% of deaths. OBJECTIVE to describe the epidemiological aspects of melanoma in a university hospital setting over a period of 20 years. METHODS A total of 166 patients were analyzed between January 1990 and January 2010 for clinical and histological variables and correlations between them. A 5% level of significance was adopted. RESULTS The majority of patients were Caucasians (74%), females (61%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 55. The predominant histological type was lentigo maligna/lentigo maligna melanoma (35.7%) and the head and neck was the most affected site (30.7%). Among non-Caucasians, the acral region was the most affected. Most tumors were in situ (41.1%). Growth of the lesion was the most frequent complaint (58.1%) and bleeding was most frequently associated with melanomas with a depth > 4mm. There were seven deaths (4.2%), with a high risk among men, non-Caucasians and those under 20 years of age, with a Breslow's depth > 2mm, with lentiginous acral melanoma and with a history of growth and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Our sample differs from most of the studies in the predominant location (head and neck), histological type (lentigo maligna/ lentigo maligna melanoma) and a major risk of death under the age of 20, which could be with a reflex of regional variation. Broader studies are necessary for validation of the results. PMID:23793193

  19. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  20. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  1. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  2. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  3. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  4. Atmospheric forcing and Sea Surface Temperature response in the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea system in a 20 years simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutov, D.; Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the frame of MedEX ("Inter-basin exchange in the changing Mediterranean Sea") Project a 20 years (1989-2008) simulation at 2km resolution covering Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea, forced by 9 km winds (WRF downscaling of ERA-Interim reanalysis), is analyzed and compared with observations. Statistical methods, EOF techniques and two harmonic (including annual and semi-annual frequencies) data fit were performed for the analysis. Modeled SST fields are also compared with long-term (1996-2008) in-situ buoy observations provided by Puertos del Estado (Spain) and satellite derived Pathfinder SST database. Model SSTs generally follow observations data at annual and inter-annual scales with a global error not exceeding 0.17°C (model warmer than SST). No significant warming tendency was observed in both basins during the 20 years and the Interanual variability dominates, with the series showing a cooling period from 1991 to 1993 followed by a warming period started from 1994. In particular we show that SST cooling observed in the early 1990's in the Gulf of Cadiz - Alboran system is associated with the 1991 catastrophic eruption of Pinatubo volcano (Philippines).

  5. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  6. Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF) for automatic evaluation of the variation of the dynamic parameters of reinforced concrete framed structures during strong earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco

    2015-04-01

    the results provided in this study, the methodology seems to be able to evaluate fast variations (over time) of dynamic parameters of a generic reinforced concrete framed structure. Further analyses are necessary to better calibrate the length of the moving time-window (in order to minimize the spurious frequency within each Interferometric Response Function evaluated on both weak and strong motion phases) and to verify the possibility to use the STIRF to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of general systems. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, F.C. Ponzo (2015). Automatic evaluation of the fundamental frequency variations and related damping factor of reinforced concrete framed structures using the Short Time Impulse Response Function (STIRF). Engineering Structures, 82 (2015), 104-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.10.023.

  7. Rovibrational spectroscopy using a kinetic energy operator in Eckart frame and the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, Keyvan Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Lauvergnat, David; Gatti, Fabien

    2014-09-21

    For computational rovibrational spectroscopy the choice of the frame is critical for an approximate separation of overall rotation from internal motions. To minimize the coupling between internal coordinates and rotation, Eckart proposed a condition [“Some studies concerning rotating axes and polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. 47, 552–558 (1935)] and a frame that fulfills this condition is hence called an Eckart frame. A method is developed to introduce in a systematic way the Eckart frame for the expression of the kinetic energy operator (KEO) in the polyspherical approach. The computed energy levels of a water molecule are compared with those obtained using a KEO in the standard definition of the Body-fixed frame of the polyspherical approach. The KEO in the Eckart frame leads to a faster convergence especially for large J states and vibrationally excited states. To provide an example with more degrees of freedom, rotational states of the vibrational ground state of the trans nitrous acid (HONO) are also investigated.

  8. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Setting limits on pollution is an inherently political process negotiated between stakeholders within society. Science has a critical, but not dominant role in setting environmental limits. Over the past 20 years, nations have had the opportunity to build on a period of major international successes, limiting ozone-depleting chemicals and sulphur emissions causing acid rain. The science and politics of solutions attempted during this time has become vastly more complicated, and the outcome has been disappointing: global greenhouse gas emissions remain at business-as-usual trajectories. It seems logical and timely to examine the landscape before forging onward. In a brief review of lessons learned from the perspective of earth-system science within New Zealand, I highlight key examples and opportunities for creating more promising way forward. Among the lessons are that small-scale limit setting can host important innovation, while collapses can occur when systems that are too-big-to-fail but lack critical pre-requisites. In this sense, implementation of cap-and-trade for water quality may represent the former, while the collapse of C prices highlight the latter. Of critical importance is the simple observation that perceived uncertainties must be brought within bounds that make decisions possible. The way in which system are framed scientifically can be of overarching significance. Cap and trade for nutrients in New Zealand catchments has enabled small-scale illustrations of how the system frame can be vital in successful policy. For example, the N budget of Lake Taupo is simplified by focusing on inputs to the land, while 100-year forcing equivalence still raises questions about managing climate change. Relationships between emissions and activity must be distilled based on sound science, in a manner simple and certain enough for people and businesses to meaningfully consider in decisions that are made every day. With trust becoming a major limiting factor in the

  9. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Body Frame in Reducing Respiratory Intrafractional Organ Motion Using the Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Horita, Kenji; Yamazaki, Rie; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Noriwo; Inoue, Tetsuya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluated using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.

  10. Nine Frames as Jupiter Turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    is very different from Jupiter's appearance 20 years ago, when the equatorial zone was more of a brownish cast similar to the region just to its north.

    At the northern edge of the equatorial zone, local regions colored a dark grayish-blue are places where the ammonia clouds have cleared allowing a view to deeper levels in Jupiter's atmosphere. Interrupting these relatively clear regions is a series of bright arrow-shaped equatorial plumes. The most obvious one is visible just above and to the right of center in the third and ninth frames. These plumes resemble the 'anvil' clouds that accompany common summer thunderstorms on Earth, although the Jovian plumes are much bigger, and their somewhat regular spacing around the planet suggests an association with a planetary-scale wave motion. The southwest-northeast tilt of these plumes suggests that the winds in this region act to help maintain the eastward winds at this latitude.

    In the dark belt north of the equatorial zone, a turbulent region with a white filamentary cloud is visible in the sixth frame, indicating rapidly changing wind direction. Several white ovals are visible at higher southern latitudes (toward the bottom of the fourth, fifth, and sixth frames, for example). These ovals, like the Great Red Spot, rotate counterclockwise and are similar in some respects to high-pressure systems on Earth.

    When these images were taken, Cassini was about 3.3 degrees above Jupiter's equatorial plane, and the Sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle was about 20 degrees.

    JPL manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPl is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Optimising treatment strategies in spinal ependymoma based on 20years of experience at a single centre.

    PubMed

    Keil, Vera C; Schmitt, Anne J; Martin, Sean C; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom A D; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2016-07-01

    Spinal ependymomas are rare tumours, with total resection favoured where possible. Several case series assessing the outcome following neurosurgical treatment for spinal ependymoma advocate the usage of adjuvant radiotherapy in cases of subtotal resection, or in unencapsulated tumours. We assessed the outcome of 61 consecutive cases of spinal ependymoma in a single centre over a 20year period using a variety of outcome measures. Sex distribution was equal, with a mean age at surgery of 43.6years (range 5-76years). Overall, most tumours occurred in the lumbosacral region (70.5%), with fewer in the thoracic (27.9%) and cervical regions (18.0%). Myxopapillary features were seen in 41.0% of tumours, and were more common when occurring in the lumbar region (51.2%). Gross total resection was achieved in 52.5%, subtotal resection in 37.7% and biopsy alone in 9.8% of patients and 31.1% received adjuvant radiotherapy. Two-thirds of patients achieved an excellent post-operative neurological outcome (Frankel grade E). Tumour recurrence was rare. Gross total resection and good preoperative neurological condition were most strongly predictive of good outcome. Post-operative radiotherapy did not seem to confer survival benefit in this case series, even in cases of incomplete resection, leading us to question its utility for all cases of spinal cord ependymoma. PMID:26944215

  12. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  13. A 20-year H2O maser monitoring program with the Medicina 32-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, J.; Felli, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Palla, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-03-01

    The Arcetri/Bologna H2O maser group has been monitoring the 1.3-cm water maser emission from a sample of 43 star-forming regions (SFRs) and 22 late-type stars for about 20 years at a sampling rate of 4-5 observations each year, using the 32-m Medicina Radio Telescope (HPBW 1.‧9 at 22 GHz). For the late-type stars we observe representative samples of OH/IR-stars, Mira's, semi-regular variables, and supergiants. The SFR-sample spans a large interval in FIR luminosity of the associated Young Stellar Object (YSO), from 20 L to 1.5 × 106 L, and offers a unique data base for the study of the long-term (years) variability of the maser emission in regions of star formation. This presentation concerns only the masers in SFRs. The information obtained from single-dish monitoring is complementary to what is extracted from higher-resolution (VLA and VLBI) observations, and can better explore the velocity domain and the long-term variability therein. We characterize the variability of the sources in various ways and we study how it depends on the luminosity and other properties of the associated YSO and its environment.

  14. How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  15. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting….

    PubMed

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH's bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  16. Looking back and thinking forward: 20 years of disability and rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Jette, Alan M; Fuhrer, Marcus J; Granger, Carl V

    2012-08-01

    The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research recently celebrated its 20th Anniversary. The celebration included a symposium highlighting advances in rehabilitation science over the past 2 decades. The anniversary also reminds us of the challenges that remain in order to strengthen the foundation of disability and rehabilitation research. These challenges have been described in 3 reports published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1991, 1997, and 2007. Three areas of concern appear across the IOM reports. These include (1) the lack of a comprehensive disability monitoring program, (2) the need for better integration and coordination of federally supported disability research, and (3) funding levels that are inconsistent with the current and projected impacts of disability on individuals, families, and communities. In this commentary we examine the lack of progress in addressing the recommendations contained in the IOM reports. We conclude that renewed efforts by consumers, clinicians, educators, researchers, administrators, and policy makers are needed to achieve the promise of rehabilitation and disability science identified 20 years ago. PMID:22425964

  17. How have researchers studied multiracial populations: A content and methodological review of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    The U. S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic make-up of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied both to recognize the emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990–2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals from primarily the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  18. The surgical management of spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) ‒ 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Pezzetta, Edgardo; Kokudo, Takashi; Uldry, Emilie; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Kudo, Hiroki; Ris, Hans-Beat; Christodoulou, Michel; Vuilleumier, Henri; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-05-23

    Spontaneous esophageal perforation (Boerhaave's syndrome) is an uncommon and challenging condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is indicated in the large majority of cases and different procedures have been described in this respect. We present the results of a mono-institutional evaluation of the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation over a 20-year period. The charts of 25 patients with spontaneous esophageal perforation treated at the Surgical Department of the University Hospital of Lausanne were retrospectively studied. In the 25 patients, 24 patients were surgically treated and one was managed with conservative treatment. Primary buttressed esophageal repair was performed in 23 cases. Nine postoperative complications were recorded, and the overall mortality was 32%. Despite prompt treatment postoperative morbidity and mortality are still relevant. Early diagnosis and definitive surgical management are the keys for successful outcome in the management of spontaneous esophageal perforation. Primary suture with buttressing should be considered as the procedure of choice. Conservative approach may be applied in very selected cases. PMID:27052150

  19. CT angiography after 20 years: a transformation in cardiovascular disease characterization continues to advance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Leipsic, Jonathon; Joseph Schoepf, U; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2014-06-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5-15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  20. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina

    2009-01-01

    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  1. Bilateral Total Hip Arthroplasty in 20 Years Old Female with Neglected Developmental Dysplasia of Hip

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Jain, Jitesh K; Sharma, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Management of developmental dysplasia of hip in adult is challenging problem. Management protocols are not well defined in terms of operative technique. Patient may present very late. Usually they consult orthopaedic surgeons when osteoarthritic changes set in, leading to pain. Operative management is difficult because of difficult exposure, altered anatomy of soft tissue structures, hypoplastic femoral medullary canal and shallow and atypical acetabulum filled with soft tissues. Femoral head is up-ridden with contracted Abductors which resists reduction of femoral head into acetabulum. Altered anatomy of neurovascular structures also pose a risk of being injured during surgery. Case Report Here we are presenting a case of bilateral total hip arthroplasty in 20 years old female with developmental dysplasia of hip and sharing our experience of its operative management. Conclusion We concluded from this case study that total hip arthroplasty in developmental dysplasia of hip is technically demanding but gives good functional and clinical result. For getting functionally good result contracted soft tissues around joint need special attention. PMID:27298952

  2. Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Wood, A

    2013-11-01

    The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development. PMID:24102746

  3. Susac's Syndrome in a Patient Diagnosed with MS for 20 Years: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zeynep Batur Caglayan, Hale; Yildirim-Capraz, Irem

    2014-01-01

    Susac's syndrome is an uncommon neurologic disorder of unknown cause. It has been described as a clinical triad of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and branch retinal artery occlusions. Clinically the diagnosis is difficult when the patient presents only a portion of a triad. We present a case with vision loss and sensorineural deafness and who had been diagnosed with MS for 20 years. Susac's syndrome is presumed to be an autoimmune endotheliopathy. Neurologic symptoms and signs are diffuse and multifocal, acute or subacute in onset, and progress during the active phase of the disease. In some patients the onset was stroke like and in others that of subacute dementia. Headache, often with migrainous features, was a prominent feature initially in more than one half of the patients. A high index of suspicion leading to correct diagnosis and early appropriate therapy may reduce the permanent sequel seen with this disease. Misdiagnosis is common. In patients in whom diagnosis and treatment are delayed permanent morbidity is higher in terms of visual loss, hearing loss, and neurologic debility. In patients in whom rapid diagnosis has led to early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, recovery can be almost complete. PMID:24716016

  4. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  5. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others. PMID:25203760

  6. [Pulmonary resection using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery--20 years experience].

    PubMed

    Baste, J-M; Orsini, B; Rinieri, P; Melki, J; Peillon, C

    2014-04-01

    Major lung resection using minimally invasive techniques - video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) - was first described 20 years ago. However, its development has been slow in many countries because the value of this approach has been questioned. Different techniques and definitions of VATS are used and this can be confusing for physicians and surgeons. The benefit of minimally invasive thoracic surgery was not always apparent, while many surgeons pointed to suboptimal operative outcomes. Recently, technological advances (radiology, full HD monitor and new stapler devices) have improved VATS outcomes. The objectives of this review are to emphasize the accepted definition of VATS resection, outline the different techniques developed and their results including morbidity and mortality compared to conventional approaches. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has not been proven to give superior survival (level one evidence) compared to thoracotomy. A slight advantage has been demonstrated for short-term outcomes. VATS is not a surgical revolution but rather an evolution of surgery. It should be considered together with the new medical environment including stereotactic radiotherapy and radiofrequency. VATS seems to be more accurate in the treatment of small lung lesions diagnosed with screening CT scan. In the academic field, VATS allows easier teaching and diffusion of techniques. PMID:24750952

  7. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting…

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  8. Transconjunctival Approach for Zygomatic Fracture: A Single Surgeon’s Experience of More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hidetaka; Masumoto, Kazuyuki; Chuman, Takahiro; Satake, Yoshiyasu; Yanai, Tetsu; Harada, Yoshimi; Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Background: To let experts evaluate a single surgeon’s experience with a combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in the repair of zygomatic fractures encountered in 46 East Asian patients whom he treated over the past 20 years. Methods: Patients were identified from a database, and a retrospective case note review was conducted. A total of 67 conjunctival and secondary incisions were made on 46 patients for repair of zygomatic fractures. All operative procedures were performed using a combination of transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approaches to repair zygomatic fractures. Results: The infraorbital rim and/or lateral buttress and/or lateral orbit was stabilized with titanium miniplates in 28 patients and absorbable miniplates in 11 patients. Seven patients required only reduction technique with no need of plates. Four cases needed additional canthotomy besides a conjunctival approach. No ectropion or entropion developed in any of the patients. Complications included eyelid laceration during surgery (n = 1), herniation of the conjunctiva (n = 1), temporary pyogenic granuloma of the conjunctiva after surgery (n = 1), and temporary entropion in a secondary incision (n = 1). Conclusions: A combined transconjunctival and intraoral upper vestibular approach in repairing zygomatic fractures is simple, easy, and effective, leaving no conspicuous facial scars. It is vitally important, however, that the surgeon masters the technique of transconjunctival approach well before he has good results in East Asian patients. PMID:27482496

  9. 20 years of lipid nanoparticles (SLN and NLC): present state of development and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rainer H; Shegokar, Ranjita; Keck, Cornelia M

    2011-09-01

    In 1990, the lipid nanoparticles were invented in the laboratories, the first patent filings took place in 1991. The lipid nanoparticles were developed as alternative to traditional carriers such as polymeric nanoparticles and liposomes. After 20 years of lipid nanoparticles, the present state of development is reviewed - academic progress but also the development state of pharmaceutical products for the benefit of patients. Meanwhile many research groups are active worldwide, their results are reviewed which cover many different administration routes: dermal and mucosal, oral, intravenous/parenteral, pulmonary but also ocular. The lipid nanoparticles are also used for peptide/protein delivery, in gene therapy and various miscellaneous applications (e.g. vaccines). The questions of large scale production ability, accepted regulatory status of excipients, and - important for the public perception - lack of nanotoxicity are discussed, important pre-requisites for the use of each nanocarrier in products. Identical to the liposomes, the lipid nanoparticles entered first the cosmetic market, product examples are presented. Presently the pharmaceutical product development focuses on products for unmet needs and on niche products with lower development costs (e.g. ocular delivery), which can be realized also by smaller companies. A pharmaceutical perspective for the future is given, but also outlined the opportunities for non-pharmaceutical use, e.g. in nutraceuticals. PMID:21291409

  10. [The Italian Places of Nicholas Green 20 years after his assassination].

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Scarabelli, Andrea; Citterio, Franco; De Santo, Luca S; De Rosa, Giusy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Nicholas Green, a 7- year-old American boy was shot, while on vacation, on the Autostrada (motorway) Salerno to Reggio Calabria in Italy. His organs, with the consent of his parents, Reg and Maggie, were removed and 7 persons had their lives changed. In Italy in these last 20 years, organ donation has increased powerfully from 6.2 to 18.2 per million population with a peak at 20 in 2006. Reg and Maggie Green, after Nicholas death, started campaigning for organ donation by making full use of the media. Italian justice was efficient and the criminals were imprisoned quickly. With popular enthusiasm, a total of 103 places were dedicated to Nicholas (schools, halls, squares, streets, parks, gardens, private collections), a proof of great appreciation. Teaching organ donation to children, nurses and medical students is a powerful tool to convey the message of organ donation. To prevent opposition to organ removal when brain death occurs as Professor Francesco Casavola says signing for organ donation should be a family decision and laws for organ donation should be updated frequently in order to meet the progress of modernity. PMID:25030013

  11. Effects of the STCC eddies on the Kuroshio based on the 20-year JCOPE2 reanalysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Guo, Xinyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, 20 years of model reanalysis data are analyzed to study the effects of the subtropical countercurrent (STCC) eddies on the upstream Kuroshio, from east of Luzon to east of Taiwan. The effects are assessed from individual events to interannual time scales. The wind-driven Kuroshio is modified by the STCC eddies, with high spatiotemporal variations. The mass balance in the composite eddy events indicates that the strengthening and weakening of the Kuroshio transport are locally caused by the mass convergence and divergence produced by the eddies. The same analogy applies to the interannual time scale. In the eddy-rich years, the upstream Kuroshio is generally stronger because of wind forcing, yet the strengthening is nonuniform because of modification by the eddies. The larger number of warm eddies to the east of Taiwan and Luzon Island further strengthen the jet, whereas the larger number of cold eddies to the east of the Luzon Strait weaken the Kuroshio in the Luzon Strait. Drifter trajectories show larger Luzon Strait intrusion during the occurrence of cold eddies. The local weakening of the Kuroshio by cold eddies leads to a weaker potential vorticity jump, producing favorable conditions for the intrusion of a water mass into the South China Sea.

  12. Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, U.

    2010-07-01

    Ultrashort lasers provide an important tool to probe the dynamics of physical systems at very short time-scales, allowing for improved understanding of the performance of many devices and phenomena used in science, technology, and medicine. In addition ultrashort pulses also provide a high peak intensity and a broad optical spectrum, which opens even more applications such as material processing, nonlinear optics, attosecond science, and metrology. There has been a long-standing, ongoing effort in the field to reduce the pulse duration and increase the power of these lasers to continue to empower existing and new applications. After 1990, new techniques such as semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and Kerr-lens mode locking (KLM) allowed for the generation of stable pulse trains from diode-pumped solid-state lasers for the first time, and enabled the performance of such lasers to improve by several orders of magnitude with regards to pulse duration, pulse energy and pulse repetition rates. This invited review article gives a broad overview and includes some personal accounts of the key events during the last 20 years, which made ultrafast solid-state lasers a success story. Ultrafast Ti:sapphire, diode-pumped solid-state, and novel semiconductor laser oscillators will be reviewed. The perspective for the near future indicates continued significant progress in the field.

  13. A time stepping coupled finite element-state space modeling environment for synchronous machine performance and design analysis in the ABC frame of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fang

    This dissertation centers on the development of a modeling environment to predict the performance and operating characteristics of salient-pole synchronous generators. The model basically consists of an algorithm consisting of two sections, a time stepping two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic field finite element (FE) computation algorithm coupled to a state-space (SS) time-domain model of the winding circuits. Hence the term time stepping Coupled Finite Element-State Space (CFE-SS) modeling environment is adopted for this approach. In the FE section, magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and computation of two-dimensional (2D) magnetostatic fields are used to get the magnetic field solutions throughout a machine's cross-section at a sequence (samplings) of rotor positions covering a complete (360 deg e) ac cycle. These field solutions yield the winding inductances by means of an energy and current perturbation method. The output of the FE section is the magnetic field solutions and the entire set of phase, field, damper, and sleeve winding inductance profiles versus rotor position, including all space harmonics due to rotor saliency, damper bar slotting, sleeve segmentation, stator slotting, and magnetic saturation. These inductance profiles are decomposed into their harmonic components by Fourier analysis. The magnetic field solutions and resulting winding inductances represent the key input data to the SS portion of the CFE-SS modeling environment. Laminated machine iron core loss calculations, which include the losses in the stator and rotor as well as pole face are subsequently performed using the magnetic field solution data. Conversely, the output of the SS portion is the entire set of phase, field, damper winding (circuit), and sleeve segment currents, which also include all the resulting time harmonics. These winding current results form in turn the key input data to the FE portion of the modeling environment which is

  14. Temporal expression of the PGE2 synthetic system in the kidney is associated with the time frame of renal developmental vulnerability to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Stefanie; Olliges, Anke; Kern, Niklas; Schreiber, Yannik; Narumiya, Shuh; Nüsing, Rolf M

    2012-07-15

    Pharmacological blockade of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) causes impairment of kidney development. The present study was aimed at determining temporal expression pattern and activity of the PGE(2) synthetic pathway during postnatal nephrogenesis in mice and its association to the time window sensitive to COX-2 inhibition. During the first 10 days after birth, we observed transient induction of mRNA and protein for microsomal PGE synthase (mPGES)-1 between postnatal days 4 (P4) and P8, but not for mPGES-2 or cytosolic PGE synthase (cPGES). PGE(2) synthetic activity using arachidonic acid and PGH(2) as substrates and also urinary excretion of PGE(2) were enhanced during this time frame. In parallel to the PGE(2) system, COX-2 but not COX-1 expression was also transiently induced. Studying glomerulogenesis in EP receptor knockout mice revealed a reduction in glomerular size in EP1(-/-), EP2(-/-), and EP4(-/-) mice, supporting the developmental role of PGE(2). The most vulnerable time window to COX-2 inhibition by SC-236 was found closely related to the temporal expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1. The strongest effects of COX-2 inhibition were achieved following 8 days of drug administration. Similar developmental damage was caused by application of rofecoxib, but not by the COX-1-selective inhibitor SC-560. COX-2 inhibition starting after P10 has had no effect on the size of glomeruli or on the relative number of superficial glomeruli; however, growth of the renal cortex was significantly diminished, indicating the requirement of COX-2 activity after P10. Effects of COX-2 inhibition on renal cell differentiation and on renal fibrosis needed a prolonged time of exposition of at least 10 days. In conclusion, temporal expression of the PGE(2) synthetic system coincides with the most vulnerable age interval for the induction of irreversible renal abnormalities. We assume that mPGES-1 is coregulated with COX-2 for PGE(2) synthesis to orchestrate postnatal kidney development and

  15. TWIG: a model to simulate the gravitropic response of a tree axis in the frame of elasticity and viscoelasticity, at intra-annual time scale.

    PubMed

    Coutand, Catherine; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Jeronimidis, Georges; Destrebecq, Jean-François

    2011-03-21

    Trees are able to maintain or modify the orientation of their axes (trunks or branches) by tropic movements. For axes in which elongation is achieved but cambial growth active, the tropic movements are due to the production of a particular wood, called reaction wood which is prestressed within the growing tree. Several models have been developed to simulate the gravitropic response of axes in trees due to the formation of reaction wood, all within the frame of linear elasticity and considering the wood maturation as instantaneous. The effect viscoelasticity of wood has, to our knowledge, never been considered. The TWIG model presented in this paper aims at simulating the gravitropic movement of a tree axis at the intra-annual scale. In this work we studied both the effect of a non-instantaneous maturation process and of viscoelasticity. For this purpose, we considered the elastic case with maturation considered as an instantaneous process as the reference. The introduction of viscoelasticity in TWIG has been done by coupling TWIG to a model developed for bridges. Indeed from a purely mechanical point of view, bridges and trees are very similar: they are structures which are built in stages, they are made of several materials (composite structures), their materials are prestressed (wood is prestressed during the maturation process as a result of polymerisation of lignin and cellulose to form the secondary cell wall and concrete is prestressed during drying). Simulations gave evidence that the reorientation process of axes can be significantly influenced by the kinetics of maturation. Moreover the model has now to be tested with more experimental data of wood viscoelasticity but it appears that in the range of a relaxation time from 0 to 50 days, viscoelasticity has an important effect on the evolution of tree shape as well as on the values of prestresses. PMID:21187101

  16. Management of the infected median sternotomy wound with muscle flaps. The Emory 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, G; Jurkiewicz, M J; Bostwick, J; Wood, R; Bried, J T; Culbertson, J; Howell, R; Eaves, F; Carlson, G; Nahai, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to define those patient variables that contribute to morbidity and mortality of median sternotomy wound infection and the results of treatment by debridement and closure by muscle flaps. BACKGROUND: Infection of the median sternotomy wound after open heart surgery is a devastating complication associated with significant mortality. Twenty years ago, these wounds were treated with either open packing or antibiotic irrigation, with a mortality approaching 50% in some series. In 1975, the authors began treating these wounds with radical sternal debridement followed by closure using muscle or omental flaps. The mortality of sternal wound infection has dropped to < 10%. METHODS: The authors' total experience with 409 patients treated over 20 years is described in relation to flap choices, hospital days after sternal wound closure, and incidence rates of morbidity and mortality. One hundred eighty-six patients treated since January 1988 were studied to determine which patient variables had impact on rates of flap closure complications, recurrent sternal wound infection, or death. Variables included obesity, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, poststernotomy septicemia, internal mammary artery harvest, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and perioperative myocardial infarction and were analyzed using chi square tests. Fisher's exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The mortality rate over 20 years was 8.1% (33/49). Additional procedures for recurrent sternal wound infection were necessary in 5.1% of patients. Thirty-one patients (7.6%) required treatment for hematoma, and 11 patients (2.7%) required hernia repair. Among patients treated since 1988, variables strongly associated with mortality were septicemia (p < 0.00001), perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.006), and intra-aortic balloon pump (p = 0.0168). Factors associated with wound closure complications were intra-aortic balloon pump

  17. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. PMID:15876321

  18. Head and Neck Schwannomas: 20-Year Experience of a Single Institution Excluding Cutaneous and Acoustic Sites.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Patel, Rajiv M; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    While head and neck sites comprise the most common location of schwannomas, clinicopathologic data regarding those tumors occurring in non-acoustic and non-cutaneous locations are relatively sparse. In this study, therefore, we sought to examine retrospectively the clinical and pathologic features of head and neck schwannomas excised at our institution over a 20-year period. During this period, we identified a total cohort of 85 patients, which included 36 males (42.4 %) and 49 females with average age of 41.3 years, the majority of which presented asymptomatically with a mass. Localized symptoms were, however, associated with all of the schwannomas that arose in the oral cavity and larynx, while tumors within or adjacent to bone were often associated with neurologic complaints (7 of 15 such tumors [46.7 %]). Clinical follow-up data was available in 86.4 % of all cases and demonstrated no recurrences or mortality. Pathologically, the microscopic features were characteristic of those well-described for schwannomas in other sites, including alternating Antoni A and B areas and the presence of degenerative changes. Tumor encapsulation, however, was variable and was completely absent in schwannomas of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. Additionally, a significant minority of the tumors (28.2 %) exhibited foci that resembled neurofibroma. Non-acoustic, non-cutaneous schwannomas of the head and neck appear to have clinicopathologic features similar to their soft tissue counterparts with some subsite variation in presentation and/or microscopic features. PMID:26747460

  19. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development. Methods We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2) locus (IGF2/H19) in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) – IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0) and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2) – were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects. Results At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference −0.017 (95% CI; −0.028, −0.005), P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups. Conclusions Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality. PMID:23840686

  20. MEST-Tyche will take its dark comets to impact our solar system in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-03-01

    Tyche has many dark comets like Oort cloud. It went near our solar system every 25-27 million years. It could take its dark comets to impact our earth. Tyche and its dark comet absorb light like a dark light which is a negative black-body radiation. (1) Eddν=-c1dνd^3dνe^c2dνd/Td-1. Among it, Ed: the dark energy, νd: the dark frequence, Td: the dark temperature, c1d,c2d: the constant. So when they go near us, their wave has a against Doppler redshift as 0.000165. And they will inbreak solar system at the rate of 99AU/y, from the distance of 1,500AU and in 20 years. It can cause the broken ozonosphere, the lithosphere to crack, many big activity volcanic and the continental drift. And it can darked the light and colded the climate to the Great Ice Age. Not only it will break our environment by a special ``nuclear explosion'' under low temperature, but also the dark life will change the Genetic code of our life. So it will kill many lives and will produce new life. So it could trigger the Mass Extinction. We can bulid up a new pair of nuclear reactor (include dark nuclear energy) to drive a universal craft and can change the orbit of our earth for evading the impaction. We need a new life-information technology to develop our life and consciousness.

  1. Familial transmission of schizophrenia in Palau: A 20-year genetic epidemiological study in three generations.

    PubMed

    Myles-Worsley, Marina; Tiobech, Josepha; Blailes, Francisca; Middleton, Frank A; Vinogradov, Sophia; Byerley, William; Faraone, Stephen V

    2011-04-01

    Our genetic epidemiological studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (SCZ) in the isolated population of Palau have been ongoing for 20 years. Results from the first decade showed that Palau has an elevated prevalence of SCZ and that cases cluster in extended multigenerational pedigrees interconnected via complex genetic relationships after centuries of endogamous, but not consanguineous, marriages. The aim of our second decade of research, which extended data collection into a third generation of young, high-risk (HR) Palauans, was to identify significant predictors of intergenerational transmission of illness. Our findings revealed that degree of familial loading and gender effects on reproductive fitness are important modifiers of risk for transmission of SCZ. Among 45 distinct multiplex families, we identified 10 high-density (HD) Palauan families, each with 7-29 SCZ cases, which contain half of Palau's 260 SCZ cases and 80% of the 113 SCZ cases with one or more affected first-degree relatives, indicating that familial loading is a major risk factor for SCZ in Palau. Cases that belong to multiply affected sibships are more common than cases with an affected parent. Furthermore, only 6/38 multiply affected sibships have an affected parent, strong evidence that many unaffected parents are obligate carriers of susceptibility genes. Although reproductive fitness is dramatically reduced in affected males, the 30% minority who do become fathers are twice as likely as affected mothers to transmit SCZ to an offspring. As they evolve, these HD families can help to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that predict intergenerational transmission of SCZ. PMID:21294248

  2. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence. PMID:26108864

  3. Prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in Patras, Greece: three surveys over 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Anthracopoulos, M; Karatza, A; Liolios, E; Triga, M; Triantou, K; Priftis, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in 1978, 1991, and 1998 in Patras, Greece.
METHODS—The study populations of the three comparable cross sectional surveys comprised third and fourth grade public school children in Patras, Greece. Sample sizes in 1978, 1991, and 1998 were 3735,2952 and 3397 children and response rates were 80.4%, 81.9%, and 90.6%, respectively. Prevalence of current, non-current, and lifetime asthma or recurrent wheezing was determined by parental questionnaire. Personal communication with the parents of asthmatic children in 1991 and 1998 provided data on lost schooldays.
RESULTS—Prevalence rates of current asthma or wheezing in 1978, 1991, and 1998 were 1.5%, 4.6%, and 6.0%, respectively (1978-91: p=0.01, 1991-98: p=0.02, 1978-98: p=0.03). Lifetime prevalences of asthma or wheezing in 1991 and 1998 were 8.0% and 9.6%, respectively (p=0.03). Current diagnosed asthma increased proportionally to diagnosed wheezing during 1991-98. The number of schooldays lost in the previous 2 years because of asthma did not change (p>0.1) between 1991 (0.31 per child) and 1998 (0.34 per child).
CONCLUSIONS—Our results support a true increase in the prevalence of current and lifetime asthma in the last 20 years among pre-adolescent children in Patras, Greece.

 PMID:11413358

  4. [The agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident].

    PubMed

    Sapegin, L M; Daĭneko, N M; Timofeev, S F

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of studying on agroecosystems flora status in restricted zone 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. There were preliminary identified 8 agroecosystems associations by Broaun-Blanquet ecologo-floristic classification: Phalacrolometum septentrionale, Agrostio tenuis Calamagrostietum epigeii, Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis, Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis, Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis, Caricetum hirtae. First three associations were attributed to Agropyretea repentis class, to Agropyretalia repentis order, Convolvulo--Agropyrion union. We consider the association Phalacrolometum septentrionale as the initial stage of agroscosystems overgrowing which is continued with increase of its demonstration in association Agrostio tenuis--Calamagrostietum epigeii and Agrostio tenuis--Elytrigietum repentis. The associations Poo pratensis--Bromopsietum inermis, Poo pratensis--Dactylidetum glomeratae, Poo pratensis--Agrostietum tenuis and Elytrigio repentis--Poetum pratensis we attributed to class Molinio--Arrhenatheretea, to order Arrhenatheretalia and Festuncion pratensis union. The association Caricetum hirtae was attributed to class Plantaginetea majoris, to order Plantaginetalia majoris and to union Agrapyro--Rumicion crispi. For each of the allocated associations and rye sowing there was provided brief characteristic, including 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclids content in soil and air-dry herbage mass. During the period of studies there was marked stable soil and air-dry herbage mass contamination by radionuclides at absence of grass stabilization of studied agroecosystems. The limiting factor on using of meadow agroecosystems herbages is their high level of contamination by 90Sr. The herbage can be used only for obtaining of milk-raw material for processing. PMID:18666581

  5. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  6. A 20-Year Experience of Hepatic Resection for Melanoma: Is There an Expanding Role?

    PubMed Central

    Faries, Mark B; Leung, Anna; Morton, Donald L; Hari, Danielle; Lee, Ji-Hey; Sim, Myung-shin; Bilchik, Anton J

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanoma liver metastasis is most often fatal with a 4–6 month median overall survival (OS). Over the past 20 years surgical techniques have improved in parallel with more effective systemic therapies. We reviewed our institutional experience of hepatic melanoma metastases. Study Design OS and disease specific survival (DSS) were calculated from hepatic metastasis diagnosis. Potential prognostic factors including primary tumor type, depth, medical treatment response, location and surgical approach were evaluated. Results Among 1,078 patients with melanoma liver metastases treated at our institution since 1991, 58 (5.4%) were received surgical therapy (resection+/−ablation). Median and 5-year OS were 8 months and 6.6 %, respectively, for 1,016 non-surgical patients versus 24.8 months and 30%, respectively, for surgical patients (p<0.001). Median OS was similar among patients undergoing ablation (with or without resection) relative to those undergoing surgery alone. On multivariate analysis of surgical patients, completeness of surgical therapy (HR3.4, 95%CI 1.4–8.1, p=0.007) and stabilization of melanoma on therapy prior to surgery (HR 0.38, 95%CI 0.19–0.78, p=0.008) predicted OS. Conclusions In this largest single-institution experience, patients selected for surgical therapy experienced markedly improved survival relative to those receiving only medical therapy. Patients whose disease stabilized on medical therapy enjoyed particularly favorable results, regardless of the number or size of their metastases. The advent of more effective systemic therapy in melanoma may substantially increase the fraction of patients who are eligible for surgical intervention, and this combination of treatment modalities should be considered whenever it is feasible in the context of a multidisciplinary team. PMID:24952441

  7. Fruits of 20 years of highway safety legislative advocacy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA's estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990-2009. The costs were built from NHTSA's estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  8. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P < 0.001), partially or totally intrabony impacted (92% vs. 66%; P < 0.001) and deep situated (on average 4.2 mm vs. 2.5 mm under the occlusal plane). Surgical extraction was also associated with the roots completely developed [92% vs. 84% of the teeth routinely extracted, odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.5] and with the absence of radiographic pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction. PMID:14763776

  9. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  10. Seroepidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in Évora (southern Portugal): 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an endemic zoonosis in the southern regions of Europe. This paper reports the trend in CanL seroprevalence in the municipality of Évora (southern Portugal), where the disease is endemic, over a period of 20 years. The work comprises three different studies that were conducted in the years of 1990 (n = 3,614), 1999 (n = 3,563) and 2010 (n = 1,485 dogs). Blood samples were collected during the anti-rabies vaccination campaigns. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected with the direct agglutination test (DAT). Findings The total percentages of DAT seropositive dogs were 3.9% (in 1990), 9.4% (in 1999) and 5.6% (in 2010). The overall seroprevalence was significantly higher in 1999 compared to 1990, but in 2010 a significant decrease was found in comparison with 1999. However, compared to 1990 the overall seroprevalence was still significantly higher in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 seroprevalence has switched from significantly lower to higher in the rural areas. Relatively few dogs showed clinical signs of overt disease (0.8% to 2.0%) with lymphadenopathy, onychogryphosis and skin involvement as most frequently observed. Gender associated differences in seroprevalence were not found, and most commonly seropositive dogs were working or stray animals. The mean age of seropositive dogs was significantly higher than seronegative dogs in all three sampling rounds. Conclusions A high proportion of dogs, which are apparently healthy, yet seropositive, may remain an important factor in limiting the outcome of zoonotic leishmaniosis control efforts. PMID:23587181

  11. The evolving role of data scientist during 20 years of the British Atmospheric Data Centre (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Parton, G.; Pascoe, C.; Guillory, A.; da Costa, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    In 2014 The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), now part of the Centre of Environmental Data Archival (CEDA), will celebrate its 20th anniversary. During its lifetime, most BADC staff have defined themselves as data scientists by virtue of being scientists by background and "data workers" by practice. However, the definition of data scientist has been ill defined until recently. As the term has become popularised in the world of business and general information technology, we ask ourselves to what extent the popular definition fits our profession. We observe that data science, as practised at CEDA, encompasses several roles which overlap and compliment each other as we strive to be enablers of data exploitation. For us a data scientist's skills include elements of data curation, software engineering, data infrastructure management and data-intensive research. As data science has evolved the balance between these roles has shifted in response to changes in technology, demands of the research community and funding drivers. We have had to balance our role as enablers of data exploitation, by providing services and infrastructure to the geo-science community, with our role as pioneers of data exploitation itself. By telling the story of how these roles have evolved during the 20 year history of the BADC, we aim to explore the maturing role of data scientist as practised within the geo-sciences and contrast that role with its recently popularised usage. Looking forward we will address questions about how centres of expertise, such as CEDA, can best increase the data capabilities of geo-science research as a whole in order to facilitate the transition to data-intensive science.

  12. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed. PMID:26219401

  13. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  14. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  15. Intergenerational Transmission and Continuity of Stress and Depression: Depressed Women and their Offspring in 20 Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Constance; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najman, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Background Children of depressed mothers not only have higher risk of depression, but also may experience both elevated and continuing exposure to stressful experiences. The study tested hypotheses of the intergenerational transmission of stress and depression, and examined the role of early childhood adversity and maternal depression in the interplay between youth depression and stress over 20 years. Method In a longitudinal community study of 705 families selected for history or absence of maternal depression, mothers and youth were studied from pregnancy to age 5, and at youth ages 15 and 20. Youth and maternal depression were assessed with diagnostic interviews, acute and chronic interview-based stress assessment in the youth, and contemporaneous measures of childhood adversity obtained between pregnancy and youth age 5. Results Regression analyses indicated evidence of intergenerational transmission and continuity of depression over time, continuity of acute and chronic stress, and reciprocal predictive associations between depression and stress. Maternal depression and exposure to adversities by child’s age 5 contributed to the youth’s continuing experiences of depression and stress. An overall path model was consistent with stress continuity and intergenerational transmission, and highlighted the mediating role of age 15 youth chronic interpersonal stress. Conclusion Youth of depressed mothers are at risk not only for depression but also for continuing experiences of acute and chronic stress from childhood to age 20. The associations among depression and stress are bidirectional and portend continuing experiences of depression and further stress. PMID:22018414

  16. Surgical treatment of macroglossia in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: a 20-year experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kadouch, D J M; Maas, S M; Dubois, L; van der Horst, C M A M

    2012-03-01

    Macroglossia is observed in the majority of paediatric patients diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and surgical treatment may be indicated. A 20-year retrospective study was performed to evaluate all patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who underwent tongue reduction surgery at the authors' institution. A literature review was performed. Surgical treatment was indicated and carried out in 23 patients with a yearly average varying from 0 to 3 subjects. The mean follow-up time was 7 years. Primary indications for surgical treatment of macroglossia included significant tongue protrusion in 30% (n=7), and a combination of clinical problems in 70% (n=16). In all cases, the procedure was performed by the same surgeon using an anterior, V-shaped, wedge resection technique. Two patients had direct postoperative complications. No recurrence of macroglossia was observed in this study. Reported clinical outcome during follow-up demonstrated a satisfactory resting tongue position in all patients. Review of the literature demonstrated variability in surgical indications and techniques, and postoperative outcome. The results of this study indicate that the anterior wedge resection is a simple, effective and safe technique in the surgical treatment of paediatric patients, diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, suffering from macroglossia. PMID:22104000

  17. Neighborhood availability of convenience stores and diet quality: findings from 20 years of follow-up in CARDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between neighborhood convenience stores and diet outcomes over 20 years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS We used dietary data from CARDIA exam years 1985–6, 1992–3, and 2005–6 (n=3,299) and geographically and temporally matched neighborhood-level food resource (Dun & Bradstreet) and US Census data. We used random-effects repeated measures regression to estimate associations between availability of neighborhood convenience stores with diet outcomes, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, greater availability of neighborhood convenience stores was associated with lower diet quality (mean score=66.3, SD=13.0) for participants with lower (versus higher) individual-level income (β, −2.40; 95% CI: −3.30, −1.51); associations at higher individual-level income were weaker. We observed similar associations with whole grain consumption across time, but no statistically significant associations with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, snacks, processed meats, fruits, or vegetables. CONCLUSIONS Convenience stores may promote lower quality diets. Furthermore, low-income individuals may be most sensitive to convenience store availability, and thus may benefit most from improvements to the food environment. PMID:25790410

  18. Observation of asteroid 2013 TV135 supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    Asteroid 2013 TV135 who will impact in 2023 was newly discovered by Ukrainian astronomers in 2013. It supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/asteroid20131017.html, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.APR.S2.14. The Sun's companion-dark hole, which is made of dark matter seasonal took its dark comets belt, dark matter, dark lives, and the pressed asteroids belt to impact near our earth. These impactions and dark matter's killers caused seasonal extinctions and produced new species. By many dark comets and asteroids impacting, the dark impaction model is a high probability impaction model; the impaction would not change the orbit of the invisible dark hole, so that it could keep accurate periodicity impactions. With the space-time center, the dark hole system is a negative Einstein's model by ``mass-energy coordinate.'' Sun and Dark hole build up the balance system. Through studying the model, the rule of the impaction can be calculated. Avoid Earth Extinction Association.

  19. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. Tracking log transport and deposition during a 20-year flood in a wide mountain river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Kaczka, Ryszard; Czech, Wiktoria

    2016-04-01

    Distance of large wood transport during floods and conditions for wood deposition in wide mountain rivers are still insufficiently recognised. Tracking logs tagged with radio transmitters was used to investigate differences in depositional conditions and the length of log displacement during a 20-year flood between channel reaches of different morphology in the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians. During a rising limb of the flood, logs were placed into the river at the beginning of an incised reach, close to the beginning of a channelized reach, and 1 km upstream from the beginning of a wide, multi-thread reach. The incised, channelized, and multi-thread reaches retained 12.5%, 33%, and 94% of tagged logs introduced to these reaches, and all the logs retained in the multi-thread reach were deposited in its upstream half. Significant differences in the length of displacement existed between the logs delivered to the river at the three locations, with logs placed into the river at the beginning of the incised reach moved the longest distances and those delivered just upstream from the multi-thread reach the shortest ones. One-fourth of the logs were deposited in a low-flow channel or on channel margin, one-fifth on the floodplain and more than half on gravel bars. After the flood, river cross-sections with deposited logs and a set of cross-sections without wood deposits were surveyed to collect data for one-dimensional modelling of hydraulic conditions at the flood peak. The cross-sections with deposited logs were typified by significantly greater flow width and flow area, and significantly smaller mean flow depth, mean velocity, Froude number, mean bed shear stress and unit stream power. Principal component analysis of the hydraulic parameters in the analysed cross-sections grouped the two types of cross-sections in distinct clusters, indicating that multi-thread cross-sections differed in hydraulic parameters from all the other cross-sections. The experiment

  1. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  2. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    , via community-based treatment programmes in 125,000 communities in 33 endemic countries. This 20-year-old effort has achieved a number of notable results, including positive health impacts, economic benefits, strengthened health systems, and the empowerment of communities where the delivery and administration of Mectizan are managed. The MDP serves as a model for similar health programmes in the developing world and has also laid the foundation for the current integration efforts around 'neglected' tropical diseases. It has also taught the world many valuable lessons - about how to mobilize resources to address significant health challenges - and has demonstrated that it is possible, through public-private partnerships, to deliver healthcare to long-neglected populations, despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles including inadequate financial and human resources, lack of social, economic and health infrastructures, civil unrest and political strife, and competing, high-priority health issues. PMID:18718147

  3. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  4. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  5. Time dependent three-dimensional body frame quantal wave packet treatment of the H + H2 exchange reaction on the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Michael; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    The first successful application of the three-dimensional quantum body frame wave packet approach to reactive scattering is reported for the H + H2 exchange reaction on the LSTH potential surface. The method used is based on a procedure for calculating total reaction probabilities from wave packets. It is found that converged, vibrationally resolved reactive probabilities can be calculated with a grid that is not much larger than required for the pure inelastic calculation. Tabular results are presented for several energies.

  6. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  7. Nocardia asteroides sinusitis in a pediatric patient: Case report with 20 year follow-up and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Westerberg, Brian D; Tan, Rusung; Kozak, Frederick K

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia Asteroides infection in a non-immunocompromised pediatric patient is extremely rare. We present a case of ethmoid sinusitis and orbital subperiosteal abscess caused by N. asteroides with a 20 year follow up and a review of the literature. N. asteroides was grown from intraoperative cultures for mycobacteria following surgical incision and drainage of the abscess. Postoperatively, the patient received a seven month course of trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole and had no subsequent sequelae. Nocardia infections are common in immunocompromised patients. We present what we believe to be the first case of pediatric Nocardia sinusitis with 20-year follow up. PMID:25943955

  8. 20 years of surface ozone measurements at El Tololo, Chile (2200 m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard Anet, Julien; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Globally consistent in situ-observations of high precision and known quality are one key element in understanding global climate change and effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere. The spatial coverage of available data strongly depends on the species of interest and varies highly around the globe. In case of surface ozone (O3), the observational network is particularly sparse in Africa, Asia, and South America. The southern hemispheric pristine GAW-regional station "El Tololo", located in the foothills of the Chilean Andes (30.17° S, 70.80° W, 2220 m asl), has been equipped with an ozone photometer in 1995 and has since then been measuring tropospheric ozone permanently. However, these measurements were neither entirely systematically processed nor quality-controlled until recently. This situation was drastically improved in 2015 the framework of the Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) project (www.meteoswiss.ch/catcos). Empa, in coordination with the local operator, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (DMC), and the University of Santiago, revised the entire surface ozone measurements. The unique 20-year-long ozone data-set has been made publicly available on the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, Japan) in mid-2015 and represents an exceptional piece of information on the southern hemispheric surface ozone distribution. In contrary to northern hemispheric stations, the positive trend in the measurements of tropospheric ozone at "El Tololo" did not level off in the recent past. More specifically, "El Tololo" shows a steady positive trend of 0.7 ppb/decade in agreement with other stations on the Southern hemisphere. However, the seasonal cycle differs strongly in behaviour, as maximum values in ozone do not peak in austral winter, but in austral spring - most probably due to stratospheric influence. We also find that the spring maximum has a retrograding tendency of around 5 days per decade. A combined

  9. Methane Seepage From the Arctic Shelf; 20 Years of Research on the Beaufort Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Collett, T. S.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has lead or played major roles in several efforts over the past 20 years to find geochemical evidence for gas hydrate dissociation on the Beaufort Sea shelf, a region of complex and varied geologic features that include: 1) several river deltas entering the Arctic Ocean, the largest of which is the Mackenzie River, 2) submerged continental shelf underlain by permafrost, 3) known petroleum systems of northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River Delta - Canada, 4), submerged pingo-like features (PLF's ) and, 5) pockmark fields. The results of these studies show that gas hydrate is present and that methane source can be both microbial and thermogenic. In light of our rapidly changing climate, the instability and potential methane release from Arctic gas hydrate deposits are reemerging as pivotal uncertainties. On the Alaskan Beaufort Shelf in water depths or about 10 m or less, methane concentrations in seawater are elevated relative to atmosphere. This methane likely originates from microbial degradation of organic matter deposited by rivers or coastal currents, and may be associated with organics in destabilized from recently thawed submerged shelf permafrost. In deeper water, north and west of the Prudhoe Bay area, some exceptionally high bottom water methane concentrations were measured with carbon isotopic signatures very similar (about -46 to -48‰) to gas hydrate sampled from the Mount Elbert 01 gas hydrate test well drilled in 2007 in the same area. This methane is presumably associated with the Prudhoe Bay gas hydrate and petroleum system, and likely from either gas hydrate dissociation or simple gas migration. Gas venting in and around the Mackenzie River delta is associated with offshore Pingo-like features (PLF's) and pockmarks. These PLF's resemble onshore pingos, but with an unknown origin. The region is underlain by an active petroleum system, submerged shelf permaforst, and gas hydrate. Methane concentrations are elevated in

  10. Framing Discussions about Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Danielson's Framework for Teaching has provided a common language for discussions of teaching practice for almost 20 years. Many educators love the Framework's comprehensiveness; they find the specific language to be useful as they strive to improve their practice. For other educators, however, the Framework's 22 components and 76 smaller elements…

  11. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  12. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  13. Patterns of Change in Terrestrial Emittance for Yellowstone National Park Using a 20-year Time Series of Landsat Thermal Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. L.; Savage, S.; Custer, S. G.; Jewett, J.; Powell, S. L.; Shaw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) contains the world's largest concentration of geothermal features and is legally mandated to protect and monitor these natural features. Remote sensing is a component of the current geothermal monitoring plan. Landsat satellite data have a substantial historical archive and will continue to be collected into the future, making it the only available thermal imagery for historical analysis and long-term monitoring of geothermal areas in the entirety of YNP. Landsat imagery from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was used to examine change trajectories for terrestrial emittance (an estimate of all heat emitted from the ground, based on relatively narrow band observations) among spatial groupings from 1986 to 2007. The trajectories were normalized by the mean terrestrial emittance for each date to account for year-to-year ambient temperature differences. Trajectories of locations with known change events at Narrow Gauge in the Mammoth Area, Minerva Terraces in the Mammoth Area, Porkchop Geyser in Gibbon Canyon, and Jewel Geyser in the Firehole River Drainage were also examined. Relationships between the spatial groupings and several change vectors (distance to geologic faults, distance to large water bodies, and distance to earthquake swarms) were explored. The analysis showed the strongest relationship between absolute difference in terrestrial emittance and earthquake swarms, with 34% of the variation explained. Certain known change events were reflected in the change trajectories, while the Landsat imagery was not able to detect other known events. This suggests that Landsat imagery might be a useful tool for monitoring geothermal responses in YNP, but cannot be expected to suffice as the sole monitoring tool.

  14. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Lee, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the "dance habit"; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  15. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the “dance habit”; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  16. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  17. Natural hazards and decision-making in the most densely populated country in the American continent: a 20-year perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Martínez, Celina; Cepeda, Jose

    2010-05-01

    With a population density of ~300 per km2, El Salvador is the most densely populated country in the American continent and the capital, San Salvador, is probably the city in the Americas most frequently hit by natural hazards, earthquakes in particular. As a consequence of a magnitude 5.4 earthquake in 1986, 1500 people were killed, with as many as one-third of these casualties associated to the collapse of engineered structures, a high rate compared to contemporary figures worldwide. Four years earlier, during a long precipitation period in September 1982, a debris flow was triggered from the summit of the San Salvador volcano and travelled ~4 km for about one hour before it killed up to 500 people in an area to the North-West of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS). This same area had been previously hit by a similar event 50 years earlier, but with no consequences at that time since it was uninhabited. These are only some examples of the main facts that motivated the creation of the Office for Urban Planning of the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (OPAMSS) in 1990. This institution is an autonomous municipal organisation whose functions and attributes comprise the planning and control of urban development. After 20 years of the foundation of OPAMSS, this paper presents its history and evolution, the main achievements and challenges, focusing on how the institution has been shaped by some key milestones, such as the earthquake-triggered landslide at Las Colinas neighbourhood in January 2001, which killed ~600 people in the Western AMSS, and the widespread flooding in October 2005 after the urban drainage network collapsed during Hurricane Stan. The development of OPAMSS as a key organisation in land use management and decision-making is an example that illustrates how the integration of technical and legal aspects can be oriented towards the improvement of governance at the scale of metropolitan areas.

  18. Has External Quality Assurance Actually Improved Quality in Higher Education over the Course of 20 Years of the "Quality Revolution"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Bente

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the last 20 years so-called "quality revolution" it was expected from most of the established national quality agencies that internal quality systems and the development of an internal quality culture would emerge automatically in the HEI from the external quality impact. The author argues that a better balance must be found…

  19. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  20. Pituitary stalk hemangioblastoma in a von hippel-lindau patient : clinical course follow-up over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Sung

    2013-05-01

    Supratentorial hemangioblastomas (HBs) are rare, and pituitary stalk HBs are extremely uncommon; therefore, pituitary stalk evaluation is often overlooked. Herein, we report the development of pituitary stalk HB over a 20-year period and the importance of regular long-term follow up for patients with HBs. PMID:23908704

  1. Problem-Solving Appraisal and Human Adjustment: A Review of 20 Years of Research Using the Problem Solving Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…

  2. Back to the Future: Help! It Was 20 Years Ago, and We've Only Just Arrived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Kate

    This paper traces an educator's experiences with computers over a span of 20 years, and describes the computerization of and concomitant obstacles faced by the Humanities department at the American University in Cairo, Egypt (AUC). The computerization of AUC began in the 1980s, with workstations mainly in the science, math, engineering, and…

  3. Average and Bright Adults with Parents with Mild Cognitive Difficulties: The Huck Finn Syndrome 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Audrey Myerson

    2011-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study of 20 average and bright adults with parents with cognitive difficulties follows a study 20 years earlier of their childhood adaptation to their parents. Method: Semistructured interviews about life situation and changes and perception of family-of-origin. Results: The participants' socioeconomic status changed…

  4. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  5. At a Crossroads: First Results for the 18 to 20-Year-old Cohort of the Youth in Transition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.; McMullen, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive overview of the first results from the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) for 18-20-year-olds in Canada. These early results draw a picture of where youth stand in terms of both their educational participation and attainment and their labour market participation as of December 1999. Youth at this age are in…

  6. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  7. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  8. Dragging of inertial frames.

    PubMed

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-01

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth. PMID:17805287

  9. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  10. Graduate Student Teacher Training: Still Relevant (And Missing?) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, David D.; Moss, Alison R.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Pescosolido and Milkie (1995) reported that 50 percent of U.S. and Canadian sociology graduate programs offered formal teacher training. Despite pronouncements that offerings have increased substantially, no similarly thorough and direct investigation has been published since. In this time of dramatic change and increasing…

  11. Reflections from 20 years of onion breeding and genetics: Where do we go next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic studies of onion are challenging due to the biennial generation time and relatively high costs of producing segregating families. Before 1990, the genetic bases of numerous morphological traits and disease resistances had been determined, however only one genetic linkage was reported between...

  12. Maxus challenges fracture techniques, brings in the best wells in 20 years

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    Combining a look at old ideas and new techniques gave Maxus a string of better Texas Panhandle wells. This report describes the results of an analysis performed utilizing the program FRACPRO which has real time analysis capabilities. The analysis indicated poor proppant placement.

  13. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  14. Maternal deaths in eastern Indonesia: 20 years and still walking: an ethnographic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The delays in receiving adequate emergency maternal care described by Thaddeus and Maine twenty years ago are still occurring, as exemplified in this study of cases of maternal deaths in a subdistrict in rural eastern Indonesia. Methods An ethnographic design was conducted, recruiting eleven families who reported on cases of maternal deaths in one sub-district of Indonesia, as well as assessing the geographical and cultural context of the villages. Traditional birth attendants and village leaders provided information to the research team which was thematically and contextually analysed. Results Two stages to the first and second delays have been differentiated in this study. First, delays in the decision to seek care comprised time taken to recognise (if at all) that an emergency situation existed, followed by time taken to reach a decision to request care. The decision to request care resided variously with the family or cadre. Second, delays in reaching care comprised time taken to deliver the request for help and then time for help to arrive. A phone was not available to request care in many cases and so the request was delivered by walking or motorbike. In two cases where the decision to seek care and the delivery of the request happened in a timely way, help was delayed because the midwife and ambulance respectively were unavailable. Conclusions This study, although a small sample, confirmed that either a single delay or a sequence of delays can prove fatal. Delays were determined by both social and geographic factors, any of which alone could be limiting. Initiatives to improve maternal health outcomes need to address multiple factors: increased awareness of equitable access to maternal health care, village preparedness for emergency response, improved access to telecommunications and geographic access. PMID:24447873

  15. Complex equiangular tight frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropp, Joel A.

    2005-08-01

    A complex equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a tight frame consisting of N unit vectors in Cd whose absolute inner products are identical. One may view complex ETFs as a natural geometric generalization of an orthonormal basis. Numerical evidence suggests that these objects do not arise for most pairs (d, N). The goal of this paper is to develop conditions on (d, N) under which complex ETFs can exist. In particular, this work concentrates on the class of harmonic ETFs, in which the components of the frame vectors are roots of unity. In this case, it is possible to leverage field theory to obtain stringent restrictions on the possible values for (d, N).

  16. Real-time atomic-resolution imaging of crystal growth process in water by phase modulation atomic force microscopy at one frame per second

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Kazuki; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2013-11-11

    Recent advancement in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled its operation in liquid with atomic-scale resolution. However, its imaging speed has often been too slow to visualize atomic-scale dynamic processes. Here, we propose a method for making a significant improvement in the operation speed of dynamic-mode AFM. In this method, we use a wideband and low-latency phase detector with an improved algorithm for the signal complexification. We demonstrate atomic-scale imaging of a calcite crystal growth process in water at one frame per second. The significant improvement in the imaging speed should enable various studies on unexplored atomic-scale interfacial processes.

  17. Enacting tobacco taxes by direct popular vote in the United States: lessons from 20 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Lum, KL; Barnes, RL; Glantz, SA

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco tax increases reduce tobacco use, can provide funds for tobacco prevention and enjoy broad public support. Because of tobacco industry influence in legislatures, US public health advocates have shifted the venue for tobacco tax policymaking to direct popular vote 22 times since 1988. Methods We combined case studies of individual state campaigns with tobacco industry documents to identify strategies related to outcome. Results The tobacco industry developed a voter segmentation model to determine which tobacco tax increases it could defeat. Two industry arguments arising from this model often were raised in losing campaigns—the tax increase did not dedicate enough to tobacco control and hospitals and health maintenance organisations would profit. The industry effectively influenced early voters. Success was associated with building a strong base of public support before the campaign, dedicating sufficient funds to tobacco control, avoiding proposals largely devoted to financing hospitals and other medical service providers, effectively engaging grassroots and framing the campaign with clear justifications for cigarette tax increases. Conclusions Tobacco tax ballot measures commonly allocated substantial funds to medical services; tobacco companies are becoming more successful in making this use of funds an issue. Proponents’ campaigns should be timed to account for the trend to voting well before election day. Ballot measures to increase tobacco taxes with a substantial fraction of the money devoted to tobacco control activities will probably fare better than ones that give priority to funding medical services. PMID:19556615

  18. A 20-Year Perspective on Preparation Strategies and Career Planning of Pharmacy Deans

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects. Results The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths. Conclusions Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions. PMID:21301596

  19. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  20. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  1. Reanalysis of the Benešov bolide and recovery of polymict breccia meteorites - old mystery solved after 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel; Haloda, Jakub; Borovička, Jiří; Shrbený, Lukáš; Halodová, Patricie

    2014-10-01

    The main motivation for this work was to explain and solve the old mystery connected with the detailed instrumental observation of the Benešov superbolide on 7 May 1991 over the central part of the Czech Republic. Detailed analyses of this undoubted meteorite fall were published in several papers, and this is one of the best documented bolides (at least of the superbolide category) ever observed. However, despite high-quality data, favorable trajectory, relatively large terminal mass, and especially great efforts and many attempts, no meteorite was found in the weeks and years after the fall. Here we solve and explain this old mystery. In spring 2011, just before the twentieth anniversary of this extraordinary case, we remeasured all available all-sky records and reanalyzed the data. We used slightly different methods and new approaches, which we gradually developed to analyze several recent instrumentally observed meteorite falls (Morávka, Neuschwanstein, Jesenice, Bunburra Rockhole, Mason Gully, and Košice). We assembled a new consistent picture of the Benešov event, which resulted in a slightly revised impact location and suggested a new strategy that might lead to a recovery of Benešov meteorites after 20 years. The reality completely confirmed all our assumptions and surpassed our expectations. We found four small highly weathered fragments irregular in form and completely without fusion crust with a total mass of 11.63 g (1.54 g (H5), 7.72 g (with achondritic clast), 1.99 g, 0.38 g (all LL3.5)). They were recovered exactly in the predicted impact area for corresponding masses, namely within 40 m from the highest probability line. Although all fragments are very small and their weathering grade is high (W3 for all pieces), their interior was preserved enough for reliable analysis (except for the smallest one). The meteorite is classified as a polymict breccia containing three recognized lithologies with different texture, chemical, and mineralogical

  2. More Than 20 Years of Registration of Type 1 Diabetes in Sardinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Biggeri, Annibale; Ledda, Alessia; Mannu, Carla; Merletti, Franco; Songini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed Sardinian registry data to assess time trends in incidence rates (IRs) of type 1 diabetes during the period 1989–2009 (2,371 case subjects 0–14 years of age). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the effects of sex, age, period of diagnosis, and birth cohorts. IR was 44.8 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 43.1–46.7). The annual increase was 2.12% (1.45–2.80; test for linear trend, P < 0.001). For boys, the increasing trend was evident up to 5 years of age and for girls up to 8 years of age. Compared with the 1989–1994 birth cohort, the relative risk increased from 0.78 (0.61–1.10) in 1974–1979 to 1.62 (1.18–2.23) in 2004–2009. The increase over period was less striking, with a tendency to regress in more recent years. The best-fitting model for boys included age and a linear time trend, and for girls age and nonlinear effects of calendar period and birth cohort. In conclusion, incidence increased over time, and the increase tended to level off in more recent years by calendar period but not by birth cohort, with some evidence of a stronger increase among girls than boys. Should the increase be attributable to the effects of some perinatal environmental factor, this would mean that such a factor has started affecting females before males. PMID:23835336

  3. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  4. Lessons about Virtual-Environment Software Systems from 20 years of VE building

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Russell M.; Jerald, Jason; VanderKnyff, Chris; Wendt, Jeremy; Borland, David; Marshburn, David; Sherman, William R.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    What are desirable and undesirable features of virtual-environment (VE) software architectures? What should be present (and absent) from such systems if they are to be optimally useful? How should they be structured? To help answer these questions we present experience from application designers, toolkit designers, and VE system architects along with examples of useful features from existing systems. Topics are organized under the major headings of: 3D space management, supporting display hardware, interaction, event management, time management, computation, portability, and the observation that less can be better. Lessons learned are presented as discussion of the issues, field experiences, nuggets of knowledge, and case studies. PMID:20567602

  5. Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Blanchon, T; Dorléans, Y; Toubiana, L; Vibert, J F; Valleron, A J

    2006-10-01

    Inserm has developed, since 1984, an information system based on a computer network of physicians in France. It allows for constitution of large databases on diseases, with individual description of cases, and to explore some aspects of the mathematical theory of communicable diseases. We developed user-friendly interfaces for remote data entry and GIS tools providing real-time atlas of the epidemiologic situation in any location. The continuous and ongoing surveillance network is constituted of about 1200 sentinel voluntary and unpaid investigators. We studied their motivation, reasons for either withdrawal or compliance using survival analyses. We implemented early warning systems for outbreak detection and for time-space forecasting. We conducted epidemiological surveys for investigating outbreaks. Large available time and space series allowed us to calibrate and explore synchronism of influenza epidemics, to test the assumption of panmixing in susceptibles-infectious-removed type models and to study the role of closing school in influenza morbidity and mortality in elderly. More than 250 000 cases of influenza, 150 000 cases of acute diarrheas, 35,000 patients for whom HIV tests have been prescribed by general practitioners and 25,000 cases of chickenpox have been collected. Detection of regional influenza or acute diarrhea outbreaks and forecasting of epidemic trends three weeks ahead are currently broadcasted to the French media and published on Sentiweb on a weekly basis. Age-cohort-period models assessed field effectiveness of mass immunization strategies against measles and influenza in the country. Case-control studies with more than 1200 sets of cases of acute diarrheas and their matched controls showed the role of calicivirus and rotavirus as probable major causes of gastroenteritis during recurrent widespread outbreaks in winter in France. An age-specific model for chickenpox showed the probable role of children in disease transmission to their

  6. 20 Years Lidar Observations of Clouds at the Edge of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, J.; Baumgarten, G.; Luebken, F.

    2013-12-01

    The highest clouds in the Earth atmosphere are located around 83 km altitude. They were first documented in 1885 and are called noctilucent clouds (NLC) because of the impressive bluish-white displays they form against the dark night sky. NLC occur during the summer months from mid to high latitudes and are a visible sign of the extreme conditions in the mesopause region. They consist of nano-sized ice particles (mean value 48×1 nm) which are subject to the variability of the ambient atmosphere. Ice formation and growth at these high altitudes is very sensitive to temperature and water vapor content which are hardly to measure directly with high accuracy. Thus NLC can act as tracers for short-term variations and are thought to document long-term atmospheric changes as well. We will report about our NLC time series obtained by laser optical remote sensing at the research station ALOMAR in Northern Norway (69°N, 16°E). The data archive obtained with the Rayleigh/Mie/Raman-lidar covers now 20 summer seasons and is the largest NLC data set acquired by lidar. It shows variabilities of basic cloud parameters like occurrence, altitude and brightness on time scales ranging from minutes to years. Using the capability of all three emitted laser wavelengths we are able to determine ice particle properties like mean and width of the size distribution and number density. This allows investigation of the cloud water content and its variability. Comparing our ground-based measurements on a fixed location to data sets obtained from sun-synchronous satellites shows certain differences. They could at least partly be attributed to the observation conditions like measurement volume, local time, scattering angles etc. We found atmospheric tides to have a significant influence on the NLC properties. Additionally microphysical processes limit the duration within the ice particles can be considered as passive tracers. Long-term data sets are subject to varying instrument sensitivities

  7. Behavior of infilled frames

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.D.; Tenbus, M.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Jamal, B.D.

    1992-09-21

    A review of current analytical methods for infilled frame behavior is conducted. A subset of these methods are applied to experimental results. Parametric studies are used to find the sensitivity of the behavior to various parameters. In-plane loading, out-of-plane inertial loading, out-of-plane interstory drift loading, and combined loadings are examined. Particular reference is made to clay tile infilled frames, and the behavior of clay tile in compression.

  8. Fatal pediatric head injuries: a 20-year review of cases through the Auckland coroner's office.

    PubMed

    John, Simon Mathew; Jones, Peter; Kelly, Patrick; Vincent, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Inflicted pediatric head injury is a significant issue in New Zealand, fatal cases receiving extensive media attention. The primary aims of this article were to analyze injury patterns and reported mechanisms against both age and cause (accidental or inflicted). The secondary aims were to quantify these deaths and identify trends over time. We retrospectively reviewed pediatric deaths due to head injury in children younger than 15 years referred to the Coronial Service of Auckland, New Zealand, from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2010. One hundred sixty-seven cases were identified. Overall incidence was stable over time; however, the rate of inflicted head injury increased significantly (from 0.1 to 0.4/100,000 per year). Evidence of impact was seen in 90% of cases. In children younger than 2 years, in the absence of motor vehicle or pedestrian trauma, subdural hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury were both highly suggestive of inflicted injury. The absence of a history of trauma or a history of a fall less than 1 m was also highly suggestive of inflicted injury. Retinal hemorrhages in these fatal head injuries were severe in 77% of cases and moderate in the remainder. PMID:23949141

  9. Laparoscopic Reversal of Hartmann's Procedure: State of the Art 20 Years after the First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Ardiri, Annalisa; Mannino, Maurizio; Politi, Antonio; Di Stefano, Andrea; Aftab, Zia; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman; Arcerito, Maria Concetta; Cavallaro, Andrea; Cavallaro, Marco; Bertino, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of the present work is to review the literature to point out the role of laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure. Material and Methods. Number of patients, age, sex, etiology, Hinchey classification, interval between procedure and reversal, position of the first trocars, mean operative time (min), number and causes of conversion, length of stay, mortality, complications, and quality of life were considered. Results. 238 males (52.4%) and 216 females (47.6%) between 38 and 67 years were analyzed. The etiology was diverticulitis in 292 patients (72.1%), carcinoma in 43 patients (10.6%), and other in 70 patients (17.3%). Only 7 articles (22.6%) reported Hinchey classification. The interval between initial procedure and reversal was between 50 and 330 days. The initial trocar was open positioned in 182 patients (43.2%) through umbilical incision, in 177 patients (41.9%) in right upper quadrant, and in 63 patients (14.9%) in colostomy site. The operative time was between 69 and 285 minutes. A total of 83 patients (12.1%) were converted and the causes were reported in 67.4%. The length of stay was between 3 and 12 days. 5 patients (0.7%) died. The complications concern 112 cases (16.4%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal is safer and achieves faster positive results. PMID:25210510

  10. Changing trends in symptomatology, diagnostics, stage and survival of prostate cancer in Northern Finland during a period of 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in many countries. The aim of the present study was to find out how the symptoms leading to a diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and stages of the disease among prostate cancer patients have changed over a period of 20 years. Methods This retrospective chart review consisted of 421 prostate cancer patients whose treatment was started in the years 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002 at the Oulu University Hospital. Earlier prostatic disorders, specific urological symptoms, diagnostic procedures, the TNM classification and histological grade were recorded. Results The number of symptom-free prostate cancer patients increased over the 20 years, as did the number of men suffering from chronic prostatitis, although the latter increase was not statistically significant. A drop in the number of clinical T4 cases and increase of clinical T1 and clinical T2 cases was recorded but no clear change in the histological distribution occurred. The 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the 20 years. The urologist was found to be the person who was contacted first most often. Conclusions Our data indicate that the number of prostate cancer patients has increased hugely over the period from 1982 to 2002 and although the clinical T stage has moved towards earlier stages, the proportion of well differentiated cancers remains low, so that most patients have clinically significant cancer with the need of some form of therapy. Further, prostate cancer-specific survival improved significantly over the period. PMID:24094418

  11. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  12. Durability of giant hiatus hernia repair in 455 patients over 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, R; Hayward, M; Law, S; Tan, A; Vivian, SJ; Van der Wall, H; Falk, GL

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The surgical management of symptomatic giant hiatus hernia (GHH) aims to improve quality of life (QoL) and reduce the risk of life threatening complications. Previous reports are predominantly those with small sample sizes and short follow-up periods. The present study sought to assess a large cohort of patients for recurrence and QoL over a longer time period. Methods This was a follow-up study of a prospectively collected database of 455 consecutive patients. Primary repair of GHH was evaluated by endoscopy/barium meal for recurrence and a standardised symptom questionnaire for QoL. Recurrence was assessed for size, elapsed time, oesophagitis and symptoms. Results Objective and subjective review was achieved in 91.9% and 68.6% of patients. The median age was 69 years (range: 15–93 years) and 64% were female. Laparoscopic repair was completed in 95% (mesh in 6% and Collis gastroplasty in 7%). The 30-day mortality rate was 0.9%. The proportion of patients alive at five and ten years were 90% and 75% respectively. Postoperative QoL scores improved from a mean of 95 to 111 (p<0.01) and were stable over time (112 at 10 years). The overall recurrence rate was 35.6% (149/418) at 42 months; this was 11.5% (48/418) for hernias >2cm and 24.2% (101/418) for <2cm. The rate of new recurrence at 0–1 years was 13.7% (>2cm = 3.4%, <2cm = 10.3%), at 1–5 years it was 30.8% (>2cm = 9.5%, <2cm = 21.3%), at 5–10 years it was 40.1% (>2cm = 13.8%, <2cm = 26.3%) and at over 10 years it was 50.0% (>2cm = 25.0%, <2cm = 25.0%). Recurrence was associated with oesophagitis but not decreased QoL. Revision surgery was required in 4.8% of cases (14.8% with recurrence). There were no interval major GHH complications. Conclusions Surgery has provided sustained QoL improvements irrespective of recurrence. Recurrence occurred progressively over ten years and may predispose to oesophagitis. PMID:26263802

  13. The 20-Year Trajectory of Marital Quality in Enduring Marriages: Does Equity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    I examine the trajectory of marital quality as a function of relationship equity with data from a six-wave panel study of 704 married respondents between 1980 and 2000. Reporting that one “gives more” to the marriage (subjective underbenefit) is more likely for women than men at any given marital duration. Respondent’s relative contribution to income, paid labor, housework, and health (objective underbenefit) raises this probability for women of average religiosity. For the more religious, objective underbenefit has no effect on women’s sense of underbenefit, but reduces men’s sense of underbenefit. Objective underbenefit lowers women’s, but raises men’s, marital quality, at any marital duration. The relevance of equity was not diluted by the passage of time in marriage. PMID:21966079

  14. Assessment of the Main Natural Disturbances on Norwegian Forest Based on 20 Years of National Inventory.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Yáñez, Olalla; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Eriksen, Rune; González-Olabarria, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The re-measurement of permanent forest inventories offers a unique opportunity to assess the occurrence and impact of forest disturbances. The present study aims at exploring the main forest damages in Norway based on the extensive data of several consecutive national forest inventories during the period 1995-2014. Five of the most common disturbance agents in Norway are selected for analysis: wind, snow, browsing, fungus and insect damage. The analyses focuses on the frequency and variation along time, the average damage at stand level and the spatial patterns of damage occurrence, resulting in a characterization of the damage produced by disturbances in Norway. The highest damage occurrences by disturbance agent are due to browsing, snow and wind. Snow presents a decreasing temporally trend in damage frequency in the studied period. By forest type, mature and intermediate birch forest are found to be more affected by snow damage, whereas mature spruce forest is by wind damage. The results from this study provide support to the hypothesis that damages by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) on birch are more common in mature stands. No major attacks from bark beetle (Ips typographus) are found, probably related to the lack of major storm damages in the period. Forest types susceptibility to fungus has no apparent variation over time except in the last years, as increased occurrence is observed on mature spruce stands probably correlated with warmer than average periods. Browsing damage causes the most severe losses, as expected, in young stands, and is allocated mainly on the most productive forests. Although some of the disturbances present locally moderate effects, the results show no major disturbances threatening Norwegian forests in the studied period. Finally, the Norwegian national forest inventory demonstrates its reliability as a basis to understand the occurrence and effects of major natural disturbances. PMID:27570973

  15. Assessment of the Main Natural Disturbances on Norwegian Forest Based on 20 Years of National Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Mola-Yudego, Blas; Eriksen, Rune; González-Olabarria, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The re-measurement of permanent forest inventories offers a unique opportunity to assess the occurrence and impact of forest disturbances. The present study aims at exploring the main forest damages in Norway based on the extensive data of several consecutive national forest inventories during the period 1995–2014. Five of the most common disturbance agents in Norway are selected for analysis: wind, snow, browsing, fungus and insect damage. The analyses focuses on the frequency and variation along time, the average damage at stand level and the spatial patterns of damage occurrence, resulting in a characterization of the damage produced by disturbances in Norway. The highest damage occurrences by disturbance agent are due to browsing, snow and wind. Snow presents a decreasing temporally trend in damage frequency in the studied period. By forest type, mature and intermediate birch forest are found to be more affected by snow damage, whereas mature spruce forest is by wind damage. The results from this study provide support to the hypothesis that damages by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) on birch are more common in mature stands. No major attacks from bark beetle (Ips typographus) are found, probably related to the lack of major storm damages in the period. Forest types susceptibility to fungus has no apparent variation over time except in the last years, as increased occurrence is observed on mature spruce stands probably correlated with warmer than average periods. Browsing damage causes the most severe losses, as expected, in young stands, and is allocated mainly on the most productive forests. Although some of the disturbances present locally moderate effects, the results show no major disturbances threatening Norwegian forests in the studied period. Finally, the Norwegian national forest inventory demonstrates its reliability as a basis to understand the occurrence and effects of major natural disturbances. PMID:27570973

  16. What can we learn from 20 years of interseismic GPS measurements across strike-slip faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernant, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    I use GPS interseismic velocities and classic 2D elastic half-space models with a screw dislocation to estimate the long-term fault slip rate, locking depth, and the offset between the surface fault trace and the location of the dislocation below the seismogenic zone for 13 segments along 8 major strike-slip faults. Using deduced strike-slip rates and the position of the dislocation to normalize the interseismic velocities to facilitate comparison of spatial patterns of deformation, I show that no substantial differences can be detected, ruling out a large asymmetry in interseismic velocities across the 8 faults used in this study. Only the Carrizo Plain segment of the San Andreas Fault shows a significant asymmetry that cannot be explained by shifting the position of the dislocation at depth relative to the fault trace. However, the resulting perturbation is less than 10% of total strike-slip rate. Fault traces are usually curved, defining a concave side. When the dislocation at depth is significantly offset from the fault trace, the shift is always toward the block on the concave side of the fault trace. This suggests that the fault zone in the lower crust may develop a simpler geometry more consistent with relative motion across the fault than its upper seismogenic part constrained by the structural complexity of the brittle crust. Since the faults used in this study are at different times in their interseismic period, comparing the interseismic velocity fields across them allows identification of possible variations of the interseismic velocities with time. When normalized by slip rate and dislocation location, all the faults show the same interseismic strain with no significant differences between deduced locking depths. These comparisons suggest that if temporal variations occur as suggested by some dynamic earthquake cycle models, they are small and below the accuracy of the available geodetic measurements.

  17. Sympathetic neural reactivity to mental stress in offspring of hypertensive parents: 20 years revisited.

    PubMed

    Fonkoue, Ida T; Wang, Min; Carter, Jason R

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted large interindividual variability of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responsiveness to mental stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine blood pressure (BP) and MSNA responsiveness to mental stress in a large and generalizable cohort of young adults with and without family history of hypertension (FHH). We hypothesized that subjects with FHH would demonstrate greater sympathoexcitation to mental stress than subjects without FHH. A total of 87 subjects (55 men and 32 women, 18-40 yr of age) from recently published (n = 45) and ongoing (n = 42) studies were examined; 57 subjects (19 with FHH and 38 without FHH) had complete MSNA recordings at baseline. Heart rate (HR), BP, and MSNA were recorded during 5 min of supine rest and 5 min of mental stress (mental arithmetic). Resting MSNA and HR were not statistically different between subjects with and without FHH (P > 0.05), whereas resting mean arterial pressure was higher in subjects with FHH (86 ± 2 vs. 80 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mental stress increased MSNA in subjects with FHH (Δ5 ± 1 bursts/min), but not in subjects without FHH [Δ1 ± 1 burst/min, P < 0.01 (time × group)]. Mental stress increased mean arterial pressure (Δ12 ± 1 and Δ10 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (Δ19 ± 2 and Δ16 ± 2 beats/min, P < 0.001) in subjects with and without FHH, but these increases were not different between groups [P ≥ 0.05 (time × group)]. MSNA and BP reactivity to mental stress were not correlated in either group. In conclusion, FHH was associated with heightened MSNA reactivity to mental stress, despite a dissociation between MSNA and BP responsiveness. PMID:27371684

  18. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Methods Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Results Full‐shift average exposures were ⩾85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (Lave), but 74% were ⩾85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (Leq). Only 14% had Lave ⩾90 dBA, but 42% had Leq ⩾90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having Lave ⩾85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent ⩾95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). Conclusions The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5–3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss

  19. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For all classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  20. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations—including morphological and behavioural traits—as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's—and our very own—evolutionary history. PMID:25487326

  1. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  2. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    SARAL/AltiKa is able to sample the small mesoscale signal with a noise measurement error never reached in nadir conventional altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa 1-Hz measurement is used in the SSALTO/DUACS system since July 2013 and largely contributes to the quality of the Level4 merged products. These products, are now widely used to define the surface geostrophic currents and beyond that they are used to provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts via the Lyapunov Exponents (LEs). The LEs are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21 year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the LEs that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015.

  3. Hearing Aid Satisfaction: What Does Research from the Past 20 Years Say?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lena L. N.; Hickson, Louise; McPherson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Hearing aid satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional experience as an outcome of an evaluation of performance. Many tools have been designed to measure the degree of satisfaction overall, or along the dimensions of cost, appearance, acoustic benefit, comfort, and service. Various studies have used these tools to examine the relationships between satisfaction and other factors. Findings are not always consistent across studies, but in general, hearing aid satisfaction has been found to be related to experience, expectation, personality and attitude, usage, type of hearing aids, sound quality, listening situations, and problems in hearing aid use. Inconsistent findings across studies and difficulties in evaluating the underlying relationships are probably caused by problems with the tools (eg, lack of validity) and the methods used to evaluate relationships (eg, correlation analyses evaluate association and not causal effect). Whether satisfaction changes over time and how service satisfaction contributes to device satisfaction are unclear. It is hoped that this review will help readers understand current satisfaction measures, how various factors affect satisfaction, and how the way satisfaction is measured may be improved to yield more reliable and valid data. PMID:15004650

  4. The molecular spectrum and distribution of haemoglobinopathies in Cyprus: a 20-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kountouris, Petros; Kousiappa, Ioanna; Papasavva, Thessalia; Christopoulos, George; Pavlou, Eleni; Petrou, Miranda; Feleki, Xenia; Karitzie, Eleni; Phylactides, Marios; Fanis, Pavlos; Lederer, Carsten W; Kyrri, Andreani R; Kalogerou, Eleni; Makariou, Christiana; Ioannou, Christiana; Kythreotis, Loukas; Hadjilambi, Georgia; Andreou, Nicoletta; Pangalou, Evangelia; Savvidou, Irene; Angastiniotis, Michael; Hadjigavriel, Michael; Sitarou, Maria; Kolnagou, Annita; Kleanthous, Marina; Christou, Soteroula

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic diseases, posing a major public health challenge worldwide. Cyprus has one the highest prevalences of thalassaemia in the world and has been the first country to introduce a successful population-wide prevention programme, based on premarital screening. In this study, we report the most significant and comprehensive update on the status of haemoglobinopathies in Cyprus for at least two decades. First, we identified and analysed all known 592 β-thalassaemia patients and 595 Hb H disease patients in Cyprus. Moreover, we report the molecular spectrum of α-, β- and δ-globin gene mutations in the population and their geographic distribution, using a set of 13824 carriers genotyped from 1995 to 2015, and estimate relative allele frequencies in carriers of β- and δ-globin gene mutations. Notably, several mutations are reported for the first time in the Cypriot population, whereas important differences are observed in the distribution of mutations across different districts of the island. PMID:27199182

  5. The molecular spectrum and distribution of haemoglobinopathies in Cyprus: a 20-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kountouris, Petros; Kousiappa, Ioanna; Papasavva, Thessalia; Christopoulos, George; Pavlou, Eleni; Petrou, Miranda; Feleki, Xenia; Karitzie, Eleni; Phylactides, Marios; Fanis, Pavlos; Lederer, Carsten W.; Kyrri, Andreani R.; Kalogerou, Eleni; Makariou, Christiana; Ioannou, Christiana; Kythreotis, Loukas; Hadjilambi, Georgia; Andreou, Nicoletta; Pangalou, Evangelia; Savvidou, Irene; Angastiniotis, Michael; Hadjigavriel, Michael; Sitarou, Maria; Kolnagou, Annita; Kleanthous, Marina; Christou, Soteroula

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobinopathies are the most common monogenic diseases, posing a major public health challenge worldwide. Cyprus has one the highest prevalences of thalassaemia in the world and has been the first country to introduce a successful population-wide prevention programme, based on premarital screening. In this study, we report the most significant and comprehensive update on the status of haemoglobinopathies in Cyprus for at least two decades. First, we identified and analysed all known 592 β-thalassaemia patients and 595 Hb H disease patients in Cyprus. Moreover, we report the molecular spectrum of α-, β- and δ-globin gene mutations in the population and their geographic distribution, using a set of 13824 carriers genotyped from 1995 to 2015, and estimate relative allele frequencies in carriers of β- and δ-globin gene mutations. Notably, several mutations are reported for the first time in the Cypriot population, whereas important differences are observed in the distribution of mutations across different districts of the island. PMID:27199182

  6. Correlation Fourier diffractometry: 20 Years of experience at the IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Zhuravlev, V. V.; Simkin, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    The high-resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) was commissioned at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor at FLNP JINR in 1994. The specific feature of the HRFD design is the use of fast Fourier chopper for modulating the primary neutron beam intensity and the correlation method of diffraction data acquisition. This allowed to reach with HRFD extremely high resolution (Δ d/ d ≈ 0.001) over a wide range of inter-planar spacings at a relatively short flight path between chopper and sample ( L = 20 m). Over time, a lot of diffraction experiments on crystalline materials, the main goal of which was to study their atomic and magnetic structures, were performed at HRFD. Successful implementation of the Fourier diffractometry technique at the IBR-2 reactor stimulated the construction of yet another Fourier diffractometer intended for internal mechanical stress studies in bulk materials (FSD, Fourier Stress Diffractometer). In this paper the experience of using this technique at the IBR-2, which is a long-pulse neutron source, is considered, the examples of HRFD studies are given, and possible solutions for existing technical problems of using correlation diffractometry and ways of increasing the intensity and resolution of HRFD are discussed.

  7. Neonates born to mothers with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a single-center experience of 20 years.

    PubMed

    Bayhan, Turan; Tavil, Betül; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Ünal, Şule; Hanalioğlu, Damla; Yiğit, Şule; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla; Yurdakök, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Neonates born to mothers with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have an increased risk of having thrombocytopenia and bleeding. The aim of our study was to determine maternal and fetal factors that can predict bleeding risk in neonates born to mothers with ITP, and effective treatment strategies by retrospective analysis of our single-center data. We performed a retrospective data review of neonates that were recorded as 'neonates born to mothers with ITP' in the Neonatal ICU of Hacettepe University, Ihsan Dogramacı Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Medical records of 36 neonates born from 35 mothers were analyzed. Among the 36 neonates born to mothers with ITP, thrombocytopenia (platelet count of less than 150 × 10/l) was detected in 20 (56.0%) neonates on the first day of life. Twelve of the 20 neonates with thrombocytopenia (60.0%) required treatment to increase the platelet counts. Clinical findings related to thrombocytopenia occurred in three (15.0%) neonates, but none of them presented with severe bleeding. There was no statistically significant association between neonatal lowest platelet count and maternal lowest platelet count, maternal platelet count at the time of delivery, and duration of thrombocytopenia, respectively. Neonates born to mothers with ITP have an increased tendency to develop thrombocytopenia, but severe bleeding is very rare in these neonates. Clinicians should pay special attention to follow these neonates. According to our results, both intravenous immunoglobulin and methyl prednisolone were found to be in equivalent efficacy for the treatment of neonatal thrombocytopenia due to maternal ITP. PMID:26258676

  8. 20 year IRIS: impact on seismological research at home and abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hilst, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    : The positive impact of IRIS, through its programs (GSN, PASSCAL, DMS, EO) and its workshops, on seismological research and community building can hardly be overestimated. The Data Management System has been very successful in bringing data to users for research and education anywhere in the world; it enables routine, and in many cases real time, analysis of massive amounts of waveform data for a spectacularly diverse range of studies. (I will give examples of surface wave tomography and inverse scattering studies of the core mantle boundary.) The support that PASSCAL provides for the planning and execution of field campaigns allows seismologists to shift attention from operational issues to exciting science, and the required data dissemination through DMS does not only result in tremendously valuable data sets but also contributes to community building through (international) collaboration. Europe, Australia, and Asia also have rich histories of network and portable array seismometry, and in many areas the cumulative station density exceeds that of North America (even, perhaps, with USArray). Moreover, in some cases, such as the use of temporary, roving arrays of broad band seismometers, activities overseas may have preceded and inspired developments in the US. However, the absence of effective central systems for management and dissemination of quality-controlled data has left many unique historical and regional data sets underutilized. This situation is changing, however. As an example I will mention the NERIES initiative to build a better infrastructure for seismological research and education in Europe. Apart from providing an example, through international collaboration IRIS can continue to play an important role in the improvement of the global seismological infrastructure.

  9. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, David E. . E-mail: dejacobs@starpower.net; Nevin, Rick

    2006-11-15

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels {>=}10 {mu}g/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries.

  10. Gastric malt lymphoma: Analysis of a series of consecutive patients over 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Sara; Lage, Pedro; Dias Pereira, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aims Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Our aim was to evaluate demographic, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of gastric MALT lymphoma patients, as well as to analyse response to treatment and factors that affect complete remission (CR) and relapse. We also assessed the long-term prognosis. Methods The study involved a retrospective evaluation of consecutive patients admitted with gastric MALT lymphoma (1993–2013). Results A total of 144 patients (76 men; mean age 56) were included. At stage EI, 94/103 patients (92%) received HP eradication and 78 (83%) achieved CR after a mean period of 7 months (2–63 months) and 67 (86%) remained in CR after a mean follow-up time of 105 months. HP infection status (p = 0.004) and lymphoma localisation to the antrum plus body (p = 0.016) were associated with higher and lower CR rates, respectively. Relapse occurred in 11/78 (14%) patients after a mean period of 21 months. The absence of HP re-infection (p = 0.038), the need of only one eradication regimen (p = 0.009) and antrum lymphomas (p = 0.031) correlated with lower relapse rates. At stage EII, HP eradication was performed in 17/24 patients but only five experienced CR (30%). Among 16 patients diagnosed at stage EIV, nine achieved CR after chemotherapy ± surgery and 3/7 without remission died due to disease progression. The 5- and 10-year overall disease free survival rates were 90.5% and 79.1%, respectively. Conclusions Most patients were diagnosed at an early stage. Eradication therapy was highly effective in inducing complete remission. Long-term evaluation showed that the long-term prognosis was very favourable.

  11. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals. PMID:26196214

  12. 20 Years Beyond the Crossroads: The Path to Interprofessional Education at U.S. Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Palatta, Anthony; Cook, Bryan J; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-08-01

    In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) called for interprofessional education (IPE) to be adopted by the health professions education community as the pedagogical approach to educating future practitioners for practice in multidisciplinary teams. In dentistry, this call built on points made in the key 1995 IOM report Dental Education at the Crossroads. Currently, IPE and collaborative practice are among the most significant changes to health care education and delivery in the 21st century. This report describes the path that dental education has taken regarding IPE since the first national report on the subject was released in 1995. It also reports the results of a 2014 survey of U.S. dental schools to ascertain their progress in adopting and implementing IPE, as well as perceived obstacles that persist. Of the 63 dental schools, 62 participated, for a response rate of 98%. While over 90% of the respondents reported that their schools offer IPE experiences, only 58.1% had formal university-led and -promoted IPE programs. Formal IPE experiences were more prevalent at public institutions (67.6%, compared with 44% of private institutions). In 2012, a previous study reported that 66% of the IPE experiences offered to dental students were voluntary; today, 69.1% of these activities are required. Interprofessional core competencies occupy four of the top five content areas of IPE programming, providing a framework for schools to implement IPE activities. However, finding the bandwidth within the dental curriculum to accommodate IPE competencies, identifying adequate time in the schedule, providing faculty training, and assessing IPE activities were the most frequently reported challenges. The results of this survey lead to recommendations for academic dental institutions moving through this transitional phase in adopting IPE. PMID:26466391

  13. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies. PMID

  14. Population and genetic outcomes 20 years after reintroducing bobcats (Lynx rufus) to Cumberland Island, Georgia USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Hansen, Leslie; Bohling, Justin; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    In 1988–1989, 32 bobcats Lynx rufus were reintroduced to Cumberland Island (CUIS), Georgia, USA, from which they had previously been extirpated. They were monitored intensively for 3 years immediately post-reintroduction, but no estimation of the size or genetic diversity of the population had been conducted in over 20 years since reintroduction. We returned to CUIS in 2012 to estimate abundance and effective population size of the present-day population, as well as to quantify genetic diversity and inbreeding. We amplified 12 nuclear microsatellite loci from DNA isolated from scats to establish genetic profiles to identify individuals. We used spatially explicit capture–recapture population estimation to estimate abundance. From nine unique genetic profiles, we estimate a population size of 14.4 (SE = 3.052) bobcats, with an effective population size (Ne) of 5–8 breeding individuals. This is consistent with predictions of a population viability analysis conducted at the time of reintroduction, which estimated the population would average 12–13 bobcats after 10 years. We identified several pairs of related bobcats (parent-offspring and full siblings), but ~75% of the pairwise comparisons were typical of unrelated individuals, and only one individual appeared inbred. Despite the small population size and other indications that it has likely experienced a genetic bottleneck, levels of genetic diversity in the CUIS bobcat population remain high compared to other mammalian carnivores. The reintroduction of bobcats to CUIS provides an opportunity to study changes in genetic diversity in an insular population without risk to this common species. Opportunities for natural immigration to the island are limited; therefore, continued monitoring and supplemental bobcat reintroductions could be used to evaluate the effect of different management strategies to maintain genetic diversity and population viability. The successful reintroduction and maintenance of a

  15. The prostate-specific membrane antigen: Lessons and current clinical implications from 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Ristau, Benjamin T.; O’Keefe, Denise S.; Bacich, Dean J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite a multitude of detection and treatment advances in the past two decades, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Technological evolution and expanding knowledge of tumor biomarkers have invigorated exploration in prostate cancer therapeutics. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was one of the first prostate cancer biomarkers successfully cloned. Since that time, it has been characterized as the prototypical cell-surface marker for prostate cancer and has been the subject of intense clinical inquiry. We review the relevant research in PSMA on the 20th anniversary of its cloning. Methods and materials A PubMed® search using the keywords “prostate-specific membrane antigen” or “glutamate carboxypeptidase II” provided 1019 results. An additional 3 abstracts were included from scientific meetings. Articles were vetted by title and abstract with emphasis placed on those with clinically relevant findings. Results Sixty articles were selected for inclusion. PSMA was discovered and cloned in 1993. Its structure and function were further delineated in the ensuing decade. Consensus sites of expression in normal physiology are prostate, kidney, nervous system, and small intestine. PSMA has been implicated in the neovasculature of several tumors including urothelial and renal cell carcinomas. In prostate cancer, expression of PSMA is directly related to Gleason grade. PSMA has been tested both in imaging and therapeutics in a number of prostate cancer clinical trials. Several recent approaches to target PSMA include use of small molecule inhibitors, PSMA-based immunotherapy, RNA aptamer conjugates, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future study of PSMA in prostate cancer might focus on its intracellular functions and possible role in tumor neurogenesis. Conclusions Twenty years from its discovery, PSMA represents a viable biomarker and treatment target in prostate cancer. Research to

  16. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  17. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  18. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  19. Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Vessey, M. P.; Villard-Mackintosh, L.; McPherson, K.; Yeates, D.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether the use of oral contraceptives influences mortality. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study of 17,032 women followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. SETTING--17 Family planning clinics in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--Women recruited during 1968-74. At the time of recruitment each woman was aged 25-39, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and either a current user of oral contraceptives or a current user of a diaphragm or intrauterine device (without previous exposure to the pill). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall mortality and cause specific mortality. RESULTS--238 Deaths occurred during the follow up period. The main analyses concerned women entering the study while using either oral contraceptives or a diaphragm or intrauterine device. The overall relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.2). Though the numbers of deaths were small in most individual disease categories, the trends observed were generally consistent with findings in other reports. Thus the relative risk of death in the oral contraceptive users was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 230) for cancer of the cervix, 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 17.9) for ischaemic heart disease, and 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.2) for ovarian cancer. There was a linear trend in the death rates from cervical cancer and ovarian cancer (in opposite directions) with total duration of oral contraceptive use. Death rates from breast cancer (relative risk 0.9; 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.4) and suicide and probable suicide (relative risk 1.1; 95% confidence interval 0.3 to 3.6) were much the same in the two contraceptive groups. In 1981 the relative risk of death in oral contraceptive users from circulatory diseases as a group was reported to be 4.2 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 7.7) in the Royal College of General Practitioners oral contraception study. The corresponding

  20. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 1015eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 1013eV - 1015eV. The results show detailed effects of

  1. Recursive frame integration of limited data: RAFAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.; Soli, Robert A.

    2005-08-01

    Real time infrared imaging and tracking usually requires a high probability of target detection along with a low false alarm rate, achievable only with a high "Signal-to-Noise Ratio" (SNR). Frame integration--summing of non-correlated frames--is commonly used to improve the SNR. But conventional frame integration requires significant processing to store full frames and integrate intermediate results, normalize frame data, etc. It may drive acquisition of highly specialized hardware, faster processors, dedicated frame integration circuit cards and extra memory cards. Non-stationary noise, low frequency noise correlation, non-ergodic noise, scene dynamics, or pointing accuracy may also limit performance. Recursive frame integration of limited data--RAFAIL, is proposed as a means to improve frame integration performance and mitigate the issues. The technique applies two thresholds--one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate--and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with optimal noise management, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability.

  2. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  3. Selective preservation of infected prosthetic arterial grafts. Analysis of a 20-year experience with 120 extracavitary-infected grafts.

    PubMed Central

    Calligaro, K D; Veith, F J; Schwartz, M L; Goldsmith, J; Savarese, R P; Dougherty, M J; DeLaurentis, D A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report on their 20-year experience with 120 patients with infected extracavitary prosthetic arterial grafts (95 polytetraflouroethylene, 25 Dacron). Throughout this experience, an effort was made, when appropriate, to salvage all or a portion of these infected grafts. METHODS: When patients had arterial bleeding (20 cases) or systemic sepsis (6 cases), immediate graft excision was performed. When the infected graft was occluded (43 cases), subtotal graft excision was performed, leaving an oversewn 2- to 3-mm graft remnant to maintain patency of the artery. Complete graft preservation was attempted in 51 cases in which the graft was patent, the patient was not septic, and the anastomoses were intact. Aggressive operative wound debridement was repeated, as necessary, to achieve wound healing. The preferred method of revascularization, when necessary, included secondary bypasses tunneled through uninfected (often lateral) routes. Follow-up averaged 3 years (range, 1 month-20 years). RESULTS: This strategy resulted in a hospital mortality of 12% (14/120) and a hospital amputation rate in survivors of 13% (14/106 threatened limbs). Of the surviving patients treated by complete graft preservation, the hospital amputation rate was only 4% (2/45) and long-term complete graft preservation was successful in 71% (32/45) of cases. Partial graft preservation also proved successful in 85% (35/41) of surviving patients who had occluded grafts. Successful complete graft preservation was as likely when gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria were cultured from the wound, with the exception of Pseudomonas (successful graft preservation in only 40% [4/10] of cases). CONCLUSION: Based on this 20-year experience, the authors conclude that selective partial or complete graft preservation represents a simpler and better method of managing infected extracavitary prosthetic grafts than routine total graft excision. Images Figure 2. PMID:7944658

  4. Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention. We report the contributions of Active Bacterial Core surveillance to every pneumococcal vaccine policy decision in the United States during the past 20 years. PMID:26291238

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctanoate and Risk of Overweight at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Danielsen, Inge; Becher, Georg; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids are persistent compounds used in various industrial -applications. Of these compounds, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is currently detected in humans worldwide. A recent study on low-dose developmental exposure to PFOA in mice reported increased weight and elevated biomarkers of adiposity in postpubertal female offspring. Objective: We examined whether the findings of increased weight in postpubertal female mice could be replicated in humans. Methods: A prospective cohort of 665 Danish pregnant women was recruited in 1988–1989 with offspring follow-up at 20 years. PFOA was measured in serum from gestational week 30. Offspring body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were recorded at follow-up (n = 665), and biomarkers of adiposity were quantified in a subset (n = 422) of participants. Results: After adjusting for covariates, including maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, education, and birth weight, in utero exposure to PFOA was positively associated with anthropometry at 20 years in female but not male offspring. Adjusted relative risks comparing the highest with lowest quartile (median: 5.8 vs. 2.3 ng/mL) of maternal PFOA concentration were 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 6.9] for overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.3, 6.8) for waist circumference > 88 cm among female offspring. This corresponded to estimated increases of 1.6 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.6, 2.6) and 4.3 cm (95% CI: 1.4, 7.3) in average BMI and waist circumference, respectively. In addition, maternal PFOA concentrations were positively associated with serum insulin and leptin levels and inversely associated with adiponectin levels in female offspring. Similar associations were observed for males, although point estimates were less precise because of fewer observations. Maternal perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) concentrations were not independently associated with offspring

  6. COBE: 20 Years Ago

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite rocketed into Earth orbit on Nov. 18, 1989, and quickly revolutionized our understanding of the early cosmos. This archival video was reissued by ...

  7. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  8. 20 years of toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, B E

    1998-01-01

    With over 80,000 chemicals being used in commerce worldwide, it is important to identify the human health effects of these chemicals and the levels of exposure at which they are harmful to humans. In order to address this need, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) was established in 1978; since then, the NTP has become the world's leader in designing, conducting, and interpreting various types of toxicity assays. PMID:9755149

  9. 20 Years of RECONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

    2014-01-01

    RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  10. Neural Systems and Individual Differences: A Commentary on Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.

    In the 20 years since the publication of "Frames of Mind" by Howard Gardner, two major developments have altered the prospects for making a connection between neuropsychology and theories of how people differ. The first of these events was that electrical or magnetic recording make it possible to "see" inside the brain as people think. Results…

  11. Towards a "Post-Public Era"? Shifting Frames in German and Australian Higher Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in Germany and Australia is being subject to pressures of market forces, internationalisation and financial constraints. This had led to both systems experiencing significant crisis and change over the past 20 years. In this paper, frame analysis is used to compare the changing policies in each nation and examine the extent to…

  12. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  13. Framing Evolution Discussion Intellectually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Cook, Kristin; Buck, Gayle A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how a first-year biology teacher facilitates a series of whole-class discussions about evolution during the implementation of a problem-based unit. A communicative theoretical perspective is adopted wherein evolution discussions are viewed as social events that the teacher can frame intellectually (i.e., present or organize as…

  14. Target activated frame capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. Marlon; Fitzgerald, James; McCormack, Michael; Steadman, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly intelligent systems for battlefield surveillance. These systems are triggered by a combination of external devices including acoustic and seismic sensors. Such products are mainly used to detect vehicles and personnel. These systems often use infra-red imagery to record environmental information, but Textron Defense Systems' Terrain Commander is one of a small number of systems which analyze these images for the presence of targets. The Terrain Commander combines acoustic, infrared, magnetic, seismic, and visible spectrum sensors to detect nearby targets in military scenarios. When targets are detected by these sensors, the cameras are triggered and images are captured in the infrared and visible spectrum. In this paper we discuss a method through which such systems can perform target tracking in order to record and transmit only the most pertinent surveillance images. This saves bandwidth which is crucial because these systems often use communication systems with throughputs below 2400bps. This method is expected to be executable on low-power processors at frame rates exceeding 10HZ. We accomplish this by applying target activated frame capture algorithms to infra-red video data. The target activated frame capture algorithms combine edge detection and motion detection to determine the best frames to be transmitted to the end user. This keeps power consumption and bandwidth requirements low. Finally, the results of the algorithm are analyzed.

  15. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  16. Frame dragging and superenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Carot, J.

    2007-08-15

    We show that the vorticity appearing in stationary vacuum spacetimes is always related to the existence of a flow of superenergy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. This result, together with the previously established link between vorticity and superenergy in radiative (Bondi-Sachs) spacetimes, strengthens further the case for this latter quantity as the cause of frame dragging.

  17. Framing for Scientific Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.; Hammer, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, research on students' scientific argumentation has progressed to a recognition of nascent resources: Students can and do argue when they experience the need and possibility of persuading others who may hold competing views. Our purpose in this article is to contribute to this progress by applying the perspective of framing to the…

  18. Popcorn Story Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal manner rather than in a…

  19. Coreceptor Usage, Diversity, and Divergence in Drug-Naive and Drug-Exposed Individuals from Malawi, Infected with HIV-1 Subtype C for More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Ishla; Travers, Simon A.; Leeson, Michael D.; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are few cohorts of individuals who have survived infection with HIV-1 for more than 20 years, reported and followed in the literature, and even fewer from Africa. Here we present data on a cohort of subtype C-infected individuals from rural northern Malawi. By sequencing multiple clones from long-term survivors at different time points, and using multiple genotyping approaches, we show that 5 of the 11 individuals are predicted as CXCR4 using (by ≥3/5 predictors) but only one individual is predicted as CXCR4 using by all five algorithms. Using any one genotyping approach overestimates the number of predicted CXCR4 sequences. Patterns of diversity and divergence were variable between the HIV-1 long-term survivors with some individuals showing very small amounts of variation and change, and others showing a greater amount; both patterns are consistent with what has been described in the literature. PMID:24925099

  20. The 20-year history of the evolution of air pollution control legislation in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Richard H.

    Over the past 20 years, the U.S. Congress has passed four acts relating to clean air. The 1970 act set out a comprehensive plan for federal-state partnership to require all areas in the country to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In 1977, the act was amended and expanded, both to address many of the problems encountered in the 1970 act and to reorient the law to limit significantly emissions of any sort, even if there were no currently identified health-related reasons. In 1986, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act was passed, as an amendment to a solid waste law, in response to the desire to prevent chemical release tragedies. After 10 years of effort, Congress finally passed the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments which require a number of new programs aimed at curbing urban ozone, rural acid rain, stratospheric ozone, toxic air pollutant emissions and vehicle emissions, and establishing a new, uniform national permit system. This paper discusses some of the consequences of the various acts and suggests ways that others might learn from our 20 years of experience. Certain programs have worked quite well, while some alternatives could have improved other programs.

  1. Increases in the prevalence of reduced visual acuity and myopia in Chinese children in Guangzhou over the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, F; He, M; Zeng, Y; Mai, J; Rose, K A; Morgan, I G

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims To estimate the prevalence of myopia based on reduced unaided visual acuity (VA) in Chinese school children over the past 20 years. Methods Guangzhou school health authorities have measured VA on Grade 1–12 students from 1988 to 2007 annually, using a LogMAR tumbling E chart. VA is reported as Snellen categories: normal (VA≥6/6), mildly reduced (6/920 years, but has stabilized in the past few years. This increase may result from environmental changes, such as increased schooling intensity and urbanization. PMID:24008929

  2. Evidence of protection against clinical and chronic hepatitis B infection 20 years after infant vaccination in a high endemicity region.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Y; Chongsrisawat, V; Theamboonlers, A; Leroux-Roels, G; Kuriyakose, S; Leyssen, M; Jacquet, J-M

    2011-05-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) immediately after birth prevents neonatal infection by vertical transmission from HBV carrier mothers. There is an ongoing debate whether infant vaccination is sufficient to protect against infection when exposed to HBV later in life. We studied 222 Thai infants born to HBsAg -/+ and HBeAg -/+ mothers who were vaccinated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at 0-1-2-12 months of age. A subset of 100 subjects received a booster dose at age 5 years. Blood samples collected yearly for 20 years were examined for anti-HBs antibodies and serological markers of hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc, HBsAg, and in selected cases HBeAg, anti-HBe, HBV DNA). During the 20-year follow-up, no subject acquired new chronic HBV infection or clinical hepatitis B disease. During the first decade, possible subclinical breakthrough HBV infection (anti-HBc seroconversion) was only observed in subjects born to HBsAg +/HBeAg + mothers (6/49 [12.2%]). During the second decade, breakthrough HBV infections were detected in all groups (18/140 [12.8%]). Increases in anti-HBs concentrations that were unrelated to additional HBV vaccination or infection were detected in approximately 10% of subjects in each decade. Primary infant vaccination with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine confers long-term protection against clinical disease and new chronic hepatitis B infection despite confirmed hepatitis B exposure. PMID:20384962

  3. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment. PMID:26588081

  4. Informative-frame filtering in endoscopy videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yong Hwan; Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Lee, JeongKyu; Tavanapong, Wallapak; de Groen, Piet C.; Wong, Johnny

    2005-04-01

    Advances in video technology are being incorporated into today"s healthcare practice. For example, colonoscopy is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy allows for the inspection of the entire colon and provides the ability to perform a number of therapeutic operations during a single procedure. During a colonoscopic procedure, a tiny video camera at the tip of the endoscope generates a video signal of the internal mucosa of the colon. The video data are displayed on a monitor for real-time analysis by the endoscopist. Other endoscopic procedures include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, enteroscopy, bronchoscopy, cystoscopy, and laparoscopy. However, a significant number of out-of-focus frames are included in this type of videos since current endoscopes are equipped with a single, wide-angle lens that cannot be focused. The out-of-focus frames do not hold any useful information. To reduce the burdens of the further processes such as computer-aided image processing or human expert"s examinations, these frames need to be removed. We call an out-of-focus frame as non-informative frame and an in-focus frame as informative frame. We propose a new technique to classify the video frames into two classes, informative and non-informative frames using a combination of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Texture Analysis, and K-Means Clustering. The proposed technique can evaluate the frames without any reference image, and does not need any predefined threshold value. Our experimental studies indicate that it achieves over 96% of four different performance metrics (i.e. precision, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy).

  5. 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future. Proceedings [of the] 2013 EUROCALL Conference (Évora, Portugal, September 11-14, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Linda, Ed.; Thouësny, Sylvie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCALL 2013's theme was "20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future." The conference seeked to establish an overview of EUROCALL's twentieth anniversary. As a professional organization, EUROCALL has been aiming, along its 20 years of existence, to promote innovative research, development and practice in the…

  6. Rapid detection of the Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 tcdC gene frame shift mutation at position 117 by real-time PCR and melt curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolff, D; Brüning, T; Gerritzen, A

    2009-08-01

    The emergence of the hypervirulent strain Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 has increased the necessity for rapid C. difficile typing tests for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We developed a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for the detection of C. difficile. As the target, we chose the tcdC gene, which encodes for a negative regulator in toxin production. A deletion at position 117 of the tcdC gene, which is associated with severe tcdC truncation, is well conserved in all PCR ribotype 027 isolates. Probe sequences of the real-time PCR test were designed to result in distinct melt profiles for sequence variations at positions 117 to 120 of the tcdC gene. The tcdC gene deletion at position 117 was easily detected with real-time PCR and melt curve analysis in all C. difficile ribotype 027 isolates. In five non-027 strains and 46 hospitalised patient samples, melt curve analysis detected no deletion. PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The combination of real-time PCR and melt curve analysis is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of C. difficile DNA and simultaneous screening for the tcdC gene deletion at position 117, which is closely related to the C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 strain. PMID:19333630

  7. One-Shot Measurement of Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times in the Off-Resonance Rotating Frame of Reference with Applications to Breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, Ethan Jefferson

    1994-01-01

    Off-resonance spin locking makes use of the novel relaxation time T_{1rho} ^{rm off}, which may be useful in characterizing breast disease. Knowledge of T _{rm 1rho}^{rm off} is essential for optimization of spin -locking imaging methods. The purpose of this work was to develop an optimal imaging technique for in vivo measurement of T_{rm 1rho}^ {rm off}. Measurement of T _{1rho}^{rm off } using conventional methods requires long exam times which are not suitable for patients. Exam time may be shortened by utilizing a one-shot method developed by Look and Locker, making in vivo measurements possible. The imaging method consisted of a 180^circ inversion pulse followed by a series of small-angle alpha pulses to tip a portion of the longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane for readout. During each relaxation interval (between alpha pulses), a spin-locking pulse was applied off-resonance to achieve T_ {1rho}^{rm off} relaxation. The value of T_{rm 1rho}^{rm off} was then determined using a three-parameter non-linear least-squares fitting procedure. Values of T_ {1rho}^{rm off} were measured for normal and pathologic breast tissues at several resonant offsets. These measurements revealed that image contrast can be manipulated by altering the resonant offset of the spin-locking pulse. Whereas T _1 relaxation times were nearly identical for normal and cancerous tissues, T_{1 rho}^{rm off} relaxation times differed significantly. These results may be useful in improving image contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Quantitative rotating frame relaxometry methods in MRI.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Irtiza Ali; Sepponen, Raimo

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular degeneration and biochemical changes in tissue can be quantified using rotating frame relaxometry in MRI. It has been shown in several studies that the rotating frame longitudinal relaxation rate constant (R1ρ ) and the rotating frame transverse relaxation rate constant (R2ρ ) are sensitive biomarkers of phenomena at the cellular level. In this comprehensive review, existing MRI methods for probing the biophysical mechanisms that affect the rotating frame relaxation rates of the tissue (i.e. R1ρ and R2ρ ) are presented. Long acquisition times and high radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition into tissue during the process of spin-locking in rotating frame relaxometry are the major barriers to the establishment of these relaxation contrasts at high magnetic fields. Therefore, clinical applications of R1ρ and R2ρ MRI using on- or off-resonance RF excitation methods remain challenging. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and experimental approaches to the design of hard RF pulse cluster- and adiabatic RF pulse-based excitation schemes for accurate and precise measurements of R1ρ and R2ρ . The merits and drawbacks of different MRI acquisition strategies for quantitative relaxation rate measurement in the rotating frame regime are reviewed. In addition, this review summarizes current clinical applications of rotating frame MRI sequences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27100142

  9. A retrospective analysis of 20-year data of the surgical management of ulcerative colitis patients in Taiwan: a study of Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Wei, Shu-Chen; Lin, Been-Ren; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Hsu, Tzu-Chi; Lin, Wei-Chen; Huang, Tien-Yu; Chao, Te-Hsin; Lin, Hung-Hsin; Wong, Jau-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims With the recent progress in medical treatment, surgery still plays a necessary and important role in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. In this study, we analyzed the surgical results and outcomes of UC in Taiwan in the recent 20 years, via a multi-center study through the collaboration of Taiwan Society of IBD. Methods A retrospective analysis of surgery data of UC patients from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2014, in 6 Taiwan major medical centers was conducted. The patients' demographic data, indications for surgery, and outcome details were recorded and analyzed. Results The data of 87 UC patients who received surgical treatment were recorded. The median post-operative follow-up duration was 51.1 months and ranged from 0.4 to 300 months. The mean age at UC diagnosis was 45.3±16.0 years and that at operation was 48.5±15.2 years. The 3 leading indications for surgical intervention were uncontrolled bleeding (16.1%), perforation (13.8%), and intractability (12.6%). In total, 27.6% of surgeries were performed in an emergency setting. Total or subtotal colectomy with rectal preservation (41.4%) was the most common operation. There were 6 mortalities, all due to sepsis. Emergency operation and low pre-operative albumin level were significantly associated with poor survival (P=0.013 and 0.034, respectively). Conclusions In the past 20 years, there was no significant change in the indications for surgery in UC patients. Emergency surgeries and low pre-operative albumin level were associated with poor survival. Therefore, an optimal timing of elective surgery for people with poorly controlled UC is paramount. PMID:27433147

  10. Nanosecond frame cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A M; Wilkins, P R

    2001-01-05

    The advent of CCD cameras and computerized data recording has spurred the development of several new cameras and techniques for recording nanosecond images. We have made a side by side comparison of three nanosecond frame cameras, examining them for both performance and operational characteristics. The cameras include; Micro-Channel Plate/CCD, Image Diode/CCD and Image Diode/Film; combinations of gating/data recording. The advantages and disadvantages of each device will be discussed.

  11. Recursive adaptive frame integration limited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2006-05-01

    Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.

  12. Frame for a firearm

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  13. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures. PMID:11843548

  14. Recurrence of cervical myelopathy secondary to a strut graft fracture 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kida, Kazunobu; Takaya, Shogo; Tadokoro, Nobuaki; Kumon, Masashi; Kiyasu, Katsuhito; Kato, Tomonari; Takemasa, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tani, Toshikazu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on a 70-year-old man with recurrent cervical myelopathy 20 years after anterior decompression and fusion of C4-7 using a free vascularised strut graft. The recurrent myelopathy was secondary to a kyphotic deformity of a fractured graft and residual ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with stenosis at C3/4. Intraoperative spinal cord-evoked potentials indicated that spinal cord traction secondary to progressive kyphosis of the cervical spine after the graft fracture was the cause. The patient underwent laminoplasty at C3 and laminectomy at C4 to decompress the stenosis at C3/4 as well as posterior cervical spinal fusion at C3-7 with pedicle screws and a lateral mass screw and a bone graft to prevent further progression of the kyphosis. At postoperative 18 months, the patient's Japanese Orthopaedic Association score had improved to 14 from 8, and he could walk without support. PMID:26321562

  15. 20 Years History of Fundamental Research on Gas Cluster Ion Beams, and Current Status of the Applications to Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Isao

    2006-11-01

    This paper reviews the development of gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) technology, including the generation of cluster beams, fundamental characteristics of cluster ion to solid surface interactions, emerging industrial applications, and identification of some of the significant events which occurred as the technology has evolved into what it is today. More than 20 years have passed since the author first began to explore feasibility of processing by gas cluster ion beams at the Ion Beam Engineering Experimental Laboratory of Kyoto University. Processes employing ions of gaseous material clusters comprised of a few hundred to many thousand atoms are now being developed into a new field of ion beam technology. Cluster-surface collisions produce important non-linear effects which are being applied to shallow junction formation, to etching and smoothing of semiconductors, metals, and dielectrics, to assisted formation of thin films with nano-scale accuracy, and to other surface modification applications.

  16. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  17. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  18. Electrically insulating and sealing frame

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.

    1983-11-08

    A combination gas seal and electrical insulator having a closed frame shape interconnects a fuel cell stack and a reactant gas plenum of a fuel cell generator. The frame can be of rectangular shape including at least one slidable spline connection in each side to permit expansion or contraction consistent with that of the walls of the gas plenum and fuel cell stack. The slidable spline connections in the frame sides minimizes lateral movement between the frame side members and sealing material interposed between the frame and the fuel cell stack or between the frame and the reactant gas plenum.

  19. Vibration of x-braced portal frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. H.; Wang, P. Y.; Lin, Y. W.

    1987-09-01

    Both free and forced vibrations of elastic X-braced portal frames are investigated. Solutions of the Euler-Bernoulli equation for the transverse vibration coupled with the axial vibration are used. The first five natural frequencies, with the angle of inclination, α, of the bracing bars ranging from 15° to 75°, with different slenderness ratios, R, of the columns, and different stiffness of the floor beam and crossing bars, are presented along with two sets of the natural modes of the frames with α = 45°. For the forced vibration, the dynamic responses of the frames with a concentrated horizontal time dependent force acting at a top joint are studied. The responses of the frames with α = 45° are analyzed in detail.

  20. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-04-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  1. Transitions in students' epistemic framing along two axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul W.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-06-01

    We use epistemological framing to interpret participants’ behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together incorporate and extend prior work on how students frame discussions in physics education research. We present markers for where discussion falls on these axes. We support our conclusions with both microanalytic excerpts of discussion and overall analysis of 75 hours of video-based data. We find that the group spends most of its time in more serious framings, and slightly more than half of its time in more narrow ones. The teaching assistant is the participant who initiates the largest number of frame shifts, and her shifts include bids to all quadrants in the expansive or narrow and serious or silly plane.

  2. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    In 1975, during DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern scientific standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the longest available records of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of anoxia, and 3) to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resampled the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are still surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. Complications arise due to the presence of hiatuses, especially in the near-Bosporus locations. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes related to the late Miocene Messinian salinity crisis and throughout the Pleistocene. More generally, our results show that for future deep-sea drilling expeditions to the Black Sea, the

  3. Greigite-based magnetostratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene to recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea: A new time frame for old cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baak, C. V.; Vasiliev, I.; Grothe, A.; Kuiper, K.; Raffi, I.; Krijgsman, W.

    2014-12-01

    In 1975, DSDP Leg 42B to the Black Sea, three sites were drilled with a total of 2318 m cored and a recovery of 55%. While to modern standards this may not be very impressive, these sites still represent the best record of sedimentation in the basinal part of the Black Sea. The main stratigraphic objectives of DSDP Leg 42B were to 1) obtain a complete Pleistocene litho- and biostratigraphic section and 2) study interactions between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, focusing on glacio-eustatic sea level change, periods of lacustrine sedimentation, periods of stagnation, and to establish a paleoclimatic record. Major problems establishing a timescale emerged after drilling due to a) the general shortage of definitive paleontological age markers and b) the general lack of agreement on correlation and time zonation of sedimentary units. Magnetostratigraphic dating could have solved these timescale problems but was hindered by the presence of the little understood authigenic iron sulphide mineral greigite (Fe3S4) as main magnetic carrier. In recent years, the understanding of greigite has significantly improved and is considered a reliable magnetic carrier. Especially in the circum-Black Sea region, many Miocene to recent, land-based sections are magnetostratigraphically dated with greigite as magnetic carrier. We therefore resample the cores of DSDP Leg 42B to see whether after 40 years of storage any of the original signal is preserved. Our results show these cores are surprisingly useful for magnetostratigraphic dating. We create an integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic framework for the sites of Leg 42B, focusing on the Latest Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Ar/Ar dating of an ash-layer at site 380A gives additional age constraints. Our age model gives important new insights into the response of the Black Sea to major paleoenvironmental and climatic changes like e.g. the Messinian salinity crisis, the mid-Pliocene warm period and Pleistocene glaciations on the

  4. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  5. Agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and body mass index in old age—a longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Anna K.; Hassing, Linda B.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: self-reported body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight is a widely used measure of adiposity in epidemiological research. Knowledge about the accuracy of these measures in late life is scarce. Objective: the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and changes in accuracy of self-reported height, weight and BMI calculated from self-reported height and weight in late life. Design: a longitudinal population-based study with five times of follow-up was conducted. Participants: seven hundred seventy-four community-living men and women, aged 40–88 at baseline (mean age 63.9), included in The Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Methods: participants self-reported their height and weight in a questionnaire, and height and weight were measured by experienced research nurses at an in-person testing five times during a 20-year period. BMI was calculated as weight (kilogramme)/height (metre)2. Results: latent growth curve modelling showed an increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured values over time for height (0.038 cm/year) and BMI (0.016 kg/m2/year), but not for weight. Conclusions: there is a very small increase in the mean difference between self-reported and measured BMI with ageing, which probably would not affect the results when self-reported BMI is used as a continuous variable in longitudinal studies. PMID:20453247

  6. Rest frame of bubble nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Tanaka, Takahiro E-mail: sugumi@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum bubbles nucleate at rest with a certain critical size and subsequently expand. But what selects the rest frame of nucleation? This question has been recently addressed in [1] in the context of Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensions, by using a model detector in order to probe the nucleated pairs. The analysis in [1] showed that, for a constant external electric field, the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum of charged particles is Lorentz invariant, (and in this) case pairs tend to nucleate preferentially at rest with respect to the detector. Here, we sharpen this picture by showing that the typical relative velocity between the frame of nucleation and that of the detector is at most of order Δv ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3} << 1. Here, S{sub E} >> 1 is the action of the instanton describing pair creation. The bound Δv coincides with the minimum uncertainty in the velocity of a non-relativistic charged particle embedded in a constant electric field. A velocity of order Δv is reached after a time interval of order Δt ∼ S{sub E}{sup −1/3}r{sub 0} << r{sub 0} past the turning point in the semiclassical trajectory, where r{sub 0} is the size of the instanton. If the interaction takes place in the vicinity of the turning point, the semiclassical description of collision does not apply. Nonetheless, we find that even in this case there is still a strong asymmetry in the momentum transferred from the nucleated particles to the detector, in the direction of expansion after the turning point. We conclude that the correlation between the rest frame of nucleation and that of the detector is exceedingly sharp.

  7. The Levels of Visual Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  8. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ∼15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ∼7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ∼7 years, characterized by

  9. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  10. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  11. Frame architecture for video servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramani, Chitra; Kienzle, Martin G.

    1999-11-01

    Video is inherently frame-oriented and most applications such as commercial video processing require to manipulate video in terms of frames. However, typical video servers treat videos as byte streams and perform random access based on approximate byte offsets to be supplied by the client. They do not provide frame or timecode oriented API which is essential for many applications. This paper describes a frame-oriented architecture for video servers. It also describes the implementation in the context of IBM's VideoCharger server. The later part of the paper describes an application that uses the frame architecture and provides fast and slow-motion scanning capabilities to the server.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger: the way to eliminate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome--a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Kol, Shahar; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger instead of human chorionic gonadotropin in the context of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) prevention has been used for >20 years. In its first decade it did not gain popularity because it cannot work in GnRHa-based ovarian stimulation protocols. The introduction of GnRH antagonists has revolutionized our ability to eliminate OHSS completely because patients at high risk for OHSS can be triggered with GnRHa. This has been documented in randomized prospective studies, in which none of the patients randomized to the agonist trigger arm developed OHSS. In other words, GnRHa proved to be a potent tool that, truly remarkably, never fails. Although there is some debate concerning the clinical outcome of these cycles, data so far indicate that aggressive luteal support can ensure a good outcome. Moreover, the large number of frozen embryos in these cycles results in excellent per-oocyte retrieval pregnancy rates. In summary, GnRHa ovulatory trigger is the ultimate tool for complete OHSS prevention. GnRH antagonist-based ovarian stimulation protocols should be considered in OHSS high-risk patients so GnRHa trigger can be used if needed. PMID:21082509

  13. The Gulf War depleted uranium cohort at 20 years: bioassay results and novel approaches to fragment surveillance.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Gaitens, Joanna M; Hines, Stella; Breyer, Richard; Wong-You-Cheong, Jade J; Engelhardt, Susan M; Oliver, Marc; Gucer, Patricia; Kane, Robert; Cernich, Alison; Kaup, Bruce; Hoover, Dennis; Gaspari, Anthony A; Liu, Juan; Harberts, Erin; Brown, Lawrence; Centeno, Jose A; Gray, Patrick J; Xu, Hanna; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-04-01

    During the 1991 GulfWar, U.S. service members were exposed to depleted uranium (DU) through friendly-fire incidents involving DU munitions and vehicles protected by DU armor. Routes of exposure to DU involved inhalation of soluble and insoluble DU oxide particles, wound contamination, and retained embedded DU metal fragments that continue to oxidize in situ and release DU to the systemic circulation. A biennial health surveillance program established for this group of Veterans by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has shown continuously elevated urine DU concentrations in the subset of veterans with embedded fragments for over 20 years. While the 2011 assessment was comprehensive, few clinically significant U-related health effects were observed. This report is focused on health outcomes associated with two primary target organs of concern for long term effects of this combat-related exposure to DU. Renal biomarkers showed minimal DU-related effects on proximal tubule function and cytotoxicity, but significant biomarker results were observed when urine concentrations of multiple metals also found in fragments were examined together. Pulmonary tests and questionnaire results indicate that pulmonary function after 20 y remains within the clinical normal range. Imaging of DU embedded fragment-associated tissue for signs of inflammatory or proliferative reactions possibly associated with foreign body transformation or with local alpha emissions from DU was also conducted using PET-CT and ultrasound. These imaging tools may be helpful in guiding decisions regarding removal of fragments. PMID:23439138

  14. Tocilizumab for AA Amyloidosis after Treatment of Multicentric Castleman Disease with Steroids, Chemotherapy and Rituximab for Over 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Kawada, Masahiro; Ueno, Toshiharu; Hamanoue, Satoshi; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    We herein report the long-term outcome (30 years) of a human immunodeticiency virus- and human herpesvirus 8-negative Japanese man who was diagnosed to have multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) of the plasmacytic type after investigation of generalized lymphadenopathy at 34 of age in 1983. He received chemotherapy based on lymphoma regimens (combinations of prednisolone, vincristine, vindesine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, melphalan, and ranimustine, etc.) for over 20 years. Although the systemic lymphadenopathy resolved, AA amyloidosis-related nephropathy occurred, with a serum creatinine (Cre) level of 0.9 mg/dL and urinary protein excretion (UP) of 7.5 g daily. Rituximab was started, but Cre increased to 2.6 mg/dL in 2010 and UP was unchanged. Therefore, treatment with tocilizmab was started. As a result, his hypergammaglobulinemia was well controlled, C-reactive protein became normal, UP decreased to 3.5 g daily, and Cre remained at 2.5 mg/dL in 2013. When AA amyloid nephropathy occurred after long-term chemotherapy, lituximab could not control it, but tocilizmab stopped the progression of nephropathy. This case suggests that MCD and AA amyloidosis may both have a close relationship to the overproduction of interleukin-6. PMID:26666616

  15. Middle-aged children of Alzheimer parents, a pilot study: stable neurocognitive performance at 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, Lissy F; La Rue, Asenath; Gokhman, Izabella; Harrison, Tracy; Holt, Lori; Steh, Bill; Harker, Judith; Larson, Scott; Yaralian, Pauline; Matsuyama, Steven; Rasgon, Natalie; Geschwind, Daniel; Freimer, Nelson; Jimenez, Elvira; Schaeffer, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study on a convenience sample of 25 offspring of Alzheimer patients (mean age 61.5 +/- 8.8 years; range, 50-82) was the early detection of neurocognitive decline. This preliminary report appears to be the first one dealing with 20-year follow-up of neurocognitive data of Alzheimer's disease (AD) children. Digit symbol (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) was the only of 11 neurocognitive measures with a significant decline. And that decline between first and last testing (mean = 19.98 +/- 0.30 years) was on raw scores, not scaled scores. Neither parents' age at onset of AD nor autopsy confirmation or offspring APOE-e4 status influenced neurocognitive results. More robust data than currently available are needed to confirm the findings of this first pilot study and to determine both the trajectory of neurocognitive decline in AD and the risks of developing AD faced by children whose parent had the disease. PMID:16306237

  16. Increases in Anthropogenic Gadolinium Anomalies and Rare Earth Element Concentrations in San Francisco Bay over a 20 Year Record.

    PubMed

    Hatje, Vanessa; Bruland, Kenneth W; Flegal, A Russell

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated both the spatial distribution of gadolinium (Gd) and other rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters collected in a transect of San Francisco Bay (SFB) and their temporal variations within the Bay over two decades. The REE were preconcentrated using the NOBIAS PA-1 resin prior to analysis by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Measurements revealed a temporal increase in the Gd anomaly in SFB from the early 1990s to the present. The highest Gd anomalies were observed in the southern reach of SFB, which is surrounded by several hospitals and research centers that use Gd-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Recent increases in that usage presumably contributed to the order of magnitude increase in anthropogenic Gd concentrations in SFB, from 8.27 to 112 pmol kg(-1) over the past two decades, and reach the northeast Pacific coastal waters. These measurements (i) show that "exotic" trace elements used in new high-tech applications, such as Gd, are emerging contaminants in San Francisco Bay and that anthropogenic Gd concentrations increased substantially over a 20 year period; (ii) substantiate proposals that REE may be used as tracers of wastewater discharges and hydrological processes; and (iii) suggest that new public policies and the development of more effective treatment technologies may be necessary to control sources and minimize future contamination by REE that are critical for the development of new technologies, which now overwhelm natural REE anomalies. PMID:26742888

  17. Variability of Findings in Drug-Induced Immune Haemolytic Anaemia: Experience over 20 Years in a Single Centre

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Beate; Bartolmäs, Thilo; Yürek, Salih; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Drug-induced immune haemolytic anaemia (DIHA) is difficult to diagnose, and its true incidence remains obscure. Here, we present cases of DIHA identified at our institute over the last two decades. Methods Serological tests were performed according to standard procedures. Detection of drug-dependent antibodies was performed in the presence and absence of the relevant drug and/or their ex vivo antigens. Results Over the last 20 years, 73 patients have been identified with DIHA in our institute, which was related to 15 different drugs. The most common single drugs identified were diclofenac (n = 23), piperacillin (n = 13), ceftriaxone (n = 12) and oxaliplatin (n = 10). As far as data were available, haemolysis was acute in all patients, and signs of intravascular haemolysis were present in 90% of the cases. Haemolysis resulted in death in 17 patients (23%). The remaining patients recovered, but haemolysis was complicated by transitory renal and/or liver failure or shock in 11 patients. Upon initial evaluation, the antibody screening test was positive in 36 cases. A positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) at least with anti-C3d was found in 65 cases, with anti-IgG only in 6 cases, and with anti-IgA only in 1 case. Conclusion DIHA is a rare but potentially life-threatening disorder that should be considered if a patient develops haemolysis under drug treatment. The main serological finding is a positive DAT, primarily with anti-C3d. PMID:26696803

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old) who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years) and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months). Results Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis. PMID:27525234

  19. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P.; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. Aim To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994–2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. Results In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. Conclusions In the last decade (2004–2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced. PMID:25960811

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence. PMID:26899636

  1. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection. PMID:26852659

  2. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture. PMID:20695718

  3. Origami in outer membrane mimetics: correlating the first detailed images of refolded VDAC with over 20 years of biochemical data.

    PubMed

    Summers, William A T; Court, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    Mitochondrial porin forms an aqueous pore in the outer membrane, through which selective passage of small metabolites and ions occurs, thereby regulating both mitochondrial function and cellular respiration. Investigations of the structure and function of porin have been performed with whole mitochondria, membrane vesicles, artificial membranes, and in detergent solutions, resulting in numerous models of porin structure. The mechanisms by which this protein functions are undoubtedly linked to its structure, which remained elusive until 2008, with reports of 3 high-resolution structures of this voltage-dependent, anion-selective channel (VDAC). The barrel structure is relatively simple yet unique: it is arranged as 19 anti-parallel beta-strands, with beta-strands 1 and 19 aligned parallel to each other to close the barrel. The N-terminal helical component is located within the lumen of the channel, although its precise structure and location in the lumen varies. With the basic barrel structure in hand, the data obtained in attempts to model the structure and understand porin over the past 20 years can be re-evaluated. Herein, using the mammalian VDAC structures as templates, the amassed electrophysiological and biochemical information has been reassessed with respect to the functional mechanisms of VDAC activity, with a focus on voltage-dependent gating. PMID:20555384

  4. Water repellency in highly managed soils and turfgrass - How our understanding has changed in the past 20 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Oostindie, Klaas; Dekker, Louis; Cisar, John; Leinauer, Bernd; Fidanza, Michael; Bigelow, Cale; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, a major shift has occurred in how turfgrass managers deal with soil water repellency. Initially, water management strategies focused solely on remediating localized dry spots, the visible effects of hydrophobic soils. Nearly a decade ago at this conference, a group of turfgrass scientists participated in this session on soil water repellency interacting with a broad group of soil physicists setting in motion research, collaborations and discoveries that have resulted in not only a better understanding of the implications of this phenomenon on soil hydraulic properties and plant productivity, but also, development of new strategies, particularly surfactants, to improve water capture, reduce preferential flow, increase irrigation and water use efficiency, improve performance of soil directed pesticides, reduce leaching of nitrogen, increase mineralization of organically bound nitrogen, and enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress. It also resulted in research utilizing soil moisture measurement tools, specifically, TDR and capacitance probes, which were introduced to and accepted by soil and crop scientists working in amenity turfgrass. Within the past five years, these technologies and strategies for their effective utilization have transitioned from the research community to become accepted by turfgrass managers globally. It is the objective of this presentation to illustrate key discoveries, implications to improved water and resource utilization, and the resulting acceptance of them as new, more sustainable soil management practices.

  5. Detection of eating disorders in 16-20 year old female students--perspective from Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kayani, Ayesha

    2014-03-01

    There are no studies on eating disorders in Pakistani adolescent girls. This study was conducted to determine the opinions, and behaviours pertaining to dieting and body size among 16 to 20 year old female school and college students in Islamabad, Pakistan. This was done through a five-item questionnaire to determine the SCOFF score. The SCOFF acronym has been derived from 'S' from the word "sick" in question number 1.'C' from the word "control" in question number 2. The 'O' comes from the word 'one' in the original question number 3; this original question number 3 of the SCOFF asks about having lost more than 'one' stone weight in the past three months. This question was rephrased to read as whether more than 15 pounds or 6 kilogrammes have been lost. The two 'F's come from questions number 4 and 5 denoting words "fat" and "food", respectively. A total of 1,134 female students participated in the study and 736 (64.9%) respondents scored two or higher on the SCOFF scale; 461 (66.5%) out of 693 were aged 16 to 18, while 275 (62.4%) out of 441 were aged 19 to 20. Results indicated a need for developing clinical practice guidelines for general practitioners and paediatricians to proactively identify and treat potential eating disorders in young Pakistani women. PMID:24864611

  6. [2012 -- the year of success in the 20 year-old adult heart transplant program of Hungary].

    PubMed

    Szabolcs, Zoltán; Hartyánszky, István; Hüttl, Tivadar; Fazekas, Levente; Balogh, Orsolya; Becker, Dávid; Soós, Pál; Varga, Tamás; Paulovich, Erzsébet; Németh, Endre; Rácz, Kristóf; Horkay, Ferenc; Merkely, Béla

    2013-06-01

    The Hungarian adult heart transplant program, which started in 1992, has changed gradually in the past 20 years. After the early enthusiasm of the first cases it changed significantly and it became an organized programme. However, low donation activity and moderate referral numbers to the national transplant waiting list slowed down the process therefore, heart transplant numbers did not fulfill expectations in the early years. After a moderate increase in 2007 transplant numbers have dropped again until recently when Hungary partially joined Eurotransplant network. Excess fundamental resources allocated to cardiac transplantation by health care professionals and reorganizing transplant coordination as well as logistics forced dramatic changes in clinical management. In 2011 and 2012 major structural changes had been made at Semmelweis University. The newly established transplant intensive care unit and the initiation of mechanical circulatory support and assist device programme increased transplant numbers by 131% compared to previous years, as well as it resulted an 86.63% 30-day survival rate, hence last year was the most successful year of cardiac transplantation ever. PMID:23708987

  7. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence. PMID:2305597

  8. PREFACE: Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, David; Dowben, Peter; Inglesfield, John

    2009-11-01

    This year marks the 20th anniversary of the launch of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter in 1989. The journal was formed from the merger of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics which had separated in 1971. In the 20 years since its launch, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has more than doubled in size, while raising standards. Indeed, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has become one of the leading scientific journals for our field. This could not have occurred without great leadership at the top. No one has been more responsible for this growth in both size and quality than our Senior Publisher, Richard Palmer. Richard first started work at IOP in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with J. Phys. B After a few months, he transferred to J. Phys.C The following year, the Assistant Editor of J. Phys. C, Malcolm Haines, left suddenly in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of J. Phys. C, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. Since J. Phys. C and J. Phys. F re-merged to form Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Richard gradually shed his other journal responsibilities, except for Reports on Progress in Physics, to build up Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. He has worked closely with four Editors-in-Chief of J. Phys. C and five of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. When Richard announced his retirement this past winter, we met it with a great deal of both happiness and sadness. Of course, we are happy that he is going to be allowed to enjoy his retirement, but we remain very sad to lose such a valuable member of our team, especially the one who had provided the heart and soul of the journal over its 20 years. We will be able to rely upon the team which Richard ably trained as

  9. A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading.

    PubMed

    Price, Cathy J

    2012-08-15

    The anatomy of language has been investigated with PET or fMRI for more than 20 years. Here I attempt to provide an overview of the brain areas associated with heard speech, speech production and reading. The conclusions of many hundreds of studies were considered, grouped according to the type of processing, and reported in the order that they were published. Many findings have been replicated time and time again leading to some consistent and undisputable conclusions. These are summarised in an anatomical model that indicates the location of the language areas and the most consistent functions that have been assigned to them. The implications for cognitive models of language processing are also considered. In particular, a distinction can be made between processes that are localized to specific structures (e.g. sensory and motor processing) and processes where specialisation arises in the distributed pattern of activation over many different areas that each participate in multiple functions. For example, phonological processing of heard speech is supported by the functional integration of auditory processing and articulation; and orthographic processing is supported by the functional integration of visual processing, articulation and semantics. Future studies will undoubtedly be able to improve the spatial precision with which functional regions can be dissociated but the greatest challenge will be to understand how different brain regions interact with one another in their attempts to comprehend and produce language. PMID:22584224

  10. Intelligence's likelihood and evolutionary time frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogonovich, Marc

    2011-04-01

    This paper outlines hypotheses relevant to the evolution of intelligent life and encephalization in the Phanerozoic. If general principles are inferable from patterns of Earth life, implications could be drawn for astrobiology. Many of the outlined hypotheses, relevant data, and associated evolutionary and ecological theory are not frequently cited in astrobiological journals. Thus opportunity exists to evaluate reviewed hypotheses with an astrobiological perspective. A quantitative method is presented for testing one of the reviewed hypotheses (hypothesis i; the diffusion hypothesis). Questions are presented throughout, which illustrate that the question of intelligent life's likelihood can be expressed as multiple, broadly ranging, more tractable questions.

  11. Time frames for geothermal project development

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, David W.

    2001-04-17

    Geothermal development can generally be broken down into distinct phases: Exploration and Leasing; Project Development And Feasibility Studies; Well Field Development; Project Finance, Construction and Start-up Operations; and Commercial Operations. Each phase represents different levels of cost and risk and different types of management teams that are needed to assess and manage the project and associated risk. Orderly transitions of management at each major phase are needed. Exploration programs are largely science based, the primary focus of the science based investigations should be to: secure the lease position, and develop sufficient information to identify and characterize an economical geothermal resource. Project development specialists build on the exploration data to: pull together a project design, develop a detailed cost estimate; prepare an environmental assessment; and collect all data needed for project financing. Construction specialist build from the development phase to: develop detailed engineering, procure equipment and materials, schedule and manage the facilities construction programs, and start and test the power plant. Operations specialists take over from construction during start-up and are responsible for sustainable and reliable operations of the resource and power generation equipment over the life of the project.

  12. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  13. Semiclassical framed BPS states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory W.; Royston, Andrew B.; Van den Bleeken, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    We provide a semiclassical description of framed BPS states in four-dimensional {N}=2 super Yang-Mills theories probed by 't Hooft defects, in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics on the moduli space of singular monopoles. Framed BPS states, like their ordinary counterparts in the theory without defects, are associated with the L 2 kernel of certain Dirac operators on moduli space, or equivalently with the L 2 cohomology of related Dolbeault operators. The Dirac/Dolbeault operators depend on two Cartan-valued Higgs vevs. We conjecture a map between these vevs and the Seiberg-Witten special coordinates, consistent with a one-loop analysis and checked in examples. The map incorporates all perturbative and nonperturbative corrections that are relevant for the semiclassical construction of BPS states, over a suitably defined weak coupling regime of the Coulomb branch. We use this map to translate wall crossing formulae and the no-exotics theorem to statements about the Dirac/Dolbeault operators. The no-exotics theorem, concerning the absence of nontrivial SU(2) R representations in the BPS spectrum, implies that the kernel of the Dirac operator is chiral, and further translates into a statement that all L 2 cohomology of the Dolbeault operator is concentrated in the middle degree. Wall crossing formulae lead to detailed predictions for where the Dirac operators fail to be Fredholm and how their kernels jump. We explore these predictions in nontrivial examples. This paper explains the background and arguments behind the results announced in the short note [1].

  14. Three-Corner Hat for the assessment of the uncertainty of non-linear residuals of space-geodetic time series in the context of terrestrial reference frame analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, C.; Altamimi, Z.; Chin, T. M.; Gross, R. S.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Three-Corner Hat (TCH) to time series of space-geodetic station position residuals with the purpose of characterizing the uncertainties of GPS, VLBI, SLR, DORIS for the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) determination. Adopting simulations, we show that, in the absence of time-correlated errors, TCH is able to fully recover the nominal uncertainties of groups of observations whose intrinsic precisions are remarkably dissimilar to one another, as is the case for the space-geodetic techniques. When time-correlated errors are predominant, as it happens with GPS, TCH is affected by the increased variance of the observations and its estimates are positively biased. TCH applied to 16 ITRF co-located sites confirms that GPS, albeit affected by time-correlated errors, is the most precise of the space-geodetic techniques. GPS median uncertainties are 1.1, 1.2 and 2.8 mm, for the north, east and height component, respectively. VLBI performs particularly well in the horizontal component, the median uncertainties being mm. The height component is times larger than the GPS one. SLR and DORIS median uncertainties exceed by far the 7 mm level on all of the three components. Comparing TCH results with station position repeatabilities, we find that the two metrics are in striking agreement for VLBI and DORIS, but not for SLR and GPS. The inconsistencies between TCH and station repeatabilities for co-located GPS and SLR point to the presence of either specific station-dependent biases or low-quality co-locations. Scaling factors derived adopting the ratio between TCH and median formal errors on the positions suggest the station position covariances have to be up-scaled for VLBI, SLR, DORIS and down-scaled for GPS.

  15. Turn-over rate of academic faculty at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University: a 20-year analysis (1991 to 2011)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Faculty turn-over affects both workers and organizations. Turnover of faculty and researchers is increasing alarmingly and costing the universities and the country at large. Fast turnover of health professionals from the health system and from academic institutions has recently received substantial attention from both academia and health sector managers. This paper calculates the faculty turnover rate at the College of Health Sciences of Addis Ababa University during the period of September 1991 to August 2011. Methods The study was conducted at the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University. Retrospective analysis of employee records was done. All records of the faculty that were working in the College during the 20-year period, starting from September 1991 to August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from the employee records accessed from the College’s human resources database and supplemented by payroll sheets and different reports. A structured checklist was used to extract the required data from the database. The crude turnover rate for academic faculty was calculated. Results Within the 20-year period of September 1991 to August 2011, a total of 120 faculty members left. The overall turn-over rate was 92.8 %. The rate in the most recent five years (172 %) is 8.5 times higher than the rate for the first five years (20 %). The average retention period before the termination of an employment contract was 4.9 years. The top five departments where employment contracts were relatively higher include: Nursing 15 (15.6 %), Internal Medicine 12 (12.5%), Public Health 10 (10.4%), Pediatrics 9 (9.4%) and Surgery 9 (9.4%). About two thirds (66.6%) of the faculty who were leaving were at the ranks of assistant professorship and above. Conclusion This study revealed that outflow of faculty has been continuously increasing in the period reviewed. This implies that the College had been losing highly skilled professionals with

  16. Understory response to varying fire frequencies after 20 years of prescribed burning in an upland oak forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, J.A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems in the eastern United States that were shaped by fire over thousands of years of anthropogenic burning recently have been subjected to fire suppression resulting in significant changes in vegetation composition and structure and encroachment by invasive species. Renewed interest in use of fire to manage such ecosystems will require knowledge of effects of fire regime on vegetation. We studied the effects of one aspect of the fire regime, fire frequency, on biomass, cover and diversity of understory vegetation in upland oak forests prescribe-burned for 20 years at different frequencies ranging from zero to five fires per decade. Overstory canopy closure ranged from 88 to 96% and was not affected by fire frequency indicating high tolerance of large trees for even the most frequent burning. Understory species richness and cover was dominated by woody reproduction followed in descending order by forbs, C3 graminoids, C4 grasses, and legumes. Woody plant understory cover did not change with fire frequency and increased 30% from one to three years after a burn. Both forbs and C3 graminoids showed a linear increase in species richness and cover as fire frequency increased. In contrast, C4 grasses and legumes did not show a response to fire frequency. The reduction of litter by fire may have encouraged regeneration of herbaceous plants and helped explain the positive response of forbs and C3 graminoids to increasing fire frequency. Our results showed that herbaceous biomass, cover, and diversity can be managed with long-term prescribed fire under the closed canopy of upland oak forests. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Long-lived mesoscale eddies in the eastern Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of 20 years of AVISO geostrophic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhinini, Nadia; Coimbra, Andre Louis Santi; Stegner, Alexandre; Arsouze, Thomas; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle; Béranger, Karine

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed 20 years of AVISO data set to detect and characterize long-lived eddies, which stay coherent more than 6 months, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In order to process the coarse gridded (1/8°) AVISO geostrophic velocity fields, we optimized a geometrical eddy detection algorithm. Our main contribution was to implement a new procedure based on the computation of the Local and Normalized Angular Momentum (LNAM) to identify the positions of the eddy centers and to follow their Lagrangian trajectories. We verify on two mesoscale anticyclones, sampled during the EGYPT campaign in 2006, that our methodology provides a correct estimation of the eddy centers and their characteristic radius corresponding to the maximal tangential velocity. Our analysis reveals the dominance of anticyclones among the long-lived eddies. This cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry appears to be much more pronounced in eastern Mediterranean Sea than in the global ocean. Then we focus our study on the formation areas of long-lived eddies. We confirm that the generations of the Ierapetra and the Pelops anticyclones are recurrent and correlated to the Etesian wind forcing. We also provide some evidence that the smaller cyclonic eddies formed at the southwest of Crete may also be induced by the same wind forcing. On the other hand, the generation of long-lived eddies along the Libyo-Egyptian coast are not correlated to the local wind-stress curl but surprisingly, their initial formation points follow the Herodotus Trough bathymetry. Moreover, we identify a new formation area, not discussed before, along the curved shelf off Benghazi.

  18. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: absence of psychiatric diagnosis and consistently high functioning at 2, 10, and 20 years follow-up. In offspring of depressed parents, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Lower maternal overprotection, greater offspring self-esteem, and higher IQ were associated with greater odds of resilient outcome defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis indicated that resilient outcome defined by absence of diagnosis was best predicted by offspring self-esteem; resilient outcome defined by functioning was best predicted by maternal overprotection and self-esteem. Among offspring of non-depressed parents, greater family cohesion, easier temperament and higher self-esteem were associated with greater odds of offspring competent outcome defined by absence of diagnosis. Higher maternal affection and greater offspring self-esteem were associated with greater odds of competent outcome, defined by consistently high functioning. Multivariate analysis for each criterion indicated that competent outcome was best predicted by offspring self-esteem. As the most robust predictor of positive outcomes in offspring of depressed and non-depressed parents, self-esteem is an important target for youth preventive interventions. PMID:25374449

  19. Burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents of Fars province: analysis of Iran’s 20-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Sarikhani, Yaser; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transportation injuries are among the top ten causes of burden of disease in all age groups worldwide. The burden of transportation injuries among children and adolescents in Iran is higher than the world average and that of other developing countries. The aims of this study were to investigate the burden of transportation injuries in children and adolescents in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013, and to report the burden of these kinds of injuries in children and adolescents in Iran from 1990 to 2010. METHODS: The number of deaths due to transportation injuries and the location of fatal injuries in the province of Fars in Iran from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed using data from the Fars Forensic Medicine Organization. The 20-year trend in the burden of transportation injuries in Iran was analyzed using data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. RESULTS: Similarly to the long-term trend in Iran, the burden of transportation injuries among the male population of Fars province was generally higher than in females. Most fatal accident injuries occurred on roads (males: n=4151, 61.51%; females: n=1182, 65.95%) and in urban areas (males: n=1994, 29.54%; females: n=473, 26.40%). CONCLUSIONS: Considering that children and adolescents are high risk groups for transportation injuries, adopting an effective comprehensive multi-sectoral approach, including enacting and enforcing appropriate laws and regulations, developing general knowledge, and facilitating the availability of Personal protective equipment, could be helpful for reducing the burden of these injuries. PMID:25420953

  20. Evidence-Based Medicine of Traumatic Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures: A Systematic Review of Operative Management across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Justin K.; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Fakurnejad, Shayan; Oh, Taemin; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Smith, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Systematic literature review. Objective The management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures (TLBF) remains challenging, and analyzing the levels of evidence (LOEs) for treatment practices can reform the decision-making process. However, no review has yet evaluated the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures with particular attention placed on LOE from an established methodology. The objective of the present study was to characterize the literature evidence for TLBF, specifically for operative management. Methods A comprehensive search of the English literature over the past 20 years was conducted using PubMed (MEDLINE). The inclusion criteria consisted of (1) traumatic burst fractures (2) in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Exclusion criteria included (1) osteoporotic burst fractures, (2) pathologic burst fractures, (3) cervical fractures, (4) biomechanical studies or those involving cadavers, and (5) computer-based studies. Studies were assigned an LOE and those meeting level 1 or 2 were included. Results From 1,138 abstracts, 272 studies met the criteria. Twenty-three studies (8.5%) met level 1 (n = 4, 1.5%) or 2 (n = 19, 7.0%) criteria. All 23 studies were reported. Conclusions The literature contains a high LOE to support the operative management of traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures. For patients who are neurologically intact, a high LOE demonstrated similar functional outcomes, lower complication rates, and less costs with conservative management when compared with surgical management. There is a high LOE for short- or long-segment pedicle instrumentation without fusion and less invasive (percutaneous and paraspinal) approaches. Furthermore, the posterior approaches are associated with lower complications as opposed to the anterior or combined approaches. PMID:25648401